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Laurent Marrot
Pollutants are highly diverse chemical entities, including gases such as ozone or nitrogen and sulphur oxides and particulate matter of different sizes and with different chemical constituents. PM2.5 is composed of particles that are sometimes about ten nanometres or so in size (ultrafine particles) which can be deposited in lung alveoli, translocated into capillaries and then distributed to all organs through blood circulation. PM2.5 is often associated with toxic chemicals such as heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some photo-reactive PAHs can induce strong oxidative stress under UVA exposure...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Dianne E Godar, Madhan Subramanian, Stephen J Merrill
Because the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) was reported to increase with increasing terrestrial UVR (290-400 nm) doses in the US back in 1975 and a recent publication showed no association exists with UVR exposure at all, we set out to fully elucidate the role of UVR in CMM. To achieve this goal, we analyzed the CMM incidences over latitude and estimated the average personal UVR dose in the US and numerous countries (> 50) on 5 continents around the world. Using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2005, we performed worldwide analysis of CMM over UVR dose by sex, age group (0-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-69, 70-85+) and Fitzpatrick skin types I-VI...
2017: Dermato-endocrinology
Anežka Sharma, Katarína Bányiová, Branislav Vrana, Ivan Justan, Pavel Čupr
2-Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) is one of the most used ultraviolet filters in personal care products. It undergoes cis/trans isomerization in sunlight, and there is limited toxicological understanding of the effects of the cis-isomer. It is known that two geometric isomers of one compound can have different physico-chemical properties and effects. However, there are no studies focusing on toxicokinetics of EHMC isomerization products to compare their potential difference in dermal exposure to cis-EHMC and trans-EHMC due to the difference in their dermatotoxicokinetics...
September 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kevin M Huang, Sherry Liang, Steven Yeung, Etuajie Oiyemhonlan, Kristan H Cleveland, Cyrus Parsa, Robert Orlando, Frank L Meyskens, Bradley T Andresen, Ying Huang
In previous studies, the β-blocker carvedilol inhibited EGF-induced epidermal cell transformation and chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin hyperplasia. As exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to skin cancer, the present study examined whether carvedilol can prevent UV-induced carcinogenesis. Carvedilol absorbs UV like a sunscreen; thus, to separate pharmacological from sunscreen effects, 4-hydroxycarbazole (4-OHC), which absorbs UV to the same degree as carvedilol, served as control. JB6 P(+) cells, an established epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, were used for evaluating the effect of carvedilol on UV-induced neoplastic transformation...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
Divya Seth, Haley Gittleman, Jill Barnholtz-Sloan, Jeremy S Bordeaux
BACKGROUND: Internet search trends are used to track both infectious diseases and noncommunicable conditions. OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to characterize Google Trends search volume index (SVI) for the terms "sunscreen" and tanning ("tanning salon" and "tanning bed") in the United States from 2010 to 2015 and analyze association with educational attainment, average income, and percent white data by state. METHODS: SVI is search frequency data relative to total search volume...
September 8, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Matteo Riccò, Benedetta Razio, Leonardo Poletti, Claudio Panato
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine evaluate sun safety knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among agricultural workers (AWs) in the Autonomous Province of Trento (North-Eastern Italy). METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed among AWs who attended pesticide training courses (2016). Participants received a structured questionnaire focusing on KAP towards sun protective behaviours. Synthetic scores for knowledge (GKS), risk perception (RPS), behavioural adaptation and use of personal protective equipment (SPPS) were calculated...
September 8, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Meryem Ozturk Haney, Yaprak Sarigol Ordin, Gulcihan Arkan
The aim of this study was to compare liver transplant recipients (LTRs) with the general population regarding their knowledge of skin cancer, sun health, sun protection behaviors, and affecting factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey between March 2016 and September 2016 with 104 LTRs and 100 participants from the general population group (GPG). The mean age of the LTRs was 53.2 ± 11.8 and that of the GPG was 42.7 ± 14.5. The LTRs' skin cancer and sun knowledge were significantly lower than in the GPG, but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their sun protection behavior scores...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Kohli, S Chaowattanapanit, T F Mohammad, C L Nicholson, S Fatima, G Jacobsen, N Kollias, H W Lim, I H Hamzavi
BACKGROUND: Visible light (VL) induces multiple cutaneous effects. Sunscreen testing protocols recommended by regulatory bodies throughout the world require the use of solar simulators with spectral output in ultraviolet (UV) domain only. However, sunlight contains VL and infrared radiation also. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the contributions of VL and UVA on pigmentation and erythema, and optimize parameters for in-vivo testing. METHODS: Ten subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototype IV-VI were enrolled...
September 6, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
Anders Rehfeld, Dorte Egeberg, Kristian Almstrup, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Steen Dissing, Niels Erik Skakkebæk
Human sperm cell function must be precisely regulated to achieve natural fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca2+-influx into human sperm cells via the CatSper Ca2+-channel and thereby controls sperm function. Multiple chemical UV filters have been shown to induce a Ca2+-influx through CatSper, thus mimicking the effect of progesterone on Ca2+-signaling. We hypothesized that these UV filters could also mimic the effect of progesterone on sperm function. We examined 29 UV filters allowed in sunscreens in the US and/or EU for their ability to affect acrosome reaction, penetration, hyperactivation, and viability in human sperm cells...
September 5, 2017: Endocrine Connections
Marjolijn S Haisma, Marie L Schuttelaar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Contact Dermatitis
Jiansheng Zheng
A pulsed spark plasma discharge system was developed and tested as an energy efficient water sterilization method. A 5 log10 reduction on Staphylococcus aureus concentration of 10(8) CFU/ml was obtained. Complete inactivation was achieved for concentration of 10(6) CFU/ml. Of the various factors generated by an underwater spark discharge, ultraviolet radiation plays a major role. The inactivation was completely suppressed by the addition of 30 mg/L of a soluble sunscreen, Benzophenone-9. Results obtained using the pulsed spark plasma discharge showed that this system has several advantages, such as high energy efficiency, absence of harmful by-products and portability, over the conventional sterilization methods...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel Molins-Delgado, Manuel Máñez, Ana Andreu, Fernando Hiraldo, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló, M Silvia Díaz-Cruz
The present study uses bird eggs of seven wild species as a biomonitoring tool for sunscreens occurrence. Seven UV filters (UV-Fs), including 3 hydroxy-metabolites of oxybenzone (benzophenone 3, BP3) were characterized in unhatched eggs from Doñana Natural Space (Spain). High frequency of detection was observed for all UV-Fs, ranging from 95% to 100%. The oxybenzone metabolite 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HB) was ubiquitous at concentrations in the range 12.0-3348 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). The parent compound, oxybenzone, was also present in all samples at lower concentrations (16...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Anjali Singh, Madhu Bala Tyagi, Ashok Kumar
The present study describes cyanobacterial species composition and their dominance in biological crusts from barks of different trees, roof top of building and soil of agricultural field. An attempt was also made to explore the presence of photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in the crust samples. Microscopic examination and growth studies revealed the presence of Oscillatoria species in all the crust samples excluding the crust of roof top of a building. Study on the abundance of dominant genera showed marked differences among various crust samples but Hapalosiphon, Lyngbya, Oscillatoria and Scytonema sp...
August 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Marina Mendes Fossa Shirata, Patrícia M B G Maia Campos
OBJECTIVE: Considering that many cosmetic products contain UV filters in their composition and that few studies have evaluated the role of UV filters in the physical properties and clinical efficacy of these products, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of UV filters on the properties and immediate effects of a cosmetic formulation. METHODS: Four cosmetic formulations, vehicle (V), vehicle containing UV filters (F), vehicle containing cassava polysaccharides and alfalfa (A) oligosaccharides and vehicle containing UV filters plus cassava polysaccharides and alfalfa oligosaccharides (multifunctional formulation, M) were developed...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Lucy X Chao, Sarah L Sheu, Betty Y Kong, Alfred W Rademaker, Roopal V Kundu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Claudine Backes, Antoine Milon, Alice Koechlin, David Vernez, Jean-Luc Bulliard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify determinants of occupational sunburn in agricultural workers and assess their occupational and recreational sun protection habits. METHODS: Specific surveys of agricultural workers in Switzerland and France were conducted (N = 1538). Multivariate logistic regressions identified occupational sunburn determinants. Occupational and recreational sun protection habits were estimated and correlated. RESULTS: One-year occupational and recreational sunburn prevalences were 19...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Glenn C Morrison, Gabriel Beko, Charles J Weschler, Tobias Schripp, Tunga Salthammer, Jonathan Hill, Anna-Maria Andersson, Jorn Toftum, Geo Clausen, Hanne Frederiksen
Benzophenone-3 (aka BP-3, oxybenzone) is added to sunscreens, plastics and some coatings to filter UV radiation. The suspected endocrine disruptor BP-3 has been detected in the air and settled dust of homes and is expected to redistribute from its original sources to other indoor compartments, including clothing. Given its physical-chemical properties, we hypothesized that dermal uptake from clothing could contribute to the body burden of this compound. First, cotton shirts were exposed to air at an elevated concentration of BP-3 for 32 days; the final air concentration was 4...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Hao Ou-Yang, Aaron S Farberg, Darrell S Rigel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
S A Hibbert, P Costello, C O'Connor, M Bell, C E M Griffiths, R E B Watson, M J Sherratt
The efficacy of topical sunscreens is currently assessed by crude, costly and time consuming in vivo assays. We have previously demonstrated that components of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM), rich in UV-absorbing amino acids, are susceptible to damage by solar simulated radiation (SSR) in vitro. Here we developed an in vitro method to test the ability of sunscreens to protect fibrillin-rich microfibrils (FRM) and fibronectin, key components of the dermal ECM from UV-induced damage. Solutions of FRM or fibronectin were irradiated without protection, in the presence of a vehicle or a commercially-available flat-spectrum sunscreen...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Jennifer L Hay, Elyse Shuk, Elizabeth Schofield, Rebecca Loeb, Susan Holland, Jack Burkhalter, Yuelin Li
OBJECTIVE: Melanoma is the most serious skin cancer, and consistent use of sun protection is recommended to reduce risk. Yet sun protection use is generally inconsistent. Understanding the decisional factors driving sun protection choices could aid in intervention development to promote sun protection maintenance. METHOD: In 59 first-degree relatives of melanoma patients, an interactive voice response system (IVRS) on participants' cell phones was used to assess twice daily (morning, afternoon) real-time sun protection usage (sunscreen, shade, hats, protective clothing) and decision factors (weather, type of activity, convenience, social support) over a 14-day summer interval where morning and afternoon outdoor exposures were anticipated...
September 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
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