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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452903/extracellular-vesicles-as-key-mediators-of-plant-microbe-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Brian D Rutter, Roger W Innes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid compartments capable of trafficking proteins, lipids, RNA and metabolites between cells. Plant cells have been shown to secrete EVs during immune responses, but virtually nothing is known about their formation, contents or ultimate function. Recently developed methods for isolating plant EVs have revealed that these EVs are enriched in stress response proteins and signaling lipids, and appear to display antifungal activity. Comparison to work on animal EVs, and the observation that host-derived small interfering RNAs and microRNAs can silence fungal genes, suggests that plant EVs may also mediate trans-kingdom RNA interference...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449813/non-nucleotide-agonists-triggering-p2x7-receptor-activation-and-pore-formation
#2
REVIEW
Francesco Di Virgilio, Anna L Giuliani, Valentina Vultaggio-Poma, Simonetta Falzoni, Alba C Sarti
The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a ligand-gated plasma membrane ion channel belonging to the P2X receptor subfamily activated by extracellular nucleotides. General consensus holds that the physiological (and maybe the only) agonist is ATP. However, scattered evidence generated over the last several years suggests that ATP might not be the only agonist, especially at inflammatory sites. Solid data show that NAD + covalently modifies the P2X7R of mouse T lymphocytes, thus lowering the ATP threshold for activation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449540/s100a4-promotes-lung-tumor-development-through-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-mediated-autophagy-inhibition
#3
Shasha Hou, Tian Tian, Dianwen Qi, Kaiji Sun, Qi Yuan, Ziling Wang, Zhihai Qin, Zhenlong Wu, Zhinan Chen, Jinhua Zhang
Autophagy has emerged as a critical pathway in tumor development. S100A4 plays important roles in tumor metastasis, but its role in regulating autophagy has not been well characterized. In this study, we found that S100A4 was significantly upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Clinical investigation demonstrated that high expression level of S100A4 was associated with tumor size and advanced tumor grades of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Moreover, our results revealed that extracellular S100A4 or overexpression of S100A4 inhibited starvation-induced autophagy and promoted cell proliferation in lung cancer cells in vitro; whereas small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of S100A4 increased autophagy and reduced cell viability in both A549 and LLC cells...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437159/single-cell-rna-sequencing-of-stem-cell-derived-retinal-ganglion-cells
#4
Maciej Daniszewski, Anne Senabouth, Quan H Nguyen, Duncan E Crombie, Samuel W Lukowski, Tejal Kulkarni, Valentin M Sluch, Jafar S Jabbari, Xitiz Chamling, Donald J Zack, Alice Pébay, Joseph E Powell, Alex W Hewitt
We used single cell sequencing technology to characterize the transcriptomes of 1,174 human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at the single cell level. The human embryonic stem cell line BRN3B-mCherry (A81-H7), was differentiated to RGCs using a guided differentiation approach. Cells were harvested at day 36 and prepared for single cell RNA sequencing. Our data indicates the presence of three distinct subpopulations of cells, with various degrees of maturity. One cluster of 288 cells showed increased expression of genes involved in axon guidance together with semaphorin interactions, cell-extracellular matrix interactions and ECM proteoglycans, suggestive of a more mature RGC phenotype...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436660/cartilage-intermediate-layer-protein-is-regulated-by-mechanical-stress-and-affects-extracellular-matrix-synthesis
#5
Jinyue He, Chencheng Feng, Jing Sun, Kang Lu, Tongwei Chu, Yue Zhou, Yong Pan
Lumbar disc disease (LDD) is common in aged populations, and it is primarily caused by intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Cartilage intermediate layer protein (CILP), which is specifically expressed in intervertebral discs (IVDs), is suspected to be associated with IDD. However, it remains unclear whether CILP contributes to IDD in humans. Furthermore, the regulation of CILP in human IVDs is poorly understood, especially by mechanical stimuli, which are regarded as primary factors promoting IDD. To address these issues, the present study collected nucleus pulposus (NP) cells from patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery for degenerative disc disease (DDD)...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436591/downregulation-of-secreted-clusterin-potentiates-the-lethality-of-sorafenib-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-association-with-the-inhibition-of-erk1-2-signals
#6
Jingtao Zhong, Xiaoming Yu, Xiaofeng Dong, Hong Lu, Wuyuan Zhou, Lei Li, Zhongchao Li, Pengfei Sun, Xuetao Shi
Secretory clusterin (sCLU) is overexpressed in cancer and is associated with resistance to chemotherapy in several types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib (SOR), a multikinase inhibitor of Raf/mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and the receptor tyrosine kinase, is recognized as the standard therapeutic strategy for patients with advanced HCC. However, the role of sCLU in the resistance of HCC to SOR remains to be fully elucidated...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435019/nac1-promotes-the-migration-of-prostate-cancer-cells-and-participates-in-osteoclastogenesis-by-negatively-regulating-ifn%C3%AE
#7
Fang Chen, Yinghao Yin, Zhifeng Yan, Ke Cao, Kuangbiao Zhong
Nucleus accumbens-associated protein 1 (NAC1), a transcriptional co-regulator, is overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer. However, the NAC1-regulated transcriptome has not been completely explored. In the present study, the functional silencing of NAC1 blocked the migration of prostate cancer cells and suppress osteoclastogenesis. The present study also determined that NAC1 was overexpressed in the highly aggressive prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP. NAC1 small interfering RNA treatment of DU-145 cells decreased cell migration, but interestingly had no significant effects on cell proliferation...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434931/neuropilin-1-promotes-primary-liver-cancer-progression-by-potentiating-the-activity-of-hepatic-stellate-cells
#8
Zhi-Chao Xu, Hao-Xin Shen, Chen Chen, Li Ma, Wen-Zhi Li, Lin Wang, Zhi-Min Geng
As a co-receptor for a variety of cytokines, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is detectable in primary liver cancer (PLC) cells. Previous studies determined that silencing of NRP-1 expression attenuated the proliferation, migration and invasion of PLC cells. An increasing number of studies have highlighted the crucial role of the tumor microenvironment in the pathogenesis of cancer. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are one of the major interstitial cell types present in the liver tumor microenvironment, and can promote the proliferation, migration and invasion of PLC cells...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434706/ptx3-in-serum-induces-renal-mesangial-cell-proliferation-but-has-no-effect-on-apoptosis
#9
Danhuan Zhang, Minhui Xi, Lingyun Chen, Yanping Huang, Peiju Mao
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) on the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis in human glomerular mesangial cells (HMCs). Small interfering (si)RNA was designed and synthesized to inhibit the expression of endogenous PTX3, and the effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of HMCs were detected by flow cytometry and an MTT assay. Western blot analysis was used to detect the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins in HMCs with PTX3 knockdown. Three siRNAs targeting PTX3 were individually transfected into HMCs for 48 h, and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR demonstrated that the relative mRNA expression of PTX3 was significantly decreased in all groups by up to 79...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434584/tlr3-ligand-poly-i-c-exerts-distinct-actions-in-synovial-fibroblasts-when-delivered-by-extracellular-vesicles
#10
Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, David S Pisetsky, Christoph Kolling, Beat A Michel, Renate E Gay, Astrid Jüngel, Steffen Gay
Extracellular vesicles (EV) can modulate the responses of cells to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation; conversely, TLR ligands such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can enhance the release of EV and influence of the composition and functions of EV cargos. Inflamed synovial joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are rich in EV and extracellular RNA; besides, RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells can activate the TLR3 signaling in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from patients with RA. Since EV occur prominently in synovial joints in RA and may contribute to the pathogenesis, we questioned whether EV can interact with dsRNA, a TLR3 ligand, and modify its actions in arthritis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434187/glutamine-metabolism-regulates-flip-expression-and-sensitivity-to-trail-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#11
Marta Mauro-Lizcano, Abelardo López-Rivas
Glutamine plays an important role in the metabolism of tumor cells through its contribution to redox homeostasis, bioenergetics, synthesis of macromolecules, and signaling. Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are highly metastatic and associated with poor prognosis. TNBC cells show a marked dependence on extracellular glutamine for growth. Herein we demonstrate that TNBC cells are markedly sensitized to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis upon glutamine deprivation...
February 12, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434006/msc-exosome-a-novel-cell-free-therapy-for-cutaneous-regeneration
#12
REVIEW
Peipei Wu, Bin Zhang, Hui Shi, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu
Cutaneous regeneration is a dynamic and complex process that requires a series of coordinated interactions involving epidermal cells, dermal cells, growth factors, the extracellular matrix (ECM), nerves and blood vessels at a damaged site. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been reported to participate in all afore-mentioned stages. Exosomes are one of the key secretory products of MSCs, resembling the effect of parental MSCs. They can shuttle various proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNAs (miRNAs) to modulate the activity of recipient cells, and play important roles in cutaneous wound healing...
February 9, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433908/pro-fibrotic-phenotype-of-human-skin-fibroblasts-induced-by-periostin-via-modulating-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#13
Miwa Kanaoka, Yukie Yamaguchi, Noriko Komitsu, Carol A Feghali-Bostwick, Masahiro Ogawa, Kazuhiko Arima, Kenji Izuhara, Michiko Aihara
BACKGROUND: Periostin is a matricellular protein that belongs to a class of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related molecules defined by their ability to modulate cell-matrix interactions. We previously reported an elevated level of circulating periostin in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its association with the severity of skin sclerosis. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of periostin in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling involved in fibrosis. METHODS: Levels of periostin were examined in skin and lung fibroblasts obtained from SSc patients...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433546/a-unique-role-for-galectin-9-in-angiogenesis-and-inflammatory-arthritis
#14
Martin J O'Brien, Qiang Shu, W Alexander Stinson, Pei-Suen Tsou, Jeffrey H Ruth, Takeo Isozaki, Phillip L Campbell, Ray A Ohara, Alisa E Koch, David A Fox, M Asif Amin
BACKGROUND: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a mammalian lectin secreted by endothelial cells that is highly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissues and synovial fluid. Roles have been proposed for galectins in the regulation of inflammation and angiogenesis. Therefore, we examined the contribution of Gal-9 to angiogenesis and inflammation in arthritis. METHODS: To determine the role of Gal-9 in angiogenesis, we performed human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC) chemotaxis, Matrigel tube formation, and mouse Matrigel plug angiogenesis assays...
February 12, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432782/subpopulations-of-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-therapeutic-potential
#15
REVIEW
Cecilia Lässer, Su Chul Jang, Jan Lötvall
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, have over the last 10-15 years been recognized to convey key messages in the molecular communication between cells. Indeed, EVs have the capacity to shuttle proteins, lipids, and nucleotides such as RNA between cells, leading to an array of functional changes in the recipient cells. Importantly, the EV secretome changes significantly in diseased cells and under conditions of cellular stress. More recently, it has become evident that the EV secretome is exceptionally diverse, with many different types of EVs being released by a single cell type, and these EVs can be described in terms of differences in density, molecular cargos, and morphology...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428674/genes-and-pathways-regulated-by-androgens-in-human-neural-cells-potential-candidates-for-the-male-excess-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Angélique Quartier, Laure Chatrousse, Claire Redin, Céline Keime, Nicolas Haumesser, Anne Maglott-Roth, Laurent Brino, Stéphanie Le Gras, Alexandra Benchoua, Jean-Louis Mandel, Amélie Piton
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to androgens during brain development in male individuals may participate to increase their susceptibility to develop neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability. However, little is known about the action of androgens in human neural cells. METHODS: We used human neural stem cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells to investigate targets of androgens. RESULTS: RNA sequencing revealed that treatment with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) leads to subtle but significant changes in the expression of about 200 genes, encoding proteins of extracellular matrix or involved in signal transduction of growth factors (e...
January 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425714/leucyl-trna-synthetase-is-required-for-the-myogenic-differentiation-of-c2c12-myoblasts-but-not-for-hypertrophy-or-metabolic-alteration-of-myotubes
#17
Yoriko Sato, Yusuke Sato, Reiko Suzuki, Kodwo Obeng, Fumiaki Yoshizawa
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling controls skeletal muscle cell differentiation, growth, and metabolism by sensing the intracellular energy status and nutrients. Recently, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (Lars) was identified as an intracellular sensor of leucine involved in the activation of mTOR signaling. However, there is still no evidence for the activation of mTOR signaling by Lars and its physiological roles in skeletal muscle cells. In this study, we determined the potential roles of Lars for the activation of mTOR signaling, skeletal muscle cell differentiation, hypertrophy, and metabolism using small interfering (si)-RNA knockdown...
February 6, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425397/cholangiocyte-derived-exosomal-long-noncoding-rna-h19-promotes-cholestatic-liver-injury-in-mouse-and-human
#18
Xiaojiaoyang Li, Runping Liu, Zhiming Huang, Emily C Gurley, Xuan Wang, Juan Wang, Hongliang He, Hu Yang, Guanhua Lai, Luyong Zhang, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Melanie White, William M Pandak, Phillip B Hylemon, Huiping Zhou
Cholestatic liver injury is an important clinical problem with limited understanding of disease pathologies. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles released by a variety of cells including cholangiocytes. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication can modulate various cellular functions by transferring a variety of intracellular components to target cells. Our recent studies indicate that the long non-coding RNA H19 is mainly expressed in cholangiocytes and its aberrant expression is associated with significant down-regulation of small heterodimer partner (SHP) in hepatocytes and cholestatic liver injury in multidrug resistance 2 knockout (Mdr2-/- ) mice...
February 9, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425228/kshv-oral-shedding-and-plasma-viremia-result-in-significant-changes-in-the-extracellular-tumorigenic-mirna-expression-profile-in-individuals-infected-with-the-malaria-parasite
#19
Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R Dyen, Timothy M Rose, Serge Barcy
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424767/extracellular-vesicles-from-human-liver-stem-cells-reduce-injury-in-an-ex-vivo-normothermic-hypoxic-rat-liver-perfusion-model
#20
Federica Rigo, Nicola De Stefano, Victor Navarro-Tableros, Ezio David, Giorgia Rizza, Giorgia Catalano, Nicholas Gilbo, Francesca Maione, Federica Gonella, Dorotea Roggio, Silvia Martini, Damiano Patrono, Mauro Salizzoni, Giovanni Camussi, Renato Romagnoli
BACKGROUND: The gold standard for organ preservation before transplantation is static cold storage, which is unable to fully protect suboptimal livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury. An emerging alternative is normothermic machine perfusion (NMP), which permits organ reconditioning. Here, we aimed to explore the feasibility of a pharmacological intervention on isolated rat livers by using a combination of NMP and human liver stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles (HLSC-EV). METHODS: We established an ex vivo murine model of NMP capable to maintain liver function despite an ongoing hypoxic injury induced by hemodilution...
February 9, 2018: Transplantation
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