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Reinforcement learning

Anton Buzdin, Maxim Sorokin, Andrew Garazha, Marina Sekacheva, Ella Kim, Nikolay Zhukov, Ye Wang, Xinmin Li, Souvik Kar, Christian Hartmann, Amir Samii, Alf Giese, Nicolas Borisov
Anticancer target drugs (ATDs) specifically bind and inhibit molecular targets that play important roles in cancer development and progression, being deeply implicated in intracellular signaling pathways. To date, hundreds of different ATDs were approved for clinical use in the different countries. Compared to previous chemotherapy treatments, ATDs often demonstrate reduced side effects and increased efficiency, but also have higher costs. However, the efficiency of ATDs for the advanced stage tumors is still insufficient...
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Stephen Kelly, Malcolm I Heywood
Algorithms that learn through environmental interaction and delayed rewards, or reinforcement learning, increasingly face the challenge of scaling to dynamic, highdimensional, and partially observable environments. Significant attention is being paid to frameworks from deep learning, which scale to high-dimensional data by decomposing the task through multi-layered neural networks. While effective, the representation is complex and computationally demanding. In this work we propose a framework based on Genetic Programming which adaptively complexifies policies through interaction with the task...
June 22, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Brian M Sweis, Mark J Thomas, A David Redish
Regret can be defined as the subjective experience of recognizing that one has made a mistake and that a better alternative could have been selected. The experience of regret is thought to carry negative utility. This typically takes two distinct forms: augmenting immediate postregret valuations to make up for losses, and augmenting long-term changes in decision-making strategies to avoid future instances of regret altogether. While the short-term changes in valuation have been studied in human psychology, economics, neuroscience, and even recently in nonhuman-primate and rodent neurophysiology, the latter long-term process has received far less attention, with no reports of regret avoidance in nonhuman decision-making paradigms...
June 2018: PLoS Biology
Peter Eastman, Jade Shi, Bharath Ramsundar, Vijay S Pande
We use reinforcement learning to train an agent for computational RNA design: given a target secondary structure, design a sequence that folds to that structure in silico. Our agent uses a novel graph convolutional architecture allowing a single model to be applied to arbitrary target structures of any length. After training it on randomly generated targets, we test it on the Eterna100 benchmark and find it outperforms all previous algorithms. Analysis of its solutions shows it has successfully learned some advanced strategies identified by players of the game Eterna, allowing it to solve some very difficult structures...
June 21, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Alexei Morozov
The lasting behavioral changes elicited by social signals provide important adaptations for survival of organisms that thrive as a group. Unlike the rapid innate responses to social cues, such adaptations have been understudied. Here, the rodent models of the lasting socially induced behavioral changes are presented as either modulations or reinforcements of the distinct forms of learning and memory or non-associative changes of affective state. The purpose of this categorization is to draw attention to the potential mechanistic links between the neuronal pathways that process social cues and the neuronal systems that mediate the well-studied forms of learning and memory...
May 16, 2018: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
Vikki J Bland, Sarah Cowie, Douglas Elliffe, Christopher A Podlesnik
The study and use of punishment in behavioral treatments has been constrained by ethical concerns. However, there remains a need to reduce harmful behavior unable to be reduced by differential-reinforcement procedures. We investigated whether response-contingent presentation of a negative discriminative stimulus previously correlated with an absence of reinforcers would punish behavior maintained by positive reinforcers. Across four conditions, pigeons were trained to discriminate between a positive discriminative stimulus (S+) signaling the presence of food, and a negative discriminative stimulus (S-) signaling the absence of food...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Elias Tsakanikos, Phil Reed
This study adopted a novel approach to relating nonhuman and human studies of anxiety and latent inhibition, by exploring the degree to which rats' "temperaments" in relation to anxiety predicted the development of latent inhibition. It investigated whether anxiety levels in one situation (i.e., an elevated-plus maze) involving 38 intact, mature rats, could predict performance on a latent inhibition task (i.e., an animal model of attention), and, thus, reproduce findings from human studies. Rats were subjected to two tasks: a novel within-subject, appetitive stimulus pre-exposure procedure, and an elevated-plus maze task...
June 20, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Flavia Aluisi, Anna Rubinchik, Genela Morris
Reinforcement learning describes the process by which during a series of trial-and-error attempts, actions that culminate in reward are reinforced, becoming more likely to be chosen in similar circumstances. When decisions are based on sensory stimuli, an association is formed between the stimulus, the action and the reward. Computational, behavioral and neurobiological accounts of this process successfully explain simple learning of stimuli that differ in one aspect, or along a single stimulus dimension. However, when stimuli may vary across several dimensions, identifying which features are relevant for the reward is not trivial, and the underlying cognitive process is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mark J Van Ryzin, Cary J Roseth
BACKGROUND: Peer influence processes have been linked to escalation in substance use during the middle school years, particularly among at-risk youth. In this study, we report on an approach to prevention that attempts to counteract peer influence by interrupting the process of deviant peer clustering, in which socially marginalized youth self-aggregate and reinforce delinquent behavior, including substance use. We aimed to interrupt this process by implementing collaborative, group-based learning activities in school (i...
June 13, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Yang Yang, Xuan Song, Xiangjia Li, Zeyu Chen, Chi Zhou, Qifa Zhou, Yong Chen
Nature has developed high-performance materials and structures over millions of years of evolution and provides valuable sources of inspiration for the design of next-generation structural materials, given the variety of excellent mechanical, hydrodynamic, optical, and electrical properties. Biomimicry, by learning from nature's concepts and design principles, is driving a paradigm shift in modern materials science and technology. However, the complicated structural architectures in nature far exceed the capability of traditional design and fabrication technologies, which hinders the progress of biomimetic study and its usage in engineering systems...
June 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
Keith Morris-Schaffer, Marissa Sobolewski, Joshua L Allen, Elena Marvin, Min Yee, Manish Arora, Michael A O'Reilly, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Hyperoxia during treatment for prematurity may enhance susceptibility to other risk factors for adverse brain development, such as air pollution exposure, as both of these risk factors have been linked to a variety of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study investigated the combined effects of neonatal hyperoxia followed by inhalation of concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS, <100 nm in aerodynamic diameter) on learning. C57BL/6 J mice were birthed into 60% oxygen until postnatal day (PND) 4 and subsequently exposed to filtered air or to CAPS using the Harvard University Concentrated Ambient Particle System (HUCAPS) from PND 4-7 and 10-13...
June 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Megan A Arnold, M Christopher Newland
Behavioral inflexibility is often assessed using reversal learning tasks, which require a relatively low degree of response variability. No studies have assessed sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies that specifically select highly variable response patterns in mice, let alone in models of neurodevelopmental disorders involving limited response variation. Operant variability and incremental repeated acquisition (IRA) were used to assess unique aspects of behavioral variability of two mouse strains: BALB/c, a model of some deficits in ASD, and C57Bl/6...
June 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Gro Killi Haugstad, Unni Kirste, Siv Leganger, Elin Haakonsen, Tor S Haugstad
Historic background and development of our somatocognitive approach Mensendieck physiotherapy of the Oslo School is a tradition of physiotherapy founded by the American physician Bess Mensendieck, a contemporary and fellow student of Sigmund Freud at the Paris School of Neurology. It builds on the principles of functional anatomy and the theories of motor learning. We have further developed the theory and practice from this physiotherapy tradition, challenged by the enormous load of patients with longstanding, incapacitating pain on western health care systems, by seeking to incorporate inspirational ideas from body oriented dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive psychotherapy...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Sara Jahfari, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Anne G E Collins, Tomas Knapen, Lourens J Waldorp, Michael J Frank
Why are we so slow in choosing the lesser of 2 evils? We considered whether such slowing relates to uncertainty about the value of these options, which arises from the tendency to avoid them during learning, and whether such slowing relates to frontosubthalamic inhibitory control mechanisms. In total, 49 participants performed a reinforcement-learning task and a stop-signal task while fMRI was recorded. A reinforcement-learning model was used to quantify learning strategies. Individual differences in lose-lose slowing related to information uncertainty due to sampling, and independently, to less efficient response inhibition in the stop-signal task...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Jaime A DeQuinzio, Bridget A Taylor, Brittany J Tomasi
We extended past observational learning research by incorporating stimuli already known to participants into training. We used a multiple-baseline design across three participants to determine the effects of discrimination training on the discrimination of consequences applied to modeled responses using both known and unknown pictures. During baseline, participants were exposed to modeled correct and incorrect picture labels and were observed to imitate modeled responses that were incorrect and followed by negative feedback...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Rafael Ruiz de Castañeda, Amanda Garrison, Philippe Haeberli, Lisa Crump, Jakob Zinsstag, André Ravel, Antoine Flahault, Isabelle Bolon
In 2016 and 2017 the first three MOOCs (Massive Online Open Course) addressing One Health were released, two of them by University of Geneva and University of Basel (Switzerland). With the support of Swiss School of Public Health and using these two highly interdisciplinary MOOCs, the first 'Global Flipped Classroom in One Health' was organized in Geneva and Basel in July 2017. This innovative event gathered 12 Swiss and international MOOC learners to work on specific public/global health challenges at the human-animal-ecosystem interface in interdisciplinary teams supported by experts from academia and international organisations (e...
June 2018: One Health
Olivier Codol, Peter J Holland, Joseph M Galea
The motor system's ability to adapt to environmental changes is essential for maintaining accurate movements. Such adaptation recruits several distinct systems: cerebellar sensory-prediction error learning, success-based reinforcement, and explicit control. Although much work has focused on the relationship between cerebellar learning and explicit control, there is little research regarding how reinforcement and explicit control interact. To address this, participants first learnt a 20° visuomotor displacement...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mario Manto
More than a century after the description of its cardinal components, the cerebellar motor syndrome (CMS) remains a cornerstone of daily clinical ataxiology, in both children and adults. Anatomically, motor cerebellum involves lobules I-V, VI, and VIII. CMS is typically associated with errors in the metrics of voluntary movements and a lack of coordination. Symptoms and motor signs consist of speech deficits, impairments of limb movements, and abnormalities of posture/gait. Ataxic dysarthria has a typical scanning (explosive with staccato) feature, voice has a nasal character, and speech is slurred...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Marina Englert, Glaucya Madazio, Ingrid Gielow, Jorge Lucero, Mara Behlau
PURPOSE: To investigate the learning factor during a perceptual-auditory analysis of an unusual task in three different groups. METHODS: 269 listeners, divided into three groups: 73 voice specialists Speech Language Pathologists (EG), 84 voice specialists Speech Language Pathologists (NEG); and 112 non-speech pathologists in the Naive Group (NG). They all completed a listening session that included 18 synthesized and 18 human voices with different types and degrees of deviation (50% of repetition for intra-rater consistency analysis)...
June 7, 2018: CoDAS
Elizabeth Armitage-Chan, Stephen A May
Professional studies teaching in medical and veterinary education is undergoing a period of change. Traditional approaches, aiming to teach students professional values and behaviors, are being enhanced by curricula designed to support students' professional identity formation. This development offers the potential for improving student engagement and graduates' mental well-being. The veterinary professional identity associated with emotional resilience and success in practice incorporates complexity in professional decision making and the importance of context on behaviors and actions...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
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