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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772057/a-4d-global-respiratory-motion-model-of-the-thorax-based-on-ct-images-a-proof-of-concept
#1
H Fayad, M Gilles, T Pan, D Visvikis
PURPOSE: Respiratory motion reduces the sensitivity and specificity of medical images especially in the thoracic and abdominal areas. It may affect applications such as cancer diagnostic imaging and/or radiation therapy (RT). Solutions to this issue include modelling of the respiratory motion in order to optimize both diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. Personalised motion modeling required patient specific four dimensional (4D) imaging which in the case of 4D computed tomography (4D CT) acquisition is associated with an increased dose...
May 17, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759487/clinical-examination-of-proton-pencil-beam-scanning-on-a-moving-anthropomorphic-lung-phantom
#2
Peng Wang, Shikui Tang, Paige A Taylor, David E Cummings, Martin Janson, Erik Traneus, Jared D Sturgeon, Andrew K Lee, Chang Chang
The objective of this study was to examine the use of proton pencil beam scanning for the treatment of moving lung tumors. A single-field uniform dose proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) plan was generated for the standard thorax phantom designed by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC) Houston QA Center. Robust optimization, including range and setup uncertainties as well as volumetric repainting, was used for the plan. Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) measurements were performed using both a water tank and a custom heterogeneous QA phantom...
May 11, 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742695/anterior-mediastinal-hodgkin-lymphoma-presenting-as-an-extremely-hypervascular-tumor-on-computed-tomography-a-case-report
#3
Soo Jeong Lee, Ji Young Rho, Gwang Il Kim, Joonsuk Park
RATIONALE: In the thorax, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) most frequently involves the anterior mediastinal and paratracheal regions and tends to spread to contiguous nodal groups. Enlarged lymph nodes typically have homogeneous soft tissue attenuation similar to that of muscle tissue on computed tomography (CT). PATIENT CONCERNS: A contrast-enhanced CT examination of a 19-year-old man with right-sided chest pain showed an intense, heterogeneously enhancing mass with organization of serpentine and dilated blood vessels in the right anterior mediastinum that had invaded the upper lobe of the right lung...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739328/a-novel-ultrafast-low-dose-computed-tomography-protocol-allows-concomitant-coronary-artery-evaluation-and-lung-cancer-screening
#4
Carlo Gaudio, Gennaro Petriello, Francesco Pelliccia, Alessandra Tanzilli, Alberto Bandiera, Gaetano Tanzilli, Francesco Barillà, Vincenzo Paravati, Massimo Pellegrini, Enrico Mangieri, Paolo Barillari
BACKGROUND: Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is often performed in patients who are at high risk for lung cancer in whom screening is currently recommended. We tested diagnostic ability and radiation exposure of a novel ultra-low-dose CT protocol that allows concomitant coronary artery evaluation and lung screening. METHODS: We studied 30 current or former heavy smoker subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease who underwent CT assessment of both coronary arteries and thoracic area (Revolution CT, General Electric)...
May 8, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714710/markerless-positional-verification-using-template-matching-and-triangulation-of-kv-images-acquired-during-irradiation-for-lung-tumors-treated-in-breath-hold
#5
Colien Hazelaar, Max Dahele, Hassan Mostafavi, Lineke van der Weide, Ben J Slotman, Wilko F A R Verbakel
Lung tumors treated in breath-hold are subject to inter- and intra-breath-hold variations, which makes tumor position monitoring during each breath-hold important. A markerless technique is desirable, but limited tumor visibility on kV images makes this challenging. We evaluated if template matching+triangulation of kV projection images acquired during breath-hold stereotactic treatments could determine 3D tumor position. Band-pass filtering and/or digital tomosynthesis (DTS) were used as image pre-filtering/enhancement techniques...
May 1, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713348/a-case-of-nongerminomatous-germ-cell-tumor-of-the-pineal-region-risks-and-advantages-of-biopsy-by-endoscopic-approach
#6
Mauro Dobran, Davide Nasi, Fabrizio Mancini, Maurizio Gladi, Massimo Scerrati
A 21-year-old male was admitted to our department with headache and drowsiness. CT scan and MRI revealed acute obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a pineal region mass. The serum and CSF levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) were 215 IU/L and 447 IU/L, respectively, while levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were normal. A germ cell tumor (GCT) was suspected, and the patient underwent endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) with biopsy. After four days from surgery, the tumor bled with mass expansion and ETV stoma occlusion; thus, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was positioned...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712750/x-ray-computed-tomography-study-of-the-flight-adapted-tracheal-system-in-the-blowfly-calliphora-vicina-analysing-the-ventilation-mechanism-and-flow-directing-valves
#7
Lutz Thilo Wasserthal, Peter Cloetens, Rainer H Fink, Lennard Knut Wasserthal
After the discovery of the flight-motor driven unidirectional gas exchange with rising PO2 in the blowfly, X-ray computer tomography (CT) was used to visualize the organization of the tracheal system in the anterior body with emphasis on the arrangement of the pathways for the airflows. The fly's head is preferentially supplied by cephalic tracheae originating from the ventral orifice of the mesothoracic spiracle (Sp1). The respiratory airflow during flight is a by-product of cyclic deformations of the thoracic box by the flight muscles...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707289/fractures-of-the-manubrium-sterni-treatment-options-and-a-possible-classification-of-different-types-of-fractures
#8
Stefan Schulz-Drost, Sebastian Krinner, Pascal Oppel, Sina Grupp, Melanie Schulz-Drost, Friedrich F Hennig, Andreas Langenbach
Background: Sternum fractures are mostly located on the sternal corpus, seldom on the manubrium. Fractures of the sternal manubrium are, however, more frequently associated with severe concomitant injuries of thoracic organs, and therefore deserve special attention. In addition, in its function as a capstone in between the anterior chest wall and the shoulder girdle, it is exposed to a multiplicity of forces. Therefore the questions arise what types of fractures are observed in today's clinical practice, how to classify them and which treatment options are available...
March 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704560/identification-of-an-optimal-threshold-for-detecting-human-brown-adipose-tissue-using-receiver-operating-characteristic-analysis-of-ideal-mri-fat-fraction-maps
#9
Terence A Jones, Sarah C Wayte, Narendra L Reddy, Oludolapo Adesanya, George K Dimitriadis, Thomas M Barber, Charles E Hutchinson
PURPOSE: Lower fat fraction (FF) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) than white adipose tissue (WAT) has been exploited using Dixon-based Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to differentiate these tissues in rodents, human infants and adults. We aimed to determine whether an optimal FF threshold could be determined to differentiate between BAT and WAT in adult humans in vivo. METHODS: Sixteen volunteers were recruited (9 females, 7 males; 44.2 ± 19.2 years) based on BAT uptake on 18 F-FDG PET/CT...
April 25, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701374/bilateral-recurrent-spontaneous-pneumothorax-as-a-late-consequence-of-oesophageal-surgery-case-report
#10
Cristina Rodrigues, Daniel Cabral, Leonor Mota, António Bettencourt
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of a patient with recurrent bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax presumably originating in a left bulla. METHODS: A 68 year old male, was admitted to the emergency department with shortness of breath and bilateral chest pain. He had had oesophageal cancer resection 2 years before, with a posterior mediastinal reconstruction using a gastric tube. Afterwards he had to be operated twice for hiatal hernia. RESULTS: Bilateral chest tubes were inserted, with complete resolution in 72 hours...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701373/uniportal-vats-lobectomy-subxiphoid-approach
#11
Catarina Carvalheiro, Javier Gallego-Poveda, Diego Gonzalez-Rivas, Jorge Cruz
INTRODUCTION: Interest in uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is rapidly growing worldwide because it represents the surgical approach to the lung with the least possible trauma and in recent years the subxiphoid approach has been used in the field of thoracic surgery as it is associated with lesser pain because there is no intercostal nerve damage and it provides excellent cosmetic outcomes. This technique was recently introduced for major pulmonary resections and even bilateral approaches in selected patients...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692256/gauzoma-in-a-scleroderma-patient-following-open-heart-surgery-a-case-report
#12
Mohammadali Nazarinia, Elmira Esmaeilzadeh
INTRODUCTION: Gauzoma is an iatrogenic complication, which occurs rarely due to surgical team negligence. Depending on the sterility of the retained tissue, it can lead to life threatening surgical complications or may remain asymptomatic for many years and be detected incidentally in imaging studies. It may be mistaken as tumors or aneurysms. Thus, high clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose them in patients with past history of operation. Reporting Case: A 35 years old woman, a known case of scleroderma underwent open-heart surgery 20 years before being diagnosed as scleroderma, presented by dyspnea especially on activity...
April 22, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688026/incidental-pulmonary-embolism-in-oncology-patients-with-current-macroscopic-malignancy-incidence-in-different-tumour-type-and-impact-of-delayed-treatment-on-survival-outcome
#13
Maung Maung Myat Moe, Sridhar Redla
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence and outcome of incidental PE (iPE) in patients with current macroscopic malignancy and delayed anticoagulation due to late reporting of CT scan. METHODS: Reports of CT thorax with iv contrast done on oncology patients between 01.01.15 and 31.12.15 in two district general hospitals in UK were reviewed. Electronic patient records of iPE patients were reviewed for demographic and treatment information. RESULTS: 26 iPEs were reported in 1,604 scans (731 patients), incidence 1...
April 24, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687051/asymptomatic-pancreatic-body-herniation-complicated-with-periauricular-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Isil Yildiz
Hiatus hernia is defined as herniation of the abdominal elements through the esophageal hiatus into the madiastinum. Type IV hiatal herniation is the rarest of all paraoesaphagial hernias. Herniation of pancreas is extremely rare. A 63-year-old male was admitted to the department of oncology with a periauricular squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Abdominal CT was performed for organ metastasis. No metastasis was found, but hiatal herniation of the stomach along with the body of the pancreas into the thorax was observed...
2018: European Journal of Radiology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682879/commissioning-an-in-room-mobile-ct-for-adaptive-proton-therapy-with-a-compact-proton-system
#15
Jasmine A Oliver, Omar Zeidan, Sanford L Meeks, Amish P Shah, Jason Pukala, Patrick Kelly, Naren R Ramakrishna, Twyla R Willoughby
PURPOSE: To describe the commissioning of AIRO mobile CT system (AIRO) for adaptive proton therapy on a compact double scattering proton therapy system. METHODS: A Gammex phantom was scanned with varying plug patterns, table heights, and mAs on a CT simulator (CT Sim) and on the AIRO. AIRO-specific CT-stopping power ratio (SPR) curves were created with a commonly used stoichiometric method using the Gammex phantom. A RANDO anthropomorphic thorax, pelvis, and head phantom, and a CIRS thorax and head phantom were scanned on the CT Sim and AIRO...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679500/a-unified-material-decomposition-framework-for-quantitative-dual-and-triple-energy-ct-imaging
#16
Wei Zhao, Don Vernekohl, Fei Han, Bin Han, Hao Peng, Yong Yang, Lei Xing, James K Min
PURPOSE: Many clinical applications depend critically on the accurate differentiation and classi-fication of different types of materials in patient anatomy. This work introduces a unified framework for accurate nonlinear material decomposition and applies it, for the first time, in the concept of triple-energy CT (TECT) for enhanced material differentiation and classification as well as dual-energy CT METHODS: We express polychromatic projection into a linear combination of line integrals of material-selective images...
April 21, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670801/nonoperative-management-of-multiple-penetrating-cardiac-and-colon-wounds-from-a-shotgun-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Paula M Jaramillo, Jaime A Montoya, David A Mejia, Salin Pereira Warr
Introduction: Surgery for cardiac trauma is considered fatal and for wounds of the colon by associated sepsis is normally considered; however, conservative management of many traumatic lesions of different injured organs has progressed over the years. Presentation of the Case: A 65-year-old male patient presented with multiple shotgun wounds on the left upper limb, thorax, and abdomen. On evaluation, he was hemodynamically stable with normal sinus rhythm and normal blood pressure, no dyspnea, or abdominal pain...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659090/detection-of-intra-cardiac-thrombi-and-congestive-heart-failure-in-cats-using-computed-tomographic-angiography
#18
Kyle P Vititoe, Ryan C Fries, Stephen Joslyn, Laura E Selmic, Mark Howes, Jordan P Vitt, Robert T O'Brien
Arterial thromboembolism is a life-threatening condition in cats most commonly secondary to cardiac disease. Echocardiography is the reference standard to evaluate for presence of a thrombus. In humans, computed tomographic (CT) angiography is becoming widely used to detect left atrial thrombi precluding the use of sedation. The purpose of this prospective, controlled, methods comparison pilot study was threefold: (1) describe new CT angiography protocol used in awake cats with cardiac disease and congestive heart failure; (2) determine accuracy of continuous and dynamic acquisition CT angiography to identify and characterize cardiac thrombi from spontaneous echocardiographic contrast using transthoracic echocardiography as our reference standard; (3) identify known negative prognostic factors and comorbidities of the thorax that CT angiography may provide that complement or supersede echocardiographic examination...
April 16, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651368/synchronous-pulmonary-neoplasms-a-chance-occurrence-or-is-there-more-than-meets-the-eye
#19
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Manisha Pant, Gwenalyn Garcia, Marcel Odaimi
Primary bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma comprises 5% of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and usually has an indolent course. Synchronous primary lung cancers with BALT lymphoma are seldom seen in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Synchronous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and BALT lymphoma is an extremely rare occurrence. We report an unusual case of stage 4 BALT lymphoma requiring treatment that revealed an underlying ipsilateral mass causing a diagnostic dilemma. An 84-year-old female with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus, deep vein thrombosis, and thrombotic microangiopathy presented to the hospital with cough and dyspnea on exertion...
February 6, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626289/dosimetric-changes-with-computed-tomography-automatic-tube-current-modulation-techniques
#20
Sofia Spampinato, Anna Maria Gueli, Pietro Milone, Luigi Angelo Raffaele
The study is aimed at a verification of dose changes for a computed tomography automatic tube-current modulation (ATCM) technique. For this purpose, anthropomorphic phantom and Gafchromic® XR-QA2 films were used. Radiochromic films were cut according to the shape of two thorax regions. The ATCM algorithm is based on noise index (NI) and three exam protocols with different NI were chosen, of which one was a reference. Results were compared with dose values displayed by the console and with Poisson statistics...
April 6, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
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