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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455160/children-and-adolescents-experiences-of-primary-lymphoedema-semistructured-interview-study
#1
Camilla S Hanson, Johanna Newsom, Davinder Singh-Grewal, Nicholas Henschke, Margaret Patterson, Allison Tong
BACKGROUND: Congenital lymphoedema is a lifelong condition that has detrimental physical and psychosocial outcomes for young patients and burdensome treatment responsibilities that may hamper patients' motivation for self-management. There is limited research from the perspective of young people with primary lymphoedema. We aimed to describe the experiences and views of children and adolescents with lymphoedema to inform patient-centred practice. METHODS: Twenty patients (aged 8-21 years) with primary lymphoedema were purposively sampled from two paediatric clinics in Sydney, Australia, to participate in a semistructured interview...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454643/proprioceptive-stimuli-and-habit-formation-interresponse-time-mediated-behavior-in-cd-1-mice
#2
J Mark Cleaveland, Anna Roselle, Delaney K Fischer
The consolidation of behavioral sequences into relatively ballistic habits is thought to involve the formation of stimulus - response associations. Typically, the stimuli in these associations are assumed to be exteroceptive, i.e., external to the organism. However, responses, themselves, also possess stimulus properties that can mediate behavior. Indeed, these "proprioceptive cues" have long been hypothesized to underlie habit formation (Hull, 1934a, 1934b). One such stimulus involves the time durations between responses - a stimulus termed interresponse time (IRT)...
February 15, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454085/effects-of-orientation-and-differential-reinforcement-ii-transitivity-and-transfer-across-five-member-sets
#3
Micah Amd, Marlon A de Oliveira, Denise A Passarelli, Livia C Balog, Julio C de Rose
A recent report by Amd and colleagues (2017) demonstrated that orienting towards successively presented stimulus-stimulus pairs yielded significantly more transitive relations then when those same pairs were differentially reinforced following training for three, 3-member stimulus sets. We build on that work in four important ways. First, transitivity yields produced by Pavlovian and instrumental procedures were compared following training for three 5-member sets (A1-B1-C1-D1-E1, A2-B2-C2-D2-E2, A3-B3-C3-D3-E3), where the 'A' stimuli were emotional faces and all remaining stimuli were nonsense words...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450892/rat-choice-in-rapidly-changing-concurrent-schedules
#4
Anthony P McLean, Randolph C Grace, Olesya T Shevchouk, Jacinta R Cording
In two experiments, experimentally naïve rats were trained in concurrent variable-interval schedules in which the reinforcer ratios changed daily according to a pseudorandom binary sequence. In Experiment 1, relative response rates showed clear sensitivity to current-session reinforcer ratios, but not to previous sessions' reinforcer ratios. Within sessions, sensitivity to the current session's reinforcement rates increased steadily, and by session end, response ratios approached matching to the current-session reinforcer ratios...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450848/automated-pathogenesis-based-diagnosis-of-lumbar-neural-foraminal-stenosis-via-deep-multiscale-multitask-learning
#5
Zhongyi Han, Benzheng Wei, Stephanie Leung, Ilanit Ben Nachum, David Laidley, Shuo Li
Pathogenesis-based diagnosis is a key step to prevent and control lumbar neural foraminal stenosis (LNFS). It conducts both early diagnosis and comprehensive assessment by drawing crucial pathological links between pathogenic factors and LNFS. Automated pathogenesis-based diagnosis would simultaneously localize and grade multiple spinal organs (neural foramina, vertebrae, intervertebral discs) to diagnose LNFS and discover pathogenic factors. The automated way facilitates planning optimal therapeutic schedules and relieving clinicians from laborious workloads...
February 15, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442251/adaptive-learning-and-forgetting-in-an-unconventional-experimental-routine
#6
Daniel Bell-Garrison, Nathaniel C Rice, Elizabeth G E Kyonka
Forgetting is often thought of as the inability to remember, but remembering and forgetting allow behavior to adapt to a changing environment in distinct and separable ways. Learning and forgetting were assessed concurrently in two pigeon experiments that involved the same unconventional routine where the schedule of reinforcement changed every session. Sessions were run back-to-back with a 23-h mid-session break such that in a single visit to the testing chamber, a pigeon completed the second half of one session and the first half of the next...
February 13, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441027/pragmatically-framed-cross-situational-noun-learning-using-computational-reinforcement-models
#7
Shamima Najnin, Bonny Banerjee
Cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theories are prominent mechanisms for learning word meanings (i.e., word-object pairs). In this paper, the role of reinforcement is investigated for early word-learning by an artificial agent. When exposed to a group of speakers, the agent comes to understand an initial set of vocabulary items belonging to the language used by the group. Both cross-situational learning and social pragmatic theory are taken into account. As social cues, joint attention and prosodic cues in caregiver's speech are considered...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439750/differential-neural-reward-mechanisms-in-treatment-responsive-and-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#8
Lucy D Vanes, Elias Mouchlianitis, Tracy Collier, Bruno B Averbeck, Sukhi S Shergill
BACKGROUND: The significant proportion of schizophrenia patients refractory to treatment, primarily directed at the dopamine system, suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie psychotic symptoms. Reinforcement learning tasks have been employed in schizophrenia to assess dopaminergic functioning and reward processing, but these have not directly compared groups of treatment-refractory and non-refractory patients. METHODS: In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 21 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 21 patients with non-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (NTR), and 24 healthy controls (HC) performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, utilizing emotionally valenced face stimuli which elicit a social bias toward happy faces...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434508/quantum-machine-learning-a-classical-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Carlo Ciliberto, Mark Herbster, Alessandro Davide Ialongo, Massimiliano Pontil, Andrea Rocchetto, Simone Severini, Leonard Wossnig
Recently, increased computational power and data availability, as well as algorithmic advances, have led machine learning (ML) techniques to impressive results in regression, classification, data generation and reinforcement learning tasks. Despite these successes, the proximity to the physical limits of chip fabrication alongside the increasing size of datasets is motivating a growing number of researchers to explore the possibility of harnessing the power of quantum computation to speed up classical ML algorithms...
January 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431652/dynamic-flexibility-in-striatal-cortical-circuits-supports-reinforcement-learning
#10
Raphael T Gerraty, Juliet Y Davidow, Karin Foerde, Adriana Galvan, Danielle S Bassett, Daphna Shohamy
Complex learned behaviors must involve the integrated action of distributed brain circuits. While the contributions of individual regions to learning have been extensively investigated, much less is known about how distributed brain networks orchestrate their activity over the course of learning. To address this gap, we used fMRI combined with tools from dynamic network neuroscience to obtain time-resolved descriptions of network coordination during reinforcement learning in humans. We found that learning to associate visual cues with reward involves dynamic changes in network coupling between the striatum and distributed brain regions, including visual, orbitofrontal, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n=22, 13 females)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431647/neural-mechanisms-for-adaptive-learned-avoidance-of-mental-effort
#11
Asako Mitsuto Nagase, Keiichi Onoda, Jerome Clifford Foo, Tomoki Haji, Rei Akaishi, Shuhei Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki Sakai, Kenji Morita
Humans tend to avoid mental effort. Previous studies have demonstrated this tendency using various demand-selection tasks; participants generally avoid options associated with higher cognitive demand. However, it remains unclear whether humans avoid mental effort adaptively in uncertain and non-stationary environments, and if so, what neural mechanisms underlie this learned avoidance and whether they remain the same irrespective of cognitive-demand types. We addressed these issues by developing novel demand-selection tasks where associations between choice options and cognitive-demand levels change over time, with two variations using mental arithmetic and spatial reasoning problems (29:4 and 18:2 males:females)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429614/inversely-active-striatal-projection-neurons-and-interneurons-selectively-delimit-useful-behavioral-sequences
#12
Nuné Martiros, Alexandra A Burgess, Ann M Graybiel
Understanding neural representations of behavioral routines is critical for understanding complex behavior in health and disease. We demonstrate here that accentuated activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) at the beginning and end of such behavioral repertoires is a supraordinate representation specifically marking previously rewarded behavioral sequences independent of the individual movements making up the behavior. We recorded spike activity in the striatum and primary motor cortex as individual rats learned specific rewarded lever-press sequences, each one unique to a given rat...
February 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428826/an-integrated-bayesian-theory-of-phenotypic-flexibility
#13
Peter J Richerson
Phenotypic flexibility includes systems such as individual learning, social learning, and the adaptive immune system. Since the evolution of genes by natural selection is a relatively slow process, mechanisms of phenotypic flexibility are evolved to adapt to contingencies on the time scales ranging from a few hundred milliseconds (e.g. avoidance of immediate physical threats) to a few millennia (e.g. cultural adaptations to local environmental variation in the Holocene). Because environmental variation is non-stationary and fat tailed, systems of phenotypic flexibility sometimes have to be creative...
February 8, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427080/amphetamine-primes-enhanced-motivation-toward-uncertain-choices-in-rats-with-genetic-alcohol-preference
#14
Ville Oinio, Mikko Sundström, Pia Bäckström, Johanna Uhari-Väänänen, Kalervo Kiianmaa, Atso Raasmaja, Petteri Piepponen
RATIONALE: Comorbidity with gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is well documented. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of genetic alcohol drinking tendency on reward-guided decision making behavior of rats and the impact of dopamine releaser D-amphetamine on this behavior. METHODS: In this study, Alko alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through long periods of operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the profitable of two options...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425701/temporal-map-formation-in-appetitive-second-order-conditioning-in-rats
#15
Dómhnall Jennings, Kimberly Kirkpatrick
Three experiments examined whether second-order conditioning resulted in the formation of a fully-featured temporal map, as proposed by the temporal coding hypothesis. Experiments 1 and 2 examined second-order conditioning with different first- and second-order relationships. Measures of the strength of second-order conditioning were mostly consistent with the temporal coding hypothesis; second-order conditioning was best with arrangements in which CS2 occurred prior to the time that the US normally occurred during CS1-US presentations...
February 6, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423839/molecular-neuronal-and-behavioral-effects-of-ethanol-and-nicotine-interactions
#16
Paul M Klenowski, Andrew R Tapper
Ethanol and nicotine can modulate the activity of several neurotransmitter systems and signalling pathways. Interactions between ethanol and nicotine can also occur via common molecular targets including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These effects can induce molecular and synaptic adaptations that over time, are consolidated in brain circuits that reinforce drug-seeking behavior, contribute to the development of withdrawal symptoms during abstinence and increase the susceptibility to relapse. This chapter will discuss the acute and chronic effects of ethanol and nicotine within the mesolimbic reward pathway and brain circuits involved in learning, memory, and withdrawal...
February 9, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422722/sleeping-in-a-brave-new-world-opportunities-for-improving-learning-and-clinical-outcomes-through-targeted-memory-reactivation
#17
Ken A Paller
Neuroscientific insights into learning and memory have mostly concerned input and output, but intervening processing during the time between acquisition and retrieval is also critical. Indeed, intervening memory reactivation may regulate memory longevity, and a growing body of evidence implicates sleep in changing memory storage. For example, subtle auditory stimulation can be used experimentally to selectively encourage memory reactivation during sleep, which thereby improves learning. Much remains to be elucidated about how learning depends on sleep...
December 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422160/using-a-community-advisory-board-to-develop-a-serious-game-for-older-adults-undergoing-treatment-for-cancer
#18
Victoria Loerzel, John Clochesy, Patricia Geddie
INTRODUCTION: Older adults undergoing treatment for cancer are at risk for serious complications such as chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Older adults are often overwhelmed by information and under-manage cancer treatment-related side effects. New educational strategies such as serious gaming may help teach or reinforce key symptom self-management strategies. This paper describes how a community advisory board of older adults, their caregivers, and oncology nurses were consulted to develop a serious game for CINV...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415191/training-and-spontaneous-reinforcement-of-neuronal-assemblies-by-spike-timing-plasticity
#19
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Brent Doiron
The synaptic connectivity of cortex is plastic, with experience shaping the ongoing interactions between neurons. Theoretical studies of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) have focused on either just pairs of neurons or large-scale simulations. A simple analytic account for how fast spike time correlations affect both microscopic and macroscopic network structure is lacking. We develop a low-dimensional mean field theory for STDP in recurrent networks and show the emergence of assemblies of strongly coupled neurons with shared stimulus preferences...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412537/health-promotion-for-young-people-with-profound-and-multiple-learning-disabilities
#20
Kathy Davis, Simone Carter, Elizabeth Myers, Nicola Rocca
Research confirms that children and young people with severe learning disabilities do not have the same level of access to high-quality care, health education and health promotion activities as children and young people without disabilities. This article discusses a quality improvement, action research project to investigate alternative approaches to health promotion that enhance the health and well-being of children and young people with complex neurodisabilities. The project involved assessment of school records and completion by staff of an eight-question survey...
February 7, 2018: Nursing Children and Young People
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