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Extracellular RNA

Wu Chao, Yuhui Zhang, Lihong Chai, Hongyuan Wang
Endochondral ossification, the process by which most of the bone is formed, is regulated by many specific groups of molecules and extracellular matrix components. Hind limb of Bufo gargarizans is a model to study endochondral ossification during metamorphosis. Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 ) from G3 to G42. The development of hind limb of B. gargarizans was observed using the double staining methodology. The transcriptome of hind limb of B...
June 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Waqas Muhammad Usman, Tin Chanh Pham, Yuk Yan Kwok, Luyen Tien Vu, Victor Ma, Boya Peng, Yuen San Chan, Likun Wei, Siew Mei Chin, Ajijur Azad, Alex Bai-Liang He, Anskar Y H Leung, Mengsu Yang, Ng Shyh-Chang, William C Cho, Jiahai Shi, Minh T N Le
Most of the current methods for programmable RNA drug therapies are unsuitable for the clinic due to low uptake efficiency and high cytotoxicity. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) could solve these problems because they represent a natural mode of intercellular communication. However, current cellular sources for EV production are limited in availability and safety in terms of horizontal gene transfer. One potentially ideal source could be human red blood cells (RBCs). Group O-RBCs can be used as universal donors for large-scale EV production since they are readily available in blood banks and they are devoid of DNA...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Jialei Hu, Zi Wang, Yujia Shan, Yue Pan, Jia Ma, Li Jia
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease and hard to cure at present. Accumulating evidence suggests long noncoding RNA-HOTAIR (lncRNA-HOTAIR) plays important role in OA progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of HOTAIR in OA progression has not been well elucidated. In the present study, we identified that HOTAIR level was upregulated in OA cartilage tissues. High expression of HOTAIR was correlated with modified Mankin scale, extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and chondrocytes apoptosis...
June 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Sander C Steenbeek, Thang V Pham, Joep de Ligt, Anoek Zomer, Jaco C Knol, Sander R Piersma, Tim Schelfhorst, Rick Huisjes, Raymond M Schiffelers, Edwin Cuppen, Connie R Jimenez, Jacco van Rheenen
Recent data showed that cancer cells from different tumor subtypes with distinct metastatic potential influence each other's metastatic behavior by exchanging biomolecules through extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, it is debated how small amounts of cargo can mediate this effect, especially in tumors where all cells are from one subtype, and only subtle molecular differences drive metastatic heterogeneity. To study this, we have characterized the content of EVs shed in vivo by two clones of melanoma (B16) tumors with distinct metastatic potential...
June 14, 2018: EMBO Journal
Patrick Rosendahl Andreassen, Jens Sivkær Pettersen, Mateusz Szczerba, Poul Valentin-Hansen, Jakob Møller-Jensen, Mikkel Girke Jørgensen
Production of curli, extracellular protein structures important for Escherichia coli biofilm formation, is governed by a highly complex regulatory mechanism that integrates multiple environmental signals through the involvement of numerous proteins and small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). No less than seven sRNAs (McaS, RprA, GcvB, RydC, RybB, OmrA and OmrB) are known to repress the expression of the curli activator CsgD. Many of the sRNAs repress CsgD production by binding to the csgD mRNA at sites far upstream of the ribosomal binding site...
June 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Hui-Yu Chen, Chien-Huang Lin, Bing-Chang Chen
Lung fibroblasts play critical roles in fibrotic procedures and contribute to lung fibrosis. Several studies indicated that thrombin, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) participate in the formation of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we examined the involvement of the ADAM17/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in thrombin-stimulated CTGF manifestation in human lung fibroblasts (WI-38). We found that cells treated with thrombin significantly increased ADAM17 expression, ADAM17 and c-Jun phosphorylation in time-dependent manners...
June 11, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Jie-Ling Lai, Dong-Jie Tang, Yu-Wei Liang, Ren Zhang, Qi Chen, Zhen-Ping Qin, Zhen-Hua Ming, Ji-Liang Tang
The RNA chaperone, Hfq, is known to play extensive roles in bacterial growth and development. More recently, it has been shown to be required for virulence in many human and animal bacterial pathogens. Despite these studies little is known about the role Hfq plays in phytopathogenic bacteria. In this study, we show Hfq is required for full virulence of the crucifer black rot pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). We demonstrate that an Xcc hfq deletion strain is highly attenuated for virulence in Chinese radish and shows a severe defect in the production of virulence factors including extracellular enzymes and extracellular polysaccharide...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Kazutaka Hosoda, Minako Motoishi, Takuya Kunimoto, Osamu Nishimura, Byulnim Hwang, Sumire Kobayashi, Shigenobu Yazawa, Makoto Mochii, Kiyokazu Agata, Yoshihiko Umesono
Planarians have established a unique body pattern along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis, which consists of at least four distinct body regions arranged in an anterior to posterior sequence: head, prepharyngeal, pharyngeal (containing a pharynx), and tail regions, and possess high regenerative ability. How they reconstruct the regional continuity in a head-to-tail sequence after amputation still remains unknown. We use as a model planarian Dugesia japonica head regeneration from tail fragments, which involves dynamic rearrangement of the body regionality of preexisting tail tissues along the AP axis, and show here that RNA interference of the gene D...
June 13, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
L Cedillo-Barrón, J García-Cordero, G Shrivastava, S Carrillo-Halfon, M León-Juárez, J Bustos Arriaga, Pc León Valenzuela, B Gutiérrez Castañeda
Flaviviruses are positive, single-stranded, enveloped cytoplasmic sense RNA viruses that cause a variety of important diseases worldwide. Among them, Zika virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Dengue virus have the potential to cause severe disease. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the structure and replication strategies of flaviviruses, and current studies are aiming to unravel the complex molecular interactions between the virus and host during the very early stages of infection...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
G Salvadori, R Junges, H A Åmdal, T Chen, D A Morrison, F C Petersen
BACKGROUND: In streptococci of the mitis group, competence for natural transformation is a transient physiological state triggered by competence stimulating peptides (CSPs). Although low transformation yields and the absence of a widespread functional competence system have been reported for Streptococcus mitis, recent studies revealed that, at least for some strains, high efficiencies can be achieved following optimization protocols. To gain a deeper insight into competence in this species, we used RNA-seq, to map the global CSP response of two transformable strains: the type strain NCTC12261T and SK321...
June 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Xiaofan Niu, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Lilianna A Lopez, Howard S Judelson
Sexual reproduction remains an understudied feature of oomycete biology. To expand our knowledge of this process, we used RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics to examine matings in Phytophthora infestans. Exhibiting significant changes in mRNA abundance in three matings between different A1 and A2 strains compared to nonmating controls were 1170 genes, most being mating-induced. Rising by >10-fold in at least one cross were 455 genes, and 182 in all three crosses. Most genes had elevated expression in a self-fertile strain...
2018: PloS One
William L Close, Ashley N Anderson, Philip E Pellett
Virions are the vehicle for cell-to-cell and host-to-host transmission of viruses. Virions need to be assembled reliably and efficiently, be released from infected cells, survive in the extracellular environment during transmission, recognize and then trigger entry of appropriate target cells, and disassemble in an orderly manner during initiation of a new infection. The betaherpesvirus subfamily includes four human herpesviruses (human cytomegalovirus and human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7), as well as viruses that are the basis of important animal models of infection and immunity...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Wei Ge, Shan-He Wang, Bing Sun, Yue-Lang Zhang, Wei Shen, Hasan Khatib, Xin Wang
The role of melatonin in promoting the yield of Cashmere goat wool has been demonstrated for decades though there remains a lack of knowledge regarding melatonin mediated hair follicle growth. Recent studies have demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are widely transcribed in the genome and play ubiquitous roles in regulating biological processes. However, the role of lncRNAs in regulating melatonin mediated hair follicle growth remains unclear. In this study, we established an in vitro Cashmere goat secondary hair follicle culture system, and demonstrated that 500 ng/L melatonin exposure promoted hair follicle fiber growth...
June 12, 2018: Cell Cycle
Juan Pablo Tosar, Fabiana Gámbaro, Leonardo Darré, Sergio Pantano, Eric Westhof, Alfonso Cayota
We have previously shown that 5' halves from tRNAGlyGCC and tRNAGluCUC are the most enriched small RNAs in the extracellular space of human cell lines, and especially in the non-vesicular fraction. Extracellular RNAs are believed to require protection by either encapsulation in vesicles or ribonucleoprotein complex formation. However, deproteinization of non-vesicular tRNA halves does not affect their retention in size-exclusion chromatography. Thus, we considered alternative explanations for their extracellular stability...
June 11, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Jingen Xu, Chonglong Wang, Erhui Jin, Youfang Gu, Shenghe Li, Qinggang Li
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important trait closely related to meat quality, which is highly variable among pig breeds from diverse genetic backgrounds. High-throughput sequencing has become a powerful technique for analyzing the whole transcription profiles of organisms. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying porcine meat quality, we adopted RNA sequencing to detect transcriptome in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Wei pigs (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Yorkshire pigs (a Western lean-type breed) with different IMF content...
April 2018: Genes & Genomics
Hang Su, He Zhang, Xinghua Wei, Daian Pan, Li Jing, Daqing Zhao, Yu Zhao, Bin Qi
As one of most important traditional Chinese medicine resources, the oviduct of female Rana chensinensis (Chinese brown frog) was widely used in the treatment of asthenia after sickness or delivery, deficiency in vigor, palpitation, and insomnia. Unlike other vertebrates, the oviduct of Rana chensinensis oviduct significantly expands during prehibernation, in contrast to the breeding period. To explain this phenomenon at the molecular level, the protein expression profiles of Rana chensinensis oviduct during the breeding period and prehibernation were observed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique...
June 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Dominik Buschmann, Benedikt Kirchner, Stefanie Hermann, Melanie Märte, Christine Wurmser, Florian Brandes, Stefan Kotschote, Michael Bonin, Ortrud K Steinlein, Michael W Pfaffl, Gustav Schelling, Marlene Reithmair
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are intercellular communicators with key functions in physiological and pathological processes and have recently garnered interest because of their diagnostic and therapeutic potential. The past decade has brought about the development and commercialization of a wide array of methods to isolate EVs from serum. Which subpopulations of EVs are captured strongly depends on the isolation method, which in turn determines how suitable resulting samples are for various downstream applications...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Rebekah Samsonraj, Christopher R Paradise, Amel Dudakovic, Buer Sen, Asha A Nair, Allan B Dietz, David R Deyle, Simon M Cool, Janet Rubin, Andre van Wijnen
Differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) involves a series of molecular signals and gene transcription events required for attaining cell lineage commitment. Modulation of the actin cytoskeleton using cytochalasin D (CytoD) drives osteogenesis at early time points in bone marrow-derived MSCs, and also initiates a robust osteogenic differentiation program in adipose-derived MSCs. To understand the molecular basis for these pronounced effects on osteogenic differentiation, we investigated global changes in gene expression in CytoD-treated murine and human MSCs by high-resolution RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis...
June 8, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Getúlio P Oliveira, William F Porto, Cintia C Palu, Lydyane M Pereira, Bernardo Petriz, Jeeser A Almeida, Juliane Viana, Nezio N A Filho, Octavio L Franco, Rinaldo W Pereira
Physical exercise stimulates organs, mainly the skeletal muscle, to release a broad range of molecules, recently dubbed exerkines. Among them, RNAs, such as miRNAs, piRNAs, and tRNAs loaded in extracellular vesicles (EVs) have the potential to play a significant role in the way muscle and other organs communicate to translate exercise into health. Low, moderate and high intensity treadmill protocols were applied to rat groups, aiming to investigate the impact of exercise on serum EVs and their associated small RNA molecules...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
X Wang, Y Zhang, G Wei, Z Li, D Tian, W Huang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1) during acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). METHODS: NTPDase1 overexpression, NTPDase1 knockout, and wild-type nude mice skin graft models were used to induce acute AMR. NTPDase1 expression in B cells, NTPDase1 messenger RNA expression in skin grafts, extracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentration, B-cell volume and surface antigens expression, average platelet transport rate, and ultrastructure and apoptosis of skin graft cells were investigated...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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