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Eye tracking

Alessander Danna-Dos-Santos, Sambit Mohapatra, Maria Santos, Adriana M Degani
Understanding the long-term effects of concussive events remains a challenge for the development of modern medical practices and the prevention of recurrent traumas. In this study, we utilized indices of oculomotor performance and the ability to react to simple environmental stimuli to assess the long-term motor effects of traumatic brain injury in its mildest form (mTBI). We performed analysis of eye movement accuracy, investigated the presence of abnormal eye movements, and quantified time to react to simple environmental stimuli on long-term mTBI survivors...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Izabela Krejtz, Paweł Holas, Marzena Rusanowska, John B Nezlek
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effectiveness of online positive attention bias modification training (ABMT) in inducing positive attention and positive interpretational biases in depressed individuals. METHOD: Clinically depressed individuals (n = 60) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions of 14-day online ABMT. In the positive ABMT condition, a probe replaced positive stimuli in 100% of trials. In the control condition, the probe replaced positive stimuli in 50% of trials...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Greg D Reynolds, Kelly C Roth
We present an integrative review of research and theory on major factors involved in the early development of attentional biases to faces. Research utilizing behavioral, eye-tracking, and neuroscience measures with infant participants as well as comparative research with animal subjects are reviewed. We begin with coverage of research demonstrating the presence of an attentional bias for faces shortly after birth, such as newborn infants' visual preference for face-like over non-face stimuli. The role of experience and the process of perceptual narrowing in face processing are examined as infants begin to demonstrate enhanced behavioral and neural responsiveness to mother over stranger, female over male, own- over other-race, and native over non-native faces...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mirna Pineda-Ortíz, Gustavo Pacheco-López, Moisés Rubio-Osornio, Carmen Rubio, Juan Valadez-Rodríguez
RATIONALE: Visual therapy, which includes a restorative and compensatory approach, seems to be a viable treatment option for homonymous defects of the visual field in patients with postgeniculate injury of the visual pathway, due to occipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Until now, the Mexican population suffering from homonymous hemianopia did not have health services that provided any type of visual therapy for their condition. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old patient, who underwent a surgical procedure for resection of the AVM, was referred with posterior low vision on the left side...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Trafton Drew, Lauren H Williams, Booth Aldred, Marta E Heilbrun, Satoshi Minoshima
What are the costs and consequences of interruptions during diagnostic radiology? The cognitive psychology literature suggests that interruptions lead to an array of negative consequences that could hurt patient outcomes and lead to lower patient throughput. Meanwhile, observational studies have both noted a strikingly high rate of interruptions and rising number of interruptions faced by radiologists. There is some observational evidence that more interruptions could lead to worse patient outcomes: Balint et al...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
John Quan Minh Nguyen, Melanie McWade, Giju Thomas, Bryce T Beddard, Jennifer L Herington, Bibhash C Paria, Herbert S Schwartz, Jennifer L Halpern, Ginger E Holt, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Fluorescence imaging is a well-established optical modality that has been used to localize and track fluorophores in vivo and has demonstrated great potential for surgical guidance. Despite the variety of fluorophores currently being researched, many existing intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are specifically designed for a limited number of applications. We present a modular wide-field fluorescence overlay tissue imaging system for intraoperative surgical guidance that is comprised of commercially available standardized components...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Sabrina Baldofski, Patrick Lüthold, Ingmar Sperling, Anja Hilbert
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by excessive evening and/or nocturnal eating episodes. Studies indicate an attentional bias towards food in other eating disorders. For NES, however, evidence of attentional food processing is lacking. Attention towards food and non-food stimuli was compared using eye-tracking in 19 participants with NES and 19 matched controls without eating disorders during a free exploration paradigm and a visual search task. In the free exploration paradigm, groups did not differ in initial fixation position or gaze duration...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
F E Sahin, A R Tanguay
An imaging system design procedure for miniature wide-angle computational cameras with subsequent software correction of distortion is described. Such miniature wide-angle computational cameras have a broad range of applications, including eye-tracked extraocular cameras for retinal prostheses, and also wearable visual aids for the blind and those with low vision. As significant (typically barrel) distortion is commonplace in wide-field-of-view imaging systems, digital post-processing is often employed to generate rectilinear output images...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Emilia Thorup, Pär Nyström, Gustaf Gredebäck, Sven Bölte, Terje Falck-Ytter
In typical development, infants often alternate their gaze between their interaction partners and interesting stimuli, increasing the probability of joint attention toward surrounding objects and creating opportunities for communication and learning. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been found to engage less in behaviors that can initiate joint attention compared to typically developing children, but the role of such atypicalities in the development of ASD during infancy is not fully understood...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Sarah D McCrackin, Roxane J Itier
Most face processing research has investigated how we perceive faces presented by themselves, but we view faces everyday within a rich social context. Recent ERP research has demonstrated that context cues, including self-relevance and valence, impact electrocortical and emotional responses to neutral faces. However, the time-course of these effects is still unclear, and it is unknown whether these effects interact with the face gaze direction, a cue that inherently contains self-referential information and triggers emotional responses...
March 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
Shane L Rogers, Craig P Speelman, Oliver Guidetti, Melissa Longmuir
We report the personal eye gaze patterns of people engaged in face-to-face getting acquainted conversation. Considerable differences between individuals are underscored by a stability of eye gaze patterns within individuals. Results suggest the existence of an eye-mouth gaze continuum. This continuum includes some people showing a strong preference for eye gaze, some with a strong preference for mouth gaze, and others distributing their gaze between the eyes and mouth to varying extents. Additionally, we found evidence of within-participant consistency not just for location preference but also for the duration of fixations upon the eye and mouth regions...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Janet Hernández-Méndez, Diego Gómez-Carmona
The advent of Web 2.0 is changing tourists' behaviors, prompting them to take on a more active role in preparing their travel plans. It is also leading tourism companies to have to adapt their marketing strategies to different online social media. The present study analyzes advertising effectiveness in social media in terms of customers' visual attention and self-reported memory (recall). Data were collected through a within-subjects and between-groups design based on eye-tracking technology, followed by a self-administered questionnaire...
March 6, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Xuqian Chen, Wei Yang, Lijun Ma, Jiaxin Li
Recent findings have shown that information about changes in an object's environmental location in the context of discourse is stored in working memory during sentence comprehension. However, in these studies, changes in the object's location were always consistent with world knowledge (e.g., in "The writer picked up the pen from the floor and moved it to the desk," the floor and the desk are both common locations for a pen). How do people accomplish comprehension when the object-location information in working memory is inconsistent with world knowledge (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lauren H Howard, Cassandra Festa, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf
The ability to learn socially is of critical importance across a wide variety of species, as it allows knowledge to be passed quickly among individuals without the need of time-consuming trial-and-error learning. Among primates, social learning research has been particularly focused on foraging tasks, including transmission dynamics and the demonstration characteristics that appear to support social learning. Less work has focused on the attentional salience of the information being viewed, especially in New World monkeys...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Munirah Bangee, Pamela Qualter
Prior research has shown that loneliness is associated with hypervigilance to social threats, with eye-tracking research showing lonely people display a specific attentional bias when viewing social rejection and social exclusion video footage (Bangee, Harris, Bridges, Rotenberg & Qualter, 2014; Qualter, Rotenberg, Barrett et al., 2013). The current study uses eye-tracker methodology to examine whether that attentional bias extends to negative emotional faces and negative social non-rejecting stimuli, or whether it could be explained only as a specific bias to social rejection/exclusion...
March 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Andreas Brocher, Raphael Harbecke, Tim Graf, Daniel Memmert, Stefanie Hüttermann
We tested the link between pupil size and the task effort involved in covert shifts of visual attention. The goal of this study was to establish pupil size as a marker of attentional shifting in the absence of luminance manipulations. In three experiments, participants evaluated two stimuli that were presented peripherally, appearing equidistant from and on opposite sides of eye fixation. The angle between eye fixation and the peripherally presented target stimuli varied from 12.5° to 42.5°. The evaluation of more distant stimuli led to poorer performance than did the evaluation of more proximal stimuli throughout our study, confirming that the former required more effort than the latter...
March 7, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Zeng Hai Chen, Hong Fu, Wai Lun Lo, Zheru Chi, Bingang Xu
Strabismus is one of the most common vision disorders in preschool children. It can cause amblyopia and even permanent vision loss. In addition to a vision problem, strabismus brings to both children and adults serious negative impacts in their daily life, education, employment etc. Timely diagnosis of strabismus is thus crucial. However, traditional diagnosis methods conducted by ophthalmologists rely significantly on their experiences, making the diagnosis results subjective. It is also inconvenient for those methods being used for strabismus examination in large communities such as schools...
February 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
Ben McNaughten, Caroline Hart, Stephen Gallagher, Carol Junk, Patricia Coulter, Andrew Thompson, Thomas Bourke
AIM: Differences in the gaze behaviour of experts and novices are described in aviation and surgery. This study sought to describe the gaze behaviour of clinicians from different training backgrounds during a simulated paediatric emergency. METHODS: Clinicians from four clinical areas undertook a simulated emergency. Participants wore SMI (SensoMotoric Instruments) eye tracking glasses. We measured the fixation count and dwell time on predefined areas of interest and the time taken to key clinical interventions...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Marissa H Petrou
In this paper, I discuss the development and use of images employed by the Dresden Royal Museum for Zoology, Anthropology and Ethnography to resolve debates about how to use visual representation as a means of making ethnographic knowledge. Through experimentation with techniques of visual representation, the founding director, A.B. Meyer (1840-1911), proposed a historical, non-essentialist approach to understanding racial and cultural difference. Director Meyer's approach was inspired by the new knowledge he had gained through field research in Asia-Pacific as well as new forms of imaging that made highly detailed representations of objects possible...
March 2018: British Journal for the History of Science
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