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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239647/the-transfer-of-category-knowledge-by-macaques-macaca-mulatta-and-humans-homo-sapiens
#1
Alexandria C Zakrzewski, Barbara A Church, J David Smith
Cognitive psychologists distinguish implicit, procedural category learning (stimulus-response associations learned outside declarative cognition) from explicit-declarative category learning (conscious category rules). These systems are dissociated by category learning tasks with either a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. In the present experiments, humans and two monkeys learned II and RB category tasks fostering implicit and explicit learning, respectively...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238315/approaches-to-cognitive-modeling-in-dynamic-systems-control
#2
Daniel V Holt, Magda Osman
Much of human decision making occurs in dynamic situations where decision makers have to control a number of interrelated elements (dynamic systems control). Although in recent years progress has been made toward assessing individual differences in control performance, the cognitive processes underlying exploration and control of dynamic systems are not yet well understood. In this perspectives article we examine the contribution of different approaches to modeling cognition in dynamic systems control, including instance-based learning, heuristic models, complex knowledge-based models and models of causal learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237395/insights-into-the-evolution-biogeography-and-natural-history-of-the-acorn-ants-genus-temnothorax-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae
#3
Matthew Prebus
BACKGROUND: Temnothorax (Formicidae: Myrmicinae) is a diverse genus of ants found in a broad spectrum of ecosystems across the northern hemisphere. These diminutive ants have long served as models for social insect behavior, leading to discoveries about social learning and inspiring hypotheses about the process of speciation and the evolution of social parasitism. This genus is highly morphologically and behaviorally diverse, and this has caused a great deal of taxonomic confusion in recent years...
December 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234967/finding-efficient-swimming-strategies-in-a-three-dimensional-chaotic-flow-by-reinforcement-learning
#4
K Gustavsson, L Biferale, A Celani, S Colabrese
We apply a reinforcement learning algorithm to show how smart particles can learn approximately optimal strategies to navigate in complex flows. In this paper we consider microswimmers in a paradigmatic three-dimensional case given by a stationary superposition of two Arnold-Beltrami-Childress flows with chaotic advection along streamlines. In such a flow, we study the evolution of point-like particles which can decide in which direction to swim, while keeping the velocity amplitude constant. We show that it is sufficient to endow the swimmers with a very restricted set of actions (six fixed swimming directions in our case) to have enough freedom to find efficient strategies to move upward and escape local fluid traps...
December 14, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234834/contributions-of-prolonged-contingent-and-non-contingent-cocaine-exposure-to-escalation-of-cocaine-intake-and-glutamatergic-gene-expression
#5
Kyle L Ploense, Philip Vieira, Lana Bubalo, Gema Olivarria, Amanda E Carr, Karen K Szumlinski, Tod E Kippin
Similar to the pattern observed in people with substance abuse disorders, laboratory animals will exhibit escalation of cocaine intake when the drug is available over prolonged periods of time. Here, we investigated the contribution of behavioral contingency of cocaine administration on escalation of cocaine intake and gene expression in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in adult male rats. Rats were allowed to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.25 mg/infusion) under either limited cocaine-(1 h/day), prolonged cocaine-(6 h/day), or limited cocaine-(1 h/day) plus yoked cocaine-access (5 h/day); a control group received access to saline (1 h/day)...
December 12, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233422/implementation-of-a-virtual-dispensing-simulator-to-support-us-pharmacy-education
#6
Marcus Ferrone, Clark Kebodeaux, Jill Fitzgerald, Lisa Holle
INTRODUCTION: A key element for pharmacy practice defined by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) is medication use systems management. A web-based community pharmacy simulation originally created for Australian pharmacy students was adapted for pharmacy students in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to collaboratively adapt an existing international simulation program for utility in the US and measure student perceptions of a web-based community pharmacy simulation program in three US schools of pharmacy...
July 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233420/student-pharmacist-perceived-benefit-of-a-sequential-training-model-for-health-testing
#7
Tiffaney Threatt, Eileen Ward, Kayce Shealy, Amy Hynes, P Elizabeth Robinette
PURPOSE: This article describes the health testing training process used at Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy and evaluates perceptions of the sequential training model among students in their first, second, and third professional years. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: After observing student deficiencies in the knowledge and skills necessary for performing health tests, despite receiving didactic training within the core curriculum, faculty members searched for supplemental training programs used by other schools of pharmacy...
March 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233412/forecasting-academic-success-through-implementation-of-an-online-prerequisite-review-tutorials-program-for-first-year-pharmacy-students
#8
Brendan D Stamper, Amber V Buhler, John P Harrelson, Sigrid C Roberts, Ashim Malhotra, Fawzy A Elbarbry, Deepa Rao, Reza Karimi, R Brigg Turner, Catherine Marlow, Leslie L Devaud
OBJECTIVE: Online prerequisite review (OPR) tutorials were designed and implemented to reinforce foundational scientific material in order to protect in-class time, foster self-directed learning, and ensure all students have similar baseline knowledge. METHODS: Twenty-one tutorials covering undergraduate prerequisite material were developed by faculty and organized into six core modules, comprising basic biology, chemistry, and physiology topics. A quiz on this material was given on the first day of each course...
March 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233408/structured-academic-discussions-through-an-online-education-specific-platform-to-improve-pharm-d-students-learning-outcomes
#9
Srikanth Kolluru, James T Varughese
OBJECTIVE: To facilitate active academic discussions using an online, education-centered platform and reinforce concepts, in order to improve overall course outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A third year integrated pharmacotherapy course was enrolled on an online searchable platform, Piazza®, to facilitate academic discussions. Students could ask, answer, and explore content, and build on submitted answers in wiki style in collaboration. Instructor posted learning objectives, endorsed student responses with correct answers and led follow-up discussions...
March 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233402/the-use-of-twitter-to-facilitate-engagement-and-reflection-in-a-constructionist-learning-environment
#10
Shane P Desselle
OBJECTIVES: Determine students' self-reported use of Twitter in a health systems course and gauge their perceptions of its value and utility for self-guided supplementation of course material, and evaluate the quality of students' reflections from information they found on Twitter. METHODS: Students in a health systems course create a Twitter account to remain abreast of current developments in pharmacy and health systems. They were afforded the autonomy to follow organizations/individuals they chose and write reflective mini-papers on selected tweets from their Twitter feed prior to each course session...
March 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233376/a-pharmacy-student-s-role-as-a-teaching-assistant-in-an-undergraduate-medicinal-chemistry-course-implementation-evaluation-and-unexpected-opportunities-for-educational-outreach
#11
Matthew J DellaVecchia, Alyssa M Claudio, Jamie L Fairclough
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To describe 1) a pharmacy student's teaching assistant (TA) role in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course, 2) an active learning module co-developed by the TA and instructor, and 3) the unexpected opportunities for pharmacy educational outreach that resulted from this collaboration. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Medicinal Chemistry (CHM3413) is an undergraduate course offered each fall at Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBA). As a TA for CHM3413, a pharmacy student from the Gregory School of Pharmacy (GSOP) at PBA co-developed and implemented an active learning module emphasizing foundational medicinal chemistry concepts as they pertain to performance enhancing drugs (PEDs)...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233374/curriculum-renewal-alignment-of-introductory-pharmacy-practice-experiences-with-didactic-course-content
#12
Wesley Nuffer, Sheila Botts, Kari Franson, Eric Gilliam, Randy Knutsen, Monika Nuffer, Elizabeth O'Brien, Joseph Saseen, Megan Thompson, Joseph Vande Griend, Robert Willis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) used the opportunity of curriculum renewal to integrate knowledge and skills learned from didactic courses into the introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) occurring simultaneously. This paper describes and evaluates the meaningful application of course content into IPPEs, and evaluates the success using qualitative feedback. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Students entering the renewed curriculum starting in fall 2012 were provided a list of pharmacy skills and activities from didactic course directors that reinforced course content for that semester...
November 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233309/incorporating-the-american-pharmacists-association-s-delivering-medication-therapy-management-services-certificate-program-into-an-accelerated-pharmacy-curriculum
#13
Jennifer L Donovan, Jason Cross, Amanda M Morrill, Paul P Belliveau, Cheryl A Abel, Anna K Morin, Michael J Malloy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To describe the incorporation of the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) Delivering Medication Therapy Management (MTM) Services program into a PharmD curriculum and to describe student perceptions of the program. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: The program was delivered over 12 months to students on two campuses via two didactic courses in the second professional year and during the first two advanced pharmacy practice experiences in the third professional year of an accelerated school of pharmacy program...
September 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233195/intact-striatal-dopaminergic-modulation-of-reward-learning-and-daily-life-reward-oriented-behavior-in-first-degree-relatives-of-individuals-with-psychotic-disorder
#14
Zuzana Kasanova, Jenny Ceccarini, Michael J Frank, Thérèse van Amelsvoort, Jan Booij, Esther van Duin, Henrietta Steinhart, Thomas Vaessen, Alexander Heinzel, Felix Mottaghy, Inez Myin-Germeys
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in reward learning in psychotic disorders have been proposed to be linked to dysregulated subcortical dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission, which in turn is a suspected mechanism for predisposition to psychosis. We therefore explored the striatal dopaminergic modulation of reward processing and its behavioral correlates in individuals at familial risk for psychosis. METHODS: We performed a DA D2/3 receptor [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography scan during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task in 16 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and 16 healthy volunteers, followed by a 6-day ecological momentary assessment study capturing reward-oriented behavior in the everyday life...
December 13, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231350/-learning-experience-of-acupuncture-technique-from-professor-zhang-jin
#15
Hongsheng Xue, Jin Zhang
As a famous acupuncturist in the world, professor ZHANG Jin believes the key of acupuncture technique is the use of force, and the understanding of the "concentrating the force into needle body" is essential to understand the essence of acupuncture technique. With deep study of Huangdi Neijing (The Inner Canon of Huangdi) and Zhenjiu Dacheng (Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion), the author further learned professor ZHANG Jin's theory and operation specification of "concentrating force into needle body, so the force arriving before and together with needle"...
August 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230574/pigeons-columba-livia-know-when-they-will-need-hints-prospective-metacognition-for-reference-memory
#16
Sumie Iwasaki, Sota Watanabe, Kazuo Fujita
Despite their impressive cognitive abilities, avian species have shown less evidence for metacognition than mammals. We suspect that commonly used tasks such as matching to sample might be too demanding to allow metacognitive processing within birds' working memory. Here, we examined whether pigeons could control their behavior as a function of knowledge levels on a three-item sequence learning task, a reference memory task supposedly requiring fewer working memory resources. The experiment used two types of lists differing in familiarity...
December 11, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230064/social-learning-may-lead-to-population-level-conformity-without-individual-level-frequency-bias
#17
Kimmo Eriksson, Daniel Cownden, Pontus Strimling
A requirement of culture, whether animal or human, is some degree of conformity of behavior within populations. Researchers of gene-culture coevolution have suggested that population level conformity may result from frequency-biased social learning: individuals sampling multiple role models and preferentially adopting the majority behavior in the sample. When learning from a single role model, frequency-bias is not possible. We show why a population-level trend, either conformist or anticonformist, may nonetheless be almost inevitable in a population of individuals that learn through social enhancement, that is, using observations of others' behavior to update their own probability of using a behavior in the future...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229706/causal-evidence-for-learning-dependent-frontal-lobe-contributions-to-cognitive-control
#18
Paul S Muhle-Karbe, Jiefeng Jiang, Tobias Egner
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a central role in the prioritization of sensory input based on task-relevance. Such top-down control of perception is of fundamental importance in goal-directed behavior, but can also be costly when deployed excessively, necessitating a mechanism that regulates control engagement to align it with changing environmental demands. We have recently introduced the "flexible control model," which explains this regulation as resulting from a self-adjusting reinforcement-learning mechanism that infers latent statistical structure in dynamic task environments to predict forthcoming states...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229650/improving-contraceptive-access-use-and-method-mix-by-task-sharing-implanon-insertion-to-frontline-health-workers-the-experience-of-the-integrated-family-health-program-in-ethiopia
#19
Yewondwossen Tilahun, Candace Lew, Bekele Belayihun, Kidest Lulu Hagos, Mengistu Asnake
In 2009, the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health launched an Implanon scale-up program with the goal of improving the availability of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods at the community level. The Integrated Family Health Program (IFHP) supported the ministry to train Health Extension Workers (HEWs), a cadre of frontline health workers, on Implanon insertion. Prior to this task-sharing initiative, HEWs were only permitted to provide short-acting contraceptive methods; Implanon insertion services were only available at higher-level health facilities, such as health centers and above...
December 8, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228940/communicating-wisely-teaching-residents-to-communicate-effectively-with-patients-and-caregivers-about-unnecessary-tests
#20
Geetha Mukerji, Adina Weinerman, Sarah Schwartz, Adelle Atkinson, Lynfa Stroud, Brian M Wong
BACKGROUND: With rising healthcare costs and a focus on quality, there is a growing need to promote resource stewardship in medical education. Physicians need to be able to communicate effectively with patients/caregivers seeking tests and treatments that are unnecessary. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of an interactive workshop on residents' knowledge of resource stewardship and communication skills when counseling patients/caregivers about requests for unnecessary testing. METHODS: Participants were 83 Internal Medicine and Pediatrics residents at the University of Toronto in 2014-15...
December 11, 2017: BMC Medical Education
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