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Energy increase

Tomaž Šolc, Mihael Mohorčič, Carolina Fortuna
Lack of unallocated spectrum and increasing demand for bandwidth in wireless networks is forcing new devices and technologies to share frequency bands. Spectrum sensing is a key enabler for frequency sharing and there is a large body of existing work on signal detection methods. However a unified methodology that would be suitable for objective comparison of detection methods based on experimental evaluations is missing. In this paper we propose such a methodology comprised of seven steps that can be applied to evaluate methods in simulation or practical experiments...
2018: PloS One
Liqiu Zhang, Hee-Jeong Jang, Sung Jae Yoo, Sanghyun Cho, Ji Hye Won, Lichun Liu, Sungho Park
Site-selective synthesis of nanostructures is an important topic in the nanoscience community. Normally, the difference between seeds and deposition atoms in terms of crystallinity triggers the deposition atoms to grow initially at the specific site of nucleation. It is more challenging to control the deposition site of atoms that have the same composition as the seeds because the atoms tend to grow epitaxially, covering the whole surface of the seed nanoparticles. Gold (Au) nano-octahedrons used as seeds in this study possess obvious hierarchical surface energies depending on whether they are at vertices, edges, or terraces...
June 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Alessia Giannetto, Tiziana Cappello, Sabrina Oliva, Vincenzo Parrino, Giuseppe De Marco, Salvatore Fasulo, Angela Mauceri, Maria Maisano
Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in various industrial applications, i.e. semiconductor devices, batteries, solar energy converter, gas sensor, microelectronics, heat transfer fluids, and have been recently recognized as emerging pollutants of increasing concern for human and marine environmental health. Therefore, the toxicity of CuO NPs needs to be thoroughly understood. In this study, we evaluated the potential role of oxidative stress in CuO NP toxicity by exploring the molecular response of Arbacia lixula embryos to three CuO NP concentrations (0...
June 14, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Maria Papageorgiou, Daniel Martin, Hannah Colgan, Simon Cooper, Julie P Greeves, Jonathan C Y Tang, William D Fraser, Kirsty J Elliott-Sale, Craig Sale
PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the effects of low energy availability (EA)[15 kcal·kg lean body mass (LBM)-1 ·d-1 ] achieved by diet or exercise on bone turnover markers in active, eumenorrheic women. METHODS: By using a crossover design, ten eumenorrheic women (VO2 peak : 48.1 ± 3.3 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 ) completed all three, 3-day conditions in a randomised order: controlled EA (CON; 45 kcal·kgLBM-1 ·d-1 ), low EA through dietary energy restriction (D-RES; 15 kcal·kgLBM-1 ·d-1 ) and low EA through increasing exercise energy expenditure (E-RES; 15 kcal·kgLBM-1 ·d-1 ), during the follicular phase of three menstrual cycles...
June 19, 2018: Bone
Wai-Kay Seto, Yasuhiro Asahina, Todd T Brown, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Carol Stanciu, Dzhamal Abdurakhmanov, Fehmi Tabak, Tuan T Nguyen, Wan-Long Chuang, Tetsuro Inokuma, Fusao Ikeda, Teresa Antonia Santantonio, François Habersetzer, Alnoor Ramji, Audrey H Lau, Vithika Suri, John F Flaherty, Hongyuan Wang, Anuj Gaggar, G Mani Subramanian, Shrikant Mukewar, Maurizia R Brunetto, Scott Fung, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Long-term use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) reduces bone mineral density (BMD). Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir, has shown non-inferior efficacy to TDF in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, with improved bone effects at 48 weeks. We performed a randomized trial to evaluate the bone safety of TAF compared with TDF over 2 years, assessing baseline risk factors for bone loss, were evaluated after 2 years of treatment...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Vittoria Massafra, Roberto Pellicciari, Antimo Gioiello, Saskia W C van Mil
Bile acids are amphipathic molecules that were previously known to serve as fat solubilizers in the intestine in postprandial conditions. In the last two decades, bile acids have been recognized as signaling molecules regulating energy metabolism pathways via, amongst others, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Upon bile acid activation, FXR controls expression of genes involved in bile acid, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. In addition, FXR activation has been shown to limit the inflammatory response...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Alex Reichenbach, Romana Stark, Mathieu Mequinion, Sarah H Lockie, Moyra B Lemus, Randall L Mynatt, Serge Luquet, Zane B Andrews
Hunger-sensing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons ensure survival by adapting metabolism and behavior to low caloric environments. This adaption is accomplished by consolidating food intake, suppressing energy expenditure, and maximizing fat storage (nutrient partitioning) for energy preservation. The intracellular mechanisms responsible are unknown. Here we report that AgRP carnitine acetyltransferase (Crat) knockout (KO) mice exhibited increased fatty acid utilization and greater fat loss after 9 d of calorie restriction (CR)...
June 22, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ignacio Niizawa, Brenda Yanina Espinaco, Jorge Rodrigo Leonardi, Josué Miguel Heinrich, Guillermo Adrián Sihufe
The study of microalgal culture has been growing in recent decades, because the cellular structure of microalgae has diverse highly valuable metabolites that have attract attention of numerous companies and research groups. The pigment astaxanthin is considered one of the most powerful antioxidants in nature. The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis was proposed as one of the best natural astaxanthin sources, because it can accumulate high amount of the pigment. In this work, we studied different stress treatments on H...
June 22, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Liliana Apolinário, José Guilherme Milhano, Gavin P Salam, Carlos A Salgado
The tiny droplets of quark gluon plasma (QGP) created in high-energy nuclear collisions experience fast expansion and cooling with a lifetime of a few fm/c. Despite the information provided by probes such as jet quenching and quarkonium suppression, and the excellent description by hydrodynamical models, direct access to the time evolution of the system remains elusive. We point out that the study of hadronically decaying W bosons, notably in events with a top-antitop quark pair, can provide key novel insight into the time structure of the QGP...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Kohsuke Mori, Taiki Sano, Hisayoshi Kobayashi, Hiromi Yamashita
The hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to formic acid (FA; HCOOH), a renewable hydrogen storage material, is a promising means of realizing an economical CO2 -mediated hydrogen energy cycle. The development of reliable heter-ogeneous catalysts is an urgent yet challenging task associated with such systems, although precise catalytic site design protocols are still lacking. In the present study, we demonstrate that PdAg alloy nanoparticles (NPs) supported on TiO2 promote the efficient selective hydrogenation of CO2 to give FA even under mild reaction conditions (2...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Lethy Krishnan Jagadamma, Liam McCarron, Alan Andrew Wiles, Victoria Savikhin, Muhammad Sajjad, Mahdieh Yazdani, Vincent M Rotello, Michael F Toney, Graeme Cooke, Ifor David William Samuel
Additives play an important role in modifying the morphology and phase separation of donor and acceptor molecules in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Here we report triptycene (TPC) as a small molecule additive for supramolecular control of phase separation and concomitant improvement of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PTB7 donor and fullerene acceptor based BHJ polymer solar cells. An overall 60% improvement in PCE is observed for both PTB7:PC61BM and PTB7:PC71BM blends. The improved PV performance can be attributed to three factors: (a) TPC induced supramolecular interactions with donor:acceptor components in the blends to realise a nanoscale phase separated morphology (b) an increase in the charge transfer (CT) state energy that lowers the driving force for electron transfer from donor to acceptor molecules; and (c) an increase in the charge carrier mobility...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Efstratios Mitridis, Thomas M Schutzius, Alba Sicher, Claudio U Hail, Hadi Eghlidi, Dimos Poulikakos
Inhibiting ice accumulation on surfaces is an energy-intensive task and is of significant importance in nature and technology where it has found applications in windshields, automobiles, aviation, renewable energy generation, and infrastructure. Existing methods rely on on-site electrical heat generation, chemicals, or mechanical removal, with drawbacks ranging from financial costs to disruptive technical interventions and environmental incompatibility. Here we focus on applications where surface transparency is desirable and propose metasurfaces with embedded plasmonically enhanced light absorption heating, using ultra-thin hybrid metal-dielectric coatings, as a passive, viable approach for de-icing and anti-icing, in which the sole heat source is renewable solar energy...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Naeem Shahid, Jeremias Martin Becker, Martin Krauss, Werner Brack, Matthias Liess
Risk assessments of toxicants in aquatic environments are typically based on the evaluation of concentrations in water or sediment. However, concentrations in water are highly variable, while the body burden may provide a better time-integrated measure of pesticide exposure and potential effects in aquatic organisms. Here, we quantified pesticide body burdens in a dominant invertebrate species from agricultural streams, Gammarus pulex, compared them pesticide concentrations in water samples, and linked the pesticide contamination with observed ecological effects on macroinvertebrate communities...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Akira Hirano, Hiroaki Inoue, Kaoru Ogura, Akinori Hattori, Hiroko Yukawa, Shiho Sakaguchi, Aya Matsuoka, Natsuko Tanaka, Asaka Kodera, Mari Kamimura, Yoshihiko Naritaka, Tadao Shimizu
PURPOSE: Unlike anastrozole, the effect of long-term exemestane (EXE) therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) is still unknown. We assessed changes in BMD from baseline to 5 years of EXE treatment. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer receiving EXE as adjuvant therapy were enrolled in this study. EXE was administered for 5 years. The BMD of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years...
June 22, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Jorge Arce-Molina, Ricardo Grau-Crespo, Dewi W Lewis, A Rabdel Ruiz-Salvador
We introduce a method to allow the screening of large configurational spaces of heteroatom distributions in zeotype materials. Based on interatomic potential calculations of configurations containing up to two heteroatoms per cell, we parameterize an atomistic effective Hamiltonian to describe the energy of multiple substitutions, with consideration of both short- and long-range interactions. Then, the effective Hamiltonian is used to explore the full configurational space at other compositions, allowing the identification of the most stable structures for further analysis...
June 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
A V Anupama, V Kumaran, B Sahoo
We report the magnetic field and particle-concentration dependent steady-state shear-responses of rod shaped Li-Zn ferrite particle based magnetorheological fluids (MRFs). Rod-shaped soft ferrimagnetic Li-Zn ferrite (Li0.4Zn0.2Fe2.4O4) particles were synthesized using the combustion synthesis method. MRFs of three different particle-concentrations (φ = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4, in weight fraction) were prepared using silicone oil. Their yield strength and dynamic viscosity were studied at different applied magnetic fields (B)...
June 22, 2018: Soft Matter
Philippe Vuka Tsalu, Geun Wan Kim, Jong Wook Hong, Ji Won Ha
The most polarizable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) longitudinal mode of anisotropic metallic nanoparticles, such as gold bipyramids (AuBPs), is of high prominence. This optical response has tremendous applications from spectroscopy to photonics and energy devices to sensing. In conventional LSPR-based sensing, broadening and asymmetry in peaks due to chemical and instrument noise hinder obtaining a precise insight on shift positions, accordingly limiting the effectiveness and impact of LSPR sensors...
June 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Lei Niu, Jianlin Xu, Wenlong Yang, Jiqiang Ma, Jinqiang Zhao, Chenghu Kang, Jiaqiang Su
Nano-Sb₂O₃ has excellent synergistic flame-retardant effects. It can effectively improve the comprehensive physical and mechanical properties of composites, reduce the use of flame retardants, save resources, and protect the environment. In this work, nanocomposites specimens were prepared by the melt-blending method. The thermal stability, mechanical properties, and flame retardancy of a nano-Sb₂O₃⁻brominated epoxy resin (BEO)⁻poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) composite were analyzed, using TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), coupled with EDX analysis, tensile testing, cone calorimeter tests, as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and flammability tests (limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL94)...
June 22, 2018: Materials
Claire Mayer-Laigle, Rova Karine Rajaonarivony, Nicolas Blanc, Xavier Rouau
Lignocellulosic feedstocks present a growing interest in many industrial processes as they are an ecological alternative to petroleum-based products. Generally, the size of plant raw materials needs to be reduced by milling step(s), to increase density, facilitate transport and storage, and to increase reactivity. However, this unit operation can prove to be important in term of investments, functioning costs, and energy consumption if the process is not fully adapted to the histological structure of the plant material, possibly challenging the profitability of the whole chain of the biomass conversion...
June 22, 2018: Bioengineering
Imelda Martínez-Ramírez, Adela Carrillo-García, Adriana Contreras-Paredes, Elizabeth Ortiz-Sánchez, Alfredo Cruz-Gregorio, Marcela Lizano
The alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the first biochemical characteristics associated with cancer cells since most of these cells increase glucose consumption and glycolytic rates even in the presence of oxygen, which has been called “aerobic glycolysis” or the Warburg effect. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with approximately 5% of all human cancers worldwide, principally to cervical cancer. E6 and E7 are the main viral oncoproteins which are required to preserve the malignant phenotype...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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