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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913430/cortical-circuit-for-binding-object-identity-and-location-during-multiple-object-tracking
#1
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Oksama, Erico Glerean, Jukka Hyönä
Sustained multifocal attention for moving targets requires binding object identities with their locations. The brain mechanisms of identity-location binding during attentive tracking have remained unresolved. In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we measured participants' hemodynamic activity during attentive tracking of multiple objects with equivalent (multiple-object tracking) versus distinct (multiple identity tracking, MIT) identities. Task load was manipulated parametrically. Both tasks activated large frontoparietal circuits...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909418/risk-and-ambiguity-in-information-seeking-eye-gaze-patterns-reveal-contextual-behavior-in-dealing-with-uncertainty
#2
Peter Wittek, Ying-Hsang Liu, Sándor Darányi, Tom Gedeon, Ik Soo Lim
Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909402/upright-perception-and-ocular-torsion-change-independently-during-head-tilt
#3
Jorge Otero-Millan, Amir Kheradmand
We maintain a stable perception of the visual world despite continuous movements of our eyes, head and body. Perception of upright is a key aspect of such orientation constancy. Here we investigated whether changes in upright perception during sustained head tilt were related to simultaneous changes in torsional position of the eyes. We used a subjective visual vertical (SVV) task, modified to track changes in upright perception over time, and a custom video method to measure ocular torsion simultaneously. We tested 12 subjects in upright position, during prolonged (~15 min) lateral head tilts of 20 degrees, and also after the head returned to upright position...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908453/volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-with-dynamic-collimator-rotation-for-improved-multileaf-collimator-tracking-of-the-prostate
#4
Ghulam Murtaza, Jakob Toftegaard, Ehsan Ullah Khan, Per Rugaard Poulsen
PURPOSE: To improve MLC tracking of prostate VMAT plans by dynamic rotation of the collimator to align the MLC leaves with the dominant prostate motion direction. METHODS: For 22 prostate cancer patients, two dual arc VMAT plans were made with (1) fixed collimators (45° and 315°) and (2) a rotating collimator that aligned the MLC leaves with the dominant prostate motion direction (population-based first principal component). The fixed and rotating collimator plan quality was compared using selected dose-volume indices...
November 28, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905070/visual-speech-influences-speech-perception-immediately-but-not-automatically
#5
Holger Mitterer, Eva Reinisch
Two experiments examined the time course of the use of auditory and visual speech cues to spoken word recognition using an eye-tracking paradigm. Results of the first experiment showed that the use of visual speech cues from lipreading is reduced if concurrently presented pictures require a division of attentional resources. This reduction was evident even when listeners' eye gaze was on the speaker rather than the (static) pictures. Experiment 2 used a deictic hand gesture to foster attention to the speaker...
November 30, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904469/corrigendum-method-for-improving-eeg-based-emotion-recognition-by-combining-it-with-synchronized-biometric-and-eye-tracking-technologies-in-a-non-invasive-and-low-cost-way
#6
Juan-Miguel López-Gil, Jordi Virgili-Gomá, Rosa Gil, Teresa Guilera, Iolanda Batalla, Jorge Soler-González, Roberto García
[This corrects the article on p. 85 in vol. 10, PMID: 27594831.].
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903733/development-of-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#7
Jing Shen, Matthew T Colonnese
: A comprehensive developmental timeline of activity in the mouse cortex in vivo is lacking. Understanding the activity changes that accompany synapse and circuit formation is important to understand the mechanisms by which activity molds circuits and would help to identify critical checkpoints for normal development. To identify key principles of cortical activity maturation, we systematically tracked spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity with extracellular recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) in nonanesthetized mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895995/photoreceptor-disc-shedding-in-the-living-human-eye
#8
Omer P Kocaoglu, Zhuolin Liu, Furu Zhang, Kazuhiro Kurokawa, Ravi S Jonnal, Donald T Miller
Cone photoreceptors undergo a daily cycle of renewal and shedding of membranous discs in their outer segments (OS), the portion responsible for light capture. These physiological processes are fundamental to maintaining photoreceptor health, and their dysfunction is associated with numerous retinal diseases. While both processes have been extensively studied in animal models and postmortem eyes, little is known about them in the living eye, in particular human. In this study, we report discovery of the optical signature associated with disc shedding using a method based on adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) in conjunction with post-processing methods to track and monitor individual cone cells in 4D...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895563/the-attentional-dependence-of-emotion-cognition-is-variable-with-the-competing-task
#9
Cheng Chen, Kaibin Jin, Yehua Li, Hongmei Yan
The relationship between emotion and attention has fascinated researchers for decades. Many previous studies have used eye-tracking, ERP, MEG, and fMRI to explore this issue but have reached different conclusions: some researchers hold that emotion cognition is an automatic process and independent of attention, while some others believed that emotion cognition is modulated by attentional resources and is a type of controlled processing. The present research aimed to investigate this controversy, and we hypothesized that the attentional dependence of emotion cognition is variable with the competing task...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893992/prediction-of-myocardial-infarction-by-assessing-regional-cardiac-wall-in-cmr-images-through-active-mesh-modeling
#10
Hossein Yousefi-Banaem, Saeed Kermani, Sasan Asiaei, Hamid Sanei
Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, using Cine MRI images, the infarct region was precisely determined by examining the local migration path length of critical points on myocardium borders and the fractional thickening effects. First, MRI Cine images of Epi/Endocardium were processed in 3D for all slices, and then incorporated in all frames to build a dynamic model. Epi/Endocardium images were segmented using Heiberg algorithm, and then by a robust restricted block matching algorithm, the sparse points were tracked...
November 14, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893991/saclab-a-toolbox-for-saccade-analysis-to-increase-usability-of-eye-tracking-systems-in-clinical-ophthalmology-practice
#11
Laura Cercenelli, Guido Tiberi, Ivan Corazza, Giuseppe Giannaccare, Michela Fresina, Emanuela Marcelli
PURPOSE: Many open source software packages have been recently developed to expand the usability of eye tracking systems to study oculomotor behavior, but none of these is specifically designed to encompass all the main functions required for creating eye tracking tests and for providing the automatic analysis of saccadic eye movements. The aim of this study is to introduce SacLab, an intuitive, freely-available MATLAB toolbox based on Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) that we have developed to increase the usability of the ViewPoint EyeTracker (Arrington Research, Scottsdale, AZ, USA) in clinical ophthalmology practice...
November 22, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893894/face-exploration-dynamics-differentiate-men-and-women
#12
Antoine Coutrot, Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
The human face is central to our everyday social interactions. Recent studies have shown that while gazing at faces, each one of us has a particular eye-scanning pattern, highly stable across time. Although variables such as culture or personality have been shown to modulate gaze behavior, we still don't know what shapes these idiosyncrasies. Moreover, most previous observations rely on static analyses of small-sized eye-position data sets averaged across time. Here, we probe the temporal dynamics of gaze to explore what information can be extracted about the observers and what is being observed...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893769/assessing-visual-fields-in-patients-with-retinitis-pigmentosa-using-a-novel-microperimeter-with-eye-tracking-the-mp-3
#13
Nozomi Igarashi, Masato Matsuura, Yohei Hashimoto, Kazunori Hirasawa, Hiroshi Murata, Tatsuya Inoue, Obata Ryo, Makoto Aihara, Ryo Asaoka
PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study is to investigate the test-retest reproducibility of visual fields (VFs) measured with the MP-3 microperimeter, in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHOD: VFs were twice measured with the MP-3 and also the Humphrey Field Analyzer, using the 10-2 test grid pattern in both perimeters, in 30 eyes (15 right and 15 left eyes) of 18 RP patients (11 males and 7 females). Test-retest reproducibility was assessed using the mean absolute deviation (MAD) measure at all 68 points in the test grid...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893566/validity-and-reliability-of-a-portable-balance-tracking-system-btracks-in-older-adults
#14
Susan S Levy, Katie J Thralls, Shiloah A Kviatkovsky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Falls are the leading cause of disability, injury, hospital admission, and injury-related death among older adults. Balance limitations have consistently been identified as predictors of falls and increased fall risk. Field measures of balance are limited by issues of subjectivity, ceiling effects, and low sensitivity to change. The gold standard for measuring balance is the force plate; however, its field use is untenable due to high cost and lack of portability...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893270/a-link-between-attentional-function-effective-eye-movements-and-driving-ability
#15
Andrew K Mackenzie, Julie M Harris
The misallocation of driver visual attention has been suggested as a major contributing factor to vehicle accidents. One possible reason is that the relatively high cognitive demands of driving limit the ability to efficiently allocate gaze. We present an experiment that explores the relationship between attentional function and visual performance when driving. Drivers performed 2 variations of a multiple-object tracking task targeting aspects of cognition including sustained attention, dual-tasking, covert attention, and visuomotor skill...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892641/the-effect-of-illustration-on-improving-text-comprehension-in-dyslexic-adults
#16
Mona Holmqvist Olander, Eva Wennås Brante, Marcus Nyström
This study analyses the effect of pictures in reading materials on the viewing patterns of dyslexic adults. By analysing viewing patterns using eye-tracking, we captured differences in eye movements between young adults with dyslexia and controls based on the influence of reading skill as a continuous variable of the total sample. Both types of participants were assigned randomly to view either text-only or a text + picture stimuli. The results show that the controls made an early global overview of the material and (when a picture was present) rapid transitions between text and picture...
November 28, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891819/autism-and-emotional-face-viewing
#17
Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Daniel Hovey, Nicole Zürcher, Loyse Hippolyte, Eric Lemonnier, Christopher Gillberg, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Atypical patterns of face-scanning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to difficulties in social interactions, but there is little agreement regarding what exactly characterizes face-viewing in ASD. In addition, little research has examined how face-viewing is modulated by the emotional expression of the stimuli, in individuals with or without ASD. We used eye-tracking to explore viewing patterns during perception of dynamic emotional facial expressions in relatively large groups of individuals with (n = 57) and without ASD (n = 58) and examined diagnostic- and age-related effects, after subgrouping children and adolescents (≤18 years), on the one hand, and adults (>18 years), on the other...
November 28, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888690/exploring-socioeconomic-differences-in-syntactic-development-through-the-lens-of-real-time-processing
#18
Yi Ting Huang, Kathryn Leech, Meredith L Rowe
Differences in caregiver input across socioeconomic status (SES) predict syntactic development, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Input effects may reflect the exposure needed to acquire syntactic representations during learning (e.g., does the child have the relevant structures for passive sentences?) or access this knowledge during communication (e.g., can she use the past participle to infer the meaning of passives?). Using an eye-tracking and act-out paradigm, the current study distinguishes these mechanisms by comparing the interpretation of actives and passives in 3- to 7-year-olds (n=129) from varying SES backgrounds...
November 23, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886656/neural-mechanisms-underlying-visual-attention-to-health-warnings-on-branded-and-plain-cigarette-packs
#19
Olivia M Maynard, Jonathan C W Brooks, Marcus R Munafò, Ute Leonards
AIMS: To (1) test if activation in brain regions related to reward (nucleus accumbens) and emotion (amygdala) differ when branded and plain packs of cigarettes are viewed, (2) test whether these activation patterns differ by smoking status, and (3) examine whether activation patterns differ as a function of visual attention to health warning labels on cigarette packs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study combining fMRI with eye-tracking. Non-smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers performed a memory task on branded and plain cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings presented in an event-related design...
November 25, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884543/immunometabolism-is-it-under-the-eye-of-the-clock
#20
REVIEW
James O Early, Anne M Curtis
Molecular clocks allow an organism to track time of day, providing the means to anticipate and respond to the daily changes within the environment. In mammals the molecular clock consists of a network of proteins that form auto-regulatory feedback loops that drive rhythms in physiology and behavior. In recent times the extent to which the molecular clock controls key metabolic and immune pathways has begun to emerge. For example, the main clock protein BMAL1 has been linked to mitochondrial metabolism, mitochondrial dynamics and various host defense pathways...
November 21, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
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