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Ct thorax

Miao Zhang, Heng Wang, Wenbin Wu, Dong Liu, Min Li, Zhengqun Hu, Hui Zhang
Adequate surgical resection was required for patients with rib chondrosarcoma. A 61-year-old woman was presented with a palpable chest wall mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed an isolated pulmonary nodule about 0.9 cm, and a giant rib tumor about 12 cm × 9 cm which penetrated through the 7(th) rib into thorax. CT reconstruction and simulated surgery was utilized for disease-free surgical margin (R0 resection), then a simultaneous en bloc resection of pulmonary nodule and rib tumor was performed along with chest wall reconstruction under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation without endotracheal intubation...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Louise Dunphy, Prashanth Shetty, Rabinder Randhawa, Kharil Amir Rani, Yaw Duodu
A 39-year-old man, born in India but resident in the UK for 10 years, was travelling in America when he became feverish with an altered mentation. He reported a 10-day history of fever, photophobia, headache and fatigue. His medical history included hypothyroidism and migraine. He was a non-smoker, did not consume alcohol and denied a history of drug use. He was transferred to the emergency department. Laboratory investigations confirmed hyponatraemia (sodium 128 mmol/L). A chest radiograph confirmed no focal consolidation...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Zekiye Hasbek, Ömer Tamer Doğan, İsmail Sarı, Birsen Yücel, Mehmet Metin Şeker, Bülent Turgut, Serdar Berk, Yavuz Siliğ
OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the p53 gene are the most commonly observed genetic abnormalities in malignancies. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of serum anti-p53 antibody (Ab) along with the correlation between serum anti-p53 Ab level and quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) parameters such as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUVave, metabolic tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and tumor size. METHODS: Serum anti-p53 Ab level was studied in three groups...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
Alex Cheen Hoe Khoo, Fadzilah Hamzah, Choo Khoon Ong
Nonosseous uptake in Tc-hydroxymethylene bone scintigraphy should always be evaluated for any possibility of pathological changes. We share interesting images of a 60-year-old woman initially investigated for suspected osteomyelitis of the left femur but found to have an extraosseous uptake in the right hemithorax on bone scintigraphy. Plain chest radiograph followed by contrast-enhanced CT of the thorax revealed the presence of a lung mass in the right lower lobe with no lymphadenopathy. CT-guided biopsy yielded fibrocollagenous tissue, partly lined by benign pneumocytes...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Avas Chandra Ray, Subhra Aditya, Pulak Kumar Jana, Apratim Chatterjee, Anup Sarkar, Jay Mehta, Jotideb Mukhopadhyay
A young male labourer developed pain at the site of blunt trauma over back of chest followed by fever, cough with expectoration, breathlessness and hemorrhagic pleural effusion in the side of injury. What could have been passed as a sequel of trauma turned out to be the consequences of an underlying rare and aggressive malignant tumor of the chest wall known as Askin tumor or Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET). CT thorax with guided FNAC, debulking operation, histopathological examination followed by immunohistochemistry of the tumor tissue led to the final diagnosis...
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Denise E Doomernik, Harry van Goor, Jan G M Kooloos, Richard P Ten Broek
The Radboud University Medical Center has a problem-based, learner-oriented, horizontally, and vertically integrated medical curriculum. Anatomists and clinicians have noticed students' decreasing anatomical knowledge and the disability to apply knowledge in diagnostic reasoning and problem solving. In a longitudinal cohort, the retention of anatomical knowledge gained during the first year of medical school among second-year medical students was assessed. In May 2011, 346 medical students applied for the second-year gastro-intestinal (GI) tract course...
October 5, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
Joanna Shi-En Chan, Jeremy C Wee, R Ponampalam, Evelyn Wong
BACKGROUND: Injuries in divers resulting purely from impact with the water are uncommon in the published literature. We present a case report of pulmonary contusion in a young diver. CASE REPORT: A young, healthy competitive platform diver landed flat on his back in the water from a dive of 10 meters. He complained of upper back pain and had an episode of hemoptysis after the dive. He was initially observed for 15 hours postinjury, and was discharged when three chest radiographs (CXRs) taken at 1, 7, and 11 hours postinjury did not show significant abnormalities...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Oliver C Radke, Thomas Schneider, Anja Braune, Romain Pirracchio, Felix Fischer, Thea Koch
BACKGROUND: Both Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and Computed Tomography (CT) allow the estimation of the lung area. We compared two algorithms for the detection of the lung area per quadrant from the EIT images with the lung areas derived from the CT images. METHODS: 39 outpatients who were scheduled for an elective CT scan of the thorax were included in the study. For each patient we recorded EIT images immediately before the CT scan. The lung area per quadrant was estimated from both CT and EIT data using two different algorithms for the EIT data...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Davide Patrini, Mohamed Amirali Gulamhussein, Pasquale Pellegrino, Marianna Redaelli, Jonathan Pararajasingham, David Lawrence, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos
INTRODUCTION: Gossypiboma, also referred to as a textiloma, gauzoma or muslinoma describe a mass in the body composed of a central cotton core surrounded by a foreign body reaction. It has an estimated incidence of 1/1000-1/10000 surgeries, occurring in the abdomen (56%), pelvis (18%) and least commonly the thorax (11%) and represents an unfortunate event for both the patient and the operating surgeon with severe liability implications. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 49-year-old male with Marfan Syndrome who was admitted to the cardiology department with a four day history of shortness of breath and associated dull, non-radiating chest pain...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Aleksandra Piechuta, Tadeusz Przybyłowski, Małgorzata Szołkowska, Rafał Krenke
Primary pulmonary angiosarcoma (PPA) is a rare tumour arising from arterial or venous pulmonary vessels of various size. It is characterized by aggressive course and poor prognosis. The early diagnosis is difficult due to diverse clinical and radiological manifestations. We present a case report of 70 year-old man, active cigarette-smoker, with a 2-month history of non-massive hemoptysis. The thorax CT revealed several solid pulmonary nodules surrounded by areas of ground glass opacity. As bronchoscopy failed to deliver adequate tissue samples, video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) with pleura and lung biopsy was necessary...
2016: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
Qin Li, Songtao Liu, Kyle J Myers, Marios A Gavrielides, Rongping Zeng, Berkman Sahiner, Nicholas Petrick
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Different computed tomography imaging protocols and patient characteristics can impact the accuracy and precision of the calcium score and may lead to inconsistent patient treatment recommendations. The aim of this work was to determine the impact of reconstruction algorithm and gender characteristics on coronary artery calcium scoring based on a phantom study using computed tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four synthetic heart vessels with vessel diameters corresponding to female and male left main and left circumflex arteries containing calcification-mimicking materials (200-1000 HU) were inserted into a thorax phantom and were scanned with and without female breast plates (male and female phantoms, respectively)...
September 22, 2016: Academic Radiology
Alex Yuang-Chi Chang, Kian Fong Foo, Wen-Hsin Koo, Simon Ong, Jimmy So, Daniel Tan, Khong Hee Lim
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves survival of locally advanced gastric cancer patients. However, benefit is limited and the best regimen remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective of this prospective, multicenter phase 2 study was to evaluate the pathological complete response rate (PCR) with 2 cycles of docetaxel and capecitabine. METHODS: To be eligible, patients had to have histologically documented gastric cancer, a ECOG performance status 0 or 1, T3or4 Nany M0 staging after oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), CT scan of thorax and abdomen, and negative laparoscopic examination and peritoneal washing...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Luca Castellazzi, Maria Francesca Patria, Gemma Frati, Andrea Alessandro Esposito, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare but potentially lethal condition in paediatric patients. This condition is considered an immune-mediated disorder, but its pathogenesis is still unknown. Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis is characterized by the classical triad of haemoptysis, iron-deficiency anaemia, and diffuse parenchymal consolidation on chest radiology. Unfortunately, this triad of signs is not frequent in children at the onset of this disease, resulting in a delay in diagnosis and a negative outcome...
September 20, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Anne Marie Rose, Stewart D Ryan, Thurid Johnstone, Cathy Beck
An 8-year-old female neutered domestic short hair cat presented for investigation of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Thoracic radiographs identified a soft tissue opacity in the caudoventral thorax adjacent to the diaphragm. Computed tomography (CT) then characterized a pleuroperitoneal hernia with cranial displacement of a portion of the liver within the hernia. A pleuroperitoneal hernia was confirmed and repaired via exploratory laparotomy. This is the first description of the CT features of a pleuroperitoneal hernia in a cat...
September 18, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
J Freyschmidt, P Freyschmidt
OBJECTIVE: Presentation of the etiology, pathology, clinical course, radiology and differential diagnostics of skeletal sarcoidosis. PATHOANATOMICAL PRINCIPLES: Noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas can trigger solitary, multiple or disseminated osteolysis, reactive osteosclerosis and/or granulomatous synovitis. INCIDENCE: The incidence of sarcoidosis is 10-12 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Skeletal involvement is approximately 14 %...
October 2016: Der Radiologe
Zhenghao Shi, Jiejue Ma, Minghua Zhao, Yonghong Liu, Yaning Feng, Ming Zhang, Lifeng He, Kenji Suzuki
Accurate lung segmentation is an essential step in developing a computer-aided lung disease diagnosis system. However, because of the high variability of computerized tomography (CT) images, it remains a difficult task to accurately segment lung tissue in CT slices using a simple strategy. Motived by the aforementioned, a novel CT lung segmentation method based on the integration of multiple strategies was proposed in this paper. Firstly, in order to avoid noise, the input CT slice was smoothed using the guided filter...
2016: BioMed Research International
Shantiranjan Sanyal, Kahila Prasad, Lalendra Upreti, Umesh Chandra Garga
Lymphoproliferative malignancies constitute a wide spectrum of haematological malignancies and their prevalence is widely increasing. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin disease, frequently involve extranodal soft tissue structures in the head and neck, thorax and abdomen. These malignancies may involve virtually any type of soft tissues to any extent; hence many different imaging manifestations are possible which may mimic other disorders. The imaging characteristics of extranodal lymphomatous soft tissue involvement are described and classified here according to the site of involvement in 6 cases (primary diseases with orbital, muscle, extra testicular, scalp, sinonasal and pachymeningeal/dural involvement)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Deb K Boruah, Arjun Prakash, Rajnikant R Yadav, Dhaval D Dhingani, Shashidhar Achar, Antony Augustine, Kangkana Mahanta
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safe zone for performing blind sternal procedures based on computed tomography (CT) evaluation of congenital midline sternal foramina using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out on 1,180 patients who underwent MDCT of the thorax from March 2015 to February 2016. The MDCT images were evaluated in axial and reformatted planes. Morphometry and prevalence of midline congenital sternal foramina (SF) and manubrio-foraminal distance (MFD) were evaluated...
September 15, 2016: Skeletal Radiology
Seth J Kligerman, Aaron Auerbach, Teri J Franks, Jeffrey R Galvin
Castleman disease is a complex lymphoproliferative disease pathologically divided into two subtypes, the hyaline vascular variant (HVV) and the plasma cell variant (PCV). The HVV is the most common, is thought to represent a benign neoplasm of lymph node stromal cells, and is treated with surgical resection. It is most commonly found in the mediastinum, where it classically appears as a unicentric, avidly enhancing mass at computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. This appearance can mimic other avidly enhancing mediastinal masses, and location, clinical history, laboratory data, and nuclear medicine single photon emission CT (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies can help narrow the differential diagnosis...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Pedro Pedrosa Rebouças Filho, Paulo César Cortez, Antônio C da Silva Barros, Victor Hugo C Albuquerque, João Manuel R S Tavares
The World Health Organization estimates that 300 million people have asthma, 210 million people have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and, according to WHO, COPD will become the third major cause of death worldwide in 2030. Computational Vision systems are commonly used in pulmonology to address the task of image segmentation, which is essential for accurate medical diagnoses. Segmentation defines the regions of the lungs in CT images of the thorax that must be further analyzed by the system or by a specialist physician...
September 5, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
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