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Kangkana Kataki, Parikhit Borthakur, Namrata Kumari, Manab Deka, Amal Ch Kataki, Subhash Medhi
BACKGROUND: During Hepatitis B virus infection, the pathogen sensors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a role in innate immunity system. AIM: The study aimed to investigate mRNA expression levels of TLR2 and TLR3 in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mediated chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis (CIRR) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to correlate viral load with severity of these diseases and expression of TLRs. METHOD: A total of 180 HBV DNA positive samples were selected for the study...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Xiaodan Yu, Hiroko Kawakami, Naoyuki Tahara, Merissa Olmer, Shinichi Hayashi, Ryutaro Akiyama, Anindya Bagchi, Martin Lotz, Yasuhiko Kawakami
Increasing evidence supports the idea that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate cartilage maintenance in the adult skeleton. The aim of this study is to obtain insight into the regulation of BMP activities in the adult skeletal system. We analyzed expression of Noggin and Gremlin1, BMP antagonists that are known to regulate embryonic skeletal development, in the adult skeletal system by Noggin-LacZ and Gremlin1-LacZ knockin reporter mouse lines. Both reporters are expressed in the adult skeleton in a largely overlapping manner with some distinct patterns...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
M Aurich, D Albrecht, P Angele, C Becher, S Fickert, J Fritz, P E Müller, P Niemeyer, M Pietschmann, G Spahn, M Walther
Background: Osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the ankle are a common cause of ankle pain. Although the precise pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated, it can be assumed that a variety of factors are responsible, mainly including traumatic events such as ankle sprains. Advances in arthroscopy and imaging techniques, in particular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have improved the possibilities for the diagnosis of OCLs of the ankle. Moreover, these technologies aim at developing new classification systems and modern treatment strategies...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Vincent K Dik, Ignace T C Hooge, Martijn G H van Oijen, Peter D Siersema
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Considerable variation in adenoma detection has been shown between endoscopists, which may be explained by differences in colon inspection. Eye-tracking technology is an objective tool that detects differences in viewing patterns. We investigated the feasibility of eye-tracking technology during real-time, self-performed colonoscopies. METHODS: In this pilot study, 10 endoscopists performed two colonoscopies each. A mobile eye-tracking system to register the right eye position was used to determine the gaze across four areas of interest of the endoscopy monitor (upper, lower, left, and right quadrant)...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Michael Maceroli, Lucas E Nikkel, Bilal Mahmood, John P Ketz, Xing Qiu, Joseph Ciminelli, Susan Messing, John C Elfar
OBJECTIVES: To determine if hospital arthroplasty volume affects patient outcomes after undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) for displaced femoral neck fractures. METHODS: The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database from the New York State Department of Health was used to group hospitals into quartiles based on overall THA volume from 2000 to 2010. The database was then queried to identify all patients undergoing THA specifically for femoral neck fracture during this time period...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Kathrin Fielitz, Kristina Althoff, Katleen De Preter, Julie Nonnekens, Jasmin Ohli, Sandra Elges, Wolfgang Hartmann, Günter Klöppel, Thomas Knösel, Marc Schulte, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Daniela Beisser, Henning Reis, Annette Eyking, Elke Cario, Johannes H Schulte, Alexander Schramm, Ulrich Schüller
Amplification or overexpression of MYCN is involved in development and maintenance of multiple malignancies. A subset of these tumors originates from neural precursors, including the most aggressive forms of the childhood tumors, neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. In order to model the spectrum of MYCN-driven neoplasms in mice, we transgenically overexpressed MYCN under the control of the human GFAP-promoter that, among other targets, drives expression in neural progenitor cells. However, LSL-MYCN;hGFAP-Cre double transgenic mice did neither develop neural crest tumors nor tumors of the central nervous system, but presented with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and, less frequently, the pituitary gland...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Si Chen, Xiaoting Wen, Jing Li, Yuan Li, Liubing Li, Xinping Tian, Hui Yuan, Fengchun Zhang, Yongzhe Li
Takayasu arteritis (TA) is a chronic large-vessel vasculitis of unclear pathogenesis. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) has revealed that the FCGR2A/FCGR3A, EEFSEC, RPS9/LILRB3, RIPPLY2 and MLX genes confer susceptibility to TA. We investigated the linkage between presumptive TA-related genes (FCGR2A/FCGR3A, EEFSEC, RPS9/LILRB3, RIPPLY2 and MLX) and TA in the Han Chinese population. We performed a large case-control multi-center study of 412 Han Chinese TA patients and 597 ethnically matched healthy controls...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Jan Reckenbeil, Dominik Kraus, Helmut Stark, Birgit Rath-Deschner, Andreas Jäger, Matthias Wenghoefer, Jochen Winter, Werner Götz
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) on proliferation, wound healing and differentiation processes of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under inflammatory conditions and whether the protective, anabolic effects of IGF1 can attenuate unfavorable effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). DESIGN: Inflammation was mimicked through cell stimulation with IL-1β. PDL cells were characterized in respect to the presence of components of the IGF system and the responsive potential on IL-1β incubation...
October 15, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
M J Tao, W Al-Jundi, G Roche-Nagle
INTRODUCTION: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAA) are the most prevalent form of peripheral arterial aneurysms. Greater saphenous vein grafts and endoaneurysmorrhaphy remains the mainstay therapy for open repair of PAA. True aneurysmal degeneration of lower extremity infrainguinal autologous vein grafts are relatively rare and its etiology is not completely understood. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 57-year-old man with recurrent autologous venous graft aneurysmal dilatations following a surgical popliteal artery aneurysm repair...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Shuaihantian Luo, Yunuo Wang, Ming Zhao, Qianjin Lu
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a severe autoimmune disease that causes multiple-organ dysfunction mainly affecting women in their childbearing years. Type I IFN synthesis is usually triggered by viruses, and its production is tightly regulated and limited in time in health individuals. However, many patients with systemic autoimmune diseases including SLE have signs of aberrant production of type I interferon (IFN) and display an increased expression of IFN-inducible genes. Continuous type I IFNs derived from activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) by interferogenic immune complexes (ICs) and migration of these cells to tissues both break immune tolerance and promote an on-going autoimmune reaction in human body...
October 18, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Tommaso Michele Moles, Antonio Pompeiano, Thais Huarancca Reyes, Andrea Scartazza, Lorenzo Guglielminetti
Landraces represent an important part of the biodiversity well-adapted under limiting environmental conditions. We investigated the response of two Southern Italy tomato landraces, the well-known San Marzano (our commercial standard) and a local accession called "Ciettaicale", to different levels of sodium chloride in water irrigation (from 0 up to 600 mM) for a short-time exposure (one week). The combination of the chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange analyses suggested that Ciettaicale maintained a higher efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and CO2 utilization at high salinity concentrations than San Marzano...
October 12, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ismael Apud, Oriol Romaní
Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage from the Amazon, traditionally used by indigenous and mestizo populations in the region. Widespread international use of the beverage began in the 1990s in both secular contexts and religious/spiritual networks. This article offers an analysis of these networks as health care systems in general and for the case of Spain and specifically Catalonia, describing the emergence and characteristics of their groups, and the therapeutic itineraries of some participants. The medical anthropology perspective we take enables us to reflect on the relationship between medicine and religion, and problematize the tensions between medicalization and medical pluralism...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Stephanie H Cook, Robert-Paul Juster, Benjamin J Calebs, Justin Heinze, Alison L Miller
Much of the extant scientific research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis functioning is conducted among White heterosexuals. Very little research examines HPA-axis functioning between different minority groups. Individuals who identify as both sexual and racial minorities may experience increased stigma and discrimination that can affect HPA-axis functioning. In the current study, we examined diurnal cortisol rhythm in young White gay men (WGM) compared to young Black gay men (BGM). The sample consisted of 70 healthy gay men (mean [SD] age=22...
October 13, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Young-Min Kim, Thrimoorthy Potta, Keun-Hong Park, Soo-Chang Song
An injectable hydrogel showing temperature-dependent chemical crosslinking was developed to combine injectabilities of physical hydrogels with dense structures of chemical hydrogels for applications in stem cell delivery-mediated tissue regeneration systems showing easy administration and maintenance of well-dispersed cells within the hydrogel. Hydrophobic methacryl groups were applied to thermosensitive poly(organophosphazenes) to induce temperature mediated hydrophobic interaction and chemical crosslinking...
October 13, 2016: Biomaterials
Si-Yong Qin, Ai-Qing Zhang, Si-Xue Cheng, Lei Rong, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Carrier-assistant drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been rapidly established for cancer therapy and great strides have been made in recent years. However, further development of DDSs is retarded by the aspects such as the low drug carrying capacity, carrier-induced toxicity and immunogenicity, complex synthesis manipulation. Drug self-delivery systems (DSDSs), in which active drugs exhibit nanoscale characteristic to realize intracellular delivery by themselves without the help of nanocarriers, have been rapidly developed to address these issues...
October 13, 2016: Biomaterials
Giulia Suarato, Seong-Il Lee, Weiyi Li, Sneha Rao, Tanvir Khan, Yizhi Meng, Maya Shelly
During mammalian embryonic development, neurons polarize to create distinct cellular compartments of axon and dendrite that inherently differ in form and function, providing the foundation for directional signaling in the nervous system. Polarization results from spatio-temporal segregation of specific proteins' activities to discrete regions of the neuron to dictate axonal vs. dendritic fate. We aim to manipulate axon formation by directed subcellular localization of crucial intracellular protein function...
October 8, 2016: Biomaterials
Yi Wang, Yao-Xin Lin, Sheng-Lin Qiao, Hong-Wei An, Yang Ma, Zeng-Ying Qiao, R P Yeshan J Rajapaksha, Hao Wang
Immunotherapy has shown a promising effect for a variety of cancers. However, the immune treatment efficiency of solid tumor is limited due to barely infiltration of immune cells in solid tumor. Researchers realized conversion of tumor supportive macrophages to tumor against ones was an effective method to induce the functional reverse of macrophage and contributed to the subsequent antitumor response. The current challenge in the field is that while making use of cytokines usually coupled with poor-distribution and systemic side effects...
October 4, 2016: Biomaterials
Julien Muffat, Yun Li, Rudolf Jaenisch
In vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells provides a systematic platform to investigate the physiological development and function of the human nervous system, as well as the etiology and consequence when these processes go awry. Recent development in three-dimensional (3D) organotypic culture systems allows modeling of the complex structure formation of the human CNS, and the intricate interactions between various resident neuronal and glial cell types. Combined with an ever-expanding genome editing and regulation toolkit such as CRISPR/Cas9, it is now a possibility to study human neurological disease in the relevant molecular, cellular and anatomical context...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Camilo A F Salvador, Mariana R Dal Bó, Fernando H Costa, Marcia O Taipina, Eder S N Lopes, Rubens Caram
In this study, we explored the Ti-Nb-Fe system to find an optimal cost-effective composition with the lowest elastic modulus and the lowest added Nb content. Six Ti-(31-4x)Nb-(1+0.5x)Fe ingots were prepared and Nb was substituted with Fe, starting at Ti-31Nb-1.0Fe and going up to Ti-11Nb-3.5Fe (wt%). The ingots were subjected to cold rolling, recrystallization and solution treatment, followed by water-quenching (WQ), furnace cooling (FC) or step-quenching to 350°C, which caused massive formation of isothermal ω phase...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Katharina Grundler, Raffaela Rotter, Sloane Tilley, Joachim Pircher, Thomas Czermak, Mustaf Yakac, Erik Gaitzsch, Steffen Massberg, Florian Krötz, Hae-Young Sohn, Ulrich Pohl, Hanna Mannell, Bjoern F Kraemer
INTRODUCTION: Platelets possess critical hemostatic functions in the system of thrombosis and hemostasis, which can be affected by a multitude of external factors. Previous research has shown that platelets have the capacity to synthesize proteins de novo and more recently a multicatalytic protein complex, the proteasome, has been discovered in platelets. Due to its vital function for cellular integrity, the proteasome has become a therapeutic target for anti-proliferative drug therapies in cancer...
October 13, 2016: Thrombosis Research
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