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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331093/sensitivity-to-audio-visual-synchrony-and-its-relation-to-language-abilities-in-children-with-and-without-asd
#1
Giulia Righi, Elena J Tenenbaum, Carolyn McCormick, Megan Blossom, Dima Amso, Stephen J Sheinkopf
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by deficits in speech and language processing. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to examine whether young children with ASD show reduced sensitivity to temporal asynchronies in a speech processing task when compared to typically developing controls, and to examine how this sensitivity might relate to language proficiency...
January 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328135/autostereoscopic-3d-display-system-with-dynamic-fusion-of-the-viewing-zone-under-eye-tracking-principles-setup-and-evaluation-invited
#2
Ki-Hyuk Yoon, Min-Koo Kang, Hwasun Lee, Sung-Kyu Kim
We study optical technologies for viewer-tracked autostereoscopic 3D display (VTA3D), which provides improved 3D image quality and extended viewing range. In particular, we utilize a technique-the so-called dynamic fusion of viewing zone (DFVZ)-for each 3D optical line to realize image quality equivalent to that achievable at optimal viewing distance, even when a viewer is moving in a depth direction. In addition, we examine quantitative properties of viewing zones provided by the VTA3D system that adopted DFVZ, revealing that the optimal viewing zone can be formed at viewer position...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328116/hybrid-sensing-face-detection-and-registration-for-low-light-and-unconstrained-conditions
#3
Mingyuan Zhou, Haiting Lin, S Susan Young, Jingyi Yu
The capability to track, detect, and identify human targets in highly cluttered scenes under extreme conditions, such as in complete darkness or on the battlefield, has been one of the primary tactical advantages in military operations. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative, multi-spectrum sensing method to achieve face detection and registration under low-light and unconstrained conditions. We design and prototype a novel type of hybrid sensor by combining a pair of near-infrared (NIR) cameras and a thermal camera (a long-wave infrared camera)...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327332/salience-from-multiple-feature-contrast-evidence-from-saccade-trajectories
#4
Luke Tudge, Stephan A Brandt, Torsten Schubert
We used eye tracking to quantify the extent to which combinations of salient contrasts (orientation, luminance, and movement) influence a central salience map that guides eye movements. We found that luminance combined additively with orientation and movement, suggesting that the salience system processes luminance somewhat independently of the two other features. On the other hand, orientation and movement together influenced salience underadditively, suggesting that these two features are processed nonindependently...
January 11, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324419/visual-saliency-detection-using-spatiotemporal-decomposition
#5
Saumik Bhattacharya, K Subramanian Venkatesh, Sumana Gupta
We propose a novel technique for detection of visual saliency in dynamic video based on video decomposition. The decomposition obtains the sparse features in a particular orientation by exploiting the spatiotemporal discontinuities present in a video cube. A weighted sum of the sparse features along three orthogonal directions determines the salient regions in the video cubes. The weights computed using the frame correlation along three directions are based on the characteristic of human visual system that identifies the sparsest feature as the most salient feature in a video...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321649/face-size-biases-emotion-judgment-through-eye-movement
#6
Shuo Wang
Faces are the most commonly used stimuli to study emotions. Researchers often manipulate the emotion contents and facial features to study emotion judgment, but rarely manipulate low-level stimulus features such as face sizes. Here, I investigated whether a mere difference in face size would cause differences in emotion judgment. Subjects discriminated emotions in fear-happy morphed faces. When subjects viewed larger faces, they had an increased judgment of fear and showed a higher specificity in emotion judgment, compared to when they viewed smaller faces...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315436/energy-setting-and-visual-outcomes-in-smile-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Liuyang Li, Julie M Schallhorn, Jiaonan Ma, Tong Cui, Yan Wang
PURPOSE: To assess the independent effect of energy setting on postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) in small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and further investigate an optimal energy setting for the 4.5-μm spot-track-distance, which is in wide clinical use. METHODS: A total of 1,130 eyes were included in a retrospective cohort study from Tianjin Eye Hospital, Tianjin Medical University from April 2015 to July 2016. Energy settings and baseline characteristics were recorded and 3-month UDVA was tested by a nurse blinded to the energy settings used...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313185/comparing-attention-to-socially-relevant-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-developmental-coordination-disorder
#8
Emma Sumner, Hayley C Leonard, Elisabeth L Hill
Difficulties with social interaction have been reported in both children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), although these disorders have very different diagnostic characteristics. To date, assessment of social skills in a DCD population has been limited to paper-based assessment or parent report. The present study employed eye tracking methodology to examine how children attend to socially-relevant stimuli, comparing 28 children with DCD, 28 children with ASD and 26 typically-developing (TD) age-matched controls (aged 7-10)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309294/speed-of-language-comprehension-at-18-months-old-predicts-school-relevant-outcomes-at-54-months-old-in-children-born-preterm
#9
Virginia A Marchman, Elizabeth C Loi, Katherine A Adams, Melanie Ashland, Anne Fernald, Heidi M Feldman
OBJECTIVE: Identifying which preterm (PT) children are at increased risk of language and learning differences increases opportunities for participation in interventions that improve outcomes. Speed in spoken language comprehension at early stages of language development requires information processing skills that may form the foundation for later language and school-relevant skills. In children born full-term, speed of comprehending words in an eye-tracking task at 2 years old predicted language and nonverbal cognition at 8 years old...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305645/free-visual-exploration-of-natural-movies-in-schizophrenia
#10
Johanna Elisa Silberg, Ioannis Agtzidis, Mikhail Startsev, Teresa Fasshauer, Karen Silling, Andreas Sprenger, Michael Dorr, Rebekka Lencer
BACKGROUND: Eye tracking dysfunction (ETD) observed with standard pursuit stimuli represents a well-established biomarker for schizophrenia. How ETD may manifest during free visual exploration of real-life movies is unclear. METHODS: Eye movements were recorded (EyeLink®1000) while 26 schizophrenia patients and 25 healthy age-matched controls freely explored nine uncut movies and nine pictures of real-life situations for 20 s each. Subsequently, participants were shown still shots of these scenes to decide whether they had explored them as movies or pictures...
January 5, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304046/eye-tracking-to-explore-attendance-in-health-state-descriptions
#11
Anna Selivanova, Paul F M Krabbe
INTRODUCTION: A crucial assumption in health valuation methods is that respondents pay equal attention to all information components presented in the response task. So far, there is no solid evidence that respondents are fulfilling this condition. The aim of our study is to explore the attendance to various information cues presented in the discrete choice (DC) response tasks. METHODS: Eye tracking was used to study the eye movements and fixations on specific information areas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303037/placebo-effects-in-spider-phobia-an-eye-tracking-experiment
#12
Andreas Gremsl, Daniela Schwab, Carina Höfler, Anne Schienle
Several eye-tracking studies have revealed that spider phobic patients show a typical hypervigilance-avoidance pattern when confronted with images of spiders. The present experiment investigated if this pattern can be changed via placebo treatment. We conducted an eye-tracking experiment with 37 women with spider phobia. They looked at picture pairs (a spider paired with a neutral picture) for 7 s each in a retest design: once with and once without a placebo pill presented along with the verbal suggestion that it can reduce phobic symptoms...
January 5, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301667/impaired-value-learning-for-faces-in-preschoolers-with%C3%A2-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Quan Wang, Lauren DiNicola, Perrine Heymann, Michelle Hampson, Katarzyna Chawarska
OBJECTIVE: One of the common findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited selective attention toward social objects, such as faces. Evidence from both human and nonhuman primate studies suggests that selection of objects for processing is guided by the appraisal of object values. We hypothesized that impairments in selective attention in ASD may reflect a disruption of a system supporting learning about object values in the social domain. METHOD: We examined value learning in social (faces) and nonsocial (fractals) domains in preschoolers with ASD (n = 25) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 28), using a novel value learning task implemented on a gaze-contingent eye-tracking platform consisting of value learning and a selective attention choice test...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299642/three-dimensional-binocular-eye-hand-coordination-in-normal-vision-and-with-simulated-visual-impairment
#14
Guido Maiello, MiYoung Kwon, Peter J Bex
Sensorimotor coupling in healthy humans is demonstrated by the higher accuracy of visually tracking intrinsically-rather than extrinsically-generated hand movements in the fronto-parallel plane. It is unknown whether this coupling also facilitates vergence eye movements for tracking objects in depth, or can overcome symmetric or asymmetric binocular visual impairments. Human observers were therefore asked to track with their gaze a target moving horizontally or in depth. The movement of the target was either directly controlled by the observer's hand or followed hand movements executed by the observer in a previous trial...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289658/oxytocin-blurs-the-self-other-distinction-implicitly-but-not-explicitly
#15
Michaela Pfundmair, Anne Rimpel, Korrina Duffy, Clarissa Zwarg
Previous research has shown an inconsistent pattern of how oxytocin (OT) affects the distinction between self and others: whereas one line of studies has revealed that OT blurs the self-other distinction, other studies have not. In an attempt to solve these inconsistencies, we hypothesized that OT blurs the boundary between self and other implicitly but not explicitly. To test this assumption, we used two experimental approaches. After participants intranasally self-administered OT or placebo, they were eye-tracked while conducting a prediction task (Study 1) or they were video-recorded while conducting a distraction task with a human counterpart (Study 2)...
December 28, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289377/treatment-of-paraphilic-disorders-in-sexual-offenders-or-men-with-a-risk-of-sexual-offending-with-luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone-agonists-an-updated-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Daniel Turner, Peer Briken
BACKGROUND: Different pharmacologic agents are used in the treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders or men with a risk of sexual offending, with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists being the agents introduced more recently to treatment regimens. AIM: To summarize the relevant literature concerning LHRH agonist treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders and update the previously published systematic review by Briken et al (J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64:890-897)...
January 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287205/novel-names-extend-for-how-long-preschool-children-sample-visual-information
#17
Paulo F Carvalho, Catarina Vales, Caitlin M Fausey, Linda B Smith
Known words can guide visual attention, affecting how information is sampled. How do novel words, those that do not provide any top-down information, affect preschoolers' visual sampling in a conceptual task? We proposed that novel names can also change visual sampling by influencing how long children look. We investigated this possibility by analyzing how children sample visual information when they hear a sentence with a novel name versus without a novel name. Children completed a match-to-sample task while their moment-to-moment eye movements were recorded using eye-tracking technology...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287204/toddlers-comprehension-of-adult-and-child-talkers-adult-targets-versus-vocal-tract-similarity
#18
Angela Cooper, Natalie Fecher, Elizabeth K Johnson
How do children represent words? If lexical representations are based on encoding the indexical characteristics of frequently-heard speakers, this predicts that speakers like a child's own mother should be best understood. Alternatively, if they are based on the child's own motor productions, this predicts an own-voice advantage in word recognition. Here, we address this question by presenting 2.5-year-olds with recordings of their own voice, another child's voice, their own mother's voice, and another mother's voice in a child-friendly eye-tracking procedure...
December 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284832/application-of-discharge-criteria-for-home-readiness-using-bispectral-and-supraglottic-airway-devices-in-day-care-surgery-without-using-muscle-relaxants
#19
Joginder Pal Attri, Manjit Singh, Hemchandra Bhatt, Kamal Jyoti, Harjinder Kaur
Introduction: The availability of rapid and short-acting intravenous and volatile anesthetics has facilitated early recovery that is why nowadays ambulatory surgery is becoming more common. If the criteria used to discharge patients from the Postanesthesia Care Unit (PACU) are met in the operating room (OR), it would be appropriate to consider bypassing the PACU and transferring the patient directly to the step-down unit. This process is known as "fast-tracking" after ambulatory surgery...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280222/the-eyes-have-it-using-eye-tracking-to-inform-information-processing-strategies-in-multi-attributes-choices
#20
Mandy Ryan, Nicolas Krucien, Frouke Hermens
Although choice experiments (CEs) are widely applied in economics to study choice behaviour, understanding of how individuals process attribute information remains limited. We show how eye-tracking methods can provide insight into how decisions are made. Participants completed a CE, while their eye movements were recorded. Results show that although the information presented guided participants' decisions, there were also several processing biases at work. Evidence was found of (a) top-to-bottom, (b) left-to-right, and (c) first-to-last order biases...
December 27, 2017: Health Economics
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