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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742873/orienting-towards-social-features-in-naturalistic-scenes-is-reflexive
#1
Lara Rösler, Albert End, Matthias Gamer
Saliency-based models of visual attention postulate that, when a scene is freely viewed, attention is predominantly allocated to those elements that stand out in terms of their physical properties. However, eye-tracking studies have shown that saliency models fail to predict gaze behavior accurately when social information is included in an image. Notably, gaze pattern analyses revealed that depictions of human beings are heavily prioritized independent of their low-level physical saliency. What remains unknown, however, is whether the prioritization of such social features is a reflexive or a voluntary process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736915/anxiety-symptoms-and-children-s-eye-gaze-during-fear-learning
#2
Kalina J Michalska, Laura Machlin, Elizabeth Moroney, Daniel S Lowet, John M Hettema, Roxann Roberson-Nay, Bruno B Averbeck, Melissa A Brotman, Eric E Nelson, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine
BACKGROUND: The eye region of the face is particularly relevant for decoding threat-related signals, such as fear. However, it is unclear if gaze patterns to the eyes can be influenced by fear learning. Previous studies examining gaze patterns in adults find an association between anxiety and eye gaze avoidance, although no studies to date examine how associations between anxiety symptoms and eye-viewing patterns manifest in children. The current study examined the effects of learning and trait anxiety on eye gaze using a face-based fear conditioning task developed for use in children...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736519/isolating-discriminant-neural-activity-in-the-presence-of-eye-movements-and-concurrent-task-demands
#3
Jon Touryan, Vernon J Lawhern, Patrick M Connolly, Nima Bigdely-Shamlo, Anthony J Ries
A growing number of studies use the combination of eye-tracking and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures to explore the neural processes that underlie visual perception. In these studies, fixation-related potentials (FRPs) are commonly used to quantify early and late stages of visual processing that follow the onset of each fixation. However, FRPs reflect a mixture of bottom-up (sensory-driven) and top-down (goal-directed) processes, in addition to eye movement artifacts and unrelated neural activity. At present there is little consensus on how to separate this evoked response into its constituent elements...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733210/threat-effects-on-human-oculo-motor-function
#4
E N Naranjo, T W Cleworth, J H J Allum, J T Inglis, J Lea, B D Westerberg, M G Carpenter
Neuro-anatomical evidence supports the potential for threat-related factors, such as fear, anxiety and vigilance, to influence brainstem motor nuclei controlling eye movements, as well as the vestibular nuclei. However, little is known about how threat influences human ocular responses, such as eye saccades (ES), smooth pursuit eye tracking (SP), and optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), and whether these responses can be facilitated above normal baseline levels with a natural source of threat. This study was designed to examine the effects of height-induced postural threat on the gain of ES, SP and OKN responses in humans...
July 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732659/eye-tracking-measures-of-uncertainty-during-perceptual-decision-making
#5
Tad T Brunyé, Aaron L Gardony
Perceptual decision making involves gathering and interpreting sensory information to effectively categorize the world and inform behavior. For instance, a radiologist distinguishing the presence versus absence of a tumor, or a luggage screener categorizing objects as threatening or non-threatening. In many cases, sensory information is not sufficient to reliably disambiguate the nature of a stimulus, and resulting decisions are done under conditions of uncertainty. The present study asked whether several oculomotor metrics might prove sensitive to transient states of uncertainty during perceptual decision making...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726063/gaze-based-assessments-of-vigilance-and-avoidance-in-social-anxiety-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Nigel T M Chen, Patrick J F Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A broad base of research has sought to identify the biases in selective attention which characterize social anxiety, with the emergent use of eye tracking-based methods. This article seeks to provide a review of eye tracking studies examining selective attention biases in social anxiety. RECENT FINDINGS: Across a number of contexts, social anxiety may be associated with a mix of both vigilant and avoidant patterns of attention with respect to the processing of emotional social stimuli...
September 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719098/a-pyridoindole-based-multifunctional-bioprobe-ph-induced-fluorescence-switching-and-specific-targeting-of-lipid-droplets
#7
Bahadur Sk, Pilendra Thakre, Raghuvir Singh Tomar, Abhijit Patra
A versatile fluorescent probe, PITE, based on alkyl substituted pyridoindole (PI) and tetraphenylethylene (TE) exhibiting facile pH-induced fluorescence switching in solution, nanoparticles and solid state is presented. Strong fluorescence in the solid state besides solution and aggregated state allow sensing of toxic acid vapor. Fluorescence "off-on" switching of PITE by exposing to trifluoracetic acid and triethylamine vapor is visualized through naked eyes. A unified picture of switchable fluorescence of PITE is obtained by comprehensive spectroscopic investigations coupled with quantum mechanical calculations...
July 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716611/predictability-of-action-sub-steps-modulates-motor-system-activation-during-the-observation-of-goal-directed-actions
#8
Ricarda Braukmann, Harold Bekkering, Margreeth Hidding, Edita Poljac, Jan K Buitelaar, Sabine Hunnius
Action perception and execution are linked in the human motor system, and researchers have proposed that this action-observation matching system underlies our ability to predict observed behavior. If the motor system is indeed involved in the generation of action predictions, activation should be modulated by the degree of predictability of an observed action. This study used EEG and eye-tracking to investigate whether and how predictability of an observed action modulates motor system activation as well as behavioral predictions in the form of anticipatory eye-movements...
July 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715265/using-eye-tracking-to-explore-consumers-visual-behavior-according-to-their-shopping-motivation-in-mobile-environments
#9
Yoon Min Hwang, Kun Chang Lee
Despite a strong shift to mobile shopping trends, many in-depth questions about mobile shoppers' visual behaviors in mobile shopping environments remain unaddressed. This study aims to answer two challenging research questions (RQs): (a) how much does shopping motivation like goal orientation and recreation influence mobile shoppers' visual behavior toward displays of shopping information on a mobile shopping screen and (b) how much of mobile shoppers' visual behavior influences their purchase intention for the products displayed on a mobile shopping screen? An eye-tracking approach is adopted to answer the RQs empirically...
July 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713303/investigating-thematic-roles-through-implicit-learning-evidence-from-light-verb-constructions
#10
Eva Wittenberg, Manizeh Khan, Jesse Snedeker
The syntactic structure of a sentence is usually a strong predictor of its meaning: Each argument noun phrase (i.e., Subject and Object) should map onto exactly one thematic role (i.e., Agent and Patient, respectively). Some constructions, however, are exceptions to this pattern. This paper investigates how the syntactic structure of an utterance contributes to its construal, using ditransitive English light verb constructions, such as "Nils gave a hug to his brother," as an example of such mismatches: Hugging is a two-role event, but the ditransitive syntactic structure suggests a three-role event...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712729/gene-by-cognition-interaction-on-stress-induced-attention-bias-for-food-effects-of-5-httlpr-and-ruminative-thinking
#11
Robbie Schepers, C Rob Markus
INTRODUCTION: Stress is often found to increase the preference and intake of high caloric foods. This effect is known as emotional eating and is influenced by cognitive as well as biological stress vulnerabilities. An S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene has been linked to decreased (brain) serotonin efficiency, leading to decreased stress resilience and increased risks for negative affect and eating related disturbances. Recently it has been proposed that a cognitive ruminative thinking style can further exacerbate the effect of this gene by prolonging the already increased stress response, thereby potentially increasing the risk of compensating by overeating high palatable foods...
July 13, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712567/perceived-object-trajectory-is-influenced-by-others-tracking-movements
#12
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
In social interactions, it is highly salient to us where other people are looking. The ability to recover this information is critical to typical social development, helping us to coordinate our attention and behavior with others and understand their intentions and mental states [1-3]. The depth and direction in which another individual is fixating are specified jointly by their head position, eye deviation, and binocular vergence [4, 5]. It is hereto unknown, however, whether this dynamic visual information about others' focus of attention affects how we ourselves see the world...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712371/visual-systemizing-preference-in-children-with-autism-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-intranasal-oxytocin
#13
Lane Strathearn, Sohye Kim, D Anthony Bastian, Jennifer Jung, Udita Iyengar, Sheila Martinez, Robin P Goin-Kochel, Peter Fonagy
Several studies have suggested that the neuropeptide oxytocin may enhance aspects of social communication in autism. Little is known, however, about its effects on nonsocial manifestations, such as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. In the empathizing-systemizing theory of autism, social deficits are described along the continuum of empathizing ability, whereas nonsocial aspects are characterized in terms of an increased preference for patterned or rule-based systems, called systemizing. We therefore developed an automated eye-tracking task to test whether children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to matched controls display a visual preference for more highly organized and structured (systemized) real-life images...
July 17, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712014/do-you-see-what-i-see-mobile-eye-tracker-contextual-analysis-and-inter-rater-reliability
#14
S Stuart, D Hunt, J Nell, A Godfrey, J M Hausdorff, L Rochester, L Alcock
Mobile eye-trackers are currently used during real-world tasks (e.g. gait) to monitor visual and cognitive processes, particularly in ageing and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, contextual analysis involving fixation locations during such tasks is rarely performed due to its complexity. This study adapted a validated algorithm and developed a classification method to semi-automate contextual analysis of mobile eye-tracking data. We further assessed inter-rater reliability of the proposed classification method...
July 15, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701915/web-camera-based-eye-tracking-to-assess-visual-memory-on-a-visual-paired-comparison-task
#15
Nicholas T Bott, Alex Lange, Dorene Rentz, Elizabeth Buffalo, Paul Clopton, Stuart Zola
Background: Web cameras are increasingly part of the standard hardware of most smart devices. Eye movements can often provide a noninvasive "window on the brain," and the recording of eye movements using web cameras is a burgeoning area of research. Objective: This study investigated a novel methodology for administering a visual paired comparison (VPC) decisional task using a web camera.To further assess this method, we examined the correlation between a standard eye-tracking camera automated scoring procedure [obtaining images at 60 frames per second (FPS)] and a manually scored procedure using a built-in laptop web camera (obtaining images at 3 FPS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700580/infant-viewing-of-social-scenes-is-under-genetic-control-and-is-atypical-in-autism
#16
John N Constantino, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Claire Weichselbaum, Natasha Marrus, Alyzeh Haider, Anne L Glowinski, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
Long before infants reach, crawl or walk, they explore the world by looking: they look to learn and to engage, giving preferential attention to social stimuli, including faces, face-like stimuli and biological motion. This capacity-social visual engagement-shapes typical infant development from birth and is pathognomonically impaired in children affected by autism. Here we show that variation in viewing of social scenes, including levels of preferential attention and the timing, direction and targeting of individual eye movements, is strongly influenced by genetic factors, with effects directly traceable to the active seeking of social information...
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698082/mechanisms-of-facial-emotion-recognition-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-insights-from-eye-tracking-and-electroencephalography
#17
REVIEW
Melissa H Black, Nigel T M Chen, Kartik K Iyer, Ottmar V Lipp, Sven Bölte, Marita Falkmer, Tele Tan, Sonya Girdler
While behavioural difficulties in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been observed in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), behavioural studies alone are not suited to elucidate the specific nature of FER challenges in ASD. Eye tracking (ET) and electroencephalography (EEG) provide insights in to the attentional and neurological correlates of performance, and may therefore provide insight in to the mechanisms underpinning FER in ASD. Given that these processes develop over the course of the developmental trajectory, there is a need to synthesise findings in regard to the developmental stages to determine how the maturation of these systems may impact FER in ASD...
July 8, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697705/sad-people-are-more-accurate-at-expression-identification-with-a-smaller-own-ethnicity-bias-than-happy-people
#18
Peter J Hills, Dominic M Hill
Sad individuals perform more accurately at face identity recognition (Hills, Werno, & Lewis, 2011), possibly because they scan more of the face during encoding. During expression identification tasks, sad individuals do not fixate on the eyes as much as happier individuals (Wu, Pu, Allen, & Pauli, 2012). Fixating on features other than the eyes leads to a reduced own-ethnicity bias (Hills & Lewis, 2006). This background indicates that sad individuals would not view the eyes as much as happy individuals and this would result in improved expression recognition and a reduced own-ethnicity bias...
July 12, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697537/novel-mobility-test-to-assess-functional-vision-in-patients-with-inherited-retinal-dystrophies
#19
Daniel C Chung, Sarah McCague, Zi-Fan Yu, Satha Thill, Julie DiStefano-Pappas, Jean Bennett, Dominique Cross, Kathleen Marshall, Jennifer Wellman, Katherine A High
IMPORTANCE: This novel endpoint tracks functional vision changes in patients with inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) over time. BACKGROUND: Determine whether a multi-luminance mobility test (MLMT) can detect functional vision changes over time in subjects with IRDs, to assess natural history and potential effects of investigational agents. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-two subjects were enrolled...
July 11, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697418/suicidal-ideation-and-attentional-biases-in-children-an-eye-tracking-study
#20
Aliona Tsypes, Max Owens, Brandon E Gibb
BACKGROUND: Despite theoretical and empirical evidence for a heighted responsiveness to signals of social-threat in suicidal individuals, no studies to date have examined whether this responsiveness might also manifest in the form of specific biases in attention to interpersonal stimuli. The current study, therefore, examined the presence and nature of attentional biases for facial expressions of emotion in children with and without a history of suicidal ideation (SI). METHOD: Participants were 88 children (44 with a history of SI and 44 demographically and clinically matched controls without such history) recruited from the community...
November 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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