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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667864/exploring-nurse-leaders-policy-participation-within-the-context-of-a-nursing-conceptual-framework
#1
Ashley Waddell, Jeffrey M Adams, Jacqueline Fawcett
This study was designed to describe and quantify the experiences of nurse leaders working to influence policy and to build consensus for priority skills and knowledge useful in policy efforts within the context of a nursing conceptual framework. The conceptual model for nursing and health policy and the Adams influence model were combined into a conceptual framework used to guide this two-round modified Delphi study. Twenty-two nurse leaders who were members of a state action coalition participated in the Round 1 focus group; 15 of these leaders completed the Round 2 electronic survey...
January 1, 2018: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663891/flipped-learning-can-rheumatology-lead-the-shift-in-medical-education
#2
Yasser El Miedany, Maha El Gaafary, Nadia El Aroussy, Sally Youssef
OBJECTIVE: To: 1. implement flipped classroom rheumatology teaching for undergraduate education. 2. Evaluate outcomes of teaching using OSCE assessment and student perceived effectiveness and satisfaction survey. METHODS: The flipped classroom education was conducted in 3 phases. Phase 1: carried out in the students' own time. Web links were emailed to assist exposure of the instructional part of the lesson online. Phase 2: interactive in-class activity to share personal reflection and reinforce the key aspects...
April 16, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656091/serial-reversal-learning-and-behavioural-flexibility-in-two-species-of-neotropical-parrots-diopsittaca-nobilis-and-pionites-melanocephala
#3
Jayden O van Horik, Nathan J Emery
Serial reversal learning of colour discriminations was assessed as an index of behavioural flexibility in two captive species of Neotropical parrots. Both species showed similar performances across serial reversals and no between species differences were observed. In a second task subjects' performances were assessed after they experienced either a low or high pre-reversal learning criterion. If reversal performances improve through processes of associative learning, a high pre-reversal criterion is expected to strengthen previously learned associations and hence impede post-reversal performances...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652591/a-reinforcement-learning-neural-network-for-robotic-manipulator-control
#4
Yazhou Hu, Bailu Si
We propose a neural network model for reinforcement learning to control a robotic manipulator with unknown parameters and dead zones. The model is composed of three networks. The state of the robotic manipulator is predicted by the state network of the model, the action policy is learned by the action network, and the performance index of the action policy is estimated by a critic network. The three networks work together to optimize the performance index based on the reinforcement learning control scheme. The convergence of the learning methods is analyzed...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650698/credit-assignment-in-a-motor-decision-making-task-is-influenced-by-agency-and-not-sensorimotor-prediction-errors
#5
Darius E Parvin, Samuel D McDougle, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
Failures to obtain reward can occur from errors in action selection or action execution. Recently, we observed marked differences in choice behavior when the failure to obtain a reward was attributed to errors in action execution compared to errors in action selection (McDougle et al. , 2016). Specifically, participants appeared to solve this credit assignment problem by discounting outcomes in which the absence of reward was attributed to errors in action execution. Building on recent evidence indicating relatively direct communication between the cerebellum and basal ganglia, we hypothesized that cerebellar-dependent sensory-prediction errors (SPEs), a signal indicating execution failure, could attenuate value updating within a basal-ganglia dependent reinforcement learning system...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649583/noradrenergic-%C3%AE-receptor-antagonism-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-reconsolidation-but-not-extinction-of-alcohol-self-administration-intra-bla-propranolol-impairs-reconsolidation-of-alcohol-self-administration
#6
Rose Chesworth, Laura H Corbit
A critical barrier to recovery from alcohol addiction is relapse propensity. Alcohol cues can trigger relapse, and pharmacologically facilitating processes such as extinction, which decreases cue associations, may help prevent relapse. The noradrenergic system mediates extinction learning for alcohol; however, the neural locus of this effect is unknown. This study sought to determine whether the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a region critical for fear extinction, also mediates extinction of alcohol seeking. Hooded Wistar rats (N = 12-15 per experiment) were implanted with bilateral cannula targeting the BLA and trained to lever press for 10% ethanol during auditory or visual cues...
April 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649294/structural-inference-embedded-adversarial-networks-for-scene-parsing
#7
ZeYu Wang, YanXia Wu, ShuHui Bu, PengCheng Han, GuoYin Zhang
Explicit structural inference is one key point to improve the accuracy of scene parsing. Meanwhile, adversarial training method is able to reinforce spatial contiguity in output segmentations. To take both advantages of the structural learning and adversarial training simultaneously, we propose a novel deep learning network architecture called Structural Inference Embedded Adversarial Networks (SIEANs) for pixel-wise scene labeling. The generator of our SIEANs, a novel designed scene parsing network, makes full use of convolutional neural networks and long short-term memory networks to learn the global contextual information of objects in four different directions from RGB-(D) images, which is able to describe the (three-dimensional) spatial distributions of objects in a more comprehensive and accurate way...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643822/working-memory-and-reinforcement-schedule-jointly-determine-reinforcement-learning-in-children-potential-implications-for-behavioral-parent-training
#8
Elien Segers, Tom Beckers, Hilde Geurts, Laurence Claes, Marina Danckaerts, Saskia van der Oord
Introduction: Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) is often provided for childhood psychiatric disorders. These disorders have been shown to be associated with working memory impairments. BPT is based on operant learning principles, yet how operant principles shape behavior (through the partial reinforcement (PRF) extinction effect, i.e., greater resistance to extinction that is created when behavior is reinforced partially rather than continuously) and the potential role of working memory therein is scarcely studied in children...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626297/effects-of-feedback-reliability-on-feedback-related-brain-activity-a-feedback-valuation-account
#9
Benjamin Ernst, Marco Steinhauser
Adaptive decision making relies on learning from feedback. Because feedback sometimes can be misleading, optimal learning requires that knowledge about the feedback's reliability be utilized to adjust feedback processing. Although previous research has shown that feedback reliability indeed influences feedback processing, the underlying mechanisms through which this is accomplished remain unclear. Here we propose that feedback processing is adjusted by the adaptive, top-down valuation of feedback. We assume that unreliable feedback is devalued relative to reliable feedback, thus reducing the reward prediction errors that underlie feedback-related brain activity and learning...
April 6, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622807/author-correction-ultrafast-photonic-reinforcement-learning-based-on-laser-chaos
#10
Makoto Naruse, Yuta Terashima, Atsushi Uchida, Song-Ju Kim
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
April 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622381/harnessing-the-private-health-sector-by-using-prices-as-a-policy-instrument-lessons-learned-from-south-africa
#11
Sarah L Barber, Ankit Kumar, Tomas Roubal, Francesca Colombo, Luca Lorenzoni
Governments frequently draw upon the private health care sector to promote sustainability, optimal use of resources, and increased choice. In doing so, policy-makers face the challenge of harnessing resources while grappling with the market failures and equity concerns associated with private financing of health care. The growth of the private health sector in South Africa has fundamentally changed the structure of health care delivery. A mutually reinforcing ecosystem of private health insurers, private hospitals and specialists has grown to account for almost half of the country's spending on health care, despite only serving 16% of the population with the capacity to pay...
March 29, 2018: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621556/from-fear-to-confidence-changing-providers-attitudes-about-pediatric-palliative-and-hospice-care
#12
Tamara Vesel, Christiana Beveridge
CONTEXT: Children have limited access to hospice care: few existing hospice programs have dedicated pediatric teams, and adult hospice providers feel inadequately trained to care for children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to increase access to pediatric hospice care by empowering adult hospice providers to care for children through a comprehensive education program. Education empowers providers by changing their attitudes from inadequacy to confidence. METHODS: The authors developed a two-day education program to train interdisciplinary teams of adult hospice providers in pediatric care...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617217/emphasizing-the-positive-in-positive-reinforcement-using-non-binary-rewarding-for-training-monkeys-on-cognitive-tasks
#13
Benjamin Fischer, Detlef Wegener
Non-human primates constitute an indispensable model system for studying higher brain func-tions at the neurophysiological level. Studies involving these animals elucidated the neuronal mechanisms of various cognitive and executive functions, such as visual attention, working memory, and decision-making. Positive Reinforcement Training (PRT) constitutes the gold standard for training animals on the cognitive tasks employed in these studies. In the laboratory, PRT is usually based on applying a liquid reward as the reinforcer to strengthen the desired be-havior, and absence of the reward if the animal's response was wrong...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608118/a-global-health-training-model-for-teaching-pediatric-clinical-decision-making-skills-to-rwandan-physical-therapists-a-case-report
#14
Kathryn Clark, Cara N Whalen Smith, Lori Kohls, Ines Musabyemariya, Egide Kayonga Ntagungira, Monika Mann, Steve R Fisher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is increasing interest among physical therapists from high-income countries to participate in education development projects in low-income countries. However, there are few examples in the literature of effective developmental models or projects. This case report describes a model for improving pediatric clinical decision making skills among Rwandan physical therapists using best practices in clinical decision making, evidence-based practice where possible, and use of the International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICF) model...
April 2, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604808/reinforced-dynamics-for-enhanced-sampling-in-large-atomic-and-molecular-systems
#15
Linfeng Zhang, Han Wang, Weinan E
A new approach for efficiently exploring the configuration space and computing the free energy of large atomic and molecular systems is proposed, motivated by an analogy with reinforcement learning. There are two major components in this new approach. Like metadynamics, it allows for an efficient exploration of the configuration space by adding an adaptively computed biasing potential to the original dynamics. Like deep reinforcement learning, this biasing potential is trained on the fly using deep neural networks, with data collected judiciously from the exploration and an uncertainty indicator from the neural network model playing the role of the reward function...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603470/a-silent-eligibility-trace-enables-dopamine-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-for-reinforcement-learning-in-the-mouse-striatum
#16
Tomomi Shindou, Mayumi Shindou, Sakurako Watanabe, Jeffery Wickens
Dopamine dependent synaptic plasticity is a candidate mechanism for reinforcement learning. A silent eligibility trace - initiated by synaptic activity and transformed into synaptic strengthening by later action of dopamine - has been hypothesized to explain the retroactive effect of dopamine in reinforcing past behaviour. We tested this hypothesis by measuring time-dependent modulation of synaptic plasticity by dopamine in adult mouse striatum, using whole-cell recordings. Presynaptic activity followed by postsynaptic action potentials (pre-post) caused spike-time dependent long-term depression in D1-expressing neurons, but not in D2 neurons, and not if postsynaptic activity followed presynaptic activity...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601060/revealing-neurocomputational-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-and-decision-making-with-the-hbayesdm-package
#17
Woo-Young Ahn, Nathaniel Haines, Lei Zhang
Reinforcement learning and decision-making (RLDM) provide a quantitative framework and computational theories with which we can disentangle psychiatric conditions into the basic dimensions of neurocognitive functioning. RLDM offer a novel approach to assessing and potentially diagnosing psychiatric patients, and there is growing enthusiasm for both RLDM and computational psychiatry among clinical researchers. Such a framework can also provide insights into the brain substrates of particular RLDM processes, as exemplified by model-based analysis of data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or electroencephalography (EEG)...
October 2017: Comput Psychiatr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599770/dendritic-cells-and-programmed-death-1-blockade-a-joint-venture-to-combat-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Maarten Versteven, Johan M J Van den Bergh, Elly Marcq, Evelien L J Smits, Viggo F I Van Tendeloo, Willemijn Hobo, Eva Lion
Two decades of clinical cancer research with dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination have proved that this type of personalized medicine is safe and has the capacity to improve survival, but monotherapy is unlikely to cure the cancer. Designed to empower the patient's antitumor immunity, huge research efforts are set to improve the efficacy of next-generation DC vaccines and to find synergistic combinations with existing cancer therapies. Immune checkpoint approaches, aiming to breach immune suppression and evasion to reinforce antitumor immunity, have been a revelation in the immunotherapy field...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599108/lessons-learned-from-a-living-lab-on-the-broad-adoption-of-ehealth-in-primary-health-care
#19
Ilse Catharina Sophia Swinkels, Martine Wilhelmina Johanna Huygens, Tim M Schoenmakers, Wendy Oude Nijeweme-D'Hollosy, Lex van Velsen, Joan Vermeulen, Marian Schoone-Harmsen, Yvonne Jfm Jansen, Onno Cp van Schayck, Roland Friele, Luc de Witte
BACKGROUND: Electronic health (eHealth) solutions are considered to relieve current and future pressure on the sustainability of primary health care systems. However, evidence of the effectiveness of eHealth in daily practice is missing. Furthermore, eHealth solutions are often not implemented structurally after a pilot phase, even if successful during this phase. Although many studies on barriers and facilitators were published in recent years, eHealth implementation still progresses only slowly...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587676/-whose-shoes-can-an-educational-board-game-engage-ugandan-men-in-pregnancy-and-childbirth
#20
Alice Norah Ladur, Edwin van Teijlingen, Vanora Hundley
BACKGROUND: Men can play a significant role in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in low-income countries. Maternal health programmes are increasingly looking for innovative interventions to engage men to help improve health outcomes for pregnant women. Educational board games offer a unique approach to present health information where learning is reinforced through group discussions supporting peer-to-peer interactions. METHODS: A qualitative study with men from Uganda currently living in the UK on their views of an educational board game...
March 27, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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