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Extracellular RNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026081/extracellular-matrix-stiffness-and-cell-contractility-control-rna-localization-to-promote-cell-migration
#1
Tianhong Wang, Susan Hamilla, Maggie Cam, Helim Aranda-Espinoza, Stavroula Mili
Numerous RNAs are enriched within cellular protrusions, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We had shown that the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) protein controls localization of some RNAs at protrusions. Here, using protrusion-isolation schemes and RNA-Seq, we find that RNAs localized in protrusions of migrating fibroblasts can be distinguished in two groups, which are differentially enriched in distinct types of protrusions, and are additionally differentially dependent on APC. APC-dependent RNAs become enriched in high-contractility protrusions and, accordingly, their localization is promoted by increasing stiffness of the extracellular matrix...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025917/sid-1-domains-important-for-dsrna-import-in-caenorhabditiselegans
#2
Jennifer S Whangbo, Alexandra S Weisman, Jeiwook Chae, Craig P Hunter
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, RNA interference (RNAi) triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) spreads systemically to cause gene silencing throughout the organism and its progeny. We confirm that Caenorhabditis nematode SID-1 orthologs have dsRNA transport activity and demonstrate that the SID-1 paralog CHUP-1 does not transport dsRNA. Sequence comparison of these similar proteins, in conjunction with analysis of loss-of-function missense alleles identifies several conserved 2-7 amino acid microdomains within the extracellular domain that are important for dsRNA transport...
October 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021211/pfmg1-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-and-prevents-osteoporotic-bone-loss
#3
Liyuan Li, Pan Wang, Kaiqiang Hu, Xiaoyan Wang, Wenping Cai, Chao Ai, Shangfeng Liu, Zhao Wang
Nacre is a widely used mineral medicine that has been reported to have beneficial effects in bone remodeling without an increase in inflammation. Water-soluble nacre matrix has been demonstrated to be responsible for the effect, yet core active ingredients are unknown. Pinctada fucata mantle gene 1 (PFMG1) was first discovered in the mantle tissue of Pinctada fucata. The protein has 2 EF-hands, a calcium-binding domain. PFMG1 protein can affect the growth of calcium carbonate crystals in vitro Here, we demonstrate that PFMG1 affects cell-cycle distribution and promotes preosteoblast proliferation...
October 11, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019932/asic1a-promotes-acid-induced-autophagy-in-rat-articular-chondrocytes-through-the-ampk-foxo3a-pathway
#4
Beibei Dai, Fei Zhu, Yong Chen, Renpeng Zhou, Zhisen Wang, Yaya Xie, Xiaoshan Wu, Shengqin Zu, Ge Li, Jinfang Ge, Feihu Chen
Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is a member of the extracellular H⁺-activated cation channels family. Our previous studies suggested that ASIC1a contributed to acid-induced rat articular chondrocytes autophagy. However, its potential mechanisms remain unclear. The present study demonstrated the effect of ASIC1a on rat articular chondrocytes autophagy and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results demonstrated that ASIC1a contributed to acid-induced autophagy in rat articular chondrocytes, and which was associated with an increase in (Ca(2+))i, as indicated that acid-induced increases in mRNA and protein expression of LC3B-II and other autophagy-related markers were inhibited by ASIC1a-specific blocker, PcTx1 and calcium chelating agent, BAPTA-AM...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019351/hot-news-exosomes-as-new-players-in-hiv-pathogenesis-new-data-from-the-ias-2017
#5
Eva Poveda, Michael L Freeman
Exosomes are nanovesicles that can be released into the extracellular medium by different cell types and are considered an important system of intercellular communication. In some instances, on secretion, exosomes break down and release their content into the extracellular space. Alternatively, intact exosomes can interact with other cells and discharge their content directly into the target cell cytoplasm. Exosomes are rich in endosome-associated proteins (i.e., the tetraspanin family) but also carry different molecules in their lumen including proteins, RNAs (i...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017825/transcriptomic-analysis-of-ehrlichia-ruminantium-during-the-developmental-stages-in-bovine-and-tick-cell-culture
#6
Mabotse A Tjale, Alri Pretorius, Antoinette Josemans, Mirinda Van Kleef, Junita Liebenberg
The use of bioinformatics tools to search for possible vaccine candidates has been successful in recent years. In an attempt to search for additional vaccine candidates or improve the current heartwater vaccine design, a genome-wide transcriptional profile of E. ruminantium (Welgevonden strain) replicating in bovine endothelial cells (BA886) and Ixodes scapularis embryonic tick cells (IDE8) was performed. The RNA was collected from the infective extracellular form, the elementary bodies (EBs) and vegetative intracellular form, reticulate bodies (RBs) and was used for transcriptome sequencing...
September 22, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017815/rna-polymerase-ii-pausing-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-the-hsp70-expression
#7
REVIEW
Heeyoun Bunch
Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) belong to the chaperone protein family whose expression is induced by different stresses including heat-shock. In response to the extracellular or intrinsic stimuli and stresses, HSPs play important roles in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. HSP70, a major HSP protein (molecular weight, 70 KDa), regulates diverse cellular pathways including protein quality control, translation, immune response, and cancer survival. As a critical cellular defense system to minimize damages from cellular stresses, HSP70 expression and transcriptional activation are rapidly regulated, mainly through the action of a transcription activator, Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994389/molecular-architecture-underlying-fluid-absorption-by-the-developing-inner-ear
#8
Keiji Honda, Sung Huhn Kim, Michael C Kelly, Joseph C Burns, Laura Constance, Xiangming Li, Fei Zhou, Michael Hoa, Matthew W Kelley, Philine Wangemann, Robert J Morell, Andrew J Griffith
Mutations of SLC26A4 are a common cause of hearing loss associated with enlargement of the endolymphatic sac (EES). Slc26a4 expression in the developing mouse endolymphatic sac is required for acquisition of normal inner ear structure and function. Here, we show that the mouse endolymphatic sac absorbs fluid in an SLC26A4-dependent fashion. Fluid absorption was sensitive to ouabain and gadolinium but insensitive to benzamil, bafilomycin and S3226. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis of pre- and postnatal endolymphatic sacs demonstrates two types of differentiated cells...
October 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993096/altered-expression-of-malat1-lncrna-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-fibrosis-regulates-cxcl5-in-hepatic-stellate-cells
#9
Fatjon Leti, Christophe Legendre, Christopher D Still, Xin Chu, Anthony Petrick, Glenn S Gerhard, Johanna K DiStefano
In the present study, we sought to identify long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiles in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients with histologic evidence of lobular inflammation and advanced fibrosis. We profiled lncRNA expression using RNA-sequencing of wedge liver biopsies from 24 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients with normal liver histology, 53 NAFLD patients with lobular inflammation, and 65 NAFLD patients with advanced fibrosis. Transcript profiling identified 4432 and 4057 differentially expressed lncRNAs in comparisons of normal tissue with lobular inflammation and fibrosis samples, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991908/mitochondrial-dual-coding-genes-in-trypanosome-brucei
#10
Laura E Kirby, Donna Koslowsky
Trypanosoma brucei is transmitted between mammalian hosts by the tsetse fly. In the mammal, they are exclusively extracellular, continuously replicating within the bloodstream. During this stage, the mitochondrion lacks a functional electron transport chain (ETC). Successful transition to the fly, requires activation of the ETC and ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This life cycle leads to a major problem: in the bloodstream, the mitochondrial genes are not under selection and are subject to genetic drift that endangers their integrity...
October 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989610/controlled-in-cell-activation-of-rna-therapeutics-using-bond-cleaving-bio-orthogonal-chemistry
#11
Irfan Khan, Leah M Seebald, Neil M Robertson, Mehmet V Yigit, Maksim Royzen
Temporal control of siRNA activation is a major challenge for RNAi-based therapeutics. The majority of the reported siRNA delivery systems rely on environmental factors, such as differences in extracellular and intracellular redox potential, ATP concentration, or pH to activate an siRNA payload. However dynamic endogenous environments are far too complex to rely on for controllable siRNA release and can result in premature siRNA activation prior to reaching the intended biological target. In addition, there are uncertainties about timing, degree and rate of the siRNA activation with spontaneous release approaches...
August 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986417/cell-specific-expression-of-runt-related-transcription-factor-2-contributes-to-pulmonary-fibrosis
#12
Carlo Mümmler, Olivier Burgy, Sarah Hermann, Kathrin Mutze, Andreas Günther, Melanie Königshoff
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options and unknown etiology. IPF is characterized by epithelial cell injury, impaired cellular crosstalk between epithelial cells and fibroblasts, and the formation of fibroblast foci with increased extracellular matrix deposition (ECM). We investigated the role of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), a master regulator of bone development that has been linked to profibrotic signaling. RUNX2 expression was up-regulated in lung homogenates from patients with IPF and in experimental bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis...
October 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984647/functional-genomics-of-stromal-cells-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#13
Kamil Slowikowski, Kevin Wei, Michael B Brenner, Soumya Raychaudhuri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stroma is a broad term referring to the connective tissue matrix in which other cells reside. It is composed of diverse cell types with functions such as extracellular matrix maintenance, blood and lymph vessel development, and effector cell recruitment. The tissue microenvironment is determined by the molecular characteristics and relative abundances of different stromal cells such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, pericytes, and mesenchymal precursor cells. Stromal cell heterogeneity is explained by embryonic developmental lineage, stages of differentiation to other cell types, and activation states...
October 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982763/integrator-orchestrates-ras-erk1-2-signaling-transcriptional-programs
#14
Jingyin Yue, Fan Lai, Felipe Beckedorff, Anda Zhang, Chiara Pastori, Ramin Shiekhattar
Activating mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, also known as the RAS-MEK-extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2) pathway, are an underlying cause of >70% of human cancers. While great strides have been made toward elucidating the cytoplasmic components of MAPK signaling, the key downstream coactivators that coordinate the transcriptional response have not been fully illustrated. Here, we demonstrate that the MAPK transcriptional response in human cells is funneled through Integrator, an RNA polymerase II-associated complex...
September 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982592/human-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-and-tau-co-expression-impairs-behavior-and-causes-specific-gene-expression-changes-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Chenyin Wang, Valeria Saar, Ka Lai Leung, Liang Chen, Garry Wong
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques consisting of Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles formed by aggregation of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau. We generated a novel invertebrate model of AD by crossing Aβ1-42 (strain CL2355) with either pro-aggregating tau (strain BR5270) or anti-aggregating tau (strain BR5271) pan-neuronal expressing transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans...
October 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982310/the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitor-gemigliptin-alone-or-in-combination-with-nvp-auy922-has-a-cytotoxic-activity-in-thyroid-carcinoma-cells
#16
Si Hyoung Kim, Jun Goo Kang, Chul Sik Kim, Sung-Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Seong Jin Lee
The effect of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor gemigliptin alone or in combination with the heat shock protein 90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 (AUY922) on survival of thyroid carcinoma cells was elucidated. The SW1736 and TPC-1 human thyroid carcinoma cells were used. Cell viability, the percentage of viable cells, cytotoxic activity, the percentage of apoptotic cells, and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured. To evaluate the combined effect of gemigliptin with AUY922, the interactions were estimated by calculating combination index...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977969/a-meta-analysis-of-transcriptomic-characterization-revealed-extracellular-matrix-pathway-involved-in-the-h5n1-and-h7n9-infections
#17
Feng Wen, Jinyue Guo, Guangzhi Tong, Dingren Bi, Qi Wang, Xiaomin Liu, Shuaiyong Wang, Tonglin Shan, Wu Tong, Yanjun Zhou, Guoxin Li, Hai Yu
Avian-origin H5N1 and H7N9 influenza A viruses are capable of causing lethal infection in humans, with serious lung pathology and leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The contribution of host response associated with the poor prognosis of H5N1 and H7N9 infections remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the host factors involved in the high pathogenicity of H5N1 and H7N9 by a systematical meta-analysis. The RNA-seq datasets related to H5N1, H7N9, and H1N1 infections with time series were retrieved from GEO...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977471/variations-in-gene-expression-of-lung-macromolecules-after-induction-chemotherapy-for-lung-cancer
#18
Lucio Cagini, Stefania Balloni, Vienna Ludovini, Marco Andolfi, Alberto Matricardi, Rossella Potenza, Jacopo Vannucci, Annamaria Siggillino, Francesca Romana Tofanetti, Guido Bellezza, Maria Bodo, Francesco Puma, Lorella Marinucci
OBJECTIVES: Preoperative chemotherapy may play a role in postoperative respiratory complications due to subclinical parenchymal damage. We investigated the gene expression of lung tissue components after neoadjuvant chemotherapy of alveolar-capillary membrane, extracellular matrix and membrane proteins. METHODS: The study group included 14 patients submitted to pulmonary resection for lung cancer after 3 cycles of gemcitabine-cisplatin, while the control group included 14 naive-treatment patients...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972145/structural-analyses-of-the-mazef4-toxin-antitoxin-pair-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provide-evidence-for-a-unique-extracellular-death-factor
#19
Do-Hwan Ahn, Ki-Young Lee, Sang Jae Lee, Sung Jean Park, Hye-Jin Yoon, Soon-Jong Kim, Bong-Jin Lee
The bacterial toxin-antitoxin MazEF system in the tuberculosis (TB)-causing bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis is activated under unfavorable conditions, including starvation, antibiotic exposure, and oxidative stress. This system contains the ribonucleolytic enzyme MazF and has emerged as a promising drug target for TB treatments targeting the latent stage of M. tuberculosis infection and reportedly mediates a cell death process via a peptide called extracellular death factor (EDF). Although it is well established that the increase in EDFmediated toxicity of MazF drives a cell-killing phenomenon, the molecular details are poorly understood...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972047/a-complex-network-of-tumor-microenvironment-in-human-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#20
Caroline Kreuzinger, Angelika Geroldinger, Dominiek Smeets, Elena I Braicu, Jalid Sehouli, Julia Koller, Andrea Wolf, Silvia Darb-Esfahani, Korinna Jöhrens, Ignace Vergote, Adriaan Vanderstichele, Bram Boeckx, Diether Lambrechts, Hani Gabra, G B A Wisman, Fabian Trillsch, Georg Heinze, Reinhard Horvat, Stephan Polterauer, Els M J J Berns, Charles G Theillet, Dan Cacsire Castillo-Tong
PURPOSE: Most high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients develop recurrent disease after first line treatment, frequently with fatal outcome. This work aims at studying the molecular biology of both primary and recurrent HGSOC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Gene expression profiles of matched primary and recurrent fresh frozen tumor tissues from 66 HGSOC patients were obtained by RNA sequencing. Clustering analyses and pairwise comparison of the profiles between matched samples and subsequent functional alignment were used for the identification of molecular characteristics of HGSOC...
October 2, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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