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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340641/effects-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-on-driving-performance
#1
Joanne M Wood, Alex A Black, Kerry Mallon, Anthony S Kwan, Cynthia Owsley
Purpose: To explore differences in driving performance of older adults with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls, and to identify the visual determinants of driving performance in this population. Methods: Participants included 33 older drivers with AMD (mean age [M] = 76.6 ± 6.1 years; better eye Age-Related Eye Disease Study grades: early [61%] and intermediate [39%]) and 50 age-matched controls (M = 74.6 ± 5.0 years). Visual tests included visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, and motion sensitivity...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337600/developing-a-theoretical-foundation-to-change-road-user-behavior-and-improve-traffic-safety-driving-under-the-influence-of-cannabis-duic
#2
Nicholas J Ward, William Schell, Tara Kelley-Baker, Jay Otto, Kari Finley
OBJECTIVES: This study explored a theoretical model to assess the influence of culture on willingness and intention to drive under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). This model is expected to guide the design of strategies to change future DUIC behavior in road users. METHODS: This study used a survey methodology to obtain a nationally representative sample (n = 941) from the AmeriSpeak® Panel. Survey items were designed to measure aspects of a proposed definition of traffic safety culture and a predictive model of its relationship to DUIC...
January 16, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337050/impairments-in-social-novelty-recognition-and-spatial-memory-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-scn1a-in-parvalbumin-expressing-cells
#3
Tetsuya Tatsukawa, Ikuo Ogiwara, Emi Mazaki, Atsushi Shimohata, Kazuhiro Yamakawa
Loss of function mutations in the SCN1A gene, which encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1, have been described in the majority of Dravet syndrome patients presenting with epileptic seizures, hyperactivity, autistic traits, and cognitive decline. We previously reported predominant Nav1.1 expression in parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) inhibitory neurons in juvenile mouse brain and observed epileptic seizures in mice with selective deletion of Scn1a in PV+ cells mediated by PV-Cre transgene expression (Scn1afl/+/PV-Cre-TG)...
January 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332672/motivational-factors-associated-with-drowsy-driving-behavior-a-qualitative-investigation-of-college-students
#4
Kenneth H Beck, Clark J Lee, Talia Weiner
OBJECTIVES: This qualitative investigation sought to identify the motivational factors that contribute to drowsy driving in college students and to discover important messaging strategies that may help prevent or reduce this behavior in this population. DESIGN: Four focus groups of college students. SETTING: A large university in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during the Fall 2016 term. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 years...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330946/skull-size-and-biomechanics-are-good-estimators-of-in-vivo-bite-force-in-murid-rodents
#5
Samuel Ginot, Anthony Herrel, Julien Claude, Lionel Hautier
Rodentia is a species-rich group with diversified modes of life and diets. Although rodent skull morphology has been the focus of a voluminous literature, the functional significance of its variations has yet to be explored in live animals. Myomorphous rodents, including murids, have been suggested to represent "high-performance generalists." We measured in vivo bite force in 14 species of wild and lab-reared murid rodents of various sizes and diets to investigate potential morphofunctional differences between them...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330008/electrophysiological-brain-indices-of-risk-behavior-modification-induced-by-contingent-feedback
#6
Alberto Megías, Miguel Angel Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado
The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330002/choosing-a-healthy-and-sustainable-diet-a-three-level-approach-for-understanding-the-drivers-of-the-italians-dietary-regime-over-time
#7
Ilaria Benedetti, Tiziana Laureti, Luca Secondi
Dietary patterns play key roles in health promotion and in preserving the environment. A growing number of studies show the importance of individual factors on food consumption choices, such as socio-economic status, lifestyle variables and contextual and social factors that characterize the geographical area in which individuals reside. The Mediterranean Diet is a sustainable diet that respects the environment, thus reducing per capita emissions from food production in respect to less sustainable diet. The aim of this paper is to determine the Italians' prevailing food patterns using a composite indicator and to identify which factors determine a higher adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Italy...
January 9, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329214/analysis-of-emission-effects-related-to-drivers-compliance-rates-for-cooperative-vehicle-infrastructure-system-at-signalized-intersections
#8
Ruohua Liao, Xumei Chen, Lei Yu, Xiaofei Sun
Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers' compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers' compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329116/concussion-symptom-underreporting-among-incoming-national-collegiate-athletic-association-division-i-college-athletes
#9
Fiona N Conway, Marianne Domingues, Robert Monaco, Laura M Lesnewich, Anne E Ray, Brandon L Alderman, Sabrina M Todaro, Jennifer F Buckman
OBJECTIVE: Accurate diagnosis of sport-related concussions relies heavily on truthful self-reporting of symptom severity. Previous studies have emphasized lack of knowledge as a factor in symptom nondisclosure. This study sought to examine concussion knowledge and the relationship of knowledge to reasons for symptom nondisclosure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were collected during preparticipation athletic evaluations via electronic survey...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329039/an-investigation-into-the-drivers-of-avolition-in-schizophrenia
#10
Gaurav Suri, Lindsey M Lavaysse, Gerald Young, Craig Moodie, Alen Tersakyan, James J Gross, David E Gard
Over a century of research has documented that avolition is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, the drivers of avolition remain unclear. Conceptually, there are at least two potential mutually compatible drivers that could cause avolition in schizophrenia. First, people with schizophrenia might have differences in preferences that result in less goal-directed behavior than non-clinical populations (preference-differences). Second, people with schizophrenia might have difficulty translating their preferences into manifest behavior at rates similar to non-clinical populations (psychological-inertia)...
January 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328063/immune-loss-as-a-driver-of-coexistence-during-host-phage-coevolution
#11
Jake L Weissman, Rayshawn Holmes, Rodolphe Barrangou, Sylvain Moineau, William F Fagan, Bruce Levin, Philip L F Johnson
Bacteria and their viral pathogens face constant pressure for augmented immune and infective capabilities, respectively. Under this reciprocally imposed selective regime, we expect to see a runaway evolutionary arms race, ultimately leading to the extinction of one species. Despite this prediction, in many systems host and pathogen coexist with minimal coevolution even when well-mixed. Previous work explained this puzzling phenomenon by invoking fitness tradeoffs, which can diminish an arms race dynamic. Here we propose that the regular loss of immunity by the bacterial host can also produce host-phage coexistence...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324823/the-relationship-between-personalities-and-self-report-positive-driving-behavior-in-a-chinese-sample
#12
Biying Shen, Weina Qu, Yan Ge, Xianghong Sun, Kan Zhang
Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female) from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS), the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) on a voluntary and anonymous basis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324768/identifying-human-diamine-sensors-for-death-related-putrescine-and-cadaverine-molecules
#13
Cristina Izquierdo, José C Gómez-Tamayo, Jean-Christophe Nebel, Leonardo Pardo, Angel Gonzalez
Pungent chemical compounds originating from decaying tissue are strong drivers of animal behavior. Two of the best-characterized death smell components are putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD), foul-smelling molecules produced by decarboxylation of amino acids during decomposition. These volatile polyamines act as 'necromones', triggering avoidance or attractive responses, which are fundamental for the survival of a wide range of species. The few studies that have attempted to identify the cognate receptors for these molecules have suggested the involvement of the seven-helix trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), localized in the olfactory epithelium...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321524/phenotypic-divergence-despite-low-genetic-differentiation-in-house-sparrow-populations
#14
Shachar Ben Cohen, Roi Dor
Studying patterns of phenotypic variation among populations can shed light on the drivers of evolutionary processes. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is one of the world's most ubiquitous bird species, as well as a successful invader. We investigated phenotypic variation in house sparrow populations across a climatic gradient and in relation to a possible scenario of an invasion. We measured variation in morphological, coloration, and behavioral traits (exploratory behavior and neophobia) and compared it to the neutral genetic variation...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320406/a-police-and-insurance-joint-management-system-based-on-high-precision-bds-gps-positioning
#15
Wenwei Zuo, Chi Guo, Jingnan Liu, Xuan Peng, Min Yang
Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents...
January 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320216/legibility-of-text-and-pictograms-in-variable-message-signs-can-single-word-messages-outperform-pictograms
#16
Javier Roca, Beatriz Insa, Pilar Tejero
OBJECTIVE: The current research shows the advantage of single-word messages in the particular case of variable message signs (VMSs) with a high aspect ratio. BACKGROUND: Early studies on traffic sign design proposed that pictorial information would advantage equivalent text messages in static signs. METHOD: We used a driving simulator to present individually 36 VMSs, showing six words (e.g., "congestion") and six danger signs (e.g., congestion traffic sign)...
January 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316511/young-africans-social-representations-of-rape-in-their-hiv-related-creative-narratives-2005-2014-rape-myths-and-alternative-narratives
#17
Robyn Singleton, Kate Winskell, Siphiwe Nkambule-Vilakati, Gaëlle Sabben
Sexual violence is both a major human rights issue and an important driver of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. While quantitative indicators of sexual violence have evolved to facilitate cross-national comparison and country-level decision making, qualitative findings typically remain constrained to single sites and populations. We analyzed social representations of sexual violence, specifically rape, in a sample of 1446 narratives about HIV written by young Africans between 2005 and 2014. The narratives were written at 5 discrete time points (2005, 2008, 2011, 2013 and 2014) by equal numbers of males and females aged 10-24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal...
December 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312762/ciliated-muconodular-papillary-tumor-of-the-lung-harboring-braf-v600e-mutation-and-p16ink4a-overexpression-without-proliferative-activity-may-represent-an-example-of-oncogene-induced-senescence
#18
Lucia Kim, Young Sam Kim, Jin Soo Lee, Suk Jin Choi, In Suh Park, Jee Young Han, Joon Mee Kim, Young Chae Chu
Ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) is a rare peripheral lung tumor that shows puzzling histologic features encompassing metaplastic and neoplastic nature. This type of tumor is occasionally misdiagnosed as lung adenocarcinoma clinically and pathologically, and its pathogenic mechanism has not been well characterized. We experienced a case of CMPT in a 73-year-old male and performed targeted deep sequencing to characterize its molecular features. The tumor was an ill-defined, subpleural, and non-endobronchial nodule showing glandular and papillary proliferation of mucous cells, ciliated columnar cells, and basal cells without any cytologic atypia...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309996/biomarker-discovery-for-disease-status-and-symptom-severity-in-children-with-autism
#19
Ozge Oztan, Lisa P Jackson, Robin A Libove, Raena D Sumiyoshi, Jennifer M Phillips, Joseph P Garner, Antonio Y Hardan, Karen J Parker
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by social impairments and repetitive behaviors, and affects 1 in 68 US children. Despite ASD's societal impact, its disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent preclinical ASD biomarker discovery research has implicated the neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), and their receptors, OXTR and AVPR1A, in animal models. Efforts to translate these findings to individuals with ASD have typically involved evaluating single neuropeptide measures as biomarkers of ASD and/or behavioral functioning...
December 28, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309807/solitary-fibrous-tumor-with-neuroendocrine-and-squamous-dedifferentiation-a-potential-diagnostic-pitfall
#20
Chuanyong Lu, Deepu Alex, Ryma Benayed, Marc K Rosenblum, Meera R Hameed
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a ubiquitous mesenchymal neoplasm of deep soft tissue with variable and often unpredictable biological behavior. The lineage is presumed to be fibroblastic and histological features range from benign to overtly malignant with rare tumors showing "dedifferentiation" or transformation to undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. Dedifferentiation in mesenchymal neoplasms is a phenomenon of histologic progression of a well-differentiated neoplasm to a high-grade sarcoma which can differentiate along divergent lines...
January 5, 2018: Human Pathology
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