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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213967/extracellular-vesicles-from-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improve-survival-from-lethal-hepatic-failure-in-mice
#1
Hiroaki Haga, Irene K Yan, Kenji Takahashi, Akiko Matsuda, Tushar Patel
Stem cell-based therapies have potential for treatment of liver injury by contributing to regenerative responses, through functional tissue replacement or paracrine effects. The release of extracellular vesicles (EV) from cells has been implicated in intercellular communication, and may contribute to beneficial paracrine effects of stem cell-based therapies. Therapeutic effects of bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and vesicles released by these cells were examined in a lethal murine model of hepatic failure induced by d-galactosamine/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209995/rna-seq-based-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveal-stress-responses-and-programmed-cell-death-induced-by-acetic-acid-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Yachen Dong, Jingjin Hu, Linlin Fan, Qihe Chen
As a typical harmful inhibitor in cellulosic hydrolyzates, acetic acid not only hinders bioethanol production, but also induces cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Herein, we conducted both transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to investigate the global responses under acetic acid stress at different stages. There were 295 up-regulated and 427 down-regulated genes identified at more than two time points during acetic acid treatment (150 mM, pH 3.0). These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly involved in intracellular homeostasis, central metabolic pathway, transcription regulation, protein folding and stabilization, ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, vesicle-mediated transport, protein synthesis, MAPK signaling pathways, cell cycle, programmed cell death, etc...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202504/expression-profiling-of-circulating-microvesicles-reveals-intercellular-transmission-of-oncogenic-pathways
#3
Gloria Milani, Tobia Lana, Silvia Bresolin, Sanja Aveic, Anna Pasto, Chiara Frasson, Geertruy Te Kronnie
: Circulating microvesicles (MVs) have been described as important players in cell-to-cell communication carrying biological information under normal or pathological condition. MVs released by cancer cells may incorporate diverse biomolecules (e.g. active lipids, proteins and RNA) which can be delivered and internalized by recipient cells, potentially altering gene expression of recipient cells and eventually impacting disease progression. Leukemia in vitro model systems were used to investigate MVs as vehicles of protein-coding messages...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202367/exosomes-therapy-delivery-tools-and-biomarkers-of-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Lucio Barile, Giuseppe Vassalli
Virtually all cells in the organism secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), a heterogeneous population of lipid bilayer membrane-enclosed vesicles that transport and deliver payloads of proteins and nucleic acids to recipient cells, thus playing central roles in cell-cell communications. Exosomes, nanosized EVs of endosomal origin, regulate many pathophysiological processes including immune responses and inflammation, tumour growth, and infection. Healthy subjects and patients with different diseases release exosomes with different RNA and protein contents into the circulation, which can be measured as biomarkers...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194436/real-time-genomic-profiling-of-histiocytoses-identifies-early-kinase-domain-braf-alterations-while-improving-treatment-outcomes
#5
Lynn H Lee, Anjelika Gasilina, Jayeeta Roychoudhury, Jason Clark, Francis X McCormack, Joseph Pressey, Michael S Grimley, Robert Lorsbach, Siraj Ali, Mark Bailey, Philip Stephens, Jeffrey S Ross, Vincent A Miller, Nicolas N Nassar, Ashish R Kumar
Many patients with histiocytic disorders such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) or Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) have treatment-refractory disease or suffer recurrences. Recent findings of gene mutations in histiocytoses have generated options for targeted therapies. We sought to determine the utility of prospective sequencing of select genes to further characterize mutations and identify targeted therapies for patients with histiocytoses. Biopsies of 72 patients with a variety of histiocytoses underwent comprehensive genomic profiling with targeted DNA and RNA sequencing...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188071/a-good-manufacturing-practice-grade-standard-protocol-for-exclusively-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#6
Karin Pachler, Thomas Lener, Doris Streif, Zsuzsanna A Dunai, Alexandre Desgeorges, Martina Feichtner, Michaela Öller, Katharina Schallmoser, Eva Rohde, Mario Gimona
BACKGROUND AIMS: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may contribute to biological processes such as tissue regeneration, immunomodulation and neuroprotection. Evaluation of their therapeutic potential and application in future clinical trials demands thorough characterization of EV content and production under defined medium conditions, devoid of xenogenic substances and serum-derived vesicles. Addressing the apparent need for such a growth medium, we have developed a medium formulation based on pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL), free from animal-derived xenogenic additives and depleted of EVs...
February 7, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185365/circrnas-biogenesis-properties-roles-and-their-relationships-with-liver-diseases-running-title-circular-rnas-and-liver-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Ting Yao, Qingqing Chen, Liyun Fu, Junming Guo
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of new found RNA molecules that have a special covalent loop structure without 5' cap and 3' tail. Researchers have found that circRNAs may be generated by intron-pairing-driven or lariat-driven circularization. They are cleared up via extracellular vesicles. They have some advantages such as stable, conservation, tissue specificity and so on. By severing as sponge of microRNAs, interacting with long non-coding RNAs, mRNA, or proteins, circRNAs regulate gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and contribute carcinogenesis...
February 10, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183786/extracellular-rnas-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-and-metabolic-phenotypes
#8
Ravi Shah, Venkatesh Murthy, Michael Pacold, Kirsty Danielson, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Martin G Larson, Kristina Hanspers, Alexander Pico, Eric Mick, Jared Reis, Sarah de Ferranti, Elizaveta Freinkman, Daniel Levy, Udo Hoffmann, Stavroula Osganian, Saumya Das, Jane E Freedman
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is a hallmark of obesity and metabolic disease. Circulating extracellular RNAs (ex-RNAs), stable RNA molecules in plasma, may play a role in IR, though most studies on ex-RNAs in IR are small. We sought to characterize the relationship between ex-RNAs and metabolic phenotypes in a large community-based human cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured circulating plasma ex-RNAs in 2,317 participants without diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring Cohort at cycle 8 and defined associations between ex-RNAs and IR (measured by circulating insulin level)...
February 9, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182006/coordinate-activities-of-brd4-and-cdk9-in-the-transcriptional-elongation-complex-are-required-for-tgf%C3%AE-induced-nox4-expression-and-myofibroblast-transdifferentiation
#9
Talha Ijaz, Mohammad Jamaluddin, Yingxin Zhao, Yueqing Zhang, Jayson Jay, Celeste C Finnerty, David N Herndon, Ronald G Tilton, Allan R Brasier
Transdifferentiation of quiescent dermal fibroblasts to secretory myofibroblasts has a central role in wound healing and pathological scar formation. This myofibroblast transdifferentiation process involves TGFβ-induced de novo synthesis of alpha smooth muscle cell actin (αSMA)+ fibers that enhance contractility as well as increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including collagen and fibronectin. These processes are mediated upstream by the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing enzyme Nox4, whose induction by TGFβ is incompletely understood...
February 9, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179531/toll-like-receptor-7-agonist-gs-9620-induces-hiv-expression-and-hiv-specific-immunity-in-cells-from-hiv-infected-individuals-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Angela Tsai, Alivelu Irrinki, Jasmine Kaur, Tomas Cihlar, George Kukolj, Derek D Sloan, Jeffrey P Murry
Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV replication to undetectable levels but does not eliminate latent HIV, thus necessitating lifelong therapy. Recent efforts to target this persistent reservoir have focused on inducing the expression of latent HIV so that infected cells may be recognized and eliminated by the immune system. Toll like receptor (TLR) activation stimulates antiviral immunity and has been shown to induce HIV from latently infected cells. Activation of TLR7 leads to the production of several stimulatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFNs)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179303/sirna-based-analysis-of-the-abrogation-of-the-protective-function-of-membrane-associated-catalase-of-tumor-cells
#11
Georg Bauer
Tumor cells, in contrast to non-malignant cells, show sustained expression of membrane-associated NADPH oxidase-1 and therefore generate extracellular superoxide anions and their dismutation product H2O2 In order to prevent intercellular reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS)-dependent apoptosis-inducing signaling, tumor cells need to express membrane-associated catalase that interferes with HOCl and nitric oxide/peroxynitrite signaling. Catalase is attached to tumor cells through the activity of transglutaminase-2 and is prevented from superoxide anion-dependent inhibition through coexpression of membrane-associated superoxide dismutase...
2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178884/improved-post-thaw-function-and-epigenetic-changes-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-cryopreserved-using-multicomponent-osmolyte-solutions
#12
Kathryn Pollock, Rebekah Samsonraj, Amel Dudakovic, Roman Thaler, Aron Stumbras, David McKenna, Peter Dosa, Andre van Wijnen, Allison Hubel
Current methods for freezing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) result in poor post-thaw function, which limits the clinical utility of these cells. This investigation develops a novel approach to preserve MSCs using combinations of sugars, sugar alcohols and small molecule additives. MSCs frozen using these solutions exhibit improved post-thaw attachment and a more normal alignment of the actin cytoskeleton compared to cells exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation assays show that cells retain their mesenchymal lineage properties...
February 8, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176846/prediction-of-biomarkers-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-using-microarray-technology
#13
Guang Li, Xian Li, Meng Yang, Lvzi Xu, Shixiong Deng, Longke Ran
Microarray data is used to screen the genes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Microarray data of OSCC and normal tissues were downloaded from GEO database and analyzed with Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) method. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were then uploaded on DAVID database to process enrichment analysis. Target genes were finally chosen for verification experiment in vitro and in vivo. 78 DEGs were selected from 54676 genes, including 46 up- and 32 down- regulation. GO term showed that these genes were related to epidermal growth (biological processes), extracellular region (cellular components) and cytokines activity (molecular function)...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176809/unusual-life-cycle-and-impact-on-microfibril-assembly-of-adamts17-a-secreted-metalloprotease-mutated-in-genetic-eye-disease
#14
Dirk Hubmacher, Michael Schneider, Steven J Berardinelli, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Belinda Willard, Dieter P Reinhardt, Robert S Haltiwanger, Suneel S Apte
Secreted metalloproteases have diverse roles in the formation, remodeling, and the destruction of extracellular matrix. Recessive mutations in the secreted metalloprotease ADAMTS17 cause ectopia lentis and short stature in humans with Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome and primary open angle glaucoma and ectopia lentis in dogs. Little is known about this protease or its connection to fibrillin microfibrils, whose major component, fibrillin-1, is genetically associated with ectopia lentis and alterations in height...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176216/pcsk9-targets-important-for-lipid-metabolism
#15
Rainer Schulz, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter
Ischemic heart disease is the main cause of death worldwide and it is accelerated by increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) concentrations. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) alters both LDL-C and in part Lp(a) concentrations through its ability to induce degradation of the LDL receptor (LDLR). PCSK9, however, has additional targets which are potentially involved in lipid metabolism regulation such as the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL), CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36) and the epithelial cholesterol transporter (NPC1L1) and it affects expression of apolipoprotein B48...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175601/336%C3%A2-small-rna-sequencing-of-glioblastoma-multiforme-extracellular-vesicles
#16
Tristan de Mooij, Brandon A McCutcheon, Alexey A Leontovich, Ian F Parney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173878/the-effects-of-glomerular-and-tubular-renal-progenitors-and-derived-extracellular-vesicles-on-recovery-from-acute-kidney-injury
#17
Andrea Ranghino, Stefania Bruno, Benedetta Bussolati, Aldo Moggio, Veronica Dimuccio, Marta Tapparo, Luigi Biancone, Paolo Gontero, Bruno Frea, Giovanni Camussi
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and renal stem/progenitors improve the recovery of acute kidney injury (AKI) mainly through the release of paracrine mediators including the extracellular vesicles (EVs). Several studies have reported the existence of a resident population of MSCs within the glomeruli (Gl-MSCs). However, their contribution towards kidney repair still remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether Gl-MSCs and Gl-MSC-EVs promote the recovery of AKI induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in SCID mice...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173844/differential-long-noncoding-rna-mrna-expression-profiling-and-functional-network-analysis-during-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#18
Wenyuan Zhang, Rui Dong, Shu Diao, Juan Du, Zhipeng Fan, Fu Wang
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most promising cell types for bone regeneration and repair due to their osteogenic potential. MSC differentiation is precisely regulated and orchestrated by the mechanical and molecular signals from the extracellular environment, involving complex pathways regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the potential role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in the osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs remains largely unclear...
February 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167565/y-rna-fragment-in-extracellular-vesicles-confers-cardioprotection-via-modulation-of-il-10-expression-and-secretion
#19
Linda Cambier, Geoffrey de Couto, Ahmed Ibrahim, Antonio K Echavez, Jackelyn Valle, Weixin Liu, Michelle Kreke, Rachel R Smith, Linda Marbán, Eduardo Marbán
Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) reduce myocardial infarct size via secreted extracellular vesicles (CDC-EVs), including exosomes, which alter macrophage polarization. We questioned whether short non-coding RNA species of unknown function within CDC-EVs contribute to cardioprotection. The most abundant RNA species in CDC-EVs is a Y RNA fragment (EV-YF1); its relative abundance in CDC-EVs correlates with CDC potency in vivo Fluorescently labeled EV-YF1 is actively transferred from CDCs to target macrophages via CDC-EVs...
February 6, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167212/recruitment-of-rna-molecules-by-connexin-rna-binding-motifs-implication-in-rna-and-dna-transport-through-microvesicles-and-exosomes
#20
REVIEW
Marta Varela-Eirin, Adrian Varela-Vazquez, Marina Rodríguez-Candela Mateos, Anton Vila-Sanjurjo, Eduardo Fonseca, José L Mascareñas, M Eugenio Vázquez, Maria D Mayan
Connexins (Cxs) are integral membrane proteins that form high-conductance plasma membrane channels, allowing communication from cell to cell (via gap junctions) and from cells to the extracellular environment (via hemichannels). Initially described for their role in joining excitable cells (nerve and muscle), gap junctions (GJs) are found between virtually all cells in solid tissues and are essential for functional coordination by enabling the direct transfer of small signalling molecules, metabolites, ions, and electrical signals from cell to cell...
February 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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