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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239638/brain-amyloid-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with%C3%A2-increased-driving-risk
#1
Brian R Ott, Richard N Jones, Richard B Noto, Don C Yoo, Peter J Snyder, Justine N Bernier, David B Carr, Catherine M Roe
INTRODUCTION: Postmortem studies suggest that fibrillar brain amyloid places people at higher risk for hazardous driving in the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We administered driving questionnaires to 104 older drivers (19 AD, 24 mild cognitive impairment, and 61 cognitive normal) who had a recent (18)F-florbetapir positron emission tomography scan. We examined associations of amyloid standardized uptake value ratios with driving behaviors: traffic violations or accidents in the past 3 years...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239596/genetic-diversity-of-atlantic-bluefin-tuna-in-the-mediterranean-sea-insights-from-genome-wide-snps-and-microsatellites
#2
Aglaia Antoniou, Panagiotis Kasapidis, Georgios Kotoulas, Constantinos C Mylonas, Antonios Magoulas
BACKGROUND: Elucidating the patterns of the Atlantic Bluefin tuna [ABFT, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758)] population structure constitutes a challenging task of great importance. Most of the unique challenges stem from its biology, as well as the attributes of the marine realm in which it disperses. Accurate information is urgently needed for stock assessment, and the identification of critical features to the persistence and adaptation of populations in order to formulate and adopt effective strategies for ABFT conservation and management...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237585/invited-review-determinants-of-farmers-adoption-of-management-based-strategies-for-infectious-disease-prevention-and-control
#3
Caroline Ritter, Jolanda Jansen, Steven Roche, David F Kelton, Cindy L Adams, Karin Orsel, Ron J Erskine, Geart Benedictus, Theo J G M Lam, Herman W Barkema
The prevention and control of endemic pathogens within and between farms often depends on the adoption of best management practices. However, farmers regularly do not adopt recommended measures or do not enroll in voluntary disease control programs. This indicates that a more comprehensive understanding of the influences and extension tools that affect farmers' management decisions is necessary. Based on a review of relevant published literature, we developed recommendations to support policy-makers, industry representatives, researchers, veterinarians, and other stakeholders when motivating farmers to adopt best management practices, and to facilitate the development and implementation of voluntary prevention and control programs for livestock diseases...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237465/human-and-soil-exposure-during-mechanical-chlorpyrifos-myclobutanil-and-copper-oxychloride-application-in-a-peach-orchard-in-argentina
#4
Giselle Berenstein, Soledad Nasello, Érica Beiguel, Pedro Flores, Johanna Di Schiena, Silvana Basack, Enrique A Hughes, Anita Zalts, Javier M Montserrat
The objective of this study was to measure the impact of the mechanized chlorpyrifos, copper oxychloride and myclobutanil application in a small peach orchard, on humans (operators, bystanders and residents) and on the productive soil. The mean Potential Dermal Exposure (PDE) of the workers (tractor drivers) was 30.8mL·h(-1)±16.4mL·h(-1), with no specific pesticide distribution on the laborers body. Although the Margin of Safety (MOS) factor for the application stage were above 1 (safe condition) for myclobutanil and cooper oxycloride it was below 1 for chlorpyrifos...
February 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237367/dollar-for-dollar-racial-and-ethnic-inequalities-in-health-and-health-related-outcomes-among-persons-with-very-high-income
#5
Kanetha B Wilson, Roland J Thorpe, Thomas A LaVeist
Racial and ethnic disparities in health have been well-documented, and low SES is widely considered to be a driver of this relationship. However, the race-social class-health interrelationship is complex, as several studies have found race disparities between racial/ethnic minorities and whites at middle- income levels. Research on higher income persons is complicated by the lack of data for persons with incomes about $75,000. Most national datasets collect income data in categories with the highest income category being $75,000 and above...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235908/potencies-of-effector-genes-in-silencing-odor-guided-behavior-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Tom Retzke, Michael Thoma, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
The genetic toolbox in Drosophila offers a multitude of different effector constructs to silence neurons and neuron populations. In this study we investigated the potencies of several effector genes - when expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) - to abolish odor-guided behavior in three different bioassays. We find that two of the tested effectors (tetanus toxin and Kir2.1) are capable of mimicking the Orco mutant phenotype in all of our behavioral paradigms. In both cases the effectiveness depended on effector expression levels as full suppression of odor-guided behavior was observed only in flies homozygous for both Gal4-driver and UAS-effector constructs...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235899/dual-targeting-of-mesenchymal-and-amoeboid-motility-hinders-metastatic-behavior
#7
Brandon C Jones, Laura C Kelley, Yuriy V Loskutov, Kristina M Marinak, Varvara K Kozyreva, Matthew B Smolkin, Elena N Pugacheva
: Commonly upregulated in human cancers, the scaffolding protein NEDD9/HEF1 is a known regulator of mesenchymal migration and cancer cell plasticity. However, the functional role of NEDD9 as a regulator of different migration/invasion modes in the context of breast cancer metastasis is currently unknown. Here, it is reported that NEDD9 is necessary for both mesenchymal and amoeboid individual cell migration/invasion in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). NEDD9 deficiency results in acquisition of the amoeboid morphology, but severely limits all types of cell motility...
February 24, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231559/prostate-cancer-heterogeneity-discovering-novel-molecular-targets-for-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Chiara Ciccarese, Francesco Massari, Roberto Iacovelli, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Rodolfo Montironi, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Francesca Giunchi, Matteo Brunelli, Giampaolo Tortora
Prostate cancer (PCa) shows a broad spectrum of biological and clinical behavior, which represents the epiphenomenon of an extreme genetic heterogeneity. Recent genomic profiling studies have deeply improved the knowledge of the genomic landscape of localized and metastatic PCa. The AR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways are the two most frequently altered, representing therefore interestingly targets for therapy. Moreover, somatic or germline aberrations of DNA repair genes (DRGs) have been observed at high frequency, supporting the potential role of platinum derivatives and PARP inhibitors as effective therapeutic strategies...
February 11, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231494/marijuana-and-other-substance-use-among-male-and-female-underage-drinkers-who-drive-after-drinking-and-ride-with-those-who-drive-after-drinking
#9
Lisa Buckley, Erin E Bonar, Maureen A Walton, Patrick M Carter, Diana Voloshyna, Peter F Ehrlich, Rebecca M Cunningham
The study sought to describe the occurrence of adolescent driving after drinking (DD) and riding with a driver who had been drinking (RWDD) and associations with substance use for both males and females. As part of screening for a randomized controlled trial, we surveyed 16-20year olds (N=3418) recruited from an emergency department (ED) and analyzed data from those reporting past-year alcohol consumption (n=2150, 58% females). DD was reported by 22% of females and 28% of males and RWDD was reported by 39% of females and 38% of males, also in the past year...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230266/who-is-a-distracted-driver-associations-between-mobile-phone-use-while-driving-domain-specific-risk-taking-and-personality
#10
Madison Sween, Andrea Ceschi, Francesco Tommasi, Riccardo Sartori, Joshua Weller
Mobile phone use while driving (MPUWD) is an increasingly common form of distracted driving. Given its widespread prevalence, it is important for researchers to identify factors that may predict who is more likely to engage in this risky behavior. The current study investigates associations between MPUWD risk behaviors, domain-specific risk perceptions, and broad personality dimensions. An Italian community sample (n = 804) completed a survey regarding MPUWD risk perceptions and engagement in MPUWD, in addition to the HEXACO-PI-R, a broad six-factor personality inventory (honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience), and the DOSPERT, a six-factor domain-specific self-report risk-taking measure (health/safety, recreational, social, ethical, gambling, and investment)...
February 23, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226720/comparison-of-viscoelastic-property-characterization-of-plastisol-phantoms-with-magnetic-resonance-elastography-and-high-frequency-rheometry
#11
P M Lefebvre, K Tse Ve Koon, E Brusseau, S Nicolle, J-F Palieme, S A Lambert, D Grenier, P M Lefebvre, K Tse Ve Koon, E Brusseau, S Nicolle, J-F Palieme, S A Lambert, D Grenier, P M Lefebvre, E Brusseau, S Nicolle, D Grenier, S A Lambert
This study aims at evaluating Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) as a reliable technique for the characterization of viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. Three phantoms with different concentrations of plastisol and softener were prepared in order to mechanically mimic a broad panel of healthy and pathological soft tissues. Once placed in a MRI device, each sample was excited by a homemade external driver, inducing shear waves within the medium. The storage (G') and loss (G") moduli of each phantom were then reconstructed from MRE acquisitions over a frequency range from 300 to 1,000 Hz, by applying a 2D Helmholtz inversion algorithm...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223481/sustained-disruption-of-narwhal-habitat-use-and-behavior-in-the-presence-of-arctic-killer-whales
#12
Greg A Breed, Cory J D Matthews, Marianne Marcoux, Jeff W Higdon, Bernard LeBlanc, Stephen D Petersen, Jack Orr, Natalie R Reinhart, Steven H Ferguson
Although predators influence behavior of prey, analyses of electronic tracking data in marine environments rarely consider how predators affect the behavior of tracked animals. We collected an unprecedented dataset by synchronously tracking predator (killer whales, [Formula: see text] = 1; representing a family group) and prey (narwhal, [Formula: see text] = 7) via satellite telemetry in Admiralty Inlet, a large fjord in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Analyzing the movement data with a switching-state space model and a series of mixed effects models, we show that the presence of killer whales strongly alters the behavior and distribution of narwhal...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222117/two-dynamic-regimes-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#13
Sean M Gibbons, Sean M Kearney, Chris S Smillie, Eric J Alm
The gut microbiome is a dynamic system that changes with host development, health, behavior, diet, and microbe-microbe interactions. Prior work on gut microbial time series has largely focused on autoregressive models (e.g. Lotka-Volterra). However, we show that most of the variance in microbial time series is non-autoregressive. In addition, we show how community state-clustering is flawed when it comes to characterizing within-host dynamics and that more continuous methods are required. Most organisms exhibited stable, mean-reverting behavior suggestive of fixed carrying capacities and abundant taxa were largely shared across individuals...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221990/an-integrated-circuit-for-simultaneous-extracellular-electrophysiology-recording-and-optogenetic-neural-manipulation
#14
Chang Hao Chen, Elizabeth A McCullagh, Sio Hang Pun, Peng Un Mak, Mang I Vai, Pui In Mak, Achim Klug, Tim C Lei
OBJECTIVE: The ability to record and to control action potential firing in neuronal circuits is critical to understand how the brain functions. The objective of this study is to develop a monolithic integrated circuit (IC) to record action potentials and simultaneously control action potential firing using optogenetics. METHODS: A low-noise and high input impedance (or low input capacitance) neural recording amplifier is combined with a high current laser/light-emitting diode (LED) driver in a single IC...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220859/sensitivity-of-chemical-weathering-and-dissolved-carbon-dynamics-to-hydrological-conditions-in-a-typical-karst-river
#15
Jun Zhong, Si-Liang Li, Faxiang Tao, Fujun Yue, Cong-Qiang Liu
To better understand the mechanisms that hydrological conditions control chemical weathering and carbon dynamics in the large rivers, we investigated hydrochemistry and carbon isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) based on high-frequency sampling in the Wujiang River draining the carbonate area in southwestern China. Concentrations of major dissolved solute do not strictly follow the dilution process with increasing discharge, and biogeochemical processes lead to variability in the concentration-discharge relationships...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218696/driver-s-cognitive-workload-and-driving-performance-under-traffic-sign-information-exposure-in-complex-environments-a-case-study-of-the-highways-in-china
#16
Nengchao Lyu, Lian Xie, Chaozhong Wu, Qiang Fu, Chao Deng
Complex traffic situations and high driving workload are the leading contributing factors to traffic crashes. There is a strong correlation between driving performance and driving workload, such as visual workload from traffic signs on highway off-ramps. This study aimed to evaluate traffic safety by analyzing drivers' behavior and performance under the cognitive workload in complex environment areas. First, the driving workload of drivers was tested based on traffic signs with different quantities of information...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218593/video-feedback-intervention-to-enhance-the-safety-of-older-drivers-with-cognitive-impairment
#17
Brian R Ott, Jennifer D Davis, Kimberly Bixby
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that g-force technology can be used to help older adults with cognitive impairment improve their driving safety as part of an in-car video feedback intervention. METHOD: Unsafe driving events triggered g-forces leading to capture of video clips. The program included 3 mo of monitoring without intervention, 3 mo of intervention (weekly written progress reports, a DVD of unsafe driving events, and weekly telephone contacts), and 3 mo of postintervention monitoring...
March 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212785/the-role-of-driver-nodes-in-managing-epileptic-seizures-application-of-kuramoto-model
#18
Ali Mohseni, Shahriar Gharibzadeh, Fatemeh Bakouie
Synchronization is an important global phenomenon which could be found in a wide range of complex systems such as brain or electronic devices. However, in some circumstances the synchronized states are not desirable for the system and should be suppressed. For example, excessively synchronized activities in the brain network could be the root of neuronal disorders like epileptic seizures. According to the controllability theory of the complex networks, a minimum set of driver nodes has the ability to control the entire system...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210884/energy-balance-and-obesity-what-are-the-main-drivers
#19
Isabelle Romieu, Laure Dossus, Simón Barquera, Hervé M Blottière, Paul W Franks, Marc Gunter, Nahla Hwalla, Stephen D Hursting, Michael Leitzmann, Barrie Margetts, Chizuru Nishida, Nancy Potischman, Jacob Seidell, Magdalena Stepien, Youfa Wang, Klaas Westerterp, Pattanee Winichagoon, Martin Wiseman, Walter C Willett
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. METHODS: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). RESULTS: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake...
March 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207172/drivers-of-redistribution-of-fishing-and-non-fishing-effort-after-the-implementation-of-a-marine-protected-area-network
#20
Reniel B Cabral, Steven D Gaines, Brett A Johnson, Tom W Bell, Crow White
Marine spatial planning (MSP) is increasingly utilized to sustainably manage ocean uses. Marine protected areas (MPAs), a form of spatial management in which parts of the ocean are regulated to fishing, are now a common tool in MSP for conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries. However, the use of MPAs in MSP often neglects, or simplifies, the redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities inside and outside of MPAs following their implementation. This redistribution of effort can have important implications for effective MSP...
October 3, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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