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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351696/risk-of-primary-spontaneous-pneumothorax-according-to-chest-configuration
#1
Chul Hwan Park, MinDong Sung, Geun Dong Lee, Young Woo Do, Hee Min Park, Junu Kim, Jin Hur, Kyunghwa Han, Tae Hoon Kim, Jason Jungsik Song, Sungsoo Lee
BACKGROUND:  We compared the chest configurations of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) and age-sex-matched controls to determine the presence of chest wall deformities in patients with PSP. METHODS:  We retrospectively enrolled 166 male patients with PSP (age, 18-19 years) and 85 age-sex-matched controls without PSP, who simultaneously underwent chest computed tomography (CT) and radiography at one of two institutes. After correcting for height, the following thoracic parameters were comparatively evaluated between the two groups: maximal internal transverse (T) and anteroposterior (W) diameters of the chest, maximal internal lung height (H), Haller index (T/W), and T/Height, T/H, W/Height, W/H, and H/Height ratios...
January 19, 2018: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351567/whole-thorax-irradiation-of-non-human-primates-induces-persistent-nuclear-damage-and-gene-expression-changes-in-peripheral-blood-cells
#2
Shanaz A Ghandhi, Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Gregory O Dugan, J Daniel Bourland, John D Olson, Janet A Tooze, Shad R Morton, Ines Batinic-Haberle, J Mark Cline, Sally A Amundson
We investigated the cytogenetic and gene expression responses of peripheral blood cells of non-human primates (NHP, Macaca mulatta) that were whole-thorax irradiated with a single dose of 10 Gy. In this model, partial irradiation of NHPs in the thoracic region (Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation, WTLI) allows the study of late radiation-induced lung injury, while avoiding acute radiation syndromes related to hematopoietic and gastrointestinal injury. A transient drop in circulating lymphocytes and platelets was seen by 9 days, followed by elevations in respiratory rate, circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes at 60-100 days, corresponding to computed tomography (CT) and histologic evidence of pneumonitis, and elective euthanasia of four animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350048/triple-split-bolus-versus-single-bolus-ct-in-abdominal-trauma-patients-a-comparative-study
#3
Johannes Clemens Godt, Torsten Eken, Anselm Schulz, Cathrine K Johansen, Anette Aarsnes, Johann Baptist Dormagen
Background Split-bolus computed tomography (CT) is a recent development in trauma imaging. Instead of multiple scans in different contrast phases after a single contrast bolus, split-bolus protocols consist of one single scan of the thorax and abdomen after two or three contrast injections at different points of time. Purpose To evaluate and compare image quality and injury findings of a new triple-split-bolus CT (TS-CT) protocol of thorax and abdomen with those of a portal venous phase CT (PV-CT) in the same patient group...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343816/sclerotic-bone-lesions-as-a-potential-imaging-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#4
Susanne Brakemeier, Lars Vogt, Lisa C Adams, Bianca Zukunft, Gerd Diederichs, Bernd Hamm, Klemens Budde, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Marcus R Makowski
Tuberous-sclerosis-complex (TSC) is associated with a high lifetime risk of severe complications. Clinical manifestations are largely variable and diagnosis is often missed. Sclerotic-bone-lesions (SBL) could represent a potential imaging biomarker for the diagnosis of TSC. In this study, computed tomography (CT) data sets of 49 TSC patients (31 females) were included and compared to an age/sex matched control group. Imaging features of SBLs included frequency, size and location pattern. Sensitivities, specificities and cutoff values for the diagnosis of TSC were established for the skull, thorax, and abdomen/pelvis...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343723/pharmacological-targeting-of-bet-proteins-attenuates-radiation-induced-lung-fibrosis
#5
Jian Wang, Fangzheng Zhou, Zhenyu Li, Hong Mei, Ye Wang, Hong Ma, Liangliang Shi, Ai Huang, Tao Zhang, Zhenyu Lin, Gang Wu
Radiation-induced lung injury has restricted radiotherapy for thoracic cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effects of bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) inhibitor JQ1 in a murine model of pulmonary damage. Chest computed tomography (CT) was performed in a rat model after 20 Gy radiation of the right thorax. And histological evaluation and protein expressions of irradiated tissue were analyzed to confirm the potential anti-fibrosis effect of JQ1 and its underlying mechanisms...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338327/respiratory-gated-pet-ct-for-pulmonary-lesion-characterisation-promises-and-problems
#6
Russell Frood, Garry McDermott, Andrew Scarsbrook
2-Deoxy-2-(18Fluorine)-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an integral part of lung carcinoma staging and frequently used in the assessment of solitary pulmonary nodules. However, a limitation of conventional 3D PET/CT when imaging the thorax is its susceptibility to motion artefact which blurs the signal from the lesion resulting in inaccurate representation of size and metabolic activity. Respiratory gated (4D) PET/CT aims to negate the effects of motion artefact and provide a more accurate interpretation of pulmonary nodules and lymphadenopathy...
January 17, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320863/evaluation-of-an-iterative-model-based-ct-reconstruction-algorithm-by-intra-patient-comparison-of-standard-and-ultra-low-dose-examinations
#7
Peter B Noël, Stephan Engels, Thomas Köhler, Daniela Muenzel, Daniela Franz, Michael Rasper, Ernst J Rummeny, Martin Dobritz, Alexander A Fingerle
Background The explosive growth of computer tomography (CT) has led to a growing public health concern about patient and population radiation dose. A recently introduced technique for dose reduction, which can be combined with tube-current modulation, over-beam reduction, and organ-specific dose reduction, is iterative reconstruction (IR). Purpose To evaluate the quality, at different radiation dose levels, of three reconstruction algorithms for diagnostics of patients with proven liver metastases under tumor follow-up...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307165/hiatal-hernia-from-misdiagnosis-to-diagnosis
#8
Fezzeh Elyasinia, Hassan Emami Razavi, Alireza Hosseini, Firoozeh Abolhasanizade, Reza Matloub, Behnam Behboudi, Farham Ahmadi
Complications of hiatal hernia are potentially lethal, and surgical intervention is necessary. This matter is more important in cases that have ambiguous symptoms and are diagnosed with a delay. Such patients may experience life-threatening course and events. Accordingly, in this report, a 23-year-old male patient with unusual findings is presented. A 23-year-old male patient with acute dyspnea and fever was admitted in infectious disease ward with diagnosis of empyema according to chest radiography and CT-scan findings (Figures 1 and 2)...
November 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306371/iterative-reconstruction-and-automatic-tube-voltage-selection-reduce-clinical-ct-radiation-doses-and-image-noise
#9
L O'Hora, S J Foley
INTRODUCTION: Computed Tomography (CT) use has increased in recent years with trends indicating increasing population doses as a result. Optimization of clinical radiation doses through technological developments has demonstrated potential to reduce patient dose from CT. This study aimed to quantify these dose reductions across a large clinical cohort. METHODS: Patient cohort was divided into three groups, assigned by CT optimisation technique. Group one underwent scanning with automated tube current modulation only...
February 2018: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261353/reference-values-for-central-airway-dimensions-on-ct-images-of-children-and-adolescents
#10
Wieying Kuo, Pierluigi Ciet, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Yong Chen, Bas Pullens, Pilar Garcia-Peña, Robert J Fleck, Matteo Paoletti, Michael McCartin, Francois Vermeulen, Giovanni Morana, Edward Y Lee, Harm A W M Tiddens
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to acquire normative data on central airway dimensions on chest CT scans in the pediatric population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest CT findings reported as normal by a radiologist were collected retrospectively at 10 international centers. An experienced and independent thoracic radiologist reevaluated all CT scans for image quality and for normal findings. Semiautomated image analysis was performed to measure dimensions of the trachea and right and left main bronchi at inspiration...
December 20, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243665/anthropomorphic-thorax-phantom-for-cardio-respiratory-motion-simulation-in-tomographic-imaging
#11
Konstantin Bolwin, Björn Czekalla, Lynn Johann Frohwein, Florian Buther, Klaus P Schäfers
Patient motion during medical imaging using techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single emission computed tomography (SPECT) is well known to degrade images leading to blurring effects or severe artifacts. Motion correction methods try to overcome this degrading effects. However, they need to be validated under realistic conditions. In the present work, a sophisticated anthropomorphic thorax phantom is presented that combines several aspects of a simulator for cardio-respiratory motion...
December 15, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237965/investigating-different-computed-tomography-techniques-for-internal-target-volume-definition
#12
S A Yoganathan, K J Maria Das, V Siva Subramanian, D Gowtham Raj, Arpita Agarwal, Shaleen Kumar
PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the various computed tomography (CT) techniques such as fast CT, slow CT, breath-hold (BH) CT, full-fan cone beam CT (FF-CBCT), half-fan CBCT (HF-CBCT), and average CT for delineation of internal target volume (ITV). In addition, these ITVs were compared against four-dimensional CT (4DCT) ITVs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional target motion was simulated using dynamic thorax phantom with target insert of diameter 3 cm for ten respiration data...
October 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234820/-mesenchymal-abdominal-tumors-in-children
#13
REVIEW
G A Krombach
Mesenchymal tumors in childhood comprise benign and malign entities and differ regarding typical sites of manifestation, age peak and clinical symptoms. In some cases biopsy is mandatory. If nephroblastoma is a possible diagnosis, biopsy must be avoided by all means in order to avoid biopsy tract metastasis. Imaging is used to narrow the differential diagnosis, describe the exact extent of the lesion and deliver complete staging. In pediatric patients sonography and MRI are the most important imaging modalities...
December 12, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226123/open-repair-of-a-12-cm-posttraumatic-aneurysm-of-right-subclavian-artery
#14
Konstantinos Tigkiropoulos, Omiros Chalvatzoulis, Eleftherios Chalvatzoulis, Kyriakos Stavridis, Dimitrios Karamanos, Ioannis Lazaridis, Andreas Efstathiou, Nikolaos Saratzis
Purpose: To present a rare case of a patient with a 12-cm posttraumatic right subclavian artery aneurysm successfully treated with aneurysmectomy and innominate-axillary bypass. Case report: A 54-year-old man presented to the emergency department due to progressive dyspnea and hoarseness of voice. His medical record was unremarkable except that he had right-sided pneumothorax and multiple rib fractures from a car accident 16 years ago. A chest X-ray showed a mass in the upper lobe of the right lung, and the patient was hospitalized for further investigation...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218226/hamman-s-syndrome-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#15
Alexandra Rose Pain, Josh Pomroy, Andrea Benjamin
Hamman's syndrome (spontaneous subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum) is a rare complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), with a multifactorial etiology. Awareness of this syndrome is important: it is likely underdiagnosed as the main symptom of shortness of breath is often attributed to Kussmaul's breathing and the findings on chest radiograph can be subtle and easily missed. It is also important to be aware of and consider Boerhaave's syndrome as a differential diagnosis, a more serious condition with a 40% mortality rate when diagnosis is delayed...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205787/system-for-ct-guided-needle-placement-in-the-thorax-and-abdomen-a-design-for-clinical-acceptability-applicability-and-usability
#16
Maarten M Arnolli, Martijn Buijze, Michel Franken, Koert P de Jong, Dannis M Brouwer, Ivo A M J Broeders
BACKGROUND: Various systems exist for CT-guided needle placement in the thorax and abdomen, but widespread adoption is lacking. The goal of this work is to develop a system for precise needle placement with a design focus on clinical acceptability, applicability and usability. METHODS: A system was outlined incorporating a needle guide on a mechanism with a remote centre of motion, manually placeable around the patient at the desired entry point and lockable by push-button to the CT table...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203574/blunt-chest-trauma-a-clinical-chameleon
#17
REVIEW
Kaveh Eghbalzadeh, Anton Sabashnikov, Mohamed Zeriouh, Yeong-Hoon Choi, Alexander C Bunck, Navid Mader, Thorsten Wahlers
The incidence of blunt chest trauma (BCT) is greater than 15% of all trauma admissions to the emergency departments worldwide and is the second leading cause of death after head injury in motor vehicle accidents. The mortality due to BCT is inhomogeneously described ranging from 9% to 60%. BCT is commonly caused by a sudden high-speed deceleration trauma to the anterior chest, leading to a compression of the thorax. All thoracic structures might be injured as a result of the trauma. Complex cardiac arrhythmia, heart murmurs, hypotension, angina-like chest pain, respiratory insufficiency or distention of the jugular veins may indicate potential cardiac injury...
December 4, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201562/evaluation-of-potential-reference-genes-for-real-time-qpcr-analysis-in-a-biparental-beetle-lethrus-apterus-coleoptera-geotrupidae
#18
Nikoletta A Nagy, Zoltán Németh, Edit Juhász, Szilárd Póliska, Rita Rácz, András Kosztolányi, Zoltán Barta
Hormones play an important role in the regulation of physiological, developmental and behavioural processes. Many of these mechanisms in insects, however, are still not well understood. One way to investigate hormonal regulation is to analyse gene expression patterns of hormones and their receptors by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). This method, however, requires stably expressed reference genes for normalisation. In the present study, we evaluated 11 candidate housekeeping genes as reference genes in samples of Lethrus apterus, an earth-boring beetle with biparental care, collected from a natural population...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184050/a-rare-case-of-bochdalek-hernia-with-concomitant-para-esophageal-hernia-repaired-laparoscopically-in-an-octogenarian
#19
Sergio Susmallian, Asnat Raziel
BACKGROUND A Bochdalek hernia (BH) is a rare congenital condition consisting of a posterolateral defect in the diaphragm. A para-esophageal hernia (PEH) is a rare variant of hiatus hernia. BH and PEH may present with gastric volvulus or incarceration, requiring emergency treatment. Minimally invasive surgery is the preferred treatment, particularly for elderly patients and patients with comorbidities. The occurrence of BH with concomitant PEH is a very rare event. We describe a case of an octogenarian patient with BH and concomitant PEH treated laparoscopically...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179706/intralobar-pulmonary-sequestration-expanding-toward-the-contralateral-thorax-two-case-reports
#20
Hizuru Amano, Jun Fujishiro, Akinari Hinoki, Hiroo Uchida
BACKGROUND: Intralobar pulmonary sequestration (ILS) is defined as a portion of parenchyma that is contained within the normal pleural investment of the lung but not connected to the tracheobronchial tree, and supplied by anomalous systemic arteries. As ILS is enveloped within the lobe of the normal lung, it is extremely rare for ILS to invade into the mediastinum. We report two atypical cases of infants with ILS expanded toward the posterior mediastinum and contralateral thorax through the pulmonary ligament...
November 28, 2017: BMC Surgery
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