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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448790/drinking-and-driving-behavior-at-stop-signs-and-red-lights
#1
Jingyan Wan, Changxu Wu, Yiqi Zhang, Rebecca J Houston, Chang Wen Chen, Panya Chanawangsa
Alcohol is one of the principal risk factors for motor vehicle crashes. One factor that contributes to vehicle crashes is noncompliance with stop signs and red lights. The present experiment investigated the effects of alcohol and drinking patterns on driving behavior at stop signs and red lights. 28 participants participated in drinking and simulated driving sessions during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.08% BAC) or a placebo. Simulated driving tasks measured participants' driving performance at stop signs and red lights in response to each dose...
April 24, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441520/age-gender-and-deterrability-are-younger-male-drivers-more-likely-to-discount-the-future
#2
James Freeman, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Verity Truelove, Jeremy Davey
Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N=700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions...
April 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439543/saving-the-injured-rescue-behavior-in-the-termite-hunting-ant-megaponera-analis
#3
Erik Thomas Frank, Thomas Schmitt, Thomas Hovestadt, Oliver Mitesser, Jonas Stiegler, Karl Eduard Linsenmair
Predators of highly defensive prey likely develop cost-reducing adaptations. The ant Megaponera analis is a specialized termite predator, solely raiding termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (in this study, mostly colonies of Pseudocanthotermes sp.) at their foraging sites. The evolutionary arms race between termites and ants led to various defensive mechanisms in termites (for example, a caste specialized in fighting predators). Because M. analis incurs high injury/mortality risks when preying on termites, some risk-mitigating adaptations seem likely to have evolved...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436736/are-you-okay-to-drive-commuting-behavior-and-blood-alcohol-concentrations-amongst-restaurant-diners
#4
B Scott-Parker, L Stokes, S Panaho, M Cawkwell, J Caldwell
Objective Drink driving is widely recognised as a major road safety problem. In Australia, health promotion messages encourage monitoring the number of standard drinks consumed prior to driving. The pilot research aimed to investigate commuting behaviour and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of diners, including intended-drivers, at Sunshine Coast restaurants. Methods Five hundred and forty-four diners (n = 260 males) consented to participate in a brief interview and to use a breathalyser device to measure their BAC...
February 25, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428394/beyond-the-roots-of-human-inaction-fostering-collective-effort-toward-ecosystem-conservation
#5
REVIEW
Elise Amel, Christie Manning, Britain Scott, Susan Koger
The term "environmental problem" exposes a fundamental misconception: Disruptions of Earth's ecosystems are at their root a human behavior problem. Psychology is a potent tool for understanding the external and internal drivers of human behavior that lead to unsustainable living. Psychologists already contribute to individual-level behavior-change campaigns in the service of sustainability, but attention is turning toward understanding and facilitating the role of individuals in collective and collaborative actions that will modify the environmentally damaging systems in which humans are embedded...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426316/mechanisms-linking-hiv-related-stigma-adherence-to-treatment-and-health-outcomes-a-conceptual-framework
#6
Bulent Turan, Abigail M Hatcher, Sheri D Weiser, Mallory O Johnson, Whitney S Rice, Janet M Turan
We present a conceptual framework that highlights how unique dimensions of individual-level HIV-related stigma (perceived community stigma, experienced stigma, internalized stigma, and anticipated stigma) might differently affect the health of those living with HIV. HIV-related stigma is recognized as a barrier to both HIV prevention and engagement in HIV care, but little is known about the mechanisms through which stigma leads to worse health behaviors or outcomes. Our conceptual framework posits that, in the context of intersectional and structural stigmas, individual-level dimensions of HIV-related stigma operate through interpersonal factors, mental health, psychological resources, and biological stress pathways...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425174/costs-and-benefits-of-sub-lethal-drosophila-c-virus-infection
#7
Vanika Gupta, Charlotte Stewart, Samuel S C Rund, Katy Monteith, Pedro F Vale
Viruses are major evolutionary drivers of insect immune systems. Much of our knowledge of insect immune responses derives from experimental infections using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Most experiments, however, employ lethal pathogen doses through septic injury, frequently overwhelming host physiology. While this approach has revealed several immune mechanisms, it is less informative about the fitness costs hosts may experience during infection in the wild. Using both systemic and oral infection routes we find that even apparently benign, sub-lethal infections with the horizontally transmitted Drosophila C Virus (DCV) can cause significant physiological and behavioral morbidity that is relevant for host fitness...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423491/the-mir-25-93-106b-cluster-regulates-tumor-metastasis-and-immune-evasion-via-modulation-of-cxcl12-and-pd-l1
#8
Michele Cioffi, Sara M Trabulo, Mireia Vallespinos, Deepak Raj, Tony Bou Kheir, Meng-Lay Lin, Julfa Begum, Ann-Marie Baker, Ala Amgheib, Jaimy Saif, Manuel Perez, Joaquim Soriano, Manuel Desco, Maria Victoria Gomez-Gaviro, Lorena Cusso, Diego Megias, Alexandra Aicher, Christopher Heeschen
The stromal microenvironment controls response to injury and inflammation, and is also an important determinant of cancer cell behavior. However, our understanding of its modulation by miRNA (miR) and their respective targets is still sparse. Here, we identified the miR-25-93-106b cluster and two new target genes as critical drivers for metastasis and immune evasion of cancer cells. Using miR-25-93-106b knockout mice or antagomiRs, we demonstrated regulation of the production of the chemoattractant CXCL12 controlling bone marrow metastasis...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420976/improving-robot-motor-learning-with-negatively-valenced-reinforcement-signals
#9
Nicolás Navarro-Guerrero, Robert J Lowe, Stefan Wermter
Both nociception and punishment signals have been used in robotics. However, the potential for using these negatively valenced types of reinforcement learning signals for robot learning has not been exploited in detail yet. Nociceptive signals are primarily used as triggers of preprogrammed action sequences. Punishment signals are typically disembodied, i.e., with no or little relation to the agent-intrinsic limitations, and they are often used to impose behavioral constraints. Here, we provide an alternative approach for nociceptive signals as drivers of learning rather than simple triggers of preprogrammed behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413816/spectroscopic-and-afm-characterization-of-polypeptide-surface-interactions-controls-and-lipid-quantitative-analyses
#10
Øyvind Strømland, Ørjan S Handegård, Morten L Govasli, Hanzhen Wen, Samuel Furse, Øyvind Halskau
This article is related to http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.01.005 (Ø. Strømland, Ø.S. Handegård, M.L. Govasli, H. Wen, Ø. Halskau, 2017) [1]. In protein and polypeptide-membrane interaction studies, negatively charged lipids are often used as they are a known driver for membrane interaction. When using fluorescence spectroscopy and CD as indicators of polypeptide binding and conformational change, respectively, the effect of zwitterionic lipids only should be documented. The present data documents several aspects of how two engineered polypeptides (A-Cage-C and A-Lnk-C) derived from the membrane associating protein alpha-Lactalbumin affects and are affected by the presence of zwitterionic bilayers in the form of vesicles...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412311/cross-national-investigation-of-the-drivers-of-obesity-re-assessment-of-past-findings-and-avenues-for-the-future
#11
Katrien Cooremans, Maggie Geuens, Mario Pandelaere
In this paper we question whether prior cross-national differences in food attitudes still exist and if so, to what extent. Due to societal evolutions such as sedentarism and globalization, international variations in food attitudes may not be as pronounced as currently believed. A cross-sectional web-based survey was carried out in the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Belgium. A total of 2167 respondents (52% women; mean age = 39.0 years, SD = 11.4) participated. To successfully combat obesity, a joint approach focusing on food choice and physical activity is required; therefore we included behavioral measures by means of choice tasks for these two important drivers...
April 13, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412303/laboratory-analysis-of-risky-driving-at-0-05-and-0-08-blood-alcohol-concentration
#12
Nicholas A Van Dyke, Mark T Fillmore
BACKGROUND: The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic crashes are a continuing problem for society. One harm reduction strategy has been to employ per se limits for blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at which drivers can legally operate motor vehicles. This limit is currently 0.08% in all 50 US states. Recently, the National Transportation Safety Board proposed lowering the legal limit to 0.05% (NTSB, 2013). While research has well-validated the ability of alcohol to impair driving performance and heighten crash-risk at these BACs, relatively little is known about the degree to which alcohol might increase drivers' risk-taking...
March 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406807/community-level-hiv-stigma-as-a-driver-for-hiv-transmission-risk-behaviors-and-sexually-transmitted-diseases-in-sierra-leone-a-population-based-study
#13
J Daniel Kelly, Michael J Reid, Maureen Lahiff, Alexander C Tsai, Sheri D Weiser
INTRODUCTION: While HIV stigma has been identified as an important risk factor for HIV transmission risk behaviors, little is known about the contribution of community-level HIV stigma to HIV transmission risk behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), or how gender may modify associations. METHODS: We pooled data from the 2008 and 2013 Sierra Leone DHS. For HIV stigma, we examined HIV stigmatizing attitudes and HIV disclosure concerns at both individual and community levels...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402427/bdnf-overexpression-prevents-cognitive-deficit-elicited-by-adolescent-cannabis-exposure-and-host-susceptibility-interaction
#14
Hadar Segal-Gavish, Neta Gazit, Yael Barhum, Tali Ben-Zur, Michal Taler, Shay Henry Hornfeld, Irit Gil-Ad, Abraham Weizman, Inna Slutsky, Minae Niwa, Atsushi Kamiya, Akira Sawa, Daniel Offen, Ran Barzilay
Cannabis abuse in adolescence is associated with increased risk of psychotic disorders. Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) protein is a driver for major mental illness by influencing neurodevelopmental processes. Here, utilizing a unique mouse model based on host (DISC1) X environment (THC administration) interaction, we aimed at studying the pathobiological basis through which THC exposure elicits psychiatric manifestations...
April 11, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401334/h3-idh-wild-type-pediatric-glioblastoma-is-comprised-of-molecularly-and-prognostically-distinct-subtypes-with-associated-oncogenic-drivers
#15
Andrey Korshunov, Daniel Schrimpf, Marina Ryzhova, Dominik Sturm, Lukas Chavez, Volker Hovestadt, Tanvi Sharma, Antje Habel, Anna Burford, Chris Jones, Olga Zheludkova, Ella Kumirova, Christof M Kramm, Andrey Golanov, David Capper, Andreas von Deimling, Stefan M Pfister, David T W Jones
Pediatric glioblastoma (pedGBM) is an extremely aggressive pediatric brain tumor, accounting for ~6% of all central nervous system neoplasms in children. Approximately half of pedGBM harbor recurrent somatic mutations in histone 3 variants or, infrequently, IDH1/2. The remaining subset of pedGBM is highly heterogeneous, and displays a variety of genomic and epigenetic features. In the current study, we aimed to further stratify an H3-/IDH-wild type (wt) pedGBM cohort assessed through genome-wide molecular profiling...
April 11, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399463/distraction-or-cognitive-overload-using-modulations-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-to-discriminate-the-possible-negative-effects-of-advanced-assistance-system
#16
D Ruscio, A J Bos, M R Ciceri
The interaction with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems has several positive implications for road safety, but also some potential downsides such as mental workload and automation complacency. Malleable attentional resources allocation theory describes two possible processes that can generate workload in interaction with advanced assisting devices. The purpose of the present study is to determine if specific analysis of the different modalities of autonomic control of nervous system can be used to discriminate different potential workload processes generated during assisted-driving tasks and automation complacency situations...
April 8, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398967/current-trends-in-exercise-intervention-research-technology-and-behavioral-change-strategies-for-people-with-disabilities-a-scoping-review
#17
Byron Lai, Hui-Ju Young, C Scott Bickel, Robert W Motl, James H Rimmer
This review synthesized physical activity and exercise intervention literature for the past 10 yrs for people with physical and cognitive disabilities including intervention characteristics, behavior change strategies, and types of technologies used to improve targeted outcomes. Systematic searches yielded 132 eligible studies. The major disability groups were multiple sclerosis (41%), stroke (15%), and spinal cord injury (12%). Research designs primarily involved randomized controlled trials (61%) versus quasi-experimental designs (39%)...
April 8, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396716/tumor-reactive-stroma-in-cholangiocarcinoma-the-fuel-behind-cancer-aggressiveness
#18
EDITORIAL
Simone Brivio, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Mario Strazzabosco, Luca Fabris
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly aggressive epithelial malignancy still carrying a dismal prognosis, owing to early lymph node metastatic dissemination and striking resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Although mechanisms underpinning CCA progression are still a conundrum, it is now increasingly recognized that the desmoplastic microenvironment developing in conjunction with biliary carcinogenesis, recently renamed tumor reactive stroma (TRS), behaves as a paramount tumor-promoting driver. Indeed, once being recruited, activated and dangerously co-opted by neoplastic cells, the cellular components of the TRS (myofibroblasts, macrophages, endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells) continuously rekindle malignancy by secreting a huge variety of soluble factors (cyto/chemokines, growth factors, morphogens and proteinases)...
March 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394925/driver-behavior-profiling-an-investigation-with-different-smartphone-sensors-and-machine-learning
#19
Jair Ferreira, Eduardo Carvalho, Bruno V Ferreira, Cleidson de Souza, Yoshihiko Suhara, Alex Pentland, Gustavo Pessin
Driver behavior impacts traffic safety, fuel/energy consumption and gas emissions. Driver behavior profiling tries to understand and positively impact driver behavior. Usually driver behavior profiling tasks involve automated collection of driving data and application of computer models to generate a classification that characterizes the driver aggressiveness profile. Different sensors and classification methods have been employed in this task, however, low-cost solutions and high performance are still research targets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394329/a-stemness-related-zeb1-msrb3-axis-governs-cellular-pliancy-and-breast-cancer-genome-stability
#20
Anne-Pierre Morel, Christophe Ginestier, Roxane M Pommier, Olivier Cabaud, Emmanuelle Ruiz, Julien Wicinski, Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Valérie Combaret, Pascal Finetti, Christelle Chassot, Christiane Pinatel, Frédérique Fauvet, Pierre Saintigny, Emilie Thomas, Caroline Moyret-Lalle, Joël Lachuer, Emmanuelle Despras, Jean-Luc Jauffret, François Bertucci, Jérôme Guitton, Anne Wierinckx, Qing Wang, Nina Radosevic-Robin, Frédérique Penault-Llorca, David G Cox, Frédéric Hollande, Stéphane Ansieau, Julie Caramel, Daniel Birnbaum, Arnaud M Vigneron, Agnès Tissier, Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret, Alain Puisieux
Chromosomal instability (CIN), a feature of most adult neoplasms from their early stages onward, is a driver of tumorigenesis. However, several malignancy subtypes, including some triple-negative breast cancers, display a paucity of genomic aberrations, thus suggesting that tumor development may occur in the absence of CIN. Here we show that the differentiation status of normal human mammary epithelial cells dictates cell behavior after an oncogenic event and predetermines the genetic routes toward malignancy...
April 10, 2017: Nature Medicine
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