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Driver behavior

Richard A I Bethlehem, Carrie Allison, Emma M van Andel, Alexander I Coles, Kym Neil, Simon Baron-Cohen
Why do people act altruistically? One theory is that empathy is a driver of morality. Experimental studies of this are often confined to laboratory settings, which often lack ecological validity. In the present study we investigated whether empathy traits predict if people will act altruistically in a real-world setting, 'in the wild'. We staged a situation in public that was designed to elicit helping, and subsequently measured empathic traits in those who either stopped to help or walked past and did not help...
October 19, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Mingxia Huang, Motohiro Fujita, Wisinee Wisetjindawat
This paper presents an analysis of drivers' stopping and traversing behaviors during inter-green periods. Eight intersections were observed in Changchun, China both with and without countdown timers and/or video surveillance during summer and winter. The impacts of the devices on the drivers' behavior were examined and compared between the two seasons from a safety perspective. During winter abrupt braking on icy road can be very dangerous. The analysis was performed by dividing the approach leg into 10m intervals up to 90m upstream from the stop line...
October 14, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Julie A Sorensen, Pamela J Tinc, Rebecca Weil, David Droullard
Risk behaviors are key drivers of occupationally related injuries and illnesses, considerably impacting the uptake and success of injury interventions, technologies, and practices. This is certainly true in the agricultural sector, where farmers often ignore recommended safety practices or have even been known to disable safety technologies. Although research studies have characterized specific individual safety or risk behaviors, few studies have thoroughly examined farmers' risk and safety orientations or how these develop in response to environmental and societal exposures...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Agromedicine
Alexander J Mizenko, Brian C Tefft, Lindsay S Arnold, Jurek G Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Due to a decreasing birth rate and longer life expectancy, the proportion of Americans over the age of 65 is expected to rise in coming years. Drivers over 65 drive two billion miles yearly, a number that will increase. For that reason, it is imperative to understand their attitudes and perceptions. It is also important to understand whether drivers over 65 can be treated as one cohesive group, or if there are differences among them. METHODS: A web-enabled survey was conducted among Americans in the years 2011-2013...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Chang Liu, Yanlan Huang, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008-2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger vehicles who were tested for both alcohol and drugs (n = 79,932)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Regan W Bergmark, Emily Gliklich, Rong Guo, Richard E Gliklich
BACKGROUND: Texting while driving and other cell-phone reading and writing activities are high-risk activities associated with motor vehicle collisions and mortality. This paper describes the development and preliminary evaluation of the Distracted Driving Survey (DDS) and score. METHODS: Survey questions were developed by a research team using semi-structured interviews, pilot-tested, and evaluated in young drivers for validity and reliability. Questions focused on texting while driving and use of email, social media, and maps on cellular phones with specific questions about the driving speeds at which these activities are performed...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Erica DeNicola, Omar S Aburizaize, Azhar Siddique, Haider Khwaja, David O Carpenter
Injury was the largest single cause of disability-adjusted life years and death in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2013. The vast majority of injury-related fatalities are deaths caused by road traffic. Measures to control this serious public health issue, which has significant consequences for both Saudi families and the Saudi economy as a whole, have been underway for years but with little success. Most attempts at intervening revolve around attempts for enforcing stricter traffic laws and by installing automated traffic monitoring systems that will catch law breakers on camera and issue tickets and fines...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Blazej Palat, Françoise Paran, Patricia Delhomme
Based on an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Ajzen, 1985, 1991), we conducted surveys in order to explain and predict violations at a railroad crossing, among pedestrians (n=153) and car drivers (n=151). Measures were made with respect to three chronologically related railroad crossing situations that varied in risk level. The situations were described in scenarios and depicted on photographs. The participants were recruited in the suburbs of Paris, at two automated railroad crossings with four half-barriers...
October 13, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Ben Lewis, Jeff Boissoneault, Ian Frazier, Sara Jo Nixon
BACKGROUND: Driver age and blood alcohol concentration are both important factors in predicting driving risk; however, little is known regarding the joint import of these factors on neural activity following socially relevant alcohol doses. We examined age and alcohol effects on brain oscillations during simulated driving, focusing on 2 region-specific frequency bands implicated in task performance and attention: parietal alpha power (PAP; 8 to 12 Hz) and frontal theta power (FTP; 4 to 7 Hz)...
October 14, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yusuke Yamani, William J Horrey, Yulan Liang, Donald L Fisher
Older drivers are at increased risk of intersection crashes. Previous work found that older drivers execute less frequent glances for detecting potential threats at intersections than middle-aged drivers. Yet, earlier work has also shown that an active training program doubled the frequency of these glances among older drivers, suggesting that these effects are not necessarily due to age-related functional declines. In light of findings, the current study sought to explore the ability of older drivers to coordinate their head and eye movements while simultaneously steering the vehicle as well as their glance behavior at intersections...
2016: PloS One
D K Briscoe, D M Parker, S Bograd, E Hazen, K Scales, G H Balazs, M Kurita, T Saito, H Okamoto, M Rice, J J Polovina, L B Crowder
BACKGROUND: The juvenile stage of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) can last for decades. In the North Pacific Ocean, much is known about their seasonal movements in relation to pelagic habitat, yet understanding their multi-year, basin-scale movements has proven more difficult. Here, we categorize the large-scale movements of 231 turtles satellite tracked from 1997 to 2013 and explore the influence of biological and environmental drivers on basin-scale movement. RESULTS: Results show high residency of juvenile loggerheads within the Central North Pacific and a moderate influence of the Earth's magnetic field, but no real-time environmental driver to explain migratory behavior...
2016: Movement Ecology
Pierluigi Cordellieri, Francesca Baralla, Fabio Ferlazzo, Roberto Sgalla, Laura Piccardi, Anna Maria Giannini
In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudes in 2681 young drivers (1458 males, 54.4%; aged 18-22) who filled out several scales assessing attitudes toward road safety issues, driving behavior in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviors are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Adam E Rosenblatt, Oswald J Schmitz
Climate change ecology has focused on climate effects on trophic interactions through the lenses of temperature effects on organismal physiology and phenological asynchronies. Trophic interactions are also affected by the nutrient content of resources, but this topic has received less attention. Using concepts from nutritional ecology, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding how climate affects food webs through top-down and bottom-up processes impacted by co-occurring environmental drivers. The framework integrates climate effects on consumer physiology and feeding behavior with effects on resource nutrient content...
October 7, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Alexei L Vyssotski, Anna E Stepien, Georg B Keller, Richard H R Hahnloser
What cortical inputs are provided to motor control areas while they drive complex learned behaviors? We study this question in the nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which is required for normal birdsong production and provides the main source of auditory input to HVC, the driver of adult song. In juvenile and adult zebra finches, we find that spikes in NIf projection neurons precede vocalizations by several tens of milliseconds and are insensitive to distortions of auditory feedback. We identify a local isometry between NIf output and vocalizations: quasi-identical notes produced in different syllables are preceded by highly similar NIf spike patterns...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Rashmi P Payyanadan, Adam Maus, Fabrizzio A Sanchez, John D Lee, Lillian Miossi, Amsale Abera, Jacob Melvin, Xufan Wang
To reduce exposure to risky and challenging driving situations and prolong mobility and independence, older drivers self-regulate their driving behavior. But self-regulation can be challenging because it depends on drivers' ability to assess their limitations. Studies using self-reports, survey data, and hazard and risk perception tests have shown that driving behavior feedback can help older drivers assess their limitations and adjust their driving behavior. But only limited work has been conducted in developing feedback technology interventions tailored to meet the information needs of older drivers, and the impact these interventions have in helping older drivers self-monitor their driving behavior and risk outcomes...
October 6, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Courtney Coughenour, Sheila Clark, Ashok Singh, Eudora Claw, James Abelar, Joshua Huebner
INTRODUCTION: In the US people of color are disproportionately affected by pedestrian crashes. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for racial bias in driver yielding behaviors at midblock crosswalks in low and high income neighborhoods located in the sprawling metropolitan area of Las Vegas, NV. METHODS: Participants (1 white, 1 black female) crossed at a midblock crosswalk on a multilane road in a low income and a high income neighborhood. Trained observers recorded (1) number of cars that passed in the nearest lane before yielding while the pedestrian waited near the crosswalk at the curb (2) number of cars that passed through the crosswalk with the pedestrian in the same half of the roadway...
October 4, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Caitlin Northcutt Pope, Tyler Reed Bell, Despina Stavrinos
Performing secondary tasks, such as texting while driving, is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). While cognitive processes, such as executive function, are involved in driving, little is known about the relationship between executive control and willingness to engage in distracted driving. This study investigated the relationship between age, behavioral manifestations of executive function, and self-reported distracted driving behaviors. Executive difficulty (assessed with the BRIEF-A) as well as demographics (age and gender) was considered as possible predictors of engagement in distracted driving behaviors...
October 4, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mohammad Fararouei, Zahra Sedaghat, Sayed Javad Sadat, Gholamhossein Shahraki
OBJECTIVE: It is estimated that road traffic accidents are globally responsible for approximately 1.2 million deaths and 20 to 50 million injuries. About 70% of traffic incidences (TIs) occur in the developing countries and among countries with high TI rates, Iran is the first. The aim of this study was to measure the association between being responsible for a traffic accident and some vehicle, human and environmental related factors in Yasuj; a city with high incidence of road traffic injuries and deaths in the country...
October 7, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Matthias G Arend, Thomas Franke
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present research was to understand drivers' interaction patterns with hybrid electric vehicles' (HEV) eco-features (electric propulsion, regenerative braking, neutral mode) and their relationship to fuel efficiency and driver characteristics (technical system knowledge, eco-driving motivation). BACKGROUND: Eco-driving (driving behaviors performed to achieve higher fuel efficiency) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions caused by road vehicles...
October 4, 2016: Human Factors
Xiaolei Lan, Hua Gao, Fei Wang, Jie Feng, Jiwei Bai, Peng Zhao, Lei Cao, Songbai Gui, Lei Gong, Yazhuo Zhang
Pituitary adenomas exhibit a wide range of behaviors. The prediction of invasion or malignant behavior in pituitary adenomas remains challenging. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic abnormalities associated with invasion in sporadic pituitary adenomas. In the present study, the exomes of six invasive pituitary adenomas (IPA) and six non-invasive pituitary adenomas (nIPA) were sequenced by whole-exome sequencing. Variants were confirmed by dideoxynucleotide sequencing, and candidate driver genes were assessed in an additional 28 pituitary adenomas...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
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