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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811495/low-protein-induced-increases-in-fgf21-drive-ucp1-dependent-metabolic-but-not-thermoregulatory-endpoints
#1
Cristal M Hill, Thomas Laeger, Diana C Albarado, David H McDougal, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison
Dietary protein restriction increases adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), energy expenditure and food intake, and these effects require the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Here we test whether the induction of energy expenditure during protein restriction requires UCP1, promotes a resistance to cold stress, and is dependent on the concomitant hyperphagia. Wildtype, Ucp1-KO and Fgf21-KO mice were placed on control and low protein (LP) diets to assess changes in energy expenditure, food intake and other metabolic endpoints...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811369/obesity-associated-gene-tmem18-has-a-role-in-the-central-control-of-appetite-and-body-weight-regulation
#2
Rachel Larder, M F Michelle Sim, Pawan Gulati, Robin Antrobus, Y C Loraine Tung, Debra Rimmington, Eduard Ayuso, Joseph Polex-Wolf, Brian Y H Lam, Cristina Dias, Darren W Logan, Sam Virtue, Fatima Bosch, Giles S H Yeo, Vladimir Saudek, Stephen O'Rahilly, Anthony P Coll
An intergenic region of human chromosome 2 (2p25.3) harbors genetic variants which are among those most strongly and reproducibly associated with obesity. The gene closest to these variants is TMEM18, although the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects remain entirely unknown. Tmem18 expression in the murine hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was altered by changes in nutritional state. Germline loss of Tmem18 in mice resulted in increased body weight, which was exacerbated by high fat diet and driven by increased food intake...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811294/dihydrocapsiate-improved-age-associated-impairments-in-mice-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#3
Kana Ohyama, Katsuya Suzuki
Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Capsinoids are capsaicin analogs that are found in non-pungent peppers and increase whole-body energy expenditure. However, their effect on energy expenditure has been reported only in young populations, and to date the effectiveness of DCT in increasing energy expenditure in aged populations has not been investigated...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808841/prognostic-significance-of-myocardial-energy-expenditure-and-myocardial-efficiency-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#4
Mehmet S Cetin, Elif H Ozcan Cetin, Ugur Canpolat, Hatice Sasmaz, Ahmet Temizhan, Sinan Aydogdu
In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients, myocardial blood flow (MBF), myocardial energy expenditure (MEE), myocardial efficiency has been poorly evaluated because of the necessity of invasive procedures in the determination of these parameters. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) can provide reliable data for MEE, MBF (via coronary sinus (CS) flows). Also, myocardial efficiency can be evaluated by the MEE to MBF ratio. We aim to assess MBF, MEE and energy efficiency and the prognostic value of these parameters in HFrEF...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807824/flavan-3-ol-delays-the-progression-of-disuse-atrophy-induced-by-hindlimb-suspension-in-mice
#5
Mao Ito, Naoto Kudo, Yuji Miyake, Tatsuya Imai, Tomoki Unno, Yoko Yamashita, Yoshihisa Hirota, Hitoshi Ashida, Naomi Osakabe
Periods of skeletal muscle disuse, for example due to a sedentary lifestyle or bed rest, are associated with aging and can lead to muscle atrophy. We previously found that the flavan 3-ol fraction derived from cocoa (FL) enhanced energy expenditure with metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we examined the effect of FL on disuse muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups as follows: unsuspended-vehicle, unsuspended-FL, suspended-vehicle, and suspended-FL...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805659/the-atypical-antipsychotic-olanzapine-causes-weight-gain-by-targeting-serotonin-receptor-2c
#6
Caleb C Lord, Steven C Wyler, Rong Wan, Carlos M Castorena, Newaz Ahmed, Dias Mathew, Syann Lee, Chen Liu, Joel K Elmquist
Atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine often induce excessive weight gain and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms underlying these drug-induced metabolic perturbations remain poorly understood. Here, we used an experimental model that reproduces olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and obesity in female C57BL/6 mice. We found that olanzapine treatment acutely increased food intake, impaired glucose tolerance, and altered physical activity and energy expenditure in mice. Furthermore, olanzapine-induced hyperphagia and weight gain were blunted in mice lacking the serotonin 2C receptor (HTR2C)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802563/metabolic-circuit-involving-free-fatty-acids-microrna-122-and-triglyceride-synthesis-in-liver-and-muscle-tissues
#7
Chofit Chai, Mila Rivkin, Liav Berkovits, Alina Simerzin, Elina Zorde-Khvalevsky, Nofar Rosenberg, Shiri Klein, Dayana Yaish, Ronen Durst, Shoshana Shpitzen, Shiran Udi, Joseph Tam, Joerg Heeren, Anna Worthmann, Christoph Schramm, Johannes Kluwe, Revital Ravid, Eran Hornstein, Hilla Giladi, Eithan Galun
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Effective treatments are needed for hepatic steatosis characterized by accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes, which leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. MicroRNA 122 (MIR122) is expressed only in the liver, where it regulates lipid metabolism. We investigated the mechanism by which free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate MIR122 expression and the effect of MIR122 on triglyceride synthesis. METHODS: We analyzed MIR122 promoter activity and validated its target mRNAs by transfection of luciferase reporter plasmids into Huh7, BNL-1ME, and HEK293 cultured cell lines...
August 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801262/the-physiological-and-pathophysiological-roles-of-taurine-in-adipose-tissue-in-relation-to-obesity
#8
REVIEW
Shigeru Murakami
Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. It is established that obesity is a state of low-grade chronic inflammation, which is characterized by enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and marked changes in the secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. The effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of obesity have been reported in animals and humans. Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity action of taurine remain to be defined, taurine seems to ameliorate obesity through stimulation of energy expenditure, modulation of lipid metabolism, anorexic effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects...
August 8, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797831/validity-of-the-actigraph-gt3x-and-bodymedia-sensewear-armband-to-estimate-energy-expenditure-during-physical-activity-and-sport
#9
Paul B Gastin, Cassy Cayzer, Dan Dwyer, Sam Robertson
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the ActiGraph GT3X+ (GT3X+) and the BodyMedia SenseWear Armband (SWA) to estimate energy expenditure (EE) during physical activity and field sport movements. DESIGN: Criterion validity. METHODS: Twenty-six active adults completed a single 90min session involving alternating intervals of exercise (5min) and recovery (10min). Exercise involved walking (4km/h), jogging (8km/h), running (12km/h) or a sport-simulated circuit (three intervals)...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797105/regulation-of-hepatic-stellate-cell-proliferation-and-activation-by-glutamine-metabolism
#10
Jiang Li, Mohammed Ghazwani, Ke Liu, Yixian Huang, Na Chang, Jie Fan, Fengtian He, Liying Li, Shizhong Bu, Wen Xie, Xiaochao Ma, Song Li
Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, which is mainly caused by accumulation of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The mechanisms of activation and proliferation of HSCs, two key events after liver damage, have been studied for many years. Here we report a novel pathway to control HSCs by regulating glutamine metabolism. We demonstrated that the proliferation of HSCs is critically dependent on glutamine that is used to generate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and non-essential amino acid (NEAA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796796/investigating-the-relationship-between-energy-expenditure-walking-speed-and-angle-of-turning-in-humans
#11
M A McNarry, R P Wilson, M D Holton, I W Griffiths, K A Mackintosh
Recent studies have suggested that changing direction is associated with significant additional energy expenditure. A failure to account for this additional energy expenditure of turning has significant implications in the design and interpretation of health interventions. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of walking speed and angle, and their interaction, on energy expenditure in 20 healthy adults (7 female; 28±7 yrs). On two separate days, participants completed a turning protocol at one of 16 speed- (2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795972/acetate-a-diet-derived-key-metabolite-in-energy-metabolism-good-or-bad-in-context-of-obesity-and-glucose-homeostasis
#12
Emanuel E Canfora, Ellen E Blaak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent research findings on effects of the short-chain fatty acid acetate in the control of body weight, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. For this purpose, relevant animal and human in-vivo studies were reviewed and putative mechanisms and pathways were discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal and human in-vivo studies provide strong indications for a beneficial role of orally ingested or colonically derived acetate, in the energy and substrate metabolism, thereby preventing or reversing the obese insulin-resistant phenotype...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794227/the-metabolic-cost-of-carrying-a-sexually-selected-trait-in-the-male-fiddler-crab-uca-pugilator
#13
Alexa Tullis, Corinne H T Straube
Models proposed to explain sexually selected structures assume that these traits are costly. However, studies investigating the impact of such structures on locomotory costs have produced inconsistent results. Male fiddler crabs possess a large sexually selected claw and are ideal for assessing the impact of a sexually selected trait on the cost of locomotion. Here, we measure the energy expenditure of clawed, declawed, and artificially loaded crabs during sustained exercise by measuring oxygen consumption and blood lactate levels...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794207/moderate-walking-enhances-the-effects-of-an-energy-restricted-diet-on-fat-mass-loss-and-serum-insulin-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-in-a-12-week-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Bernadette Kleist, Ursel Wahrburg, Peter Stehle, Ralph Schomaker, Andreas Greiwing, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Sarah Egert
Background: Increased physical activity may be advantageous for weight loss.Objective: We investigated the effects of an energy-restricted diet with and without moderate walking on body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and endocrine and cardiometabolic risk variables in overweight and obese participants.Methods: A 12-wk, randomized, 2-arm, parallel, controlled, energy-restricted (500-800 kcal/d) dietary intervention study was conducted in 82 men and women [mean baseline characteristics: age, 39...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792851/high-intensity-interval-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-elicit-similar-enjoyment-and-adherence-levels-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#15
Chantal A Vella, Katrina Taylor, Devin Drummer
BACKGROUND: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health during supervised lab-based studies but adherence, enjoyment, and health benefits of HIIT performed independently are yet to be understood. We compared adherence, enjoyment, and cardiometabolic outcomes after 8 weeks of HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), matched for energy expenditure, in overweight and obese young adults. METHODS: 17 adults were randomized to HIIT or MICT...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790443/endocannabinoid-tone-is-higher-in-healthy-lean-south-asian-than-white-caucasian-men
#16
Vasudev Kantae, Kimberly J Nahon, Maaike E Straat, Leontine E H Bakker, Amy C Harms, Mario van der Stelt, Thomas Hankemeier, Ingrid M Jazet, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen
South Asians have a higher risk to develop obesity and related disorders compared to white Caucasians. This is likely in part due to their lower resting energy expenditure (REE) as related with less energy-combusting brown adipose tissue (BAT). Since overactivation of the endocannabinoid system is associated with obesity and low BAT activity, we hypothesized that South Asians have a higher endocannabinoid tone. Healthy lean white Caucasian (n = 10) and South Asian (n = 10) men were cold-exposed to activate BAT...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782917/dairy-attenuates-weight-gain-to-a-similar-extent-as-exercise-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-high-sugar-diet
#17
Sarah K Trottier, Rebecca E K MacPherson, Carly M Knuth, Logan K Townsend, Willem T Peppler, John S Mikhaeil, Cam F Leveille, Paul J LeBlanc, Jane Shearer, Raylene A Reimer, David C Wright
OBJECTIVE: To compare the individual and combined effects of dairy and endurance exercise training in reducing weight gain and adiposity in a rodent model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: An 8-week feeding intervention of a high-fat, high-sugar diet was used to induce obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were then assigned to one of four groups for 6 weeks: (1) casein sedentary (casein-S), (2) casein exercise (casein-E), (3) dairy sedentary (dairy-S), and (4) dairy exercise (dairy-E)...
August 7, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782601/metabolomic-profile-in-hyperthyroid-patients-before-and-after-antithyroid-drug-treatment-correlation-with-thyroid-hormone-and-tsh-concentration
#18
Cristina Piras, Nicolò Arisci, Simone Poddighe, Sonia Liggi, Stefano Mariotti, Luigi Atzori
Hyperthyroidism (HT) is characterized by an intense metabolic impact which affects the lipid, carbohydrate and amino acids metabolism, with increased resting energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Metabolomics is a new comprehensive technique that allows to capture an instant metabolic picture of an organism, reflecting peculiar molecular and pathophysiological states. The aim of the present prospective study was to identify a distinct metabolomic profile in HT patients using (1)H NMR spectroscopy before and after antithyroid drug treatment...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780647/cardiovascular-responses-to-skeletal-muscle-stretching-stretching-the-truth-or-a-new-exercise-paradigm-for-cardiovascular-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas T Kruse, Barry W Scheuermann
Stretching is commonly prescribed with the intended purpose of increasing range of motion, enhancing muscular coordination, and preventing prolonged immobilization induced by aging or a sedentary lifestyle. Emerging evidence suggests that acute or long-term stretching exercise may modulate a variety of cardiovascular responses. Specifically, at the onset of stretch, the mechanical deformation of the vascular bed coupled with stimulation of group III muscle afferent fibers initiates a cascade of events resulting in both peripheral vasodilation and a heart rate-driven increase in cardiac output, blood pressure, and muscle blood flow...
August 5, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776203/adaptive-temperature-regulation-in-the-little-bird-in-winter-predictions-from-a-stochastic-dynamic-programming-model
#20
Anders Brodin, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Andreas Nord
Several species of small birds are resident in boreal forests where environmental temperatures can be -20 to -30 °C, or even lower, in winter. As winter days are short, and food is scarce, winter survival is a challenge for small endothermic animals. A bird of this size will have to gain almost 10% of its lean body mass in fat every day to sustain overnight metabolism. Birds such as parids (titmice and chickadees) can use facultative hypothermia, a process in which body temperature is actively down-regulated to a specific level, to reduce heat loss and thus save energy...
August 3, 2017: Oecologia
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