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Extracellular RNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#1
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329009/the-expression-and-localization-of-rnase-and-rnase-inhibitor-in-blood-cells-and-vascular-endothelial-cells-in-homeostasis-of-the-vascular-system
#2
Ayaka Ohashi, Aya Murata, Yuichiro Cho, Shizuko Ichinose, Yuriko Sakamaki, Miwako Nishio, Osamu Hoshi, Silvia Fischer, Klaus T Preissner, Takatoshi Koyama
RNA may be released from vascular cells including endothelial cells in the event of injury and in vascular disease. Extracellular RNAs have been recognized as novel procoagulant and permeability-increasing factors. Extracellular RNA may function as inflammatory host alarm signals that serve to amplify the defense mechanism, but it may provide important links to thrombus formation. Extracellular RNA is degraded by RNase. We propose that RNase and its inhibitor RNase inhibitor (RI) act as modulators of homeostasis in the vasculature to control the functions of extracellular RNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326170/obstacles-and-opportunities-in-the-functional-analysis-of-extracellular-vesicle-rna-an-isev-position-paper
#3
Bogdan Mateescu, Emma J K Kowal, Bas W M van Balkom, Sabine Bartel, Suvendra N Bhattacharyya, Edit I Buzás, Amy H Buck, Paola de Candia, Franklin W N Chow, Saumya Das, Tom A P Driedonks, Lola Fernández-Messina, Franziska Haderk, Andrew F Hill, Jennifer C Jones, Kendall R Van Keuren-Jensen, Charles P Lai, Cecilia Lässer, Italia di Liegro, Taral R Lunavat, Magdalena J Lorenowicz, Sybren L N Maas, Imre Mäger, Maria Mittelbrunn, Stefan Momma, Kamalika Mukherjee, Muhammed Nawaz, D Michiel Pegtel, Michael W Pfaffl, Raymond M Schiffelers, Hidetoshi Tahara, Clotilde Théry, Juan Pablo Tosar, Marca H M Wauben, Kenneth W Witwer, Esther N M Nolte-'t Hoen
The release of RNA-containing extracellular vesicles (EV) into the extracellular milieu has been demonstrated in a multitude of different in vitro cell systems and in a variety of body fluids. RNA-containing EV are in the limelight for their capacity to communicate genetically encoded messages to other cells, their suitability as candidate biomarkers for diseases, and their use as therapeutic agents. Although EV-RNA has attracted enormous interest from basic researchers, clinicians, and industry, we currently have limited knowledge on which mechanisms drive and regulate RNA incorporation into EV and on how RNA-encoded messages affect signalling processes in EV-targeted cells...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326168/ribonucleic-artefacts-are-some-extracellular-rna-discoveries-driven-by-cell-culture-medium-components
#4
REVIEW
Juan Pablo Tosar, Alfonso Cayota, Erez Eitan, Marc K Halushka, Kenneth W Witwer
In a recently published study, Anna Krichevsky and colleagues raise the important question of whether results of in vitro extracellular RNA (exRNA) studies, including extracellular vesicle (EV) investigations, are confounded by the presence of RNA in cell culture medium components such as foetal bovine serum (FBS). The answer, according to their data, is a resounding "yes". Even after lengthy ultracentrifugation to remove bovine EVs from FBS, the majority of exRNA in FBS remained. Although technical factors may affect the degree of depletion, residual EVs and exRNA in FBS could influence the conclusions of in vitro studies: certainly, for secreted RNA, and possibly also for cell-associated RNA...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323982/versican-proteolysis-by-adamts-proteases-and-its-influence-on-sex-steroid-receptor-expression-in-uterine-leiomyoma
#5
Ndeye-Aicha Gueye, Timothy J Mead, Christopher D Koch, Charles V Biscotti, Tommaso Falcone, Suneel S Apte
Context: Leiomyomas have abundant extracellular matrix (ECM), with upregulation of versican, a large proteoglycan. Objective: To investigate ADAMTS protease-mediated versican cleavage in myometrium and leiomyoma and the effect of versican knockdown in leiomyoma cells. Design: We used qRT-PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization for analysis of myometrium, leiomyoma, and immortalized myometrium and leiomyoma cells...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322247/tricyclic-antidepressants-promote-ceramide-accumulation-to-regulate-collagen-production-in-human-hepatic-stellate-cells
#6
Jennifer Y Chen, Benjamin Newcomb, Chan Zhou, Joshua V Pondick, Sarani Ghoshal, Samuel R York, Daniel L Motola, Nicolas Coant, Jae Kyo Yi, Cungui Mao, Kenneth K Tanabe, Irina Bronova, Evgeny V Berdyshev, Bryan C Fuchs, Yusuf Hannun, Raymond T Chung, Alan C Mullen
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in response to injury is a key step in hepatic fibrosis, and is characterized by trans-differentiation of quiescent HSCs to HSC myofibroblasts, which secrete extracellular matrix proteins responsible for the fibrotic scar. There are currently no therapies to directly inhibit hepatic fibrosis. We developed a small molecule screen to identify compounds that inactivate human HSC myofibroblasts through the quantification of lipid droplets. We screened 1600 compounds and identified 21 small molecules that induce HSC inactivation...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320103/paeoniflorin-ameliorates-ages-induced-mesangial-cell-injury-through-inhibiting-rage-mtor-autophagy-pathway
#7
Juan Chen, Di Zhao, Maomao Zhu, Minghua Zhang, Xuefeng Hou, Wenbo Ding, Shuai Sun, Weiquan Bu, Liang Feng, Shiping Ma, Xiaobin Jia
Glomerular mesangial cell plays a vital role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Recent research has demonstrated that autophagy involved in the development of DN. Paeoniflorin (PF), a monoterpene glucoside, has been proved to attenuate advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced mesangial cell injury. However, the regulatory mechanism of PF on autophagy in mesangial cell remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of PF on autophagy in AGEs-induced mesangial cell dysfunction. In this study, the leakage of the lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) into the extracellular medium was measured by LDH kit...
March 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319101/a-vibrio-cholerae-autoinducer-receptor-pair-that-controls-biofilm-formation
#8
Kai Papenfort, Justin E Silpe, Kelsey R Schramma, Jian-Ping Cong, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication process that enables bacteria to track cell population density and orchestrate collective behaviors. QS relies on the production and detection of, and the response to, extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. In Vibrio cholerae, multiple QS circuits control pathogenesis and biofilm formation. Here, we identify and characterize a new QS autoinducer-receptor pair. The autoinducer is 3,5-dimethylpyrazin-2-ol (DPO). DPO is made from threonine and alanine, and its synthesis depends on threonine dehydrogenase (Tdh)...
March 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315487/xpln-is-modulated-by-hdac-inhibitors-and-negatively-regulates-sparc-expression-by-targeting-mtorc2-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#9
Koichiro Kamio, Arata Azuma, Jiro Usuki, Kuniko Matsuda, Minoru Inomata, Nobuhiko Nishijima, Shioto Itakura, Hiroki Hayashi, Takeru Kashiwada, Nariaki Kokuho, Kenichiro Atsumi, Tomoyoshi Yamaguchi, Kazue Fujita, Yoshinobu Saito, Shinji Abe, Kaoru Kubota, Akihiko Gemma
Pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unclear. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein that participates in the assembly and turnover of the extracellular matrix, whose expression is regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). Exchange factor found in platelets, leukemic, and neuronal tissues (XPLN) is an endogenous inhibitor of mTORC2. However, whether XPLN modulates SPARC expression remains unknown...
March 14, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303901/mutual-reinforcement-between-telomere-capping-and-canonical-wnt-signalling-in-the-intestinal-stem-cell-niche
#10
Ting-Lin B Yang, Qijun Chen, Jennifer T Deng, Geetha Jagannathan, John W Tobias, David C Schultz, Shan Wang, Christopher J Lengner, Anil K Rustgi, John P Lynch, F Brad Johnson
Critical telomere shortening (for example, secondary to partial telomerase deficiency in the rare disease dyskeratosis congenita) causes tissue pathology, but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Mice lacking telomerase (for example, mTR(-/-) telomerase RNA template mutants) provide a model for investigating pathogenesis. In such mice, after several generations of telomerase deficiency telomeres shorten to the point of uncapping, causing defects most pronounced in high-turnover tissues including intestinal epithelium...
March 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303895/total-extracellular-small-rna-profiles-from-plasma-saliva-and-urine-of-healthy-subjects
#11
Ashish Yeri, Amanda Courtright, Rebecca Reiman, Elizabeth Carlson, Taylor Beecroft, Alex Janss, Ashley Siniard, Ryan Richholt, Chris Balak, Joel Rozowsky, Robert Kitchen, Elizabeth Hutchins, Joseph Winarta, Roger McCoy, Matthew Anastasi, Seungchan Kim, Matthew Huentelman, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen
Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18-25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual's exRNA expression levels over time...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301987/properties-of-epithelial-cells-and-vaginal-secretions-in-pregnant-women-when-lactobacillus-crispatus-or-lactobacillus-iners-dominate-the-vaginal-microbiome
#12
Julie Leizer, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Larry J Forney, G Maria Schneider, Karol Gliniewicz, Allison Boester, Steven S Witkin
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine differences in properties of vaginal epithelial cells and the composition of vaginal secretions when Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus iners are numerically dominant in the vaginal microenvironment of pregnant women. METHODS: The vaginal microbiomes of 157 first-trimester pregnant women were identified by classifying partial 16S gene sequences amplified from the V1 to V3 region of bacterial ribosomal 16S RNA genes...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299927/supramolecular-hydrogels-based-on-dna-self-assembly
#13
Yu Shao, Haoyang Jia, Tianyang Cao, Dongsheng Liu
Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides essential supports three dimensionally to the cells in living organs, including mechanical support and signal, nutrition, oxygen, and waste transportation. Thus, using hydrogels to mimic its function has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in tissue engineering, cell biology, and drug screening. However, a hydrogel system that can merit all parameters of the natural ECM is still a challenge. In the past decade, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has arisen as an outstanding building material for the hydrogels, as it has unique properties compared to most synthetic or natural polymers, such as sequence designability, precise recognition, structural rigidity, and minimal toxicity...
March 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298913/cathepsin-e-deficiency-ameliorates-graft-versus-host-disease-and-modifies-dendritic-cell-motility
#14
Jörg Mengwasser, Liane Babes, Steffen Cordes, Sarah Mertlitz, Katarina Riesner, Yu Shi, Aleixandria McGearey, Martina Kalupa, Thomas Reinheckel, Olaf Penack
Microbial products influence immunity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). In this context, the role of cathepsin E (Ctse), an aspartate protease known to cleave bacterial peptides for antigen presentation in dendritic cells (DCs), has not been studied. During experimental acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we found infiltration by Ctse-positive immune cells leading to higher Ctse RNA- and protein levels in target organs. In Ctse-deficient allo-SCT recipients, we found ameliorated GVHD, improved survival, and lower numbers of tissue-infiltrating DCs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298217/large-scale-gene-network-analysis-reveals-the-significance-of-extracellular-matrix-pathway-and-homeobox-genes-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-an-introduction-to-the-pigengene-package-and-its-applications
#15
Amir Foroushani, Rupesh Agrahari, Roderick Docking, Linda Chang, Gerben Duns, Monika Hudoba, Aly Karsan, Habil Zare
BACKGROUND: The distinct types of hematological malignancies have different biological mechanisms and prognoses. For instance, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is generally indolent and low risk; however, it may transform into acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is much more aggressive. METHODS: We develop a novel network analysis approach that uses expression of eigengenes to delineate the biological differences between these two diseases. RESULTS: We find that specific genes in the extracellular matrix pathway are underexpressed in AML...
March 16, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296810/activation-associated-accelerated-apoptosis-of-memory-b-cells-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis
#16
Manu Shankar-Hari, David Fear, Paul Lavender, Tracey Mare, Richard Beale, Chad Swanson, Mervyn Singer, Jo Spencer
OBJECTIVE: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction due to dysregulated host responses to infection. Current knowledge of human B-cell alterations in sepsis is sparse. We tested the hypothesis that B-cell loss in sepsis involves distinct subpopulations of B cells and investigated mechanisms of B-cell depletion. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Critical care units. PATIENTS: Adult sepsis patients without any documented immune comorbidity...
March 14, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292985/binding-of-candida-albicans-to-human-ceacam1-and-ceacam6-modulates-the-inflammatory-response-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#17
Esther Klaile, Mario M Müller, Miriam R Schäfer, Ann-Katrin Clauder, Sabina Feer, Kerstin A Heyl, Magdalena Stock, Tilman E Klassert, Peter F Zipfel, Bernhard B Singer, Hortense Slevogt
Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa, including the gastrointestinal tract, as a commensal. In immunocompromised patients, C. albicans can breach the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause fatal invasive infections. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1; CD66a), CEACAM5 (CEA), and CEACAM6 (CD66c) are immunomodulatory receptors expressed on human mucosa and are recruited by bacterial and viral pathogens. Here we show for the first time that a fungal pathogen (i.e., C. albicans) also binds directly to the extracellular domain of human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5, and CEACAM6...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291821/transcriptomic-profile-of-leg-muscle-during-early-growth-in-chicken
#18
Qian Xue, Genxi Zhang, Tingting Li, Jiaojiao Ling, Xiangqian Zhang, Jinyu Wang
The early growth pattern, especially the age of peak growth, of broilers affects the time to market and slaughter weight, which in turn affect the profitability of the poultry industry. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating chicken growth and development have rarely been studied. This study aimed to identify candidate genes involved in chicken growth and investigated the potential regulatory mechanisms of early growth in chicken. RNA sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of chicken muscle tissues at three developmental stages during early growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289238/stroke-and-circulating-extracellular-rnas
#19
Eric Mick, Ravi Shah, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Venkatesh Murthy, Mark Gerstein, Joel Rozowsky, Robert Kitchen, Martin G Larson, Daniel Levy, Jane E Freedman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is increasing interest in extracellular RNAs (ex-RNAs), with numerous reports of associations between selected microRNAs (miRNAs) and a variety of cardiovascular disease phenotypes. Previous studies of ex-RNAs in relation to risk for cardiovascular disease have investigated small numbers of patients and assayed only candidate miRNAs. No human studies have investigated links between novel ex-RNAs and stroke. METHODS: We conducted unbiased next-generation sequencing using plasma from 40 participants of the FHS (Framingham Heart Study; Offspring Cohort Exam 8) followed by high-throughput polymerase chain reaction of 471 ex-RNAs...
March 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287125/physiological-mechanisms-only-tell-half-story-multiple-biological-processes-are-involved-in-regulating-freezing-tolerance-of-imbibed-lactuca-sativa-seeds
#20
Ganesh K Jaganathan, Yingying Han, Weijie Li, Danping Song, Xiaoyan Song, Mengqi Shen, Qiang Zhou, Chenxue Zhang, Baolin Liu
The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h(-1)) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch(-1)) seeds (P < 0...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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