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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443616/effects-of-extended-cannabis-abstinence-on-cognitive-outcomes-in-cannabis-dependent-patients-with-schizophrenia-versus-non-psychiatric-controls
#1
Rachel A Rabin, Mera S Barr, Michelle S Goodman, Yarissa Herman, Konstantine K Zakzanis, Stephen J Kish, Michael Kiang, Gary Remington, Tony P George
Cross-sectional studies of the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia have produced mixed results. Heavy and persistent cannabis use in schizophrenia is a common clinical problem, and effects of controlled abstinence from cannabis in these patients have not been carefully evaluated. The present study sought to determine the effects of cannabis abstinence on cognition in patients with schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis dependence. We utilized a 28-day cannabis abstinence paradigm to investigate the state-dependent effects of cannabis on select cognitive outcomes in cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442335/do-impulsive-individuals-benefit-more-from-food-go-no-go-training-testing-the-role-of-inhibition-capacity-in-the-no-go-devaluation-effect
#2
Zhang Chen, Harm Veling, Ap Dijksterhuis, Rob W Holland
Not responding to food items in a go/no-go task can lead to devaluation of these food items, which may help people regulate their eating behavior. The Behavior Stimulus Interaction (BSI) theory explains this devaluation effect by assuming that inhibiting impulses triggered by appetitive foods elicits negative affect, which in turn devalues the food items. BSI theory further predicts that the devaluation effect will be stronger when food items are more appetitive and when individuals have low inhibition capacity...
April 22, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441518/learning-to-allocate-limited-time-to-decisions-with-different-expected-outcomes
#3
Arash Khodadadi, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome R Busemeyer
The goal of this article is to investigate how human participants allocate their limited time to decisions with different properties. We report the results of two behavioral experiments. In each trial of the experiments, the participant must accumulate noisy information to make a decision. The participants received positive and negative rewards for their correct and incorrect decisions, respectively. The stimulus was designed such that decisions based on more accumulated information were more accurate but took longer...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440719/a-case-based-medical-curriculum-for-the-21st-century-the-use-of-innovative-approaches-in-designing-and-developing-a-case-on-mental-health
#4
Athanasios Hassoulas, Elizabeth Forty, Mathew Hoskins, James Walters, Stephen Riley
The introduction of case-based learning (CBL) by the School of Medicine at Cardiff University has encouraged innovation in medical teaching and learning. During years one and two of the modernized MBBCh program, students complete 17 cases as part of the newly developed C21 curriculum that emphasizes a patient-oriented and student-centered approach to learning. The mental health case, which is presented in year 2, incorporates a number of novel teaching resources that aim to enhance the students' learning experience and to further reinforce the patient-oriented and community-based philosophy of C21...
May 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437693/an-assessment-of-the-social-cognitive-predictors-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-behavior-using-the-health-action-process-approach
#5
J L Martinez-Brockman, F M Shebl, N Harari, R Pérez-Escamilla
RATIONALE: In the United States rates of exclusive breastfeeding duration remain exceedingly low. Exclusive breastfeeding is a complex learned behavior that is influenced by social cognitive, interpersonal, and structural factors. Interventions are needed that address factors at multiple levels of the social-ecological model. This study was designed to examine the social cognitive predictors of exclusive breastfeeding behavior in a sample of low-income women attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) breastfeeding peer counseling program and enrolled in the Lactation Advice Through Texting Can Help (LATCH) study...
April 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436902/learning-to-predict-consequences-as-a-method-of-knowledge-transfer-in-reinforcement-learning
#6
Eric Chalmers, Edgar Bermudez Contreras, Brandon Robertson, Artur Luczak, Aaron Gruber
The reinforcement learning (RL) paradigm allows agents to solve tasks through trial-and-error learning. To be capable of efficient, long-term learning, RL agents should be able to apply knowledge gained in the past to new tasks they may encounter in the future. The ability to predict actions' consequences may facilitate such knowledge transfer. We consider here domains where an RL agent has access to two kinds of information: agent-centric information with constant semantics across tasks, and environment-centric information, which is necessary to solve the task, but with semantics that differ between tasks...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436891/off-policy-reinforcement-learning-for-synchronization-in-multiagent-graphical-games
#7
Jinna Li, Hamidreza Modares, Tianyou Chai, Frank L Lewis, Lihua Xie
This paper develops an off-policy reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm to solve optimal synchronization of multiagent systems. This is accomplished by using the framework of graphical games. In contrast to traditional control protocols, which require complete knowledge of agent dynamics, the proposed off-policy RL algorithm is a model-free approach, in that it solves the optimal synchronization problem without knowing any knowledge of the agent dynamics. A prescribed control policy, called behavior policy, is applied to each agent to generate and collect data for learning...
April 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436585/the-mobile-conjugate-reinforcement-paradigm-in-a-lab-setting
#8
Emily C Merz, Laraine McDonough, Yong Lin Huang, Sophie Foss, Elizabeth Werner, Catherine Monk
The mobile conjugate reinforcement task was administered to 4-month-old infants in a lab rather than a home setting where it is usually administered. Learning and retention patterns were comparable to those of infants tested in their homes, suggesting flexibility in where this task can be administered. These results pave the way for this task to be used with a broader range of infants for whom home visits are not practical or convenient (e.g., infants in child care). Developmental research conducted with a more diverse population of infants would facilitate our understanding of cognitive development very early in life...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432592/perceptual-learning-with-tactile-stimuli-in-rodents-shaping-the-somatosensory-system
#9
REVIEW
Nicole Pacchiarini, Kevin Fox, R C Honey
The animal kingdom contains species with a wide variety of sensory systems that have been selected to function in different environmental niches, but that are also subject to modification by experience during an organism's lifetime. The modification of such systems by experience is often called perceptual learning. In rodents, the classic example of perceptual learning is the observation that simple preexposure to two visual stimuli facilitates a subsequent (reinforced) discrimination between them. However, until recently very little behavioral research had investigated perceptual learning with tactile stimuli in rodents, in marked contrast to the wealth of information about plasticity in the rodent somatosensory system...
April 21, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429095/pigeons-columba-livia-show-change-blindness-in-a-color-change-detection-task
#10
Walter T Herbranson, Jacob S Jeffers
Change blindness is a phenomenon whereby changes to a stimulus are more likely go unnoticed under certain circumstances. Pigeons learned a change detection task, in which they observed sequential stimulus displays consisting of individual colors back-projected onto three response keys. The color of one response key changed during each sequence and pecks to the key that displayed the change were reinforced. Pigeons showed a change blindness effect, in that change detection accuracy was worse when there was an inter-stimulus interval interrupting the transition between consecutive stimulus displays...
April 20, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421669/misfortune-may-be-a-blessing-in-disguise-fairness-perception-and-emotion-modulate-decision-making
#11
Hong-Hsiang Liu, Yin-Dir Hwang, Ming H Hsieh, Yung-Fong Hsu, Wen-Sung Lai
Fairness perception and equality during social interactions frequently elicit affective arousal and affect decision making. By integrating the dictator game and a probabilistic gambling task, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a negative experience induced by perceived unfairness on decision making using behavioral, model fitting, and electrophysiological approaches. Participants were randomly assigned to the neutral, harsh, or kind groups, which consisted of various asset allocation scenarios to induce different levels of perceived unfairness...
April 19, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420976/improving-robot-motor-learning-with-negatively-valenced-reinforcement-signals
#12
Nicolás Navarro-Guerrero, Robert J Lowe, Stefan Wermter
Both nociception and punishment signals have been used in robotics. However, the potential for using these negatively valenced types of reinforcement learning signals for robot learning has not been exploited in detail yet. Nociceptive signals are primarily used as triggers of preprogrammed action sequences. Punishment signals are typically disembodied, i.e., with no or little relation to the agent-intrinsic limitations, and they are often used to impose behavioral constraints. Here, we provide an alternative approach for nociceptive signals as drivers of learning rather than simple triggers of preprogrammed behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417944/variable-admittance-control-based-on-fuzzy-reinforcement-learning-for-minimally-invasive-surgery-manipulator
#13
Zhijiang Du, Wei Wang, Zhiyuan Yan, Wei Dong, Weidong Wang
In order to get natural and intuitive physical interaction in the pose adjustment of the minimally invasive surgery manipulator, a hybrid variable admittance model based on Fuzzy Sarsa(λ)-learning is proposed in this paper. The proposed model provides continuous variable virtual damping to the admittance controller to respond to human intentions, and it effectively enhances the comfort level during the task execution by modifying the generated virtual damping dynamically. A fuzzy partition defined over the state space is used to capture the characteristics of the operator in physical human-robot interaction...
April 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416682/computational-modeling-of-epiphany-learning
#14
Wei James Chen, Ian Krajbich
Models of reinforcement learning (RL) are prevalent in the decision-making literature, but not all behavior seems to conform to the gradual convergence that is a central feature of RL. In some cases learning seems to happen all at once. Limited prior research on these "epiphanies" has shown evidence of sudden changes in behavior, but it remains unclear how such epiphanies occur. We propose a sequential-sampling model of epiphany learning (EL) and test it using an eye-tracking experiment. In the experiment, subjects repeatedly play a strategic game that has an optimal strategy...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411303/comparative-approaches-to-same-different-abstract-concept-learning
#15
A A Wright, D M Kelly
Martinho and Kacelnik (2016) imprinted newly hatched ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) with a moving pair of either same or different objects, and following only one session, the ducklings accurately transferred the same/different relationship to novel object pairs that maintained the training relationship. This rapid learning and transfer of the concepts same and different far outstrips the more gradual learning of these basic concepts by animals in associative-learning tasks in which reinforcement is given for correct responses...
April 14, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410978/performance-monitoring-in-nicotine-dependence-considering-integration-of-recent-reinforcement-history
#16
Kevin Butler, Jennifer Rusted, Paul Gard, Anne Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Impaired monitoring of errors and conflict (performance monitoring; PM) is well documented in substance dependence (SD) including nicotine dependence and may contribute to continued drug use. Contemporary models of PM and complementary behavioural evidence suggest that PM works by integrating recent reinforcement history rather than evaluating individual behaviours. Despite this, studies of PM in SD have typically used indices derived from reaction to task error or conflict on individual trials...
April 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#17
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406662/explicit-and-implicit-reinforcement-learning-across-the-psychosis-spectrum
#18
Deanna M Barch, Cameron S Carter, James M Gold, Sheri L Johnson, Ann M Kring, Angus W MacDonald, Diego A Pizzagalli, J Daniel Ragland, Steven M Silverstein, Milton E Strauss
Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both positive reinforcement (learning about actions that lead to reward) and punishment (learning to avoid actions that lead to loss). Here we present data from paradigms designed to assess both positive and negative components of both implicit and explicit RL, examine performance on each of these tasks among individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis, and examine their relative relationships to specific symptom domains transdiagnostically...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398293/corrigendum-deficits-in-reinforcement-learning-but-no-link-to-apathy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#19
Matthias N Hartmann-Riemer, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Magdalena Bossert, Celina Westermann, Erich Seifritz, Philippe N Tobler, Matthias Weisbrod, Stefan Kaiser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395907/emotion-based-learning-systems-and-the-development-of-morality
#20
R J R Blair
In this paper it is proposed that important components of moral development and moral judgment rely on two forms of emotional learning: stimulus-reinforcement and response-outcome learning. Data in support of this position will be primarily drawn from work with individuals with the developmental condition of psychopathy as well as fMRI studies with healthy individuals. Individuals with psychopathy show impairment on moral judgment tasks and a pronounced increased risk for instrumental antisocial behavior. It will be argued that these impairments are developmental consequences of impaired stimulus-aversive conditioning on the basis of distress cue reinforcers and response-outcome learning in individuals with this disorder...
April 7, 2017: Cognition
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