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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933959/what-makes-a-dog-adoptable-an-eye-tracking-investigation
#1
Sara Isgate, Justin J Couchman
Humans readily attribute personality and behavioral traits to dogs, and these attributions influence decisions about adoption. This study focused on how these attributions could be influenced by breed and pose by using pictures of four breeds (Doberman Pinscher, Golden Retriever, pit bull, and Rottweiler) in 4 poses (dog sitting alone, sitting with a human, standing alone, and walking on a leash with a human). Participants rated each picture on friendliness, aggressiveness, and adoptability. Eye-tracking technology identified which specific features were represented in each picture to determine whether they had any effect on the judgments...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932776/reactive-and-anticipatory-looking-in-6-month-old-infants-during-a-visual-expectation-paradigm
#2
Jeffry Quan, Jean-François Bureau, Adam B Abdul Malik, Johnny Wong, Anne Rifkin-Graboi
This article presents data from 278 six-month-old infants who completed a visual expectation paradigm in which audiovisual stimuli were first presented randomly (random phase), and then in a spatial pattern (pattern phase). Infants' eye gaze behaviour was tracked with a 60 Hz Tobii eye-tracker in order to measure two types of looking behaviour: reactive looking (i.e., latency to shift eye gaze in reaction to the appearance of stimuli) and anticipatory looking (i.e., percentage of time spent looking at the location where the next stimulus is about to appear during the inter-stimulus interval)...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931838/cerebellar-anatomical-alterations-and-attention-to-eyes-in-autism
#3
Charles Laidi, Jennifer Boisgontier, M Mallar Chakravarty, Sevan Hotier, Marc-Antoine d'Albis, Jean-Franc Ois Mangin, Gabriel A Devenyi, Richard Delorme, Federico Bolognani, Christian Czech, Céline Bouquet, Elie Toledano, Manuel Bouvard, Doriane Gras, Julie Petit, Marina Mishchenko, Alexandru Gaman, Isabelle Scheid, Marion Leboyer, Tiziana Zalla, Josselin Houenou
The cerebellum is implicated in social cognition and is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of our study was to explore cerebellar morphology in adults with ASD and its relationship to eye contact, as measured by fixation time allocated on the eye region using an eye-tracking device. Two-hundred ninety-four subjects with ASD and controls were included in our study and underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan. Global segmentation and cortical parcellation of the cerebellum were performed...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930987/how-to-build-a-dichoptic-presentation-system-that-includes-an-eye-tracker
#4
Cheng S Qian, Jan W Brascamp
The presentation of different stimuli to the two eyes, dichoptic presentation, is essential for studies involving 3D vision and interocular suppression. There is a growing literature on the unique experimental value of pupillary and oculomotor measures, especially for research on interocular suppression. Although obtaining eye-tracking measures would thus benefit studies that use dichoptic presentation, the hardware essential for dichoptic presentation (e.g. mirrors) often interferes with high-quality eye tracking, especially when using a video-based eye tracker...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930702/gcamp-expression-in-retinal-ganglion-cells-characterized-using-a-low-cost-fundus-imaging-system
#5
Yao-Chuan Chang, Steven T Walston, Robert H Chow, James D Weiland
OBJECTIVE: Virus-transduced, intracellular-calcium indicators are effective reporters of neural activity, offering the advantage of cell-specific labeling. Due to the existence of an optimal time window for the expression of calcium indicators, a suitable tool for tracking GECI expression in vivo following transduction is highly desirable. APPROACH: We developed a noninvasive imaging approach based on a custom-modified, low-cost fundus viewing system that allowed us to monitor and characterize in vivo bright-field and fluorescence images of the mouse retina...
October 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925815/examining-the-spatiotemporal-disruption-to-gaze-when-using-a-myoelectric-prosthetic-hand
#6
J V V Parr, S J Vine, N R Harrison, G Wood
The aim of this study was to provide a detailed account of the spatial and temporal disruptions to eye-hand coordination when using a prosthetic hand during a sequential fine motor skill. Twenty-one able-bodied participants performed 15 trials of the picking up coins task derived from the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure with their anatomic hand and with a prosthesis simulator while wearing eye-tracking equipment. Gaze behavior results revealed that when using the prosthesis, performance detriments were accompanied by significantly greater hand-focused gaze and a significantly longer time to disengage gaze from manipulations to plan upcoming movements...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925812/watch-where-you-re-going-interferer-velocity-and-visual-behavior-predicts-avoidance-strategy-during-pedestrian-encounters
#7
James L Croft, Derek Panchuk
Pedestrians can avoid collisions with other pedestrians by modifying some combination of their velocity and their path. The authors investigated how path constraints (constrained or unconstrained), interferer velocity (slow or fast), and vision (looking or not looking; time spent looking at the interferer) influenced collision avoidance to an oblivious interferer walking on a perpendicular path. Ten participants walked 6 m to either a point or line target on either a constrained or unconstrained path while wearing an eye-tracking device and avoiding an oblivious interferer that walked at 2 speeds...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925755/toward-smart-design-of-retinal-drug-carriers-a-novel-bovine-retinal-explant-model-to-study-the-barrier-role-of-the-vitreoretinal-interface
#8
Karen Peynshaert, Joke Devoldere, Valérie Forster, Serge Picaud, Christian Vanhove, Stefaan C De Smedt, Katrien Remaut
Retinal gene delivery via intravitreal injection is hampered by various physiological barriers present in the eye of which the vitreoretinal (VR) interface represents the most serious hurdle. In this study, we present a retinal explant model especially designed to study the role of this interface as a barrier for the penetration of vectors into the retina. In contrast to all existing explant models, the developed model is bovine-derived and more importantly, keeps the vitreous attached to the retina at all times to guarantee an intact VR interface...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922110/an-automated-system-for-the-detection-and-classification-of-retinal-changes-due-to-red-lesions-in-longitudinal-fundus-images
#9
Kedir M Adal, Peter G van Etten, Jose P Martinez, Kenneth W Rouwen, Koenraad A Vermeer, Lucas J van Vliet
People with diabetes mellitus need annual screening to check for the development of diabetic retinopathy. Tracking small retinal changes due to early diabetic retinopathy lesions in longitudinal fundus image sets is challenging due to intra- and inter-visit variability in illumination and image quality, the required high registration accuracy, and the subtle appearance of retinal lesions compared to other retinal features. This paper presents a robust and flexible approach for automated detection of longitudinal retinal changes due to small red lesions by exploiting normalized fundus images that significantly reduce illumination variations and improve the contrast of small retinal features...
September 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919941/a-test-of-the-submentalizing-hypothesis-apes-performance-in-a-false-belief-task-inanimate-control
#10
Christopher Krupenye, Fumihiro Kano, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
Much debate concerns whether any nonhuman animals share with humans the ability to infer others' mental states, such as desires and beliefs. In a recent eye-tracking false-belief task, we showed that great apes correctly anticipated that a human actor would search for a goal object where he had last seen it, even though the apes themselves knew that it was no longer there. In response, Heyes proposed that apes' looking behavior was guided not by social cognitive mechanisms but rather domain-general cueing effects, and suggested the use of inanimate controls to test this alternative submentalizing hypothesis...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912800/gaze-estimation-method-using-analysis-of-electrooculogram-signals-and-kinect-sensor
#11
Keiko Sakurai, Mingmin Yan, Koichi Tanno, Hiroki Tamura
A gaze estimation system is one of the communication methods for severely disabled people who cannot perform gestures and speech. We previously developed an eye tracking method using a compact and light electrooculogram (EOG) signal, but its accuracy is not very high. In the present study, we conducted experiments to investigate the EOG component strongly correlated with the change of eye movements. The experiments in this study are of two types: experiments to see objects only by eye movements and experiments to see objects by face and eye movements...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912699/effects-of-scene-properties-and-emotional-valence-on-brain-activations-a-fixation-related-fmri-study
#12
Michał Kuniecki, Kinga B Wołoszyn, Aleksandra Domagalik, Joanna Pilarczyk
Temporal and spatial characteristics of fixations are affected by image properties, including high-level scene characteristics, such as object-background composition, and low-level physical characteristics, such as image clarity. The influence of these factors is modulated by the emotional content of an image. Here, we aimed to establish whether brain correlates of fixations reflect these modulatory effects. To this end, we simultaneously scanned participants and measured their eye movements, while presenting negative and neutral images in various image clarity conditions, with controlled object-background composition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910436/integrating-data-collection-into-office-work-flow-and-electronic-health-records-for-clinical-outcomes-research
#13
C Alessandra Colaianni, Patricia A Levesque, Robin W Lindsay
Meticulous collection of clinical outcomes metrics in patients undergoing elective surgery is important to ensure quality care; it is also increasing in importance as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services moves to tie reimbursement to outcomes and insurance approval. This study assesses a systematic method for gathering preoperative and postoperative data on patients with nasal obstruction who undergo functional septorhinoplasty that was developed at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts...
September 14, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903152/nuclear-respiratory-factor-1-nrf-1-regulates-transcription-of-the-cxc-receptor-4-cxcr4-in-the-rat-retina
#14
Pei Chen, Xiaoxiao Cai, Ying Yang, Zhao Chen, Jin Qiu, Na Yu, Mingjun Tang, Qiyun Wang, Jian Ge, Keming Yu, Jing Zhuang
Purpose: The CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) is required for various physiologic and pathologic processes in the eye, including stem cell trafficking, neuronal development, immune responses, and ocular neovascularization. Here, we used the rat retina models to determine the mechanisms driving CXCR4 transcription. Methods: The expression pattern of CXCR4 and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) were profiled in the rat retina during the course of development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHiP) assay determined the transcriptional mechanism of CXCR4 in rat retina...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901575/fuming-with-rage-do-members-of-low-status-groups-signal-anger-more%C3%A2-than-members-of-high-status-groups
#15
Chuma Kevin Owuamalam, Mark Rubin
Owuamalam, Weerabangsa, Karunagharan and Rubin found that Malaysians associate people in low status groups with anger more than their higher status counterparts: the hunchback heuristic. But is this belief accurate? Here, we propose the alternative possibility that members of low-status groups might deliberately suppress anger to counter this stigma, while members of high-status groups might disinhibit their anger to assert their superiority. To test these propositions, we manipulated undergraduate students' relative group status by leading them to believe that provocative comments about their undergraduate social identity came from a professor (low-status condition) or a junior foundation year student (high-status condition)...
October 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900577/comparison-of-threshold-saccadic-vector-optokinetic-perimetry-svop-and-standard-automated-perimetry-sap-in-glaucoma-part-ii-patterns-of-visual-field-loss-and-acceptability
#16
Alice D McTrusty, Lorraine A Cameron, Antonios Perperidis, Harry M Brash, Andrew J Tatham, Pankaj K Agarwal, Ian C Murray, Brian W Fleck, Robert A Minns
PURPOSE: We compared patterns of visual field loss detected by standard automated perimetry (SAP) to saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP) and examined patient perceptions of each test. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done of 58 healthy subjects and 103 with glaucoma who were tested using SAP and two versions of SVOP (v1 and v2). Visual fields from both devices were categorized by masked graders as: 0, normal; 1, paracentral defect; 2, nasal step; 3, arcuate defect; 4, altitudinal; 5, biarcuate; and 6, end-stage field loss...
September 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900576/comparison-of-saccadic-vector-optokinetic-perimetry-and-standard-automated-perimetry-in-glaucoma-part-i-threshold-values-and-repeatability
#17
Ian C Murray, Antonios Perperidis, Lorraine A Cameron, Alice D McTrusty, Harry M Brash, Andrew J Tatham, Pankaj K Agarwal, Brian W Fleck, Robert A Minns
PURPOSE: We evaluated threshold saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP) and compared results to standard automated perimetry (SAP). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done including 162 subjects (103 with glaucoma and 59 healthy subjects) recruited at a university hospital. All subjects underwent SAP and threshold SVOP. SVOP uses an eye tracker to monitor eye movement responses to stimuli and determines if stimuli have been perceived based on the vector of the gaze response...
September 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900172/cultural-and-developmental-influences-on-overt-visual-attention-to-videos
#18
Omid Kardan, Laura Shneidman, Sheila Krogh-Jespersen, Suzanne Gaskins, Marc G Berman, Amanda Woodward
Top-down influences on observers' overt attention and how they interact with the features of the visual environment have been extensively investigated, but the cultural and developmental aspects of these modulations have been understudied. In this study we investigated these effects for US and Yucatec Mayan infants, children, and adults. Mayan and US participants viewed videos of two actors performing daily Mayan and US tasks in the foreground and the background while their eyes were tracked. Our region of interest analysis showed that viewers from the US looked significantly less at the foreground activity and spent more time attending to the 'contextual' information (static background) compared to Mayans...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894216/correlative-evaluation-of-mental-and-physical-workload-of-laparoscopic-surgeons-based-on-surface-electromyography-and-eye-tracking-signals
#19
Jian-Yang Zhang, Sheng-Lin Liu, Qing-Min Feng, Jia-Qi Gao, Qiang Zhang
Surgeons' mental and physical workloads are major focuses of operating room (OR) ergonomics, and studies on this topic have generally focused on either mental workload or physical workload, ignoring the interaction between them. Previous studies have shown that physically demanding work may affect mental performance and may be accompanied by impaired mental processing and decreased performance. In this study, 14 participants were recruited to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) procedures in a virtual simulator...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893926/limited-contribution-of-primary-motor-cortex-in-eye-hand-coordination-a-tms-study
#20
James Mathew, Alexandre Eusebio, Frederic Danion
The ability to track a moving target with the eye is substantially improved when the target is self-moved as compared to when it is moved by an external agent. To account for this observation it has been postulated that the oculomotor system has access to hand efference copy thereby allowing to predict the motion of the visual target. Along this scheme, we tested the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1) when human participants (50% females) are asked to track with their eyes a visual target whose horizontal motion is driven by their grip force...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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