Read by QxMD icon Read

Extracellular RNA

Martin Jopcik, Jana Moravcikova, Ildiko Matusikova, Miroslav Bauer, Miroslav Rajninec, Jana Libantova
Chitinase gene from the carnivorous plant, Drosera rotundifolia , was cloned and functionally characterised. Plant chitinases are believed to play an important role in the developmental and physiological processes and in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In addition, there is growing evidence that carnivorous plants can use them to digest insect prey. In this study, a full-length genomic clone consisting of the 1665-bp chitinase gene (gDrChit) and adjacent promoter region of the 698 bp in length were isolated from Drosera rotundifolia L...
October 19, 2016: Planta
Shengwei Hou, Ulrike Pfreundt, Dan Miller, Ilana Berman-Frank, Wolfgang R Hess
Metatranscriptomic differential RNA-Seq (mdRNA-Seq) identifies the suite of active transcriptional start sites at single-nucleotide resolution through enrichment of primary transcript 5' ends. Here we analyzed the microbial community at 45 m depth at Station A in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, during 500 m deep mixing in February 2012 using mdRNA-Seq and a parallel classical RNA-Seq approach. We identified promoters active in situ for five different pico-planktonic genera (the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria, Synechococcus of Cyanobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Micromonas as an example for picoeukaryotic algae), showing the applicability of this approach to highly diverse microbial communities...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amel Dudakovic, Emily T Camilleri, Scott M Riester, Christopher R Paradise, Martina Gluscevic, Thomas M O'Toole, Roman Thaler, Jared M Evans, Huihuang Yan, Malayannan Subramaniam, John R Hawse, Gary S Stein, Martin A Montecino, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Jennifer J Westendorf, Andre J van Wijnen
Perturbations in skeletal development and bone degeneration may result in reduced bone mass and quality leading to greater fracture risk. Bone loss is mitigated by bone protective therapies, but there is a clinical need for new bone-anabolic agents. Previous work has demonstrated that enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (Ezh2), a histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methyltransferase, suppressed differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. Here, we investigated if inhibition of Ezh2 can be leveraged for bone stimulatory applications...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yolanda M Fortenberry, Stephanie M Brandal, Gilles Carpentier, Malvi Hemani, Arvind P Pathak
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is elevated in various cancers, where it has been shown to effect cell migration and invasion and angiogenesis. While, PAI-1 is a secreted protein, its intercellular levels are increased in cancer cells. Consequently, intracellular PAI-1 could contribute to cancer progression. While various small molecule inhibitors of PAI-1 are currently being investigated, none specifically target intracellular PAI-1. A class of inhibitors, termed aptamers, has been used effectively in several clinical applications...
2016: PloS One
Gilles Darcis, Sophie Bouchat, Anna Kula, Benoit Van Driessche, Nadège Delacourt, Caroline Vanhulle, Véronique Avettand-Fenoel, Stéphane De Wit, Olivier Rohr, Christine Rouzioux, Carine Van Lint
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 reservoirs are the major hurdle to virus clearance in cART-treated patients. An approach to eradicating HIV-1 involves reversing latency in cART-treated patients in order to make latent cells visible to the host immune system. Stimulation of patient cell cultures with LRAs ex vivo results in heterogeneous responses among HIV-infected patients. Determinants of this heterogeneity are unknown and consequently, important to determine. DESIGN AND METHODS: Here, we grouped and retrospectively analyzed the data from our two recent HIV-1 reactivation studies to investigate the role of the HIV-1 reservoir size in the reactivation capacity by LRAs in ex vivo cultures of CD8-depleted PBMCs isolated from 54 cART-treated patients and of resting CD4 T cells isolated from 30 cART-treated patients...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Dawid Walas, Karol Nowicki-Osuch, Dominic Alibhai, Julian Paton
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrovascular remodeling in the SHR may be causative to the known brainstem hypoperfusion. Using RNA sequencing, we examined age-related processes that may govern remodeling of the cerebral arteries in the SHR. DESIGN AND METHOD: In SHR and their progenitor (normotensive) control (Wistar Kyoto, WKY), RNA-seq was performed at three ages: 5, 9, 13 weeks old. Cerebral arteries were flushed and peeled off the brain, stripped of meninges, snap frozen and RNA extracted...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Bernd Schmidt, Grit Rehbein, Michael Fleischhacker
Extracellular miRNAs cannot only be isolated from different body fluids like plasma and serum, but also from bronchial lavage samples (BL) obtained by bronchoscopy. Alterations in the expression of microRNAs might be useful for a discrimination of lung cancer patients from patients with a benign lung disease. We profiled extracellular microRNAs from three BL pools of lung cancer patients and three BL pools from a control group (patients with a benign lung disease) with TaqMan MicroRNA Array cards. For the confirmation of these results, we analyzed a panel of eight miRNAs in a qRT-PCR of the BL of 30 different lung cancer and non-cancerous patients...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Juan F Quintana, Simon A Babayan, Amy H Buck
Parasitic nematodes have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to communicate with their hosts in order to survive and successfully establish an infection. The transfer of RNA within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has recently been described as a mechanism that could contribute to this communication in filarial nematodes. It has been shown that these EVs are loaded with several types of RNAs, including microRNAs, leading to the hypothesis that parasites could actively use these molecules to manipulate host gene expression and to the exciting prospect that these pathways could result in new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
October 17, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Hai Li, Dahang Zhao, Shengjing Wang, Jing Ding, Li Zhao
It has been confirmed that bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP-9) promotes the differentiation of osteoblasts. However, the ways in which BMP‑9 exerts its effects on the differentiation of osteoclasts and bone resorption remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the roles and the molecular mechanism of BMP‑9 on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors in vitro. Mouse spleen macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) were cultured in the presence of receptor activator for nuclear factor‑κb ligand (RANKL) in vitro...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Haiying Shen, Kiyoon Kim, Yoojung Oh, Kyung Sik Yoon, Hyung Hwan Baik, Sung Soo Kim, Joohun Ha, Insug Kang, Wonchae Choe
β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxin that is closely associated with the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In cultured neuronal cells, BMAA notably induces the upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperons and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) receptor pathways of protein kinase RNA‑like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, inositol‑requiring kinase 1 and transcription factor 6. The ER stress‑specific protein CCAAT/‑enhancer‑binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) affords pro‑apoptotic responses that cause mitochondrial damage and caspase activation...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Stephen J Bush, Eric Nuermberger, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  Infants and toddlers often present with disseminated and lymph node tuberculosis, in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is predominantly intracellular. Linezolid, used to treat tuberculosis in adults, has not been formally studied in infants. Infants clear linezolid 5 times faster than adults and achieve lower 0- to 24-hour area under the concentration-time curves (AUC0-24). METHODS:  To mimic intracellular disease, we infected human-derived THP-1 macrophages with Mtb and inoculated hollow fiber systems...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Patricia L Tavormina, Matthias Y Kellermann, Chakkiath Paul Antony, Elitza Tocheva, Nathan Dalleska, Ashley J Jensen, David L Valentine, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Grant Jensen, Nicole Dubilier, Victoria J Orphan
In the deep ocean, the conversion of methane into derived carbon and energy drives the establishment of diverse faunal communities. Yet specific biological mechanisms underlying the introduction of methane-derived carbon into the food web remain poorly described, due to a lack of cultured representative deep-sea methanotrophic prokaryotes. Here, we characterize the response of the deep-sea aerobic methanotroph Methyloprofundus sedimenti to methane starvation and recovery. By combining lipid analysis, RNA analysis, and electron cryotomography, we show that M...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Miyeon Cho, Seok Won Jung, Soomin Lee, Kuwon Son, Gyu Hwan Park, Jong-Wha Jung, Yu Su Shin, Taegun Seo, Hyosun Cho, Hyojeung Kang
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a Gammaherpesvirus that causes acute infection and establishes life-long latency. KSHV causes several human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genipin, an aglycone derived from geniposide found in Gardenia jasminoides, is known to be an excellent natural cross-linker, strong apoptosis inducer, and antiviral agent. Although evidence suggests antiviral activity of genipin in several in vitro viral infection systems, no inhibitory effect of genipin on KSHV infection has been reported...
2016: PloS One
Harumi Kawaki, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa
The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or real-time PCR has become a routine technique for the detection and comparison of amounts of specific mRNA transcripts, done by measuring amplified levels of specific cDNAs. In this chapter, we provide our real-time RT-PCR experimental procedure using SYBR Green I for the quantitative analysis of CCN family gene expression. Especially, we describe the extraction and purification steps for RNA derived from mesenchymal cells, such as chondrocytes and osteoblasts that produce a large amount of extracellular matrix in detail...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Philipp Michael Klein, Sören Reinhard, Dian-Jang Lee, Katharina Müller, Daniela Ponader, Laura Hartmann, Ernst Wagner
Lipo-oligomers have been proven as potent siRNA carriers based on stable electrostatic and hydrophobic complex formation and endosomal membrane destabilization. Although high stability of siRNA polyplexes is desirable in the extracellular space and cellular uptake, intracellular disassembly is important for the cytosolic release of siRNA and RNA-induced silencing complex formation. To improve the release, bioreducible sequence-defined lipo-oligomers were synthesized by solid-phase assisted synthesis using the disulfide building block Fmoc-succinoyl-cystamine for precise positioning of a disulfide unit between a lipophilic diacyl (bis-myristyl, bis-stearyl or bis-cholestanyl) domain and an ionizable oligocationic siRNA binding unit...
October 13, 2016: Nanoscale
Bora Lee, Lindsay L Kroener, Ning Xu, Erica T Wang, Alexandra Banks, John Williams, Mark O Goodarzi, Yii-der I Chen, Jie Tang, Yizhou Wang, Vineela Gangalapudi, Margareta D Pisarska
Pregnancies resulting from fresh in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles exposed to supra-physiologic estrogen levels have been associated with higher rates of low birth weight and small for gestational age babies. We identified GATA3, a transcription factor selectively expressed in the trophectoderm during the blastocyst stage of embryo development, in an upstream analysis of genes that were differentially methylated in chorionic villus samples between IVF and non-IVF infertility treatment (NIFT) pregnancies. In this study, we investigate the hypothesis that GATA3 is hormonally regulated and plays an important functional role in trophoblast migration, invasion and placentation...
October 12, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Josefa P Alameda, Manuel Navarro, Ángel Ramírez, Angustias Page, Cristian Suárez-Cabrera, Rodolfo Moreno-Maldonado, Jesús M Paramio, M Carmen Fariña, Marcela Del Río, M Jesús Fernández-Aceñero, Ana Bravo, M Llanos Casanova
IKKα plays a mandatory role in keratinocyte differentiation and exerts an important task in non-melanoma skin cancer development. However, it is not fully understood how IKKα exerts these functions. To analyze in detail the role of IKKα in epidermal stratification and differentiation, we have generated tridimensional (3D) cultures of human HaCaT keratinocytes and fibroblasts in fibrin gels, obtaining human skin equivalents that comprise an epidermal and a dermal compartments that resembles both the structure and differentiation of normal human skin...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Laura Santangelo, Giorgio Giurato, Carla Cicchini, Claudia Montaldo, Carmine Mancone, Roberta Tarallo, Cecilia Battistelli, Tonino Alonzi, Alessandro Weisz, Marco Tripodi
Despite clear evidence that exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are able to modulate the cellular microenvironment and that exosomal RNA cargo selection is deregulated in pathological conditions, the mechanisms controlling specific RNA sorting into extracellular vesicles are still poorly understood. Here, we identified the RNA binding protein SYNCRIP (synaptotagmin-binding cytoplasmic RNA-interacting protein; also known as hnRNP-Q or NSAP1) as a component of the hepatocyte exosomal miRNA sorting machinery. SYNCRIP knockdown impairs sorting of miRNAs in exosomes...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Salvador Damián-Zamacona, Paola Toledo-Ibelles, Mabel Z Ibarra-Abundis, Laura Uribe-Figueroa, Enrique Hernández-Lemus, Karla Paola Macedo-Alcibia, Blanca Delgado-Coello, Jaime Mas-Oliva, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda
BACKGROUND: Although nowadays it is well known that the human transcriptome can importantly vary according to external or environmental condition, the reflection of this concept when studying oxidative stress and its direct relationship with gene expression profiling during the process of atherogenesis has not been thoroughly achieved. OBJECTIVE: The ability to analyze genome-wide gene expression through transcriptomics has shown that the genome responds dynamically to diverse stimuli...
2016: PloS One
Xia Zhao, Canhuang Chen, Xingyu Jiang, Wei Shen, Guangtao Huang, Shuai Le, Shuguang Lu, Lingyun Zou, Qingshan Ni, Ming Li, Yan Zhao, Jing Wang, Xiancai Rao, Fuquan Hu, Yinling Tan
The impact of phage infection on the host cell is severe. In order to take over the cellular machinery, some phage proteins were produced to shut off the host biosynthesis early in the phage infection. The discovery and identification of these phage-derived inhibitors have a significant prospect of application in antibacterial treatment. This work presented a phage protein, gp70.1, with non-specific inhibitory effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Gp70.1 was encoded by early gene - orf 70...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"