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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532346/low-vision-and-plasticity-implications-for-rehabilitation
#1
Gordon E Legge, Susana T L Chung
Low vision is any type of visual impairment that affects activities of daily living. In the context of low vision, we define plasticity as changes in brain or perceptual behavior that follow the onset of visual impairment and that are not directly due to the underlying pathology. An important goal of low-vision research is to determine how plasticity affects visual performance of everyday activities. In this review, we consider the levels of the visual system at which plasticity occurs, the impact of age and visual experience on plasticity, and whether plastic changes are spontaneous or require explicit training...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532283/the-feasibility-of-an-automated-eye-tracking-modified-fagan-test-of-memory-for-human-faces-in-younger-ugandan-hiv-exposed-children
#2
Ronak Chhaya, Jonathan Weiss, Victoria Seffren, Alla Sikorskii, Paula M Winke, Julius C Ojuka, Michael J Boivin
OBJECTIVE: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII) uses longer gaze length for unfamiliar versus familiar human faces to gauge visual-spatial encoding, attention, and working memory in infants. Our objective was to establish the feasibility of automated eye tracking with the FTII in HIV-exposed Ugandan infants. METHOD: The FTII was administered to 31 perinatally HIV-exposed noninfected (HEU) Ugandan children 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M = 0.69 years, SD = 0...
May 22, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531809/multifocal-visual-evoked-potentials-in-optic-neuritis-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Gorm Pihl-Jensen, Mathias Falck Schmidt, Jette Lautrup Frederiksen
Multifocal visual evoked potential (mf-VEP) represents a new approach to the classical full field (ff-)VEP with separate responses from up to 60 sectors of the visual field. A thorough literature survey of the use of mf-VEP in optic neuritis (ON) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is presented (38 published studies were retrieved). Mf-VEP provides direct topographical information of specific lesions and facilitates investigations on structural-functional correlations thus providing new methods for exploring the interplay between demyelination, atrophy and remyelination in MS...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530439/an-eye-tracking-investigation-of-attentional-biases-towards-affect-in-young-children
#4
Jessica L Burris, Ryan A Barry-Anwar, Susan M Rivera
This study examines attentional biases in the presence of angry, happy and neutral faces using a modified eye tracking version of the dot probe task (DPT). Participants were 111 young children between 9 and 48 months. Children passively viewed an affective attention bias task that consisted of a face pairing (neutral paired with either neutral, angry or happy) for 500 ms that was followed by a 1,500-ms asterisk probe on 1 side of the screen. Congruent trials were trials in which the probe appeared on the same side of the screen as the emotional face and incongruent trials were trials in which the probe appeared on the opposite side of the emotional face...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525759/modeling-rett-syndrome-using-talen-edited-mecp2-mutant-cynomolgus-monkeys
#5
Yongchang Chen, Juehua Yu, Yuyu Niu, Dongdong Qin, Hailiang Liu, Gang Li, Yingzhou Hu, Jiaojian Wang, Yi Lu, Yu Kang, Yong Jiang, Kunhua Wu, Siguang Li, Jingkuan Wei, Jing He, Junbang Wang, Xiaojing Liu, Yuping Luo, Chenyang Si, Raoxian Bai, Kunshan Zhang, Jie Liu, Shaoyong Huang, Zhenzhen Chen, Shuang Wang, Xiaoying Chen, Xinhua Bao, Qingping Zhang, Fuxing Li, Rui Geng, Aibin Liang, Dinggang Shen, Tianzi Jiang, Xintian Hu, Yuanye Ma, Weizhi Ji, Yi Eve Sun
Gene-editing technologies have made it feasible to create nonhuman primate models for human genetic disorders. Here, we report detailed genotypes and phenotypes of TALEN-edited MECP2 mutant cynomolgus monkeys serving as a model for a neurodevelopmental disorder, Rett syndrome (RTT), which is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the human MECP2 gene. Male mutant monkeys were embryonic lethal, reiterating that RTT is a disease of females. Through a battery of behavioral analyses, including primate-unique eye-tracking tests, in combination with brain imaging via MRI, we found a series of physiological, behavioral, and structural abnormalities resembling clinical manifestations of RTT...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523601/the-provo-corpus-a-large-eye-tracking-corpus-with-predictability-norms
#6
Steven G Luke, Kiel Christianson
This article presents the Provo Corpus, a corpus of eye-tracking data with accompanying predictability norms. The predictability norms for the Provo Corpus differ from those of other corpora. In addition to traditional cloze scores that estimate the predictability of the full orthographic form of each word, the Provo Corpus also includes measures of the predictability of the morpho-syntactic and semantic information for each word. This makes the Provo Corpus ideal for studying predictive processes in reading...
May 18, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522346/seeing-in-the-dark-phosphene-thresholds-with-eyes-open-versus-closed-in-the-absence-of-visual-inputs
#7
T A de Graaf, F Duecker, Y Stankevich, S Ten Oever, A T Sack
BACKGROUND: Voluntarily opening or closing our eyes results in fundamentally different input patterns and expectancies. Yet it remains unclear how our brains and visual systems adapt to these ocular states. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We here used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe the excitability of the human visual system with eyes open or closed, in the complete absence of visual inputs. METHODS: Combining Bayesian staircase procedures with computer control of TMS pulse intensity allowed interleaved determination of phosphene thresholds (PT) in both conditions...
May 3, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518091/long-term-live-imaging-of-drosophila-eye-disc
#8
Chia-Kang Tsao, Hui-Yu Ku, Y Henry Sun
Live imaging provides the ability to continuously track dynamic cellular and developmental processes in real time. Drosophila larval imaginal discs have been used to study many biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, migration, apoptosis, competition, cell-cell signaling, and compartmental boundary formation. However, methods for the long-term ex vivo culture and live imaging of the imaginal discs have not been satisfactory, despite many efforts. Recently, we developed a method for the long-term ex vivo culture and live imaging of imaginal discs for up to 18 h...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515287/context-effects-on-smooth-pursuit-and-manual-interception-of-a-disappearing-target
#9
Philipp Kreyenmeier, Jolande Fooken, Miriam Spering
In our natural environment, we interact with moving objects that are surrounded by richly textured, dynamic visual contexts. Yet, most laboratory studies on vision and movement show visual objects in front of uniform grey backgrounds. Context effects on eye movements have been widely studied, but it is less well known how visual contexts affect hand movements. Here we ask whether eye and hand movements integrate motion signals from target and context similarly or differently, and whether context effects on eye and hand change over time...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514631/the-hawk-eyed-songbird-retinal-morphology-eye-shape-and-visual-fields-of-an-aerial-insectivore
#10
Luke P Tyrrell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic
Swallows are a unique group of songbirds because they are active-pursuit predators that execute all aspects of hunting prey in flight: search, detection, pursuit, and capture. We show that swallows have evolved a visual system that is unlike that of any other studied songbird. Swallows have a bifoveate retina that provides sharp lateral and frontal vision, an unusually long eye that enhances spatial resolution, a large posterior blind area, and a narrow binocular field. We also show that swallows and diurnal raptors (hawks and falcons) have converged on a similar visual configuration but that, interestingly, predatory songbirds that ambush prey (flycatchers) have not converged on the same suite of traits...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514221/tracking-eye-movements-during-ct-interpretation-inferences-of-reader-performance-and-clinical-competency-require-clinically-realistic-procedures-for-unconstrained-search
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512444/longitudinal-quantification-of-eye-movement-impairments-after-pontine-hemorrhage
#12
Melis Suner, Glen T Prusky, Jason B Carmel, N Jeremy Hill
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of hypertrophic olivary degeneration due to pontine hemorrhage. A 59-year-old male with untreated hypertension suffered a primary pontine hemorrhage, which caused horizontal eye-movement limitation. Progressive neurological deterioration with involuntary eye and palatal movements began months after hemorrhage. This was accompanied by magnetic resonance imaging evidence of hypertrophic olivary degeneration at 4.5 months. BACKGROUND: Primary pontine hemorrhage often leads to impairment of eye movements and diplopia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503706/an-eye-tracker-controlled-cognitive-battery-overcoming-verbal-motor-limitations-in-als
#13
Barbara Poletti, Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Annalisa Lafronza, Elisa Pedroli, Andrea Faini, Nicola Ticozzi, Andrea Ciammola, Paolo Meriggi, Pietro Cipresso, Dorothée Lulé, Albert C Ludolph, Giuseppe Riva, Vincenzo Silani
We assessed language, attention, executive, and social cognition abilities in a sample of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) by means of a recently developed cognitive battery based on oculomotor control with eye-tracking (ET) technology. Twenty-one ALS patients and 21 age- and education-matched healthy subjects underwent the ET-based cognitive assessment, together with the standard cognitive screening tools [Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB); Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); and Digit Sequencing Task]...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502407/i-spy-with-my-little-eye-analysis-of-airline-pilots-gaze-patterns-in-a-manual-instrument-flight-scenario
#14
Andreas Haslbeck, Bo Zhang
The aim of this study was to analyze pilots' visual scanning in a manual approach and landing scenario. Manual flying skills suffer from increasing use of automation. In addition, predominantly long-haul pilots with only a few opportunities to practice these skills experience this decline. Airline pilots representing different levels of practice (short-haul vs. long-haul) had to perform a manual raw data precision approach while their visual scanning was recorded by an eye-tracking device. The analysis of gaze patterns, which are based on predominant saccades, revealed one main group of saccades among long-haul pilots...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500220/environmental-enrichment-rescues-binocular-matching-of-orientation-preference-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#15
Jared Levine, Hui Chen, Yu Gu, Jianhua Cang
Neural circuits are shaped by experience during critical periods of development. Sensory deprivation during these periods permanently compromises an organism's ability to perceive the outside world. In the mouse visual system, normal visual experience during a critical period in early life drives the matching of individual cortical neurons' orientation preferences through the two eyes, likely a key step in the development of binocular vision. Here, in mice of both sexes, we show that the binocular matching process is completely blocked by monocular deprivation spanning the entire critical period...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499836/inhibitory-control-for-emotional-and-neutral-scenes-in-competition-an-eye-tracking-study-in-bipolar-disorder
#16
Ana García-Blanco, Ladislao Salmerón, Manuel Perea
This study examined the inhibitory control of attention to social scenes in manic, depressive, and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Two scenes were simultaneously presented (happy/threatening/neutral [target] versus control). Participants were asked either to look at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-emotional block) or to avoid looking at the emotional pictures (i.e., attend-to-neutral block) while their eye movements were recorded. The initial orienting (latency and percentage of first fixation) and subsequent attentional engagement (gaze duration) were computed...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499705/measurement-and-reproducibility-of-preserved-ellipsoid-zone-area-and-preserved-rpe-area-in-a-cohort-of-eyes-with-choroideremia
#17
Amir H Hariri, Swetha B Velaga, Aniz Girach, Michael S Ip, Phuc V Le, Byron L Lam, M Dominik Fischer, Eeva-Marja Sankila, Mark Pennesi, Frank G Holz, Robert E MacLaren, David G Birch, Carel B Hoyng, Ian M MacDonald, Graeme C Black, Stephen H Tsang, Neil M Bressler, Michael Larsen, Michael B Gorin, Andrew R Webster, SriniVas R Sadda
PURPOSE: To identify valid and reproducible methods for quantifying anatomical outcome measures for eyes with choroideremia (CHM) in clinical trials. DESIGN: Reliability analysis study. METHODS: In this multicenter study, patients with confirmed genetic diagnosis of CHM were enrolled. All cases underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging. Two graders independently delineated boundaries of preserved autofluorescence (PAF) and preserved ellipsoid zone (EZ) on FAF and OCT images respectively...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496422/systematic-observation-of-an-expert-driver-s-gaze-strategy-an-on-road-case-study
#18
Otto Lappi, Paavo Rinkkala, Jami Pekkanen
In this paper we present and qualitatively analyze an expert driver's gaze behavior in natural driving on a real road, with no specific experimental task or instruction. Previous eye tracking research on naturalistic tasks has revealed recurring patterns of gaze behavior that are surprisingly regular and repeatable. Lappi (2016) identified in the literature seven "qualitative laws of gaze behavior in the wild": recurring patterns that tend to go together, the more so the more naturalistic the setting, all of them expected in extended sequences of fully naturalistic behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489896/short-term-activity-cycles-impede-information-transmission-in-ant-colonies
#19
Thomas O Richardson, Jonas I Liechti, Nathalie Stroeymeyt, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Laurent Keller
Rhythmical activity patterns are ubiquitous in nature. We study an oscillatory biological system: collective activity cycles in ant colonies. Ant colonies have become model systems for research on biological networks because the interactions between the component parts are visible to the naked eye, and because the time-ordered contact network formed by these interactions serves as the substrate for the distribution of information and other resources throughout the colony. To understand how the collective activity cycles influence the contact network transport properties, we used an automated tracking system to record the movement of all the individuals within nine different ant colonies...
May 10, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487626/continuous-auditory-feedback-of-eye-movements-an-exploratory-study-toward-improving-oculomotor-control
#20
Eric O Boyer, Arthur Portron, Frederic Bevilacqua, Jean Lorenceau
As eye movements are mostly automatic and overtly generated to attain visual goals, individuals have a poor metacognitive knowledge of their own eye movements. We present an exploratory study on the effects of real-time continuous auditory feedback generated by eye movements. We considered both a tracking task and a production task where smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) can be endogenously generated. In particular, we used a visual paradigm which enables to generate and control SPEM in the absence of a moving visual target...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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