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Driver behavior

Douglas Yeung
This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Rifka C Derman, Carrie R Ferrario
Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS)...
March 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Pragati Chengappa, Kimheak Sao, Tia M Jones, Ryan J Petrie
Intracellular pressure, generated by actomyosin contractility and the directional flow of water across the plasma membrane, can rapidly reprogram cell shape and behavior. Recent work demonstrates that cells can generate intracellular pressure with a range spanning at least two orders of magnitude; significantly, pressure is implicated as an important regulator of cell dynamics, such as cell division and migration. Changes to intracellular pressure can dictate the mechanisms by which single human cells move through three-dimensional environments...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Wen Jin, Yinglu Deng, Hai Jiang, Qianyan Xie, Wei Shen, Weijian Han
Car insurance is quickly becoming a big data industry, with usage-based insurance (UBI) poised to potentially change the business of insurance. Telematics data, which are transmitted from wireless devices in car, are widely used in UBI to obtain individual-level travel and driving characteristics. While most existing studies have introduced telematics data into car insurance pricing, the telematics-related characteristics are directly obtained from the raw data. In this study, we propose to quantify drivers' familiarity with their driving routes and develop models to quantify drivers' accident risks using the telematics data...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Gary R Zirpoli, Susan E McCann, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell, Dawn L Hershman, Gregory Ciupak, Warren Davis, Joseph M Unger, Halle C F Moore, James A Stewart, Claudine Isaacs, Timothy J Hobday, Muhammad Salim, Gabriel N Hortobagyi, Julie R Gralow, G Thomas Budd, Kathy S Albain, Christine B Ambrosone
Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) can interfere with daily function and quality of life, and there are no known preventive approaches. In a cohort of breast cancer patients receiving paclitaxel as part of a clinical trial (SWOG 0221), we examined the use of dietary supplements both before diagnosis and during treatment in relation to CIPN. Methods: At registration to S0221, 1225 breast cancer patients completed questionnaires regarding the use of multivitamins and supplements before and at diagnosis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Xiaohua Zhao, Han Ding, Zhanzhou Lin, Jianming Ma, Jian Rong
Longitudinal speed reduction markings (LSRMs) are designed to alert drivers to an upcoming change in roadway geometry (e.g. direct connectors with smaller radii). In Beijing, LSRMs are usually installed on direct connectors of urban expressways. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of LSRMs on vehicle operation and driver behavior, and evaluate the decelerating effectiveness of LSRMs on direct connectors with different radii. Empirical data were collected in a driving simulator, and indicators representing vehicle operation status and driving behavior were proposed...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Wentao Jing, Mohsen Ramezani, Kun An, Inhi Kim
The path choice behavior of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers is influenced by the lack of public charging stations, limited battery capacity, range anxiety and long battery charging time. This paper investigates the congestion/flow pattern captured by stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) traffic assignment problem in transportation networks with BEVs, where the BEV paths are restricted by their battery capacities. The BEV energy consumption is assumed to be a linear function of path length and path travel time, which addresses both path distance limit problem and road congestion effect...
2018: PloS One
Hyungil Kim, Joseph L Gabbard, Alexandre Miranda Anon, Teruhisa Misu
This article investigates the effects of visual warning presentation methods on human performance in augmented reality (AR) driving. An experimental user study was conducted in a parking lot where participants drove a test vehicle while braking for any cross traffic with assistance from AR visual warnings presented on a monoscopic and volumetric head-up display (HUD). Results showed that monoscopic displays can be as effective as volumetric displays for human performance in AR braking tasks. The experiment also demonstrated the benefits of conformal graphics, which are tightly integrated into the real world, such as their ability to guide drivers' attention and their positive consequences on driver behavior and performance...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Stephen Brimijoin, Yang Gao, Liyi Geng, Vicky P Chen
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a plasma enzyme that hydrolyses the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine relatively well, with far lower efficiency than acetylcholinesterase (AChE) but with the capability to degrade a broad range of bioactive esters. AChE is universally understood as essential to cholinergic neurotransmission, voluntary muscle performance, and cognition, among other roles, and its catalytic impact is essential for life. A total absence of BChE activity, whether by enzyme inhibition or simple lack of enzyme protein is not only compatible with life, but does not lead to obvious physiologic disturbance...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Luis Montoro, Sergio Useche, Francisco Alonso, Boris Cendales
Public transport is an effective and sustainable alternative to private vehicle usage, also helping to reduce the environmental impact of driving. However, the work environment of public transport operators is full of adverse conditions, which, together with their high mileage, may increase the occurrence of negative safety outcomes such as traffic accidents, often preceded by risky road behaviors enhanced by stress, anger, and difficult operating conditions. The aims of this study were, first, to determine the association between work-related psychosocial factors and individual characteristics of public transport drivers and the rate of traffic sanctions they are subject to; and second, to assess the mediation of driving anger in this relationship...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Steven M Lavrenz, Eleni I Vlahogianni, Konstantina Gkritza, Yue Ke
The use of statistical models for analyzing traffic safety (crash) data has been well-established. However, time series techniques have traditionally been underrepresented in the corresponding literature, due to challenges in data collection, along with a limited knowledge of proper methodology. In recent years, new types of high-resolution traffic safety data, especially in measuring driver behavior, have made time series modeling techniques an increasingly salient topic of study. Yet there remains a dearth of information to guide analysts in their use...
March 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jonathan J Rolison, Shirley Regev, Salissou Moutari, Aidan Feeney
What are the main contributing factors to road accidents? Factors such as inexperience, lack of skill, and risk-taking behaviors have been associated with the collisions of young drivers. In contrast, visual, cognitive, and mobility impairment have been associated with the collisions of older drivers. We investigated the main causes of road accidents by drawing on multiple sources: expert views of police officers, lay views of the driving public, and official road accident records. In Studies 1 and 2, police officers and the public were asked about the typical causes of road traffic collisions using hypothetical accident scenarios...
March 9, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Obieze Chiemeka Nwanna-Nzewunwa, Marquise Kouo Ngamby, Elinor Shetter, Georges Alain Etoundi Mballa, Isabelle Feldhaus, Martin Ekeke Monono, Adnan A Hyder, Rochelle Dicker, Kent A Stevens, Catherine Juillard
INTRODUCTION: About 54% of deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are attributable to lack of prehospital care. The single largest contributor to the disability-adjusted life years due to poor prehospital care is injury. Despite having disproportionately high injury burdens, most LMIC trauma systems have little prehospital organization. An understanding of existing prehospital care patterns in LMICs is warranted as a precursor to strengthening prehospital systems. METHODS: In this retrospective pilot study, we collected demographic and injury characteristics, therapeutic itinerary, and transport data of patients that were captured by the trauma registry at the Central Hospital of Yaoundé (CHY) from April 15, 2009 to October 15, 2009...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
José E Velázquez Vega, Daniel J Brat
Recent advances in molecular pathology have reshaped the practice of brain tumor diagnostics. The classification of gliomas has been restructured with the discovery of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1/2 mutations in the vast majority of lower grade infiltrating gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBM), with IDH-mutant astrocytomas further characterized by TP53 and ATRX mutations. Whole-arm 1p/19q codeletion in conjunction with IDH mutations now define oligodendrogliomas, which are also enriched for CIC, FUBP1, PI3K, NOTCH1, and TERT-p mutations...
March 8, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Christiana Neophytou, Panagiotis Boutsikos, Panagiotis Papageorgis
Breast cancer represents a highly heterogeneous disease comprised by several subtypes with distinct histological features, underlying molecular etiology and clinical behaviors. It is widely accepted that triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive subtypes, often associated with poor patient outcome due to the development of metastases in secondary organs, such as the lungs, brain, and bone. The molecular complexity of the metastatic process in combination with the lack of effective targeted therapies for TNBC metastasis have fostered significant research efforts during the past few years to identify molecular "drivers" of this lethal cascade...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Daniel Lemogoum, William Ngatchou, Claude Bika Lele, Cecile Okalla, Marc Leeman, Jean-Paul Degaute, Philippe van de Borne
BACKGROUND: High salt intake increases blood pressure (BP) and hypertension risk. This study aimed to examine association of urinary sodium excretion with BP and hypertension correlates among Cameroonian pygmies under hunter-gatherer subsistence mode and Bantus, living in urban area under unhealthy behavioral habits. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cluster sampling study, we randomly enrolled rural pygmies living in Lolodorf and urban Bantus living in Douala. The World Health Organization steps questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and lifestyle data...
March 7, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Jordan Navarro, François Osiurak, Emanuelle Reynaud
OBJECTIVE: Assess the influence of background music tempo on driving performance. BACKGROUND: Music with a fast tempo is known to increase the level of arousal, whereas the reverse is observed for slow music. The relationship between driving performance and level of arousal was expected to take the form of an inverted U-curve. METHOD: Three experiments were undertaken to manipulate the musical background during driving. In Experiment 1, the driver's preferred music track played at its original and modified (plus or minus 30%) tempo were used together with the simple ticking of a metronome...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
Konstantinos S Kalogerakis, Daniel Matsiev, Philip C Cosby, James A Dodd, Stefano Falcinelli, Jonas Hedin, Alexander A Kutepov, Stefan Noll, Peter A Panka, Constantin Romanescu, Jérôme E Thiebaud
The question of whether mesospheric OH( υ ) rotational population distributions are in equilibrium with the local kinetic temperature has been debated over several decades. Despite several indications for the existence of non-equilibrium effects, the general consensus has been that emissions originating from low rotational levels are thermalized. Sky spectra simultaneously observing several vibrational levels demonstrated reproducible trends in the extracted OH( υ ) rotational temperatures as a function of vibrational excitation...
2018: Annales Geophysicae
Ali Asgar Bohra, Benjamin R Kallman, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Drosophila has become an excellent model system for investigating the organization and function of the gustatory system due to the relatively simple neuroanatomical organization of its brain and the availability of powerful genetic and transgenic technology. Thus, at the molecular and cellular levels, a great deal of insight into the peripheral detection and coding of gustatory information has already been attained. In contrast, much less is known about the central neural circuits that process this information and induce behaviorally appropriate motor output...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Loukas Dimitriou, Katerina Stylianou, Mohamed A Abdel-Aty
Rear-end crashes are one of the most frequently occurring crash types, especially in urban networks. An understanding of the contributing factors and their significant association with rear-end crashes is of practical importance and will help in the development of effective countermeasures. The objective of this study is to assess rear-end crash potential at a microscopic level in an urban environment, by investigating vehicle-by-vehicle interactions. To do so, several traffic parameters at the individual vehicle level have been taken into consideration, for capturing car-following characteristics and vehicle interactions, and to investigate their effect on potential rear-end crashes...
March 1, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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