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A C Green, C M Olsen
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common cancer in white populations and its disease burden is often substantially underestimated. SCC occurs more often in men than women and increases dramatically with age; those affected often develop multiple primaries over time, which increases the burden. The main external cause is solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), with immunosuppression being the other established risk factor, shown by the high SCC rates in organ transplant recipients. Sunbed use and certain genetic disorders and medical conditions are also associated with SCC, while associations with human papillomavirus infection and high bodyweight are not established...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
Matteo Megna, Serena Lembo, Nicola Balato, Giuseppe Monfrecola
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exerts different harmful effects on human health, being the main etiological agents of certain skin cancers and photoaging. In this context, photoprotection, intended as a set of measures adopted to limit and prevent the effects of UV radiation, plays a critical role in avoiding undesired sunlight outcomes. Traditional sunscreens represent a widely used photoprotective approach, even if they exert a "passive photoprotection" and are not effective once damage to skin cells has been generated after sun exposure...
February 16, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Antonio Garcia-Jimenez, Jose Antonio Teruel-Puche, Pedro Antonio Garcia-Ruiz, Jose Berna, Jose Neptuno Rodríguez-López, Jose Tudela, Francisco Garcia-Canovas
2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (Uvinul D50), a sunscreen used in cosmetics, has two effects in the melanin biosynthesis pathway. On the one hand, it acts a weak inhibitor of tyrosinase and on the other, it accelerates the conversion of dopachrome to melanin. Uvinul D50 was seen to behave as a weak competitive inhibitor: apparent constant inhibition=2.02±0.09mM and IC50=3.82±0.39mM established in this work. These values are higher than those in the bibliography, which tend to be undersetimated. This discrepancy could be explained by the reaction of Uvinul D50 with the dopachrome produced from l-tyrosine or l-dopa, which would interfere in the measurement...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Govind Sharan Gupta, Violet Aileen Senapati, Alok Dhawan, Rishi Shanker
The extensive use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in cosmetics, sunscreens and healthcare products increases their release in the aquatic environment. The present study explored the possible interaction of ZnO NPs with montmorillonite clay minerals in aqueous conditions. An addition of ZnO NPs on clay suspension significantly (p<0.05) increases the hydrodymic size of clay particles from 1652±90nm to 2158±13nm due to heteroagglomeration. The electrokinetic measurements showed a significant (p<0...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Andrew R Osborn, Kelsey M Kean, Khaled M Alseud, Khaled H Almabruk, Shumpei Asamizu, Janet A Lee, P Andrew Karplus, Taifo Mahmud
2-Epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase (EEVS), a C7-sugar phosphate cyclase (SPC) homologous to 3-dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS), was discovered during studies of the biosynthesis of the C7N-aminocyclitol family of natural products. EEVS was originally thought to be present only in certain actinomycetes, but analyses of genome sequences showed that it is broadly distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including vertebrates. Another SPC, desmethyl-4-deoxygadusol synthase (DDGS), was later discovered as being involved in the biosynthesis of mycosporine-like amino acid sunscreen compounds...
February 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Jessica Ventenilla, Katlein França, Torello Lotti, Jonette Keri
Natural and artificial tanning have become very popular in Western culture, yet at the same time, there is still a psychodermatology concern for this activity. Not much has been examined with the psychological aspects of tanning and sunscreen use. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychosocial effects associated with sun protection, natural, and artificial tanning among individuals 18 years old or older visiting the University of Miami Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. We distributed a survey on tanning and sunscreen use to 150 dermatology outpatients, hospital employees, and hospital visitors for three weeks during June/July 2015 asking about how often they tan, use sunscreen, and how they feel about this topic...
February 8, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Jian Luo, Yan Liu, Songqiu Yang, Amandine F Flourat, Florent Allais, Keli Han
We study the photoprotectivemechanisms of sinapoyl malate and sinapic acid in aqueous solution by utilizing femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory.We find that excitedππ* states of the two molecules relax to the ground states via a barrierless trans-cis photoisomerizationin a few tens of picoseconds. The formation of cis-photoproducts largely reduces the efficacy of sinapic acid as a sunscreen. In contrast,the efficacy ofthe plant sunscreen sinapoyl malate is affected slightly due to the strong UVabsorption of its cis isomer...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Takayuki Tohge, Alisdair R Fernie
The dependency of plants on sunlight renders exposure to UV a constant hazard. Light of this wavelength is damaging to proteins, RNA, and DNA, with damage to the latter resulting in a high mutagenic potential. To acclimate to environmental changes in light wavelengths and intensity, plants accumulate the production of UV-B-protectant phytochemicals, such as flavonoids and vitamins. Here, we review current and emerging knowledge concerning the biochemical response of plants to UV-B exposure. We additionally outline our opinion that the adoption of broad natural variance represents a powerful strategy by which to identify both novel UV-B-relevant metabolites and the genes regulating their abundance...
February 4, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Catherine M Olsen, Louise F Wilson, Adèle C Green, Neela Biswas, Juhi Loyalka, David C Whiteman
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: There is strong evidence that topical sunscreens, designed to protect against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced erythema, decrease the amount of UVR to which the skin is exposed, but their effectiveness in reducing UVR-induced DNA damage in vivo has not been well quantified. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the published literature (1990-2015) to determine whether sunscreens prevent DNA damage in human skin when applied prior to UVR exposure...
February 6, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Ana Paula M Martini, Daiane G Mercurio, Patrícia M B G Maia Campos
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous hyperchromias are disorders of skin pigmentation involving an increase of melanin production and its irregular accumulation in skin cells. It is known that the use of sunscreens helps to prevent changes in the skin pigmentation pattern, but the structural and morphological alterations that occur in the different types of hyperpigmentations need better elucidation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of solar exposure and protection habits on the pattern of skin pigmentation using reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Kiran S Avadhani, Jyothsna Manikkath, Mradul Tiwari, Misra Chandrasekhar, Ashok Godavarthi, Shimoga M Vidya, Raghu C Hariharapura, Guruprasad Kalthur, Nayanabhirama Udupa, Srinivas Mutalik
The present work attempts to develop and statistically optimize transfersomes containing EGCG and hyaluronic acid to synergize the UV radiation-protective ability of both compounds, along with imparting antioxidant and anti-aging effects. Transfersomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique, using soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate, combined with high-pressure homogenization. They were characterized with respect to size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, entrapment efficiency, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), in vitro antioxidant activity and ex vivo skin permeation studies...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
Ke Wang, Qianjie Zhang, Yu-Lian Miao, Shao-Qiang Luo, Hong-Cai Wang, Wan-Ping Zhang
Three series of solid lipid are formulated in lipid nanoparticles carrier (NLC) system which encapsulated with sun filter to evaluate the effect on the physicochemical properties of the nanocarriers. Production is performed by ultrasonication-homogenization, analysis by particle size, Zeta Potential (ZP), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the Encapsulation Efficiency (EE), Ultraviolet (UV) performance and in vitro release are also investigated...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
Stefan M Herzog, Henry W Lim, Melissa S Williams, Isa D de Maddalena, Uli Osterwalder, Christian Surber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
Masoumeh Ghafarzadeh, Ali Eatemadi
BACKGROUND: Melasma is a challenging dermatological condition during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of a topical liposome encapsulated Aloe vera preparation, on melasma in pregnant women. In order to enhance the bioavailability of Aloe vera leaf gel extract (AGE), liposomes encapsulating Aloe vera were prepared and examined for their biochemical properties. METHODS: In this double-blinded, randomized clinical trial, two groups of pregnant women with melasma who were at their second trimester of pregnancy or later were studied...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Kate Rowan-Robinson
Review question: What is the most effective form of sun protection (including sunscreens) to prevent basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the skin?
January 31, 2017: Public Health Nursing
Jianhua Yang, Huanhuan Xu, Shanshan Wu, Bowei Ju, Dandan Zhu, Yao Yan, Mei Wang, Junping Hu
The primary aim of the present study was to develop a novel microemulsion (ME) formulation to deliver phenylethanoid glycoside (PG) for use in skin lighteners and sunscreens. The oil phase was selected on the basis of drug solubility, while the surfactant and cosurfactant were screened and selected on the basis of their solubilizing capacity and the efficiency with which they formed MEs. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to evaluate ME regions and five formulations of oil‑in‑water MEs were selected as vehicles...
January 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sevgi Akarsu, Ozlem Ozbagcivan, Turna Ilknur, Fatma Semiz, Emel Fetil
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: There are no data comprehensively investigating the key beliefs and sun-protection behaviours in patients with actinic keratosis (AK). Our aim is to determine and correlate the AK perceptions and readiness to increase sun protection (RISP) behaviours. METHODS: AK patients' (n=200) demographics and clinical findings were recorded. Participants completed questionnaires (Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised and RISP behaviours scales). RESULTS: The mean scores of giving up sunbathing of the patients aged <65 years, and giving up sunbathing and staying in the shade behaviours of females were higher...
January 28, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Raúl Losantos, Ignacio Funes-Ardoiz, José Aguilera, Enrique Herrera-Ceballos, Cristina García-Iriepa, Pedro J Campos, Diego Sampedro
Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in the last decades, but most of the commercial formulations used as sunscreens are designed to protect only against solar erythema. Many of the active components present in sunscreens show critical weaknesses, such as low stability and toxicity. Thus, the development of more efficient components is an urgent health necessity and an attractive industrial target. We have rationally designed core moieties with increased photoprotective capacities and a new energy dissipation mechanism...
January 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Maryam Vosough, Nafiseh Shekari, Amir Salemi, Koorosh Tabar Heidar
In the present study, a fast LC method coupled with multivariate curve resolution (MCR) alternating least-squares (ALS)and alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) was developed for the determination of the resolution of and quantitation of benzophenone-3, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octocrylene, ethylhexyl dimethyl para-aminobenzoic acid, butyl methoxydibenzoilmethane, and methyl and propyl parabens in suncare products. Chromatographic separation was optimized using full factorial and Box-Behnken designs...
November 30, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Hao Ou-Yang, Lily I Jiang, Karen Meyer, Steve Q Wang, Aaron S Farberg, Darrell S Rigel
Importance: Sun-protective behavior affects skin cancer prevention. Shade works by physically shielding skin from direct harmful UV rays; however, skin may still remain exposed to reflected and indirect UV rays. There is no current standard metric to evaluate shade for its effectiveness in sun protection, and there is insufficient clinical evidence that a beach umbrella alone can provide adequate sun protection. Objective: To directly measure sunburn protection offered by a standard beach umbrella compared with that provided by sunscreen with a high sun protection factor under actual use conditions...
January 18, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
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