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Extracellular RNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244830/transcriptome-profiling-identifies-regulators-of-pathogenesis-in-collagen-vi-related-muscular-dystrophy
#1
Russell J Butterfield, Diane M Dunn, Ying Hu, Kory Johnson, Carsten G Bönnemann, Robert B Weiss
OBJECTIVES: The collagen VI related muscular dystrophies (COL6-RD), Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM) are among the most common congenital muscular dystrophies and are characterized by distal joint laxity and a combination of distal and proximal joint contractures. Inheritance can be dominant negative (DN) or recessive depending on the type and location of the mutation. DN mutations allow incorporation of abnormal chains into secreted tetramers and are the most commonly identified mutation type in COL6-RD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243000/rna-interference-based-therapy-and-its-delivery-systems
#2
Xiuhui Chen, Lingegowda S Mangala, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Xianchao Kong, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Anil K Sood
RNA interference (RNAi) is considered a highly specific approach for gene silencing and holds tremendous potential for treatment of various pathologic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, viral infections, and cancer. Although gene silencing approaches such as RNAi are widely used in preclinical models, the clinical application of RNAi is challenging primarily because of the difficulty in achieving successful systemic delivery. Effective delivery systems are essential to enable the full therapeutic potential of RNAi...
December 14, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242757/differential-gene-transcription-of-extracellular-matrix-components-in-response-to-in-vivo-corneal-crosslinking-cxl-in-rabbit-corneas
#3
Sabine Kling, Arthur Hammer, Emilio A Torres Netto, Farhad Hafezi
Purpose: We studied changes in gene transcription after corneal crosslinking (CXL) in the rabbit cornea in vivo and identified potential molecular signaling pathways. Methods: A total of 15 corneas of eight male New-Zealand-White rabbits were de-epithelialized and equally divided into five groups. Group 1 served as an untreated control. Groups 2 to 5 were soaked with 0.1% riboflavin for 20 minutes, which in Groups 3 to 5 was followed by UV-A irradiation at a fluence of 5...
December 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242531/long-noncoding-rna-expression-profile-reveals-lncrnas-signature-associated-with-extracellular-matrix-degradation-in-kashin-beck-disease
#4
Cuiyan Wu, Huan Liu, Feng'e Zhang, Wanzhen Shao, Lei Yang, Yujie Ning, Sen Wang, Guanghui Zhao, Byeong Jae Lee, Mikko Lammi, Xiong Guo
Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a deformative, endemic osteochondropathy involving degeneration and necrosis of growth plates and articular cartilage. The pathogenesis of KBD is related to gene expression and regulation mechanisms, but long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in KBD have not been investigated. In this study, we identified 316 up-regulated and 631 down-regulated lncRNAs (≥ 2-fold change) in KBD chondrocytes using microarray analysis, of which more than three-quarters were intergenic lncRNAs and antisense lncRNAs...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237346/arachidonic-acid-reverses-xanthohumol-induced-insufficiency-in-a-human-first-trimester-extravillous-trophoblast-cell-line-htr-8-svneo-cells
#5
Ana Correia-Branco, Elisa Keating, Fátima Martel
We previously described a negative effect of xanthohumol (XN) upon placentation-related processes. We aimed to better characterize this effect by investigating the effect of XN upon the uptake of arachidonic acid (ARA), a crucial nutrient during pregnancy, by the HTR-8/SVneo human first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line and its relationship with the negative effect of XN upon placentation-related processes. Uptake of 14C-ARA (100 nM) was time dependent and inhibited by short-term (26 minutes) or long-term (24 hours) exposure to XN...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234338/transcript-profiling-identifies-gene-cohorts-controlled-by-each-signal-regulating-trans-differentiation-of-epidermal-cells-of-vicia-faba-cotyledons-to-a-transfer-cell-phenotype
#6
Hui-Ming Zhang, Simon L Wheeler, Xue Xia, Kim Colyvas, Christina E Offler, John W Patrick
Transfer cells (TCs) support high rates of membrane transport of nutrients conferred by a plasma membrane area amplified by lining a wall labyrinth comprised of an uniform wall layer (UWL) upon which intricate wall ingrowth (WI) papillae are deposited. A signal cascade of auxin, ethylene, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytosolic Ca2+ regulates wall labyrinth assembly. To identify gene cohorts regulated by each signal, a RNA- sequencing study was undertaken using Vicia faba cotyledons. When cotyledons are placed in culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously undergo trans-differentiation to epidermal TCs (ETCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234285/a-microarray-study-of-carpet-shell-clam-ruditapes-decussatus-shows-common-and-organ-specific-growth-related-gene-expression-differences-in-gills-and-digestive-gland
#7
Carlos Saavedra, Massimo Milan, Ricardo B Leite, David Cordero, Tomaso Patarnello, M Leonor Cancela, Luca Bargelloni
Growth rate is one of the most important traits from the point of view of individual fitness and commercial production in mollusks, but its molecular and physiological basis is poorly known. We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial marine clam Ruditapes decussatus. Gene expression in the gills and the digestive gland was analyzed in 5 fast-growing and five slow-growing animals by means of an oligonucleotide microarray containing 14,003 probes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234109/the-ap-1-transcription-factor-junb-is-required-for-th17-cell-differentiation
#8
Soh Yamazaki, Yoshihiko Tanaka, Hiromitsu Araki, Akira Kohda, Fumiyuki Sanematsu, Tomoko Arasaki, Xuefeng Duan, Fumihito Miura, Takaharu Katagiri, Ryodai Shindo, Hiroyasu Nakano, Takashi Ito, Yoshinori Fukui, Shogo Endo, Hideki Sumimoto
Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells are crucial for host defense against extracellular microbes and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here we show that the AP-1 transcription factor JunB is required for Th17 cell development. Junb-deficient CD4+ T cells are able to develop in vitro into various helper T subsets except Th17. The RNA-seq transcriptome analysis reveals that JunB is crucial for the Th17-specific gene expression program. Junb-deficient mice are completely resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a Th17-mediated inflammatory disease, and naive T helper cells from such mice fail to differentiate into Th17 cells...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230043/nanoparticle-orientation-to-control-rna%C3%A2-loading-and-ligand-display-on-extracellular-vesicles-for-cancer-regression
#9
Fengmei Pi, Daniel W Binzel, Tae Jin Lee, Zhefeng Li, Meiyan Sun, Piotr Rychahou, Hui Li, Farzin Haque, Shaoying Wang, Carlo M Croce, Bin Guo, B Mark Evers, Peixuan Guo
Nanotechnology offers many benefits, and here we report an advantage of applying RNA nanotechnology for directional control. The orientation of arrow-shaped RNA was altered to control ligand display on extracellular vesicle membranes for specific cell targeting, or to regulate intracellular trafficking of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA). Placing membrane-anchoring cholesterol at the tail of the arrow results in display of RNA aptamer or folate on the outer surface of the extracellular vesicle...
December 11, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228904/comparative-ribosome-profiling-uncovers-a-dominant-role-for-translational-control-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#10
Musa A Hassan, Juan J Vasquez, Chew Guo-Liang, Markus Meissner, T Nicolai Siegel
BACKGROUND: The lytic cycle of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which involves a brief sojourn in the extracellular space, is characterized by defined transcriptional profiles. For an obligate intracellular parasite that is shielded from the cytosolic host immune factors by a parasitophorous vacuole, the brief entry into the extracellular space is likely to exert enormous stress. Due to its role in cellular stress response, we hypothesize that translational control plays an important role in regulating gene expression in Toxoplasma during the lytic cycle...
December 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228554/systemic-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-in-porcine-granulosa-cells-during-aging
#11
Li Hui, Guo Shuangshuang, Yu Jianning, Shi Zhendan
Current studies have revealed that aging is a negative factor that suppresses granulosa cell functions and causes low fertility in women. However, the difference in gene expression between normal and aging granulosa cells remains undefined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the gene expression profiles of granulosa cells during aging. Granulosa cells from young healthy porcine ovaries were aged in vitro by prolonging the culture time (for 48h). First, the extracellular ultrastructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy followed by RNA-seq and KEGG pathway analysis...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228434/functional-roles-of-exosomes-in-cardiovascular-disorders-a-systematic-review
#12
H-J Sun, X-X Zhu, W-W Cai, L-Y Qiu
Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of people death associated with high mortality and disability. Exosomes are nanosized extracellular vesicles containing protein, lipid, transcription factors, mRNAs, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and nucleic acid contents, which are critical players of intercellular communication via long-range signals or cell-to-cell contact. The emergence of exosomes provides favorable strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Exosomes-based molecular mechanisms are important for developing novel therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular events...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228418/long-noncoding-rna-hoxd-as1-regulates-proliferation-of-cervical-cancer-cells-by-activating-ras-erk-signaling-pathway
#13
Y-C Hu, A-M Wang, J-K Lu, R Cen, L-L Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of HOXD cluster antisense RNA 1 (HOXD-AS1) in cervical cancer and its underlying mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to examine the expression of HOXD-AS1 in human cervical cancer tissues. x2-test was used for analyzing the association of HOXD-AS1 expression and clinical parameters. Cell viability, colony formation capacity, and phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in treated HeLa and CaSki cells were detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, colony formation assay, and Western blot analysis, respectively...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228187/extracellular-nucleic-acids-of-the-marine-bacterium-rhodovulum-sulfidophilum-and-recombinant-rna-production-technology-using-bacteria
#14
Yo Kikuchi, So Umekage
Extracellular nucleic acids of high molecular weight are detected ubiquitously in seawater. Recent studies have indicated that these nucleic acids are, at least in part, derived from active production by some bacteria. The marine bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum is one of those bacteria. Rdv. sulfidophilum is a non-sulfur phototrophic marine bacterium, which is known to form flocs, structured communities of cells, and to produce extracellular nucleic acids in culture media. Recently, it has been revealed that this bacterium produces gene transfer agent-like particles and that this particle production may be related to the extracellular nucleic acid production mechanism...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227558/rna-sequencing-identifies-gene-regulatory-networks-controlling-extracellular-matrix-synthesis-in-intervertebral-disk-tissues
#15
Scott M Riester, Yang Lin, Wei Wang, Lin Cong, Abdel-Moneim Mohamed Ali, Sun H Peck, Lachlan J Smith, Bradford L Currier, Michelle Clark, Paul Huddleston, William Krauss, Michael J Yaszemski, Mark E Morrey, Matthew P Abdel, Mohamad Bydon, Wenchun Qu, A Noelle Larson, Andre J van Wijnen, Ahmad Nassr
Degenerative disk disease of the spine is a major cause of back pain and disability. Optimization of regenerative medical therapies for degenerative disk disease requires a deep mechanistic understanding of the factors controlling the structural integrity of spinal tissues. In this investigation, we sought to identify candidate regulatory genes controlling extracellular matrix synthesis in spinal tissues. To achieve this goal we performed high throughput next generation RNA sequencing on 39 annulus fibrosus and 21 nucleus pulposus human tissue samples...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223169/an-overview-on-leishmania-mundinia-enriettii-biology-immunopathology-lrv-and-extracellular-vesicles-during-the-host-parasite-interaction
#16
Larissa F Paranaiba, Lucélia J Pinheiro, Diego H Macedo, Armando Menezes-Neto, Ana C Torrecilhas, Wagner L Tafuri, Rodrigo P Soares
One of the Leishmania species known to be non-infective to humans is Leishmania (Mundinia) enriettii whose vertebrate host is the guinea pig Cavia porcellus. It is a good model for cutaneous leishmaniasis, chemotherapeutic and molecular studies. In the last years, an increased interest has emerged concerning the L. (Mundinia) subgenus after the finding of Leishmania (M.) macropodum in Australia and with the description of other new/putative species such as L. (M.) martiniquensis and 'L. (M.) siamensis'. This review focused on histopathology, glycoconjugates and innate immunity...
December 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223109/genome-wide-analysis-of-barrett-s-adenocarcinoma-a-first-step-towards-identifying-patients-at-risk-and-developing-therapeutic-paths
#17
Yiyang Dai, Qing Wang, Adrian Gonzalez Lopez, Mario Anders, Peter Malfertheiner, Michael Vieth, Wolfgang Kemmner
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus metaplasia is the key precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to find a subset of markers that may allow the identification of patients at risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, and to determine genes differentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Laser capture microdissection technique was applied to procure cells from defined regions. Genome-wide RNA profiling was performed on esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 21), Barrett's esophagus (n = 20), esophageal squamous carcinoma (n = 9) and healthy esophageal biopsies (n = 18) using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133plus 2...
December 6, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222068/foetoplacental-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-in-normal-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#18
REVIEW
Delia I Chiarello, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia
Intercellular communication is a critical process in biological mechanisms. During pregnancy foetoplacental tissues release a heterogeneous group of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that include exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and syncytial nuclear aggregates. These vesicles contain a complex cargo (proteins, DNA, mRNA transcripts, microRNAs, noncoding RNA, lipids, and other molecules) that actively participate in the maternal-foetal communication by modulating different processes during gestation for a successful foetal development...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220409/acquisition-of-functions-on-the-outer-capsid-surface-during-evolution-of-double-stranded-rna-fungal-viruses
#19
Carlos P Mata, Daniel Luque, Josué Gómez-Blanco, Javier M Rodríguez, José M González, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A Ghabrial, José L Carrascosa, Benes L Trus, José R Castón
Unlike their counterparts in bacterial and higher eukaryotic hosts, most fungal viruses are transmitted intracellularly and lack an extracellular phase. Here we determined the cryo-EM structure at 3.7 Å resolution of Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), a fungal double-stranded (ds)RNA virus. RnQV1, the type species of the family Quadriviridae, has a multipartite genome consisting of four monocistronic segments. Whereas most dsRNA virus capsids are based on dimers of a single protein, the ~450-Å-diameter, T = 1 RnQV1 capsid is built of P2 and P4 protein heterodimers, each with more than 1000 residues...
December 8, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219730/a-comprehensive-profile-of-circulating-rnas-in-human-serum
#20
Sinan Uğur Umu, Hilde Langseth, Cecilie Bucher-Johannessen, Bastian Fromm, Andreas Keller, Eckart Meese, Marianne Lauritzen, Magnus Leithaug, Robert Lyle, Trine B Rounge
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules have fundamental roles in cells and many are also stable in body fluids as extracellular RNAs. In this study, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the profile of small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) in human serum. We analyzed 10 billion Illumina reads from 477 serum samples, included in the Norwegian population-based Janus Serum Bank (JSB). We found that the core serum RNA repertoire includes 258 micro RNAs (miRNA), 441 piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA), 411 transfer RNAs (tRNA), 24 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA), 125 small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) and 123 miscellaneous RNAs (misc-RNA)...
December 8, 2017: RNA Biology
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