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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909391/visual-behavior-differences-in-drivers-across-the-lifespan-a-digital-billboard-simulator-study
#1
Despina Stavrinos, Peyton R Mosley, Shannon M Wittig, Haley D Johnson, John S Decker, Virginia P Sisiopiku, Sharon C Welburn
Driver distraction is implicated in a significant portion of motor vehicle collisions; evidence has suggested that billboards can contribute to such distraction, but many knowledge gaps remain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of various types of billboards (static, 250-foot digital transition, 500-foot digital transition, and a control [no billboard] condition) and age group (teen, middle, and older) on visual behavior through the use of a driving simulator. To address gaps in the existing literature, the effects of age group and billboard type on the following visual attention variables were considered: percent of time participants looked at billboards, average glance length, number of glances, and glance pattern activity...
August 2016: Transportation Research. Part F, Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907234/shooting-alone-the-pre-attack-experiences-and-behaviors-of-u-s-solo-mass-murderers
#2
Paul Gill, James Silver, John Horgan, Emily Corner
This paper outlines the sociodemographic, developmental, antecedent attack, attack preparation, and commission properties of 115 mass murderers between 1990 and 2014. The results indicate that mass murderer attacks are usually the culmination of a complex mix of personal, political, and social drivers that crystalize at the same time to drive the individual down the path of violent action. We specifically focus upon areas related to prior criminal engagement, leakage, and attack location familiarity. Whether the violence comes to fruition is usually a combination of the availability and vulnerability of suitable targets that suit the heady mix of personal and political grievances and the individual's capability to engage in an attack from both a psychological and technical capability standpoint...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906449/differential-mutation-frequencies-in-metastatic-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinomas-versus-primary-tumors
#3
Ayse Selen Yilmaz, Hatice Gulcin Ozer, Jessica L Gillespie, Dawn C Allain, Madison N Bernhardt, Karina Colossi Furlan, Leticia T F Castro, Sara B Peters, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Stephen Y Kang, O Hans Iwenofu, Thomas Olencki, Theodoros N Teknos, Amanda Ewart Toland
BACKGROUND: Exome and targeted sequencing studies have identified potential driver mutations for a variety of tumor types. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most highly mutated cancers but typically is associated with low rates of metastasis and high survival rates. Nevertheless, metastatic cSCC is a significant health threat; up to 8800 individuals die each year of this disease. METHODS: Because it is difficult to predict which cSCCs are more likely to metastasize, and because to the best of the authors' knowledge there are no targeted therapies specifically designated for patients with metastatic cSCC, exome and/or targeted sequencing of 18 metastatic and 10 primary cSCCs was performed to identify mutations that were more frequent in metastatic tumors and might be targeted for therapeutic benefit...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904880/microbial-community-patterns-associated-with-automated-teller-machine-keypads-in-new-york-city
#4
Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898368/the-dangers-of-rumination-on-the-road-predictors-of-risky-driving
#5
Kyle A Suhr, Chris S Dula
Past studies found many different types of factors can influence dangerous driving behaviors. Driver inattention, such as driving under the influence or using a cell phone while driving, was found to contribute to risky driving behaviors. Rumination is a cognitive process that may also contribute to risky driving behaviors due to its influence on attention and limited executive processes. The present study explores the potential role of rumination in dangerous driving behavior endorsement. It was hypothesized that trait rumination would be significantly related to dangerous driving behaviors and that this relationship would be conditional to the sex of the participant...
November 26, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893281/the-effects-of-drug-and-alcohol-consumption-on-driver-injury-severities-in-single-vehicle-crashes
#6
Ali Behnood, Fred L Mannering
OBJECTIVE: It is well known that alcohol and drugs influence driving behavior by affecting the central nervous system, awareness, vision, and perception/reaction times, but the resulting effect driver-injuries in car crashes is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting the injury severities of unimpaired, alcohol-impaired and drug-impaired drivers Method: The current paper applies a random parameters logit model to study the differences in injury severities among unimpaired, alcohol-impaired and drug-impaired drivers...
November 28, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893270/a-link-between-attentional-function-effective-eye-movements-and-driving-ability
#7
Andrew K Mackenzie, Julie M Harris
The misallocation of driver visual attention has been suggested as a major contributing factor to vehicle accidents. One possible reason is that the relatively high cognitive demands of driving limit the ability to efficiently allocate gaze. We present an experiment that explores the relationship between attentional function and visual performance when driving. Drivers performed 2 variations of a multiple-object tracking task targeting aspects of cognition including sustained attention, dual-tasking, covert attention, and visuomotor skill...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891217/models-of-eucalypt-phenology-predict-bat-population-flux
#8
John R Giles, Raina K Plowright, Peggy Eby, Alison J Peel, Hamish McCallum
Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have received increased attention after the recent emergence of notable viral pathogens of bat origin. Their vagility hinders data collection on abundance and distribution, which constrains modeling efforts and our understanding of bat ecology, viral dynamics, and spillover. We addressed this knowledge gap with models and data on the occurrence and abundance of nectarivorous fruit bat populations at 3 day roosts in southeast Queensland. We used environmental drivers of nectar production as predictors and explored relationships between bat abundance and virus spillover...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890953/knowledge-attitude-and-perception-of-disease-among-persons-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immuno-deficiency-syndrome-a-study-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#9
Mrinal Gupta, Vikram K Mahajan, Pushpinder S Chauahn, Karainder S Mehta, Ritu Rawat, T N Shiny
BACKGROUND: Although modification of behavioral practices among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients is important in decreasing HIV disease transmission, the knowledge, attitude, and perception studies about HIV infection rarely include persons living with HIV/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIMS: To assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS for the disease and other epidemiological aspects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred and fifty consecutive persons living with HIV/AIDS were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890120/influence-of-lane-departure-warnings-onset-and-reliability-on-car-drivers-behaviors
#10
J Navarro, J Deniel, E Yousfi, C Jallais, M Bueno, A Fort
Lane departures represent an important cause of road crashes. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of an auditory Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) for partial and full lane departures (onset manipulation) combined with missed warnings (reliability manipulation: 100% reliable, 83% reliable and 66% reliable) on drivers' performances and acceptance. Several studies indicate that LDWS improves drivers' performances during lane departure episodes. However, little is known about the effects of the warning onset and reliability of LDWS...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886107/evaluation-research-of-the-effects-of-longitudinal-speed-reduction-markings-on-driving-behavior-a-driving-simulator-study
#11
Han Ding, Xiaohua Zhao, Jianming Ma, Jian Rong
The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of longitudinal speed reduction markings (LSRMs) on vehicle maneuvering and drivers' operation performance on interchange connectors with different radii. Empirical data were collected in a driving simulator. Indicators-relative speed change, standard deviation of acceleration, and gas/brake pedal power-were proposed to characterize driving behavior. Statistical results revealed that LSRMs could reduce vehicles' travel speed and limit drivers' willingness to increase speed in the entire connector...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883894/an-examination-of-the-construct-and-predictive-validity-of-the-self-reported-speeding-behavior-model
#12
Dragan Jovanović, Matjaž Šraml, Boško Matović, Spasoje Mićić
The present study deals with the problem of speeding behavior on rural roads. The purpose of the paper is to examine the construct validity and the internal consistency and reliability of a questionnaire that measures the determinants of speeding behavior. In addition, it aimed to test the predictive validity of a modified theoretical framework of a theory of planned behavior (TPB) in relation to speeding behavior. A total of 546 car drivers from five local communities in the Republic of Srpska successfully completed the questionnaire after reading the scenario...
November 21, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883876/comprehensive-genomic-profiling-of-central-giant-cell-lesions-identifies-clinically-relevant-genomic-alterations
#13
Brett Bezak, Heidi Lehrke, Julia Elvin, Laurie Gay, David Schembri-Wismayer, Christopher Viozzi
PURPOSE: Comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) can simultaneously detect clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGAs) in hundreds of cancer-related genes and direct treatment toward patient-specific therapy options for many tumors. This pilot study aimed to use CGP to describe CRGAs present in central giant cell lesions (CGCLs) to characterize any possible underlying genomic drivers of CGCLs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With institutional review board approval, electronic medical records were searched for patients with histologically confirmed CGCLs who underwent biopsy at Mayo Clinic from 2000 through 2014...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882338/naturalistic-rapid-deceleration-data-drivers-aged-75-years-and-older
#14
Anna Chevalier, Aran John Chevalier, Elizabeth Clarke, Kristy Coxon, Julie Brown, Kris Rogers, Soufiane Boufous, Rebecca Ivers, Lisa Keay
The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript "Predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events", which investigates potential predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016) [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872618/time-series-analysis-of-the-bacillus-subtilis-sporulation-network-reveals-low-dimensional-chaotic-dynamics
#15
Paola Lecca, Ivan Mura, Angela Re, Gary C Barker, Adaoha E C Ihekwaba
Chaotic behavior refers to a behavior which, albeit irregular, is generated by an underlying deterministic process. Therefore, a chaotic behavior is potentially controllable. This possibility becomes practically amenable especially when chaos is shown to be low-dimensional, i.e., to be attributable to a small fraction of the total systems components. In this case, indeed, including the major drivers of chaos in a system into the modeling approach allows us to improve predictability of the systems dynamics. Here, we analyzed the numerical simulations of an accurate ordinary differential equation model of the gene network regulating sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis to explore whether the non-linearity underlying time series data is due to low-dimensional chaos...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872300/estimating-enhanced-prevaccination-measles-transmission-hotspots-in-the-context-of-cross-scale-dynamics
#16
Alexander D Becker, Ruthie B Birger, Aude Teillant, Paul A Gastanaduy, Gregory S Wallace, Bryan T Grenfell
A key question in clarifying human-environment interactions is how dynamic complexity develops across integrative scales from molecular to population and global levels. Apart from its public health importance, measles is an excellent test bed for such an analysis. Simple mechanistic models have successfully illuminated measles dynamics at the city and country levels, revealing seasonal forcing of transmission as a major driver of long-term epidemic behavior. Seasonal forcing ties closely to patterns of school aggregation at the individual and community levels, but there are few explicit estimates of school transmission due to the relative lack of epidemic data at this scale...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871098/traffic-accidents-involving-cyclists-identifying-causal-factors-using-questionnaire-survey-traffic-accident-data-and-real-world-observation
#17
Shoko Oikawa, Toshiya Hirose, Shigeru Aomura, Yasuhiro Matsui
The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of traffic accidents involving cyclists. The focus is on the characteristics of cyclist accidents and scenarios, because the number of traffic accidents involving cyclists in Tokyo is the highest in Japan. First, dangerous situations in traffic incidents were investigated by collecting data from 304 cyclists in one city in Tokyo using a questionnaire survey. The survey indicated that cyclists used their bicycles generally while commuting to work or school in the morning...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870393/sexual-modulation-of-sex-shared-neurons-and-circuits-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
REVIEW
Douglas S Portman
Studies using the nematode C. elegans have provided unique insights into the development and function of sex differences in the nervous system. Enabled by the relative simplicity of this species, comprehensive studies have solved the complete cellular neuroanatomy of both sexes as well as the complete neural connectomes of the entire adult hermaphrodite and the adult male tail. This work, together with detailed behavioral studies, has revealed three aspects of sex differences in the nervous system: sex-specific neurons and circuits; circuits with sexually dimorphic synaptic connectivity; and sex differences in the physiology and functions of shared neurons and circuits...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870045/unprecedented-remote-sensing-data-over-king-and-rim-megafires-in-the-sierra-nevada-mountains-of-california
#19
E Natasha Stavros, Zachary Tane, Van R Kane, Sander Veraverbeke, Robert J McGaughey, James A Lutz, Carlos Ramirez, David Schimel
Megafires have lasting social, ecological, and economic impacts and are increasing in the western contiguous United States. Because of their infrequent nature, there is a limited sample of megafires to investigate their unique behavior, drivers, and relationship to forest management practices. One approach is to characterize critical information pre-, during, and post-fire using remote sensing. In August 2013, the Rim Fire burned 104,131 ha and in September 2014, the King Fire burned 39,545 ha. Both fires occurred in California's Sierra Nevada...
November 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867351/advice-taking-from-humans-and-machines-an-fmri-and-effective-connectivity-study
#20
Kimberly Goodyear, Raja Parasuraman, Sergey Chernyak, Poornima Madhavan, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Frank Krueger
With new technological advances, advice can come from different sources such as machines or humans, but how individuals respond to such advice and the neural correlates involved need to be better understood. We combined functional MRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis with an X-ray luggage-screening task to investigate the neural basis and corresponding effective connectivity involved with advice utilization from agents framed as experts. Participants were asked to accept or reject good or bad advice from a human or machine agent with low reliability (high false alarm rate)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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