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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454347/oncology-nurses-beliefs-and-attitudes-towards-the-double-check-of-chemotherapy-medications-a-cross-sectional-survey-study
#1
D L B Schwappach, Katja Taxis, Yvonne Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Double-checking medications is a widely used strategy to enhance safe medication administration in oncology, but there is little evidence to support its effectiveness. The proliferated use of double-checking may be explained by positive attitudes towards checking among nurses. This study investigated oncology nurses' beliefs towards double-checking medication, its relation to beliefs about safety and the influence of nurses' level of experience and proximity to clinical care...
February 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453689/sustained-sensorimotor-control-as-intermittent-decisions-about-prediction-errors-computational-framework-and-application-to-ground-vehicle-steering
#2
Gustav Markkula, Erwin Boer, Richard Romano, Natasha Merat
A conceptual and computational framework is proposed for modelling of human sensorimotor control and is exemplified for the sensorimotor task of steering a car. The framework emphasises control intermittency and extends on existing models by suggesting that the nervous system implements intermittent control using a combination of (1) motor primitives, (2) prediction of sensory outcomes of motor actions, and (3) evidence accumulation of prediction errors. It is shown that approximate but useful sensory predictions in the intermittent control context can be constructed without detailed forward models, as a superposition of simple prediction primitives, resembling neurobiologically observed corollary discharges...
February 16, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453510/next-generation-metabolic-screening-targeted-and-untargeted-metabolomics-for-the-diagnosis-of-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-in-individual-patients
#3
Karlien L M Coene, Leo A J Kluijtmans, Ed van der Heeft, Udo F H Engelke, Siebolt de Boer, Brechtje Hoegen, Hanneke J T Kwast, Maartje van de Vorst, Marleen C D G Huigen, Irene M L W Keularts, Michiel F Schreuder, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Saskia B Wortmann, Maaike C de Vries, Mirian C H Janssen, Christian Gilissen, Jasper Engel, Ron A Wevers
The implementation of whole-exome sequencing in clinical diagnostics has generated a need for functional evaluation of genetic variants. In the field of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), a diverse spectrum of targeted biochemical assays is employed to analyze a limited amount of metabolites. We now present a single-platform, high-resolution liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight (LC-QTOF) method that can be applied for holistic metabolic profiling in plasma of individual IEM-suspected patients. This method, which we termed "next-generation metabolic screening" (NGMS), can detect >10,000 features in each sample...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452799/how-to-prevent-medication-errors-in-the-operating-room-take-away-the-human-factor
#4
EDITORIAL
R S Litman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450992/assessment-of-fragmentation-strategies-for-large-proteins-using-the-multilayer-molecules-in-molecules-approach
#5
Bishnu Thapa, Daniel Beckett, K V Jovan Jose, Krishnan Raghavachari
We present a rigorous evaluation of the potential for the multilayer Molecules-in-Molecules (MIM) fragmentation method to be applied to large biomolecules. Density functional total energies of a test set of 8 peptides, sizes ranging from 107 to 721 atoms, were evaluated with MIM and compared to unfragmented energies to help develop a protocol for the treatment of large proteins. Fragmentation schemes involving subsystems of 4 to 5 covalently bonded fragments (tetramer or pentamer schemes) were tested with a single level of theory (MIM1) and produced errors on the order of 100 kcal/mol due to the relatively small size of the subsystems and the neglect of nonbonded interactions...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449874/an-efficient-modified-method-for-plant-leaf-lipid-extraction-results-in-improved-recovery-of-phosphatidic-acid
#6
Sunitha Shiva, Regina Enninful, Mary R Roth, Pamela Tamura, Krishna Jagadish, Ruth Welti
Background: Lipidomics plays an important role in understanding plant adaptation to different stresses and improving our knowledge of the genes underlying lipid metabolism. Lipidomics involves lipid extraction, sample preparation, mass spectrometry analysis, and data interpretation. One of the practical challenges for large-scale lipidomics studies on plant leaves is the requirement of an efficient and rapid extraction method. Results: A single-extraction method with a polar solvent mixture gives results comparable to a widely used, multi-extraction method when tested on both Arabidopsis thaliana and Sorghum bicolor leaf tissue...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449629/publisher-correction-human-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-are-quickly-reconstituted-after-stem-cell-transplantation-and-show-adaptive-clonal-expansion-in-response-to-viral-infection
#7
Sarina Ravens, Christian Schultze-Florey, Solaiman Raha, Inga Sandrock, Melanie Drenker, Linda Oberdörfer, Annika Reinhardt, Inga Ravens, Maleen Beck, Robert Geffers, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Michael Heuser, Felicitas Thol, Arnold Ganser, Reinhold Förster, Christian Koenecke, Immo Prinz
In the version of this article initially published, a source of funding (Deutsche José Carreras Leukämie-Stiftung e.V. (DJCLS R12/29 to C.K. and I.P.)) was not included in the Acknowledgments section. The correct statement is as follows: "Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, (SFB900/B8 to C.K. and I.P.; and PR727/4-1 to I.P.), Deutsche José Carreras Leukämie-Stiftung e.V. (DJCLS R12/29 to C.K. and I.P.) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (01EO1302 to C.S.-F., C.K. and I...
February 14, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448996/automating-data-analysis-for-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-non-targeted-analysis-of-comparative-samples
#8
Ivan A Titaley, O Maduka Ogba, Leah Chibwe, Eunha Hoh, Paul H-Y Cheong, Staci L Massey Simonich
Non-targeted analysis of environmental samples, using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/ToF-MS), poses significant data analysis challenges due to the large number of possible analytes. Non-targeted data analysis of complex mixtures is prone to human bias and is laborious, particularly for comparative environmental samples such as contaminated soil pre- and post-bioremediation. To address this research bottleneck, we developed OCTpy, a Python™ script that acts as a data reduction filter to automate GC × GC/ToF-MS data analysis from LECO ® ChromaTOF ® software and facilitates selection of analytes of interest based on peak area comparison between comparative samples...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448305/development-and-validation-of-gc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-quantitation-of-several-antipsychotics-in-human-plasma-and-oral-fluid
#9
Tiago Rosado, David Oppolzer, Belinda Cruz, Mário Barroso, Samira Varela, Victor Oliveira, Carlos Leitão, Eugenia Gallardo
RATIONALE: Antipsychotic drugs are prescription medications used to treat psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic depression. With several antipsychotic drugs currently available all over the world, this class of drugs has quickly gotten importance in both clinical and forensic context. This work describes the development and validation of a methodology for the determination of seven antipsychotic drugs in plasma and oral fluid samples. METHODS: The antipsychotic drugs (chlorpromazine, clozapine, haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, cyamemazine and, levomepromazine) were isolated from 0...
February 15, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448023/simulating-spatial-distribution-of-coastal-soil-carbon-content-using-a-comprehensive-land-surface-factor-system-based-on-remote-sensing
#10
Yuan Chi, Honghua Shi, Wei Zheng, Jingkuan Sun
Surface soil carbon content (SCC) in coastal area is affected by complex factors, and revealing the SCC spatial distribution is considerably significant for judging the quantity of stored carbon and identifying the driving factors of SCC variation. A comprehensive land surface factor system (CLSFS) was established; it utilized the ecological significances of remote sensing data and included four-class factors, namely, spectrum information, ecological indices, spatial location, and land cover. Different simulation algorithms, including single-factor regression (SFR), multiple-factor regression (MFR), partial least squares regression (PLSR), and back propagation neural network (BPNN), were adopted to conduct the surface (0-30cm) SCC mapping in the Yellow River Delta in China, and a 10-fold cross validation approach was used to validate the uncertainty and accuracy of the algorithms...
February 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447399/the-relationship-between-soldier-performance-on-the-two-mile-run-and-the-20-m-shuttle-run-test
#11
Maria C Canino, Bruce S Cohen, Jan E Redmond, Marilyn A Sharp, Edward J Zambraski, Stephen A Foulis
Background: The 20-m shuttle run test (MSRT) is a common field test used to measure aerobic fitness in controlled environments. The U.S. Army currently assesses aerobic fitness with the two-mile run (TMR), but external factors may impact test performance. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the Army Physical Fitness Test TMR performance and the MSRT in military personnel. Methods: A group of 531 (403 males and 128 females) active duty soldiers (age: 24...
February 13, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445992/the-functional-genomics-laboratory-functional-validation-of-genetic-variants
#12
Richard J Rodenburg
Currently, one of the main challenges in human molecular genetics is the interpretation of rare genetic variants of unknown clinical significance. A conclusive diagnosis is of importance for the patient to obtain certainty about the cause of the disease, for the clinician to be able to provide optimal care to the patient and to predict the disease course, and for the clinical geneticist for genetic counseling of the patient and family members. Conclusive evidence for pathogenicity of genetic variants is therefore crucial...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445188/daily-circadian-misalignment-impairs-human-cognitive-performance-task-dependently
#13
Sarah L Chellappa, Christopher J Morris, Frank A J L Scheer
Shift work increases the risk for human errors, such that drowsiness due to shift work has contributed to major industrial disasters, including Space Shuttle Challenger, Chernobyl and Alaska Oil Spill disasters, with extraordinary socio-economical costs. Overnight operations pose a challenge because our circadian biology inhibits cognitive performance at night. Yet how the circadian system modulates cognition over multiple days under realistic shift work conditions remains to be established. Importantly, because task-specific cognitive brain regions show different 24-h circadian dynamics, we hypothesize that circadian misalignment impacts cognition task-dependently...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445036/transition-by-head-on-collision-mechanically-mediated-manoeuvres-in-cockroaches-and-small-robots
#14
Kaushik Jayaram, Jean-Michel Mongeau, Anand Mohapatra, Paul Birkmeyer, Ronald S Fearing, Robert J Full
Exceptional performance is often considered to be elegant and free of 'errors' or missteps. During the most extreme escape behaviours, neural control can approach or exceed its operating limits in response time and bandwidth. Here we show that small, rapid running cockroaches with robust exoskeletons select head-on collisions with obstacles to maintain the fastest escape speeds possible to transition up a vertical wall. Instead of avoidance, animals use their passive body shape and compliance to negotiate challenging environments...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444169/monitoring-chest-compression-quality-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-proof-of-concept-of-a-single-accelerometer-based-feedback-algorithm
#15
Digna María González-Otero, Jesus María Ruiz, Sofía Ruiz de Gauna, Jose Julio Gutiérrez, Mohamud Daya, James Knox Russell, Izaskun Azcarate, Mikel Leturiondo
BACKGROUND: The use of real-time feedback systems to guide rescuers during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) significantly contributes to improve adherence to published resuscitation guidelines. Recently, we designed a novel method for computing depth and rate of chest compressions relying solely on the spectral analysis of chest acceleration. That method was extensively tested in a simulated manikin scenario. The purpose of this study is to report the results of this method as tested in human out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443720/retained-guidewires-in-the-veterans-health-administration-getting-to-the-root-of-the-problem
#16
Leila Cherara, Gary L Sculli, Douglas E Paull, Lisa Mazzia, Julia Neily, Peter D Mills
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the demographics, causes, and contributing factors of retained guidewires (GWs) and to make specific recommendations for their prevention. METHODS: The Veterans Administration patient safety reporting system database for 2000-2016 was queried for cases of retained GWs (RGWs). Data extracted for each case included procedure location, provider experience, insertion site, urgency, time to discovery, root causes, and corrective actions taken...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442006/a-time-scaled-convolution-approach-to-construct-ivivc-for-enteric-coated-acetylsalicylic-acid-tablets
#17
J Al-Gousous, P Langguth
A scaled convolution-based in vitro-in vivo (IVIVC) model was constructed for two enteric-coated acetylsalicylic acid tablet formulations. The in vitro data used were the results of dissolution testing performed using three different dissolution methods: the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) method, a method employing blank Fasted State Simulated Fluid (FaSSIF), and a new method developed in house. The in vivo data were obtained from a pharmacokinetic study on human subjects in the fasted state. When the new dissolution method results were used, an average prediction error less than 10% and a maximum prediction error less than 15% were obtained for the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) parameters, thus meeting the internal validation criteria of the IVIVC guidance of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
February 1, 2018: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440719/prefrontal-gaba-levels-hippocampal-resting-perfusion-and-the-risk-of-psychosis
#18
Gemma Modinos, Fatma Şimşek, Matilda Azis, Matthijs Bossong, Ilaria Bonoldi, Carly Samson, Beverly Quinn, Jesus Perez, Matthew R Broome, Fernando Zelaya, David J Lythgoe, Oliver D Howes, James M Stone, Anthony A Grace, Paul Allen, Philip McGuire
Preclinical models propose that the onset of psychosis is associated with hippocampal hyperactivity, thought to be driven by cortical GABAergic interneuron dysfunction and disinhibition of pyramidal neurons. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that resting hippocampal perfusion is increased in subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, but how this may be related to GABA concentrations is unknown. The present study used a multimodal neuroimaging approach to address this issue in UHR subjects. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging were acquired to investigate the relationship between medial prefrontal (MPFC) GABA+ levels (including some contribution from macromolecules) and hippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 36 individuals at UHR of psychosis, based on preclinical evidence that MPFC dysfunction is involved in hippocampal hyperactivity...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440520/assessing-the-relative-impact-of-historical-divergence-and-inter-group-transmission-on-cultural-patterns-a-method-from-evolutionary-ecology
#19
Noreen von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephen J Lycett
In the study of cultural evolution, observed among-group affinity patterns reflect the effects of processes such as mutation (e.g. innovation and copying error), between-group interaction (culture flow), drift and selection. As in biology, cultural affinity patterns are often spatially correlated, making it difficult to distinguish between the opposing geographically mediated forces of divergence and interaction, which cause groups to become more distinct or similar over time, respectively. Analogous difficulties are faced by evolutionary biologists examining the relationship between biological affinity and geography, particularly at lower taxonomic levels where the potential for gene flow between lineages is greatest...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440516/cultural-transmission-in-an-ever-changing-world-trial-and-error-copying-may-be-more-robust-than-precise-imitation
#20
REVIEW
Noa Truskanov, Yosef Prat
Cultural transmission facilitates the spread of behaviours within social groups and may lead to the establishment of stable traditions in both human and non-human animals. The fidelity of transmission is frequently emphasized as a core component of cultural evolution and as a prerequisite for cumulative culture. Fidelity is often considered a synonym of precise copying of observed behaviours. However, while precise copying guarantees reliable transmission in an ideal static world, it may be vulnerable to realistic variability in the actual environment...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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