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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454067/considering-our-methods-methodological-issues-with-rodent-models-of-appetite-and-obesity-research
#1
Thomas A Lutz
A large number of animal models are currently used in appetite and obesity research. Because the worldwide incidence of obesity continues to climb, it is imperative that animal models sharing characteristics of human obesity and its co-morbidities be used appropriately in the quest for novel preventions or treatments. There is probably no animal model, at least in rodents, that recapitulates all aspects of "common" human obesity and its comorbidities, but rodent models allow insight into specific mechanisms of disease or its consequences...
February 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453905/sleep-apnea-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
Isao Muraki, Hiroo Wada, Takeshi Tanigawa
The aim of this review is to clarify the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes, and discuss the therapeutic role of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in type 2 diabetes. OSA patients are more likely than non-OSA populations to develop type 2 diabetes while more than half of patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from OSA. Similarly to the Western countries, in the East Asian population, the association between these two disorders has also been reported. CPAP is the primary treatment for OSA, but the effect of CPAP on comorbid diabetes has not been established...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453462/gq-11-a-new-ppar-agonist-improves-obesity-induced-metabolic-alterations-in-ldlr-mice
#3
Jacqueline C Silva, Edson M de Oliveira, Walter M Turato, Gustavo H G Trossini, Vinícius G Maltarollo, Marina G R Pitta, Ivan R Pitta, Beatriz de Las Heras, Lisardo Boscá, Martina Rudnicki, Dulcineia S P Abdalla
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance/diabetes are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and demand safe and efficacious therapeutics. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a new thiazolidine compound-GQ-11-on obesity and insulin resistance induced by a diabetogenic diet in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr -/- ) mice. METHODS: Molecular docking simulations of GQ-11, PPARα and PPARγ structures were performed. Male C57BL/6J LDLr -/- mice fed a diabetogenic diet for 24 weeks were treated with vehicle, GQ-11 or pioglitazone or (20 mg/kg/day) for 28 days by oral gavage...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453308/sex-specific-mechanisms-of-resistance-vessel-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#4
Ana P Davel, Qing Lu, M Elizabeth Moss, Sitara Rao, Imran J Anwar, Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
BACKGROUND: The incidence of obesity is rising, particularly among women. Microvascular dysfunction is more common with female sex, obesity, and hyperlipidemia and predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because obesity is associated with mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation, we tested the hypothesis that MR in endothelial cells contribute to sex differences in resistance vessel dysfunction in response to cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male and female endothelial cell-specific MR knockout mice and MR-intact littermates were randomized to high-fat-diet-induced obesity or obesity with hyperlipidemia induced by adeno-associated virus-based vector targeting transfer of the mutant stable form (DY mutation) of the human PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) gene and compared with control diet...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453232/a-randomized-multicenter-phase-ii-study-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-patients-with-a-history-of-breast-cancer-premalignant-lesions-or-benign-breast-disease
#5
Ayca Gucalp, Xi K Zhou, Elise D Cook, Judy E Garber, Katherine D Crew, Julie R Nangia, Priya Bhardwaj, Dilip D Giri, Olivier Elemento, Akanksha Verma, Hanhan Wang, J Jack Lee, Lana A Vornik, Carrie Mays, Diane Weber, Valerie Sepeda, Holly O'Kane, Margaret Krasne, Samantha Williams, Patrick G Morris, Brandy M Heckman-Stoddard, Barbara K Dunn, Clifford A Hudis, Powel H Brown, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity, a cause of subclinical inflammation, is a risk factor for the development of postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) and is associated with poorer cancer outcomes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid, possesses anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that treatment with DHA would reduce the expression of proinflammatory genes and aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, in benign breast tissue of overweight/obese women. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II study of DHA given for 12 weeks to overweight/obese women with a history of stage I-III BC, DCIS/LCIS, Paget's disease, or proliferative benign breast disease was carried out...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452980/association-between-smoking-cessation-and-weight-gain-in-treatment-seeking-african-americans
#6
Marcia M Tan, Kolawole S Okuyemi, Ken Resnicow, Noella A Dietz, Michael H Antoni, Monica Webb Hooper
INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that African Americans gain more than average weight after smoking cessation. However, African Americans have been underrepresented in post-cessation weight gain research. The current study examined 1) the pattern of weight gain and 2) the association between smoking status and weight gain in a sample of African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. METHODS: Data were drawn from a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a 4-week culturally specific smoking cessation cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention among African American smokers (N = 342)...
February 3, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452573/the-effect-of-metformin-treatment-in-obese-insulin-resistant-patients-with-euthyroid-goiter
#7
Nicoleta Răcătăianu, Sorana Daniela Bolboacă, Adela-Viviana Sitar-Tăut, Smaranda Mârza, Daniela Moga, Ana Valea, Cristina Ghervan
Objective The study's objective was to evaluate the thyroid parameters in obese insulin-resistant patients with euthyroid diffuse or nodular goiter, following Metformin treatment. Patients and methods The study was experimental, open, and prospective. Fifty-three patients aged 18-68 were enrolled for two years. Obese insulin-resistant patients (cut-off Homeostasis-Model-Assessment of Insulin Resistance-HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) with euthyroid nodular/diffuse goiter were included. Subjects with diabetes, hypo-/hyper-thyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis, psychiatric disorders, liver or heart failure were excluded...
February 16, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452492/treatment-patterns-and-medicaid-spending-in-comorbid-schizophrenia-populations-once-monthly-paliperidone-palmitate-vs-oral-atypical-antipsychotics
#8
Rhiannon Kamstra, Dominic Pilon, Patrick Lefebvre, Bruno Emond, Kruti Joshi
OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment patterns and Medicaid spending between schizophrenia patients initiating once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) and oral atypical antipsychotics (OAA) within four comorbid populations: cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. METHODS: Five-state Medicaid data identified comorbid adults with schizophrenia initiating PP1M or OAA (index) from 09/2009 balanced with inverse probability of treatment weighting...
February 16, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452095/the-role-of-free-fatty-acid-receptor-4-ffa4-in-human-cancers-and-cancer-cell-lines
#9
REVIEW
Ilya S Senatorov, Nader H Moniri
A dietary influence on cancer progression has been evident for many decades, and dietary fatty acids, particularly long chain mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been shown to play significant roles in influencing growth of a variety of human cancers. The discovery of the family of cell-surface free-fatty acid receptors, which include the long-chain fatty acid receptors FFA1 and FFA4, suggest that many of the effects of dietary fats could be receptor-mediated. FFA4 is ubiquitously expressed and has recently been shown to modulate a variety of important anti-inflammatory and metabolic processes...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451331/sliding-free-transverse-rectus-abdominis-myocutaneous-flap-for-closure-of-a-massive-abdominal-wall-defect-a-case-report
#10
Annika Senghaas, Thomas Kremer, Volker J Schmidt, Leila Harhaus, Christoph Hirche, Ulrich Kneser, Amir K Bigdeli
Despite considerable advances in reconstructive surgery, massive abdominal wall defects continue to pose a significant surgical challenge. We report the case of a 72-year-old morbidly obese female patient with Clostridium septicum-related gas gangrene of the abdominal wall. After multidisciplinary treatment and multiple extensive debridements, a massive full-thickness defect (40 cm × 35 cm) of the right abdominal wall was present. The abdominal contents were covered with a resorbable mesh to prevent evisceration...
February 16, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451110/-risk-of-heart-failure-diminished-thanks-to-stomach-reduction-in-obesity
#11
B Botter, E Koolen, G van Montfort, F Bracke, A Bouwman, M Buise
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic disease and a risk factor for heart failure. In end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation may be the only available treatment option, but obesity is a contraindication for this treatment because of its unfavourable prognosis. Bariatric surgery and its subsequent weight loss may affect the indication for transplantation in patients with heart failure and morbid obesity. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 46-year-old patient with morbid obesity and heart failure underwent gastric sleeve resection in preparation of a heart transplantation...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451068/increased-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-altered-adiposity-distribution-in-premenopausal-lupus-patients-correlation-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#12
L P C Seguro, J A Paupitz, V F Caparbo, E Bonfa, R M R Pereira
Objective Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) correlates with cardiovascular risk factors and has never been assessed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our aim was to evaluate VAT in premenopausal SLE patients. Methods Sixty-three premenopausal SLE patients and 186 age-matched healthy women were included. Demographic, anthropometric, disease and treatment parameters were evaluated. VAT was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with APEX 4.0 software. Results SLE patients had a disease duration of 5.25 ± 3...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450844/endobarrier%C3%A2-a-safe-and-effective-novel-treatment-for-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#13
Nisha Patel, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Hutan Ashrafian, Carel Le Roux, James Byrne, John Mason, James Hopkins, Jamie Kelly, Julian Teare
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity associated with diabetes mellitus is a significant worldwide problem associated with considerable health care costs. Whilst surgical intervention is effective, it is invasive, costly and associated with complications. This study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the EndoBarrier®, a duodenal-jejunal sleeve bypass as an alternative treatment of diabetes mellitus in obese patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multi-centre, non-randomised trial recruiting obese patients with type 2 diabetes from three sites in the UK...
February 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450671/short-term-treatment-with-metformin-reduces-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-but-induces-liver-inflammation-in-obese-mice
#14
Alexandre Abilio de Souza Teixeira, Camila O Souza, Luana A Biondo, Loreana Sanches Silveira, Edson A Lima, Helena A Batatinha, Adriane Pereira Araujo, Michele Joana Alves, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Rui Curi, José Cesar Rosa Neto
The study aimed to evaluate the metabolic and inflammatory effects of short-term treatments (10 days) with metformin (MET) on the NAFLD caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6 mice. After the treatment, histological liver slices were obtained, hepatocytes and macrophages were extracted and cultured with phosphate buffered saline, LPS (2.5 µg/mL) and MET (1 µM) for 24 h. Cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. NAFLD caused by the HFD was partially reduced by MET. The lipid accumulation induced by the HFD was not associated with liver inflammation; however, MET seemed to promote pro-inflammatory effects in liver, since it increased hepatic concentration of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and IFN-γ...
February 15, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450605/abbreviated-mpmri-protocol-for-diffuse-liver-disease-a-practical-approach-for-evaluation-and-follow-up-of-nafld
#15
Guilherme Moura Cunha, Cristiane A Villela-Nogueira, Anke Bergman, Flavia Paiva Proença Lobo Lopes
AIM: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) may help determine the metabolic profile of patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome in addition to their clinical and laboratory biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring. An abbreviated mpMRI protocol may be a faster, less-costly, and easier to perform alternative for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with NAFLD and for use in clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an abbreviated mpMRI protocol tailored to analyze quantitative imaging features of patients with obesity and NAFLD and assess its use during treatment...
February 15, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450496/association-of-metabolic-syndrome-with-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#16
Su Young Jung, Haeng Seon Shim, Young Min Hah, Sang Hoon Kim, Seung Geun Yeo
Importance: Each of the 5 diagnostic criteria or factors of metabolic syndrome-hyperglycemia or type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, elevated triglyceride levels, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level-is associated with the pathophysiologic features of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Little is known, however, about the association of metabolic syndrome, defined as the presence of at least 3 of these factors, with the prognosis of SSNHL. Objective: To evaluate the association of metabolic syndrome with the rate of recovery from SSNHL...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450469/association-between-bariatric-surgery-and-rates-of-continuation-discontinuation-or-initiation-of-antidiabetes-treatment-6-years-later
#17
Jérémie Thereaux, Thomas Lesuffleur, Sébastien Czernichow, Arnaud Basdevant, Simon Msika, David Nocca, Bertrand Millat, Anne Fagot-Campagna
Importance: Few large-scale long-term prospective cohort studies have assessed changes in antidiabetes treatment after bariatric surgery. Objective: To describe the association between bariatric surgery and rates of continuation, discontinuation, or initiation of antidiabetes treatment 6 years after bariatric surgery compared with a matched control obese group. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide observational population-based cohort study extracted health care reimbursement data from the French national health insurance database from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2015...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450408/effect-of-arginase-1-inhibition-on-the-incidence-of-autoimmune-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#18
Luis F Hernandez, Peter Buchwald, Midhat H Abdulreda
Metabolism of the amino acid L-arginine is implicated in many physiological and pathophysiological processes including autoimmune conditions such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Alternate arginine metabolism through the citrulline-nitric oxide (NO) or the ornithine pathways can lead to proinflammatory or immune regulatory effects, respectively. In this report, we blocked the arginine-ornithine metabolic pathway by inhibiting the enzyme arginase-1 with Nω-hydroxy-nor-arginine (nor-NOHA) to make arginine more available to the alternate citrulline pathway for augmented NO production and increased incidence of autoimmune T1D in female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice...
January 2018: Current Research in Diabetes & Obesity Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449902/sers-fluorescence-bimodal-nanoprobes-for-in-vitro-imaging-of-fatty-acid-responsive-receptor-gpr120
#19
Lifu Xiao, Abdul K Parchur, Timothy A Gilbertson, Anhong Zhou
G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), as a member of the rhodopsin family of G-protein-coupled receptors, has been shown to function as a sensor for dietary fat in the gustatory and digestive systems. Its specific role in the chemoreception of fatty acids, which is thought to be crucial in understanding the mechanism surrounding the control of fat intake and, accordingly, in the treatment of obesity, remains unclear. Here we report a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-fluorescence bimodal microscopic technique for detection and imaging of GPR120 in single living cells...
2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449623/targeted-disruption-of-the-inos-gene-improves-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-leptin-deficient-ob-ob-mice-role-of-tenascin-c
#20
S Becerril, A Rodríguez, V Catalán, L Méndez-Giménez, B Ramírez, N Sáinz, M Llorente, X Unamuno, J Gómez-Ambrosi, G Frühbeck
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is related to a dynamic extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, which involves the synthesis and degradation of different proteins, such as tenascin C (TNC) in the adipose tissue (AT). Given the functional relationship between leptin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), our aim was to analyze the impact of the absence of the iNOS gene in AT inflammation and ECM remodeling in ob/ob mice. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The expression of genes involved in inflammation and ECM remodeling was evaluated in 10-week-old male double knockout (DBKO) mice simultaneously lacking the ob and iNOS genes as well as in ob/ob mice classified into three groups [control, leptin-treated (1 mg kg -1 day -1 ) and pair-fed]...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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