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Reinforcement learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822105/peer-led-small-groups-are-we-on-the-right-track
#1
Fraser Moore
INTRODUCTION: Peer tutor-led small group sessions are a valuable learning strategy but students may lack confidence in the absence of a content expert. This study examined whether faculty reinforcement of peer tutor-led small group content was beneficial. METHODS: Two peer tutor-led small group sessions were compared with one faculty-led small group session using questionnaires sent to student participants and interviews with the peer tutors. One peer tutor-led session was followed by a lecture with revision of the small group content; after the second, students submitted a group report which was corrected and returned to them with comments...
August 18, 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821739/ultrafast-photonic-reinforcement-learning-based-on-laser-chaos
#2
Makoto Naruse, Yuta Terashima, Atsushi Uchida, Song-Ju Kim
Reinforcement learning involves decision making in dynamic and uncertain environments and constitutes an important element of artificial intelligence (AI). In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that the ultrafast chaotic oscillatory dynamics of lasers efficiently solve the multi-armed bandit problem (MAB), which requires decision making concerning a class of difficult trade-offs called the exploration-exploitation dilemma. To solve the MAB, a certain degree of randomness is required for exploration purposes...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820016/why-we-stay-with-our-social-partners-neural-mechanisms-of-stay-leave-decision-making
#3
Amber Heijne, Filippo Rossi, Alan G Sanfey
How do we decide to keep interacting (e.g., stay) with a social partner or to switch (e.g., leave) to another? This paper investigated the neural mechanisms of stay/leave decision-making. We hypothesized that these decisions fit within a framework of value-based decision-making, and explored four potential mechanisms underlying a hypothesized bias to stay. Twenty-six participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing social and nonsocial versions of a stay/leave decision-making task...
August 18, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814780/adaptive-simulations-towards-interactive-protein-ligand-modeling
#4
Daniel Lecina, Joan F Gilabert, Victor Guallar
Modeling the dynamic nature of protein-ligand binding with atomistic simulations is one of the main challenges in computational biophysics, with important implications in the drug design process. Although in the past few years hardware and software advances have significantly revamped the use of molecular simulations, we still lack a fast and accurate ab initio description of the binding mechanism in complex systems, available only for up-to-date techniques and requiring several hours or days of heavy computation...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814025/learning-from-demonstration-teaching-a-myoelectric-prosthesis-with-an-intact-limb-via-reinforcement-learning
#5
Gautham Vasan, Patrick M Pilarski
Prosthetic arms should restore and extend the capabilities of someone with an amputation. They should move naturally and be able to perform elegant, coordinated movements that approximate those of a biological arm. Despite these objectives, the control of modern-day prostheses is often nonintuitive and taxing. Existing devices and control approaches do not yet give users the ability to effect highly synergistic movements during their daily-life control of a prosthetic device. As a step towards improving the control of prosthetic arms and hands, we introduce an intuitive approach to training a prosthetic control system that helps a user achieve hard-to-engineer control behaviours...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813815/how-do-strength-and-coordination-recovery-interact-after-stroke-a-computational-model-for-informing-robotic-training
#6
Sumner L Norman, Joan Lobo-Prat, David J Reinkensmeyer
Robotic devices can train strength, coordination, or a combination of both. If a robotic device focuses on coordination, what happens to strength recovery, and vice versa? Understanding this interaction could help optimize robotic training. We developed a computational neurorehabilitation model to gain insight into the interaction between strength and coordination recovery after stroke. In the model, the motor system recovers by optimizing the activity of residual corticospinal cells (focally connected, excitatory and inhibitory) and reticulospinal cells (diffusely connected and excitatory) to achieve a motor task...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813432/basic-reversal-learning-capacity-in-flies-suggests-rudiments-of-complex-cognition
#7
Brad R Foley, Paul Marjoram, Sergey V Nuzhdin
The most basic models of learning are reinforcement learning models (for instance, classical and operant conditioning) that posit a constant learning rate; however many animals change their learning rates with experience. This process is sometimes studied by reversing an existing association between cues and rewards, and measuring the rate of relearning. Augmented reversal-learning, where learning rates increase with practice, can be an important component of behavioral flexibility; and may provide insight into higher cognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811178/acute-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-administration-in-female-rats-attenuates-immediate-responses-following-losses-but-not-multi-trial-reinforcement-learning-from-wins
#8
Scott A Wong, Sienna H Randolph, Victorita E Ivan, Aaron J Gruber
Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of marijuana and has potent effects on decision-making, including a proposed reduction in cognitive flexibility. We demonstrate here that acute THC administration differentially affects some of the processes that contribute to cognitive flexibility. Specifically, THC reduces lose-shift responding in which female rats tend to immediately shift choice responses away from options that result in reward omission on the previous trial. THC, however, did not impair the ability of rats to flexibly bias responses toward feeders with higher probability of reward in a reversal task...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807891/a-collaborative-approach-to-identifying-social-media-markers-of-schizophrenia-by-employing-machine-learning-and-clinical-appraisals
#9
Michael L Birnbaum, Sindhu Kiranmai Ernala, Asra F Rizvi, Munmun De Choudhury, John M Kane
BACKGROUND: Linguistic analysis of publicly available Twitter feeds have achieved success in differentiating individuals who self-disclose online as having schizophrenia from healthy controls. To date, limited efforts have included expert input to evaluate the authenticity of diagnostic self-disclosures. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to move from noisy self-reports of schizophrenia on social media to more accurate identification of diagnoses by exploring a human-machine partnered approach, wherein computational linguistic analysis of shared content is combined with clinical appraisals...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805505/group-based-learning-among-caregivers-assessing-mothers-knowledge-before-and-after-an-early-childhood-intervention-in-rural-guatemala
#10
Gretchen J Domek, Brittney Macdonald, Catherine Cooper, Maureen Cunningham, Madiha Abdel-Maksoud, Stephen Berman
BACKGROUND: The first three years of a child's life are a critical period for brain growth and development. Caregiver interventions during this period that improve early childhood health and development have the potential to enhance a child's physical, mental, and social well-being. METHODS: This was a pretest/posttest quasi experimental program evaluation. Early childhood education materials were adapted to create two separate interventions consisting of 30-page interactive flipchart talks to educate mothers on health and development topics relevant to 0-6 and 6-12 month old children...
August 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805428/ventral-striatum-lesions-do-not-affect-reinforcement-learning-with-deterministic-outcomes-on-slow-time-scales
#11
Raquel Vicario-Feliciano, Elisabeth A Murray, Bruno B Averbeck
A large body of work has implicated the ventral striatum (VS) in aspects of reinforcement learning (RL). However, less work has directly examined the effects of lesions in the VS, or other forms of inactivation, on 2-armed bandit RL tasks. We have recently found that lesions in the VS in macaque monkeys affect learning with stochastic schedules but have minimal effects with deterministic schedules. The reasons for this are not currently clear. Because our previous work used short intertrial intervals, one possibility is that the animals were using working memory to bridge stimulus-reward associations from 1 trial to the next...
August 14, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802898/neurochemical-evidence-that-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-55-102-peptide-modulates-the-dopaminergic-reward-system-by-decreasing-the-dopamine-release-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#12
Angelina Rakovska, Maria Baranyi, Katalin Windish, Polina Petkova-Kirova, Hristo Gagov, Reni Kalfin
CART (Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript) peptide is a neurotransmitter naturally occurring in the CNS and found mostly in nucleus accumbens, ventrotegmental area, ventral pallidum, amygdalae and striatum, brain regions associated with drug addiction. In the nucleus accumbens, known for its significant role in motivation, pleasure, reward and reinforcement learning, CART peptide inhibits cocaine and amphetamine-induced dopamine-mediated increases in locomotor activity and behavior, suggesting a CART peptide interaction with the dopaminergic system...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800597/confirmation-bias-in-human-reinforcement-learning-evidence-from-counterfactual-feedback-processing
#13
Stefano Palminteri, Germain Lefebvre, Emma J Kilford, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Previous studies suggest that factual learning, that is, learning from obtained outcomes, is biased, such that participants preferentially take into account positive, as compared to negative, prediction errors. However, whether or not the prediction error valence also affects counterfactual learning, that is, learning from forgone outcomes, is unknown. To address this question, we analysed the performance of two groups of participants on reinforcement learning tasks using a computational model that was adapted to test if prediction error valence influences learning...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796202/the-complete-connectome-of-a-learning-and-memory-centre-in-an-insect-brain
#14
Katharina Eichler, Feng Li, Ashok Litwin-Kumar, Youngser Park, Ingrid Andrade, Casey M Schneider-Mizell, Timo Saumweber, Annina Huser, Claire Eschbach, Bertram Gerber, Richard D Fetter, James W Truman, Carey E Priebe, L F Abbott, Andreas S Thum, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona
Associating stimuli with positive or negative reinforcement is essential for survival, but a complete wiring diagram of a higher-order circuit supporting associative memory has not been previously available. Here we reconstruct one such circuit at synaptic resolution, the Drosophila larval mushroom body. We find that most Kenyon cells integrate random combinations of inputs but that a subset receives stereotyped inputs from single projection neurons. This organization maximizes performance of a model output neuron on a stimulus discrimination task...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792571/-improving-population-mental-health-by-integrating-mental-health-care-into-primary-care
#15
Matthew Menear, Michel Gilbert, Marie-Josée Fleury
Objective The objectives of this review were to identify and compare major international initiatives aiming to integrate mental health services in primary care and to summarize the lessons learned for similar integration efforts in the province of Quebec, Canada.Methods We conducted a narrative review of the literature guided by a conceptual framework drawn from the literature on integrated care. We identified relevant initiatives to support primary mental health care integration through Pubmed searches and through previous systematic reviews on this topic...
2017: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792570/-the-global-model-of-public-mental-health-and-recovery-mentors
#16
Jean-François Pelletier, Émilie Auclair
Objectives The aim of this paper is to revisit the Global Model of Public Mental Health (GMPMH) in light of the 4th Civic Forum. Recovery mentors of the University of Recovery chaired this public event, which was held in East-end Montreal, Canada, in 2016. The University of Recovery is a concept of co-learning among its members.Methods Being able to refer to international conventions and human rights standards is a key component of a genuine global approach that is supportive of individuals and communities in their quest for recovery and full citizenship...
2017: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792447/ambiguous-results-when-using-the-ambiguous-cue-paradigm-to-assess-learning-and-cognitive-bias-in-gorillas-and-a-black-bear
#17
Molly C McGuire, Jennifer Vonk, Zoe Johnson-Ulrich
Cognitive bias tests are frequently used to assess affective state in nonhumans. We adapted the ambiguous-cue paradigm to assess affective states and to compare learning of reward associations in two distantly related species, an American black bear and three Western lowland gorillas. Subjects were presented with three training stimuli: one that was always rewarded (P), one that was never rewarded (N) and one that was ambiguous (A) because its reward association depended on whether it had been paired with P (PA pairing) or N (NA pairing)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791658/transfer-of-discriminative-control-during-stimulus-fading-conducted-without-reinforcement
#18
Lanny Fields
Using trial-and-error training, eight pigeons did not learn to discriminate between 45° and 135° lines, but did learn to discriminate between red and green colors. Control by line tilt was induced by stimulus fading that did not include reinforcement while fading out the colors. After establishing the red-green discrimination, low-intensity lines were superimposed on colors and were gradually faded in. All of this was done using reinforcement. At the end of the line fade-in, the lines had not acquired control of responding...
August 8, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790900/maladaptive-decision-making-in-adults-with-a-history-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-in-a-preclinical-model-is-attributable-to-the-compromised-assignment-of-incentive-value-during-stimulus-reward-learning
#19
Lauren C Kruse, Abigail G Schindler, Rapheal G Williams, Sophia J Weber, Jeremy J Clark
According to recent WHO reports, alcohol remains the number one substance used and abused by adolescents, despite public health efforts to curb its use. Adolescence is a critical period of biological maturation where brain development, particularly the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, undergoes substantial remodeling. These circuits are implicated in complex decision making, incentive learning and reinforcement during substance use and abuse. An appealing theoretical approach has been to suggest that alcohol alters the normal development of these processes to promote deficits in reinforcement learning and decision making, which together make individuals vulnerable to developing substance use disorders in adulthood...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790898/differences-between-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-in-the-sensitivity-of-tonically-active-neurons-to-rewarding-events
#20
Kevin Marche, Anne-Caroline Martel, Paul Apicella
Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs), represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum), but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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