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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635452/reflective-practice
#1
Lynda Kenny
What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article focused on reflection, which is an essential tool for nurses that can be used in their personal and professional development, while reinforcing continuous learning.
June 21, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633953/reversal-learning-and-resurgence-of-operant-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#2
Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani, Carlos R X Cançado, Christopher A Podlesnik
Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor)...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633167/medical-student-perceptions-of-their-education-about-suffering
#3
Thomas R Egnew, Peter R Lewis, Kimberly R Myers, William R Phillips
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To explore student perceptions of their medical school teaching and learning about human suffering and to elicit student recommendations for better approaches to teaching about suffering. METHODS: Qualitative study involving focus groups of students from each class at two US medical schools. RESULTS: Students reported that teaching about human suffering was variable, rarely explicit, and occurred primarily in the pre-clinical curriculum...
June 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632491/lessons-learned-on-health-adaptation-to-climate-variability-and-change-experiences-across-low-and-middle-income-countries
#4
Kristie L Ebi, Mariam Otmani Del Barrio
BACKGROUND: There is limited published evidence of the effectiveness of adaptation in managing the health risks of climate variability and change in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To document lessons learned and good practice examples from health adaptation pilot projects in low- and middle-income countries to facilitate assessing and overcoming barriers to implementation and to scaling up. METHODS: We evaluated project reports and related materials from the first five years of implementation (2008-2013) of multinational health adaptation projects in Albania, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632013/task-demands-in-osces-influence-learning-strategies
#5
Alexandre Lafleur, Jonathan Laflamme, Jimmie Leppink, Luc Côté
THEORY: Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis")...
March 2, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631734/learning-relative-values-in-the-striatum-induces-violations-of-normative-decision-making
#6
Tilmann A Klein, Markus Ullsperger, Gerhard Jocham
To decide optimally between available options, organisms need to learn the values associated with these options. Reinforcement learning models offer a powerful explanation of how these values are learnt from experience. However, human choices often violate normative principles. We suggest that seemingly counterintuitive decisions may arise as a natural consequence of the learning mechanisms deployed by humans. Here, using fMRI and a novel behavioural task, we show that, when suddenly switched to novel choice contexts, participants' choices are incongruent with values learnt by standard learning algorithms...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631015/ask-yeast-how-to-burn-your-fats-lessons-learned-from-the-metabolic-adaptation-to-salt-stress
#7
REVIEW
Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Alba Timón-Gómez, Markus Proft
Here, we review and update the recent advances in the metabolic control during the adaptive response of budding yeast to hyperosmotic and salt stress, which is one of the best understood signaling events at the molecular level. This environmental stress can be easily applied and hence has been exploited in the past to generate an impressively detailed and comprehensive model of cellular adaptation. It is clear now that this stress modulates a great number of different physiological functions of the cell, which altogether contribute to cellular survival and adaptation...
June 19, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630823/teaching-on-task-rollerblading-and-ice-skating-to-a-child-with-autism
#8
Stacey Bord, Tina M Sidener, Kenneth F Reeve, David W Sidener
The present study used a multi-component intervention package to teach on-task rollerblading and ice-skating to a boy with autism. Intervention consisted of response prompts, stimulus prompts, multiple-exemplar training, and a conditioned reinforcement system. The participant learned to remain on-task while rollerblading in a circular route marked by cones for up to 26 min. Both stimulus and response generalization of skating were demonstrated in a variety of non-training settings, including ice-skating at a rink...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630468/neurofeedback-learning-modifies-the-incidence-rate-of-alpha-spindles-but-not-their-duration-and-amplitude
#9
Alexei Ossadtchi, Tatiana Shamaeva, Elizaveta Okorokova, Victoria Moiseeva, Mikhail A Lebedev
Although the first experiments on alpha-neurofeedback date back nearly six decades ago, when Joseph Kamiya reported successful operant conditioning of alpha-rhythm in humans, the effectiveness of this paradigm in various experimental and clinical settings is still a matter of debate. Here, we investigated the changes in EEG patterns during a continuously administered neurofeedback of P4 alpha activity. Two days of neurofeedback training were sufficient for a significant increase in the alpha power to occur...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630254/reward-selectively-modulates-the-lingering-neural-representation-of-recently-attended-objects-in-natural-scenes
#10
Clayton Hickey, Marius Peelen
Theories of reinforcement learning and approach behaviour suggest that reward can increase the perceptual salience of environmental stimuli, ensuring that potential predictors of outcome are noticed in the future. But outcome commonly follows visual processing of the environment, occurring even when potential reward cues have long disappeared. How can reward feedback retroactively cause now-absent stimuli to become attention-drawing in the future? One possibility is that reward and attention interact to prime lingering visual representations of attended stimuli that sustain through the interval separating stimulus and outcome...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629599/moral-learning-current-and-future-directions
#11
EDITORIAL
Fiery Cushman, Victor Kumar, Peter Railton
The past 15years occasioned an extraordinary blossoming of research into the cognitive and affective mechanisms that support moral judgment and behavior. This growth in our understanding of moral mechanisms overshadowed a crucial and complementary question, however: How are they learned? As this special issue of the journal Cognition attests, a new crop of research into moral learning has now firmly taken root. This new literature draws on recent advances in formal methods developed in other domains, such as Bayesian inference, reinforcement learning and other machine learning techniques...
June 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628077/using-youtube-in-teaching-pharmacology-to-nursing-students
#12
Zelne Zamora, Nancy Sarpy, Panicha Kittipha
Nursing pharmacology can pose a challenge to nursing students as they learn about different disease processes and interventions. Having students engage in their own learning process aids in the retention of information and gives positive reinforcement for exams. Using YouTube as a part of student group presentations helps students engage in the learning process and learn difficult pharmacological concepts in an alternative classroom setting.
July 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627034/brief-mindfulness-meditation-group-training-in-aphasia-exploring-attention-language-and-psychophysiological-outcomes
#13
Rebecca Shisler Marshall, Jacqueline Laures-Gore, Kim Love
BACKGROUND: Stroke is currently the leading cause of long-term disability in adults in the United States. There is a need for accessible, low-cost treatments of stroke-related disabilities such as aphasia. AIMS: To explore an intervention for aphasia utilizing mindfulness meditation (MM). This preliminary study examines the feasibility of teaching MM to individuals with aphasia. Since physiological measures have not been collected for those with aphasia, the study was also an exploration of the potential attention, language and physiological changes after MM in adults with aphasia during a brief, daily group training...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626011/effects-of-ventral-striatum-lesions-on-stimulus-versus-action-based-reinforcement-learning
#14
Kathryn M Rothenhoefer, Vincent D Costa, Ramón Bartolo, Raquel Vicario-Feliciano, Elisabeth A Murray, Bruno B Averbeck
Learning the values of actions versus stimuli may depend on separable neural circuits. In the current study, we evaluated ventral striatum (VS) lesioned macaques' performance on a two-arm bandit task that had randomly interleaved blocks of stimulus based and action based reinforcement learning (RL). Compared to controls, monkeys with VS lesions had deficits in learning to select rewarding images but not rewarding actions. We used a RL model to quantify learning and choice consistency and found that, in stimulus based RL, the VS lesion monkeys were more influenced by negative feedback and had lower choice consistency than controls...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624316/reversal-learning-in-c58-mice-modeling-higher-order-repetitive-behavior
#15
Cristina M Whitehouse, Lisa S Curry-Pochy, Robin Shafer, Joseph Rudy, Mark H Lewis
Restricted, repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and prevalent in other neurodevelopmental disorders. These behaviors cluster as repetitive sensory-motor behaviors and behaviors reflecting resistance to change. The C58 mouse strain is a promising model for these behaviors as it emits high rates of aberrant repetitive sensory-motor behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to extend characterization of the C58 model to resistance to change. This was done by comparing C58 to C57BL/6 mice on a reversal learning task under either a 100% or 80%/20% probabilistic reinforcement schedule...
June 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620025/growing-functions-of-the-escrt-machinery-in-cell-biology-and-viral-replication
#16
REVIEW
Edward J Scourfield, Juan Martin-Serrano
The vast expansion in recent years of the cellular processes promoted by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery has reinforced its identity as a modular system that uses multiple adaptors to recruit the core membrane remodelling activity at different intracellular sites and facilitate membrane scission. Functional connections to processes such as the aurora B-dependent abscission checkpoint also highlight the importance of the spatiotemporal regulation of the ESCRT machinery...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617373/-a-psychological-content-of-social-phobia-syndrome
#17
O A Sagalakova, D V Truevtsev, I Ya Stoyanova
AIM: To perform a psychological analysis of social phobia syndrome. The subject area of research is the structure of mental activity and behavior in social activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 32 patients with symptoms of social phobia (ICD-10 F40.1) and 29 healthy people (controls). A complex of psychological methods (questionnaires; pathopsychological experiment) was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Early maladaptive schemes and a tendency to mental rigidity can be a premorbid basis of the syndrome...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612515/the-benefits-of-a-peer-assisted-mock-paces
#18
Sarim Siddiqui, Samee Siddiqui, Qamar Mustafa, Abeer F Rizvi, Ibtesham T Hossain
BACKGROUND: Peer-assisted learning (PAL) and mock examinations have been credited as effective teaching tools; however, there is a lack of research into their effectiveness in PACES (practical assessment of clinical examination skills). This study demonstrates an effective model and the benefits of PAL after its implementation in a mock PACES at Imperial College London. There is a lack of research into the effectiveness of PAL and mock examinations in PACES METHODS: A mock PACES was designed for fifth-year medical students...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611691/morphine-reward-promotes-cue-sensitive-learning-implication-of-dorsal-striatal-creb-activity
#19
Mathieu Baudonnat, Jean-Louis Guillou, Marianne Husson, Veronique D Bohbot, Lars Schwabe, Vincent David
Different parallel neural circuits interact and may even compete to process and store information: whereas stimulus-response (S-R) learning critically depends on the dorsal striatum (DS), spatial memory relies on the hippocampus (HPC). Strikingly, despite its potential importance for our understanding of addictive behaviors, the impact of drug rewards on memory systems dynamics has not been extensively studied. Here, we assessed long-term effects of drug- vs food reinforcement on the subsequent use of S-R vs spatial learning strategies and their neural substrates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600133/developing-a-virtual-teach-to-goal-%C3%A2-inhaler-technique-learning-module-a-mixed-methods-approach
#20
Meng Wu, Nicole M Woodrick, Vineet M Arora, Jeanne M Farnan, Valerie G Press
BACKGROUND: Most hospitalized patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease misuse respiratory inhalers. An in-person educational strategy, teach-to-goal (TTG), improves inpatients' inhaler technique. OBJECTIVE: To develop an effective, portable education intervention that remains accessible to hospitalized patients postdischarge for reinforcement of proper inhaler technique. METHODS: A mixed methods approach at an urban academic hospital was used to iteratively develop, modify, and test a virtual teach-to-goal(™) (V-TTG(™)) educational intervention using patient end-user feedback...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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