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Extracellular RNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904804/mining-snps-in-extracellular-vesicular-transcriptome-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-a-step-closer-to-early-diagnosis-of-neglected-chagas-disease
#1
Pallavi Gaur, Anoop Chaturvedi
One of the newest and strongest members of intercellular communicators, the Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their enclosed RNAs; Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) have been acknowledged as putative biomarkers and therapeutic targets for various diseases. Although a very deep insight has not been possible into the physiology of these vesicles, they are believed to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and host-pathogen interactions. EVs might be significantly helpful in discovering biomarkers for possible target identification as well as prognostics, diagnostics and developing vaccines...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903796/decreased-endometrial-expression-of-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-receptor-disrupts-the-stat3-signaling-in-adenomyosis-during-the-implantation-window
#2
Chih-Feng Yen, Shuen-Kuei Liao, S Joseph Huang, Selcuk Tabak, Felice Arcuri, Chyi-Long Lee, Aydin Arici, Felice Petraglia, Hsin-Shih Wang, Umit A Kayisli
BACKGROUND: Adenomyosis was found to have negative impacts on embryo implantation. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), proposed to be a molecular marker for endometrial receptivity, works through the LIF receptor (LIFR) on both the embryo and the endometrium. We aimed to evaluate the endometrial expression of LIF and LIFR and its subsequent signaling in patients with adenomyosis during the window of implantation (WOI). METHODS: Endometrium was obtained during the WOI from patients with adenomyosis (age <45 years) who underwent hysterectomy and from age-matched controls who had no endometriosis or adenomyosis...
November 30, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902702/selective-inhibitor-of-nuclear-export-sine-compounds-alter-new-world-alphavirus-capsid-localization-and-reduce-viral-replication-in-mammalian-cells
#3
Lindsay Lundberg, Chelsea Pinkham, Cynthia de la Fuente, Ashwini Brahms, Nazly Shafagati, Kylie M Wagstaff, David A Jans, Sharon Tamir, Kylene Kehn-Hall
The capsid structural protein of the New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), interacts with the host nuclear transport proteins importin α/β1 and CRM1. Novel selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, KPT-185, KPT-335 (verdinexor), and KPT-350, target the host's primary nuclear export protein, CRM1, in a manner similar to the archetypical inhibitor Leptomycin B. One major limitation of Leptomycin B is its irreversible binding to CRM1; which SINE compounds alleviate because they are slowly reversible...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900389/the-clearance-of-cell-remnants-and-the-regeneration-of-the-injured-muscle-depend-on-soluble-pattern-recognition-receptor-ptx3
#4
Michela Vezzoli, Clara Sciorati, Lara Campana, Antonella Monno, Maria Giulia Doglio, Elena Rigamonti, Gianfranca Corna, Thierry Touvier, Alessandra Castiglioni, Annalisa Capobianco, Alberto Mantovani, Angelo A Manfredi, Cecilia Garlanda, Patrizia Rovere-Querini
OBJECTIVE: The signals causing the resolution of muscle inflammation are only partially characterized. The long pentraxin PTX3, which modulates leukocyte recruitment and activation, could contribute. METHODS: We analysed the expression of ptx3 after muscle injury and verified whether hematopoietic precursors are a source of the protein. The kinetics of regeneration and leukocytes infiltration, the accumulation of cell remnants and anti-histidyl-t-RNA synthetase autoantibodies were compared in wild-type and ptx3-deficient mice...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900042/antitumor-activity-of-7rh-a-discoidin-domain-receptor-1-inhibitor-alone-or-in-combination-with-dasatinib-exhibits-antitumor-effects-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells
#5
Qiu-Ping Lu, Wen-Dan Chen, Jie-Ren Peng, Yao-Dong Xu, Qian Cai, Gong-Kan Feng, Ke Ding, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Zhong Guan
Dysregulation of the discoidin domain receptors (DDRs) has been implicated in the development of numerous types of tumors, including head and neck cancer, and nasopharyngeal, breast, ovarian and esophageal carcinomas. Furthermore, agents that inhibit DDR1 activity are hypothesized to be useful for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the DDR1 inhibitory (3-(2-(pyrazolo(1,5-a)pyrimidin-6-yl)-ethynyl)benzamide compound, 7RH, in NPC cells both in vitro and in vivo, and its effect when used in combination with dasatinib, a SRC family kinase (SFK) inhibitor...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900017/six1-is-overexpressed-in-endometrial-carcinoma-and-promotes-the-malignant-behavior-of-cancer-cells-through-erk-and-akt-signaling
#6
Xiaochuan Xin, Yue Li, Xianghong Yang
The sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) protein has been found to be important for cancer progression. However, its biological role in human endometrial carcinomas remains unexplored. The potential mechanism of SIX1-induced cancer progression remains unclear. In the present study, SIX1 protein expression was examined in 84 cases of endometrial carcinoma tissues using immunohistochemisty, and SIX1 was found to be overexpressed in 51.1% (43/84) of cervical cancer cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of SIX1 was also performed in Ishikawa cells with high endogenous SIX1 expression, and SIX1 was overexpressed in the HEC1B cell line with low endogenous expression...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899395/functional-definition-of-progenitors-versus-mature-endothelial-cells-reveals-key-soxf-dependent-differentiation-process
#7
Jatin Patel, Elke J Seppanen, Mathieu P Rodero, Ho Yi Wong, Prudence Donovan, Zoltan Neufeld, Nicholas M Fisk, Mathias François, Kiarash Khosrotehrani
BACKGROUND: -During adult life, blood vessel formation is thought to occur via angiogenic processes involving branching from existing vessels. An alternate proposal suggests that neo-vessels form from endothelial progenitors able to assemble the intimal layers. We here aimed to define vessel-resident endothelial progenitors in vivo in a variety of tissues in physiological and pathological situations such as normal aorta, lungs, as well as wound healing, tumors and placenta. METHODS: -Based on protein expression levels of common endothelial markers using flow cytometry, three sub-populations of endothelial cells could be identified among VE-Cadherin+ and CD45- cells...
November 29, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898729/rna-contaminates-glycosaminoglycans-extracted-from-cells-and-tissues
#8
Jasper J van Gemst, Markus A Loeven, Mark J J de Graaf, Jo H M Berden, Ton J Rabelink, Cornelis H Smit, Johan van der Vlag
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear negatively charged polysaccharides and important components of extracellular matrices and cell surface glycan layers such as the endothelial glycocalyx. The GAG family includes sulfated heparin, heparan sulfate (HS), dermatan sulfate (DS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), keratan sulfate, and non-sulfated hyaluronan. Because relative expression of GAGs is dependent on cell-type and niche, isolating GAGs from cell cultures and tissues may provide insight into cell- and tissue-specific GAG structure and functions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893988/endothelin-signaling-in-bone
#9
REVIEW
Jasmin Kristianto, Michael G Johnson, Rafia Afzal, Robert D Blank
The endothelin (ET) system includes 3 small peptide hormones and a pair of G protein-coupled receptors. All 3 ETs are secreted as biologically inert precursors that must be activated by proteolytic cleavage after secretion. This reaction can be catalyzed by a pair of specific, membrane-bound extracellular ET converting enzymes or by nonspecific tissue proteases. The ET1/EDNRA axis is essential in development, with knockout mice for either displaying a similar phenotype featuring multiple defects of the craniofacial skeleton and cardiac outflow tract...
November 11, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892961/host-derived-extracellular-rna-promotes-adhesion-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-to-endothelial-and-epithelial-cells
#10
Dariusz Zakrzewicz, Simone Bergmann, Miroslava Didiasova, Benedetto Daniele Giaimo, Tilman Borggrefe, Maren Mieth, Andreas C Hocke, Guenter Lochnit, Liliana Schaefer, Sven Hammerschmidt, Klaus T Preissner, Malgorzata Wygrecka
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent cause of community-acquired pneumonia. The infection process involves bacterial cell surface receptors, which interact with host extracellular matrix components to facilitate colonization and dissemination of bacteria. Here, we investigated the role of host-derived extracellular RNA (eRNA) in the process of pneumococcal alveolar epithelial cell infection. Our study demonstrates that eRNA dose-dependently increased S. pneumoniae invasion of alveolar epithelial cells...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892926/dual-specificity-phosphatase-6-deficiency-regulates-gut-microbiome-and-transcriptome-response-against-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#11
Jhen-Wei Ruan, Sarah Statt, Chih-Ting Huang, Yi-Ting Tsai, Cheng-Chin Kuo, Hong-Lin Chan, Yu-Chieh Liao, Tse-Hua Tan, Cheng-Yuan Kao
The gut microbiota plays profound roles in host metabolism and the inflammatory response associated with the development of obesity. Dusp6-deficient mice have been shown to be resistant to diet-induced obesity, but the mechanism behind this remains unclear. 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis demonstrated that dusp6-deficient mice harbour unique gut microbiota with resistance to diet-induced-obesity-mediated alteration of the gut microbiome. Using a germ-free mouse model, we found that faecal/gut microbiota derived from dusp6-deficient mice significantly increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain in recipient wild-type mice fed on a high-fat diet...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892730/delivery-of-therapeutic-rna-cleaving-oligodeoxyribonucleotides-deoxyribozymes-from-cell-culture-studies-to-clinical-trials
#12
Alesya A Fokina, Boris P Chelobanov, Masayuki Fujii, Dmitry A Stetsenko
Development of efficient in vivo delivery systems remains a major challenge en route to clinical application of antisense technology, including RNA-cleaving molecules such as deoxyribozymes (DNAzymes). The mechanisms of oligonucleotide uptake and trafficking are clearly dependent on cell type and the type of oligonucleotide analogue. It appears likely that each particular disease target would pose its own specific requirements for a delivery method. Areas covered. In this review we will discuss the available options for DNAzyme delivery in vitro and in vivo, outline various exogenous and endogenous strategies that have been, or are still being, developed and ascertain their applicability with emphasis on those methods that are currently being used in clinical trials...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892528/sphingomyelin-generated-by-sphingomyelin-synthase-1-is-involved-in-attachment-and-infection-with-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#13
Makoto Taniguchi, Takafumi Tasaki, Hideaki Ninomiya, Yoshibumi Ueda, Koh-Ichi Kuremoto, Susumu Mitsutake, Yasuyuki Igarashi, Toshiro Okazaki, Tsutomu Takegami
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne RNA virus which infects target cells via the envelope protein JEV-E. However, its cellular targets are largely unknown. To investigate the role of sphingomyelin (SM) in JEV infection, we utilized SM-deficient immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (tMEF) established from SM synthase 1 (SMS1)/SMS2 double knockout mice. SMS deficiency significantly reduced both intracellular and extracellular JEV levels at 48 h after infection. Furthermore, after 15 min treatment with JEV, the early steps of JEV infection such as attachment and cell entry were also diminished in SMS-deficient tMEFs...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892494/circular-rnas-are-down-regulated-in-kras-mutant-colon-cancer-cells-and-can-be-transferred-to-exosomes
#14
Yongchao Dou, Diana J Cha, Jeffrey L Franklin, James N Higginbotham, Dennis K Jeppesen, Alissa M Weaver, Nripesh Prasad, Shawn Levy, Robert J Coffey, James G Patton, Bing Zhang
Recent studies have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant, widely expressed in mammals, and can display cell-type specific expression. However, how production of circRNAs is regulated and their precise biological function remains largely unknown. To study how circRNAs might be regulated during colorectal cancer progression, we used three isogenic colon cancer cell lines that differ only in KRAS mutation status. Cellular RNAs from the parental DLD-1 cells that contain both wild-type and G13D mutant KRAS alleles and isogenically-matched derivative cell lines, DKO-1 (mutant KRAS allele only) and DKs-8 (wild-type KRAS allele only) were analyzed using RNA-Seq...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886573/nuclear-transportation-of-exogenous-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-and-androgen-receptor-via-extracellular-vesicles
#15
Jolene Read, Alistair Ingram, Hassan A Al Saleh, Khrystyna Platko, Kathleen Gabriel, Anil Kapoor, Jehonathan Pinthus, Fadwa Majeed, Talha Qureshi, Khalid Al-Nedawi
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a central role in the progression of several human malignancies. Although EGFR is a membrane receptor, it undergoes nuclear translocation, where it has a distinct signalling pathway. Herein, we report a novel mechanism by which cancer cells can directly transport EGFR to the nucleus of other cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). The transported receptor is active and stimulates the nuclear EGFR pathways. Interestingly, the translocation of EGFR via EVs occurs independently of the nuclear localisation sequence that is required for nuclear translocation of endogenous EGFR...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885811/17-%C3%AE-estradiol-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-mainly-by-interference-with-the-release-phase-of-its-life-cycle
#16
Andrea Magri, Matteo N Barbaglia, Chiara Z Foglia, Elisa Boccato, Michela E Burlone, Sarah Cole, Paola Giarda, Elena Grossini, Arvind H Patel, Rosalba Minisini, Mario Pirisi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oestrogen and oestrogen-mediated signalling protect from hepatitis C virus through incompletely understood mechanisms. We aimed to ascertain which phase(s) of hepatitis C virus life cycle is/are affected by oestrogens. METHODS: Huh7 cells infected with the JFH1 virus (genotype 2a) were exposed to dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, progesterone and 17β-estradiol (tested with/without its receptor antagonist fulvestrant). Dose-response curves were established to calculate half maximal inhibitory concentration values...
November 7, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884058/efficiency-of-silencing-rna-for-removal-of-transthyretin-v30m-in-a-ttr-leptomeningeal-animal-model
#17
Paula Gonçalves, Helena Martins, Susete Costelha, Luis F Maia, Maria Joao Saraiva
Some TTR mutants target the central nervous system (CNS). Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) with leptomeningeal involvement has been described in 9% of transthyretin (TTR) mutations and in valine for methionine at position 30 (V30M) patients. These individuals present dementia, ataxia, brain hemorrhages and focal neurological episodes (FNEs). FNEs occurred also in V30M FAP patients with longer disease duration, who have undergone liver transplant to remove the source of plasma mutant TTR as a form of treatment...
November 24, 2016: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882942/emerging-roles-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-focus-on-hiv-associated-neurological-complications
#18
REVIEW
Guoku Hu, Lu Yang, Yu Cai, Fang Niu, Frank Mezzacappa, Shannon Callen, Howard S Fox, Shilpa Buch
Exosomes are membrane-enriched extracellular vesicles with a proposed diameter in the range of 30-100 nm. They are released during both normal homeostasis as well as under pathological conditions by most cell types. In recent years, there has been robust interest in the study of these vesicles as conduits for the delivery of information between cells in both analogous as well as disparate tissues. Their ability to transport specialized cargo including signaling mediators, proteins, messenger RNA and miRNAs characterizes these vesicles as primary facilitators of cell-to-cell communication and regulation...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882350/plasma-vesicle-mirnas-for-therapy-response-monitoring-in-hodgkin-lymphoma-patients
#19
Monique A J van Eijndhoven, Josée M Zijlstra, Nils J Groenewegen, Esther E E Drees, Stuart van Niele, S Rubina Baglio, Danijela Koppers-Lalic, Hans van der Voorn, Sten F W M Libregts, Marca H M Wauben, Renee X de Menezes, Jan R T van Weering, Rienk Nieuwland, Lydia Visser, Anke van den Berg, Daphne de Jong, D Michiel Pegtel
BACKGROUND. Cell-free circulating nucleic acids, including 22-nt microRNAs (miRNAs), represent noninvasive biomarkers for treatment response monitoring of cancer patients. While the majority of plasma miRNA is bound to proteins, a smaller, less well-characterized pool is associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here, we addressed whether EV-associated miRNAs reflect metabolic disease in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) patients. METHODS. With standardized size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), we isolated EV-associated extracellular RNA (exRNA) fractions and protein-bound miRNA from plasma of cHL patients and healthy subjects...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881440/culturing-bone-marrow-cells-with-dexamethasone-and-ascorbic-acid-improves-osteogenic-cell-sheet-structure
#20
M Akahane, T Shimizu, T Kira, T Onishi, Y Uchihara, T Imamura, Y Tanaka
OBJECTIVES: To assess the structure and extracellular matrix molecule expression of osteogenic cell sheets created via culture in medium with both dexamethasone (Dex) and ascorbic acid phosphate (AscP) compared either Dex or AscP alone. METHODS: Osteogenic cell sheets were prepared by culturing rat bone marrow stromal cells in a minimal essential medium (MEM), MEM with AscP, MEM with Dex, and MEM with Dex and AscP (Dex/AscP). The cell number and messenger (m)RNA expression were assessed in vitro, and the appearance of the cell sheets was observed after mechanical retrieval using a scraper...
November 2016: Bone & Joint Research
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