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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924035/misincorporation-by-rna-polymerase-is-a-major-source-of-transcription-pausing-in-vivo
#1
Katherine James, Pamela Gamba, Simon J Cockell, Nikolay Zenkin
The transcription error rate estimated from mistakes in end product RNAs is 10(-3)-10(-5) We analyzed the fidelity of nascent RNAs from all actively transcribing elongation complexes (ECs) in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found that 1-3% of all ECs in wild-type cells, and 5-7% of all ECs in cells lacking proofreading factors are, in fact, misincorporated complexes. With the exception of a number of sequence-dependent hotspots, most misincorporations are distributed relatively randomly. Misincorporation at hotspots does not appear to be stimulated by pausing...
October 24, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923744/simultaneous-measurement-of-total-water-content-and-myelin-water-fraction-in-brain-at-3t-using-a-t2-relaxation-based-method
#2
Sandra M Meyers, Shannon H Kolind, Alex L MacKay
PURPOSE: This work demonstrates the in vivo application of a T2 relaxation based total water content (TWC) measurement technique at 3T in healthy human brain, and evaluates accuracy using simulations that model brain tissue. The benefit of using T2 relaxation is that it provides simultaneous measurements of myelin water fraction, which correlates to myelin content. METHODS: T2 relaxation data was collected from 10 healthy human subjects with a gradient and spin echo (GRASE) sequence, along with inversion recovery for T1 mapping...
December 3, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922537/bayesian-analysis-of-silica-exposure-and-lung-cancer-using-human-and-animal-studies
#3
Scott M Bartell, Ghassan Badri Hamra, Kyle Steenland
BACKGROUND: Bayesian methods can be used to incorporate external information into epidemiologic exposure-response analyses of silica and lung cancer. METHODS: We used data from a pooled mortality analysis of silica and lung cancer (n=65,980), using untransformed and log-transformed cumulative exposure. Animal data came from chronic silica inhalation studies using rats. We conducted Bayesian analyses with either diffuse or informative priors based on the animal data and different cross-species extrapolation factors...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922516/advances-in-endoscope-reprocessing-technology-and-its-impact-on-pathogen-transmission
#4
Cathleen Shellnutt
Pathogen transmissions via flexible endoscopes have been documented in the literature and have been historically related to human error or omission of steps in the reprocessing cycle. The 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report challenged manufacturers of automated endoscope reprocessors to improve and advance technology to automate more of the reprocessing steps. A review and synthesis of the literature following the 2008 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report was performed to evaluate whether advances in reprocessing technology have occurred and whether these have had an impact on pathogen transmission via flexible endoscopes...
November 2016: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921283/choices-have-consequences-the-nexus-between-dna-repair-pathways-and-genomic-instability-in-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Sonali Bhattacharjee, Saikat Nandi
BACKGROUND: The genome is under constant assault from a multitude of sources that can lead to the formation of DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs). DSBs are cytotoxic lesions, which if left unrepaired could lead to genomic instability, cancer and even cell death. However, erroneous repair of DSBs can lead to chromosomal rearrangements and loss of heterozygosity, which in turn can also cause cancer and cell death. Hence, although the repair of DSBs is crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity the process of repair need to be well regulated and closely monitored...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921074/initial-performance-studies-of-a-wearable-brain-positron-emission-tomography-camera-based-on-autonomous-thin-film-digital-geiger-avalanche-photodiode-arrays
#6
Charles R Schmidtlein, James N Turner, Michael O Thompson, Krishna C Mandal, Ida Häggström, Jiahan Zhang, John L Humm, David H Feiglin, Andrzej Krol
Using analytical and Monte Carlo modeling, we explored performance of a lightweight wearable helmet-shaped brain positron emission tomography (PET), or BET camera, based on thin-film digital Geiger avalanche photodiode arrays with Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) or [Formula: see text] scintillators for imaging in vivo human brain function of freely moving and acting subjects. We investigated a spherical cap BET and cylindrical brain PET (CYL) geometries with 250-mm diameter. We also considered a clinical whole-body (WB) LYSO PET/CT scanner...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921071/validation-of-automatic-joint-space-width-measurements-in-hand-radiographs-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Olga Schenk, Yinghe Huo, Koen L Vincken, Mart A van de Laar, Ina H H Kuper, Kees C H Slump, Floris P J G Lafeber, Hein J Bernelot Moens
Computerized methods promise quick, objective, and sensitive tools to quantify progression of radiological damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Measurement of joint space width (JSW) in finger and wrist joints with these systems performed comparable to the Sharp-van der Heijde score (SHS). A next step toward clinical use, validation of precision and accuracy in hand joints with minimal damage, is described with a close scrutiny of sources of error. A recently developed system to measure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints was validated in consecutive hand images of RA patients...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920886/evaluation-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-secretion-in-e-coli-using-the-l-asparaginase-ii-signal-peptide
#8
Mozhdeh Zamani, Navid Nezafat, Younes Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: In the recent years, there has been an increasing interest in secretory production of recombinant proteins, due to its various advantages compared with intracellular expression. Signal peptides play a critical role in prosperous secretion of recombinant proteins. Accordingly, different signal peptides have been assessed for their ability to produce secretory proteins by trial-and-error experiments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of L-asparaginase II signal peptide on the recombinant human Growth Hormone (hGH) protein secretion in the Escherichia coli (E...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920281/systematic-review-and-statistical-analysis-of-the-integrity-of-33-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Mark J Bolland, Alison Avenell, Greg D Gamble, Andrew Grey
BACKGROUND: Statistical techniques can investigate data integrity in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We systematically reviewed and analyzed all human RCTs undertaken by a group of researchers, about which concerns have been raised. METHODS: We compared observed distributions of p values for between-groups differences in baseline variables, for standardized sample means for continuous baseline variables, and for differences in treatment group participant numbers with the expected distributions...
December 6, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918704/comparison-of-3d-joint-angles-measured-with-the-kinect-2-0-skeletal-tracker-versus-a-marker-based-motion-capture-system
#10
Trent M Guess, Swithin Razu, Amirhossein Jahandar, Marjorie Skubic, Zhiyu Huo
The Microsoft Kinect is becoming a widely used tool for inexpensive, portable measurement of human motion with the potential to support clinical assessments of performance and function. In this study, the relative osteokinematic Cardan joint angles of the hip and knee were calculated using the Kinect 2.0 skeletal tracker. The pelvis segments of the default skeletal model were reoriented and three-dimensional joint angles were compared to a marker-based system during a drop vertical jump and a hip abduction motion...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918550/selective-y-centromere-inactivation-triggers-chromosome-shattering-in-micronuclei-and-repair-by-non-homologous-end-joining
#11
Peter Ly, Levi S Teitz, Dong H Kim, Ofer Shoshani, Helen Skaletsky, Daniele Fachinetti, David C Page, Don W Cleveland
Chromosome missegregation into a micronucleus can cause complex and localized genomic rearrangements known as chromothripsis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Here we developed an inducible Y centromere-selective inactivation strategy by exploiting a CENP-A/histone H3 chimaera to directly examine the fate of missegregated chromosomes in otherwise diploid human cells. Using this approach, we identified a temporal cascade of events that are initiated following centromere inactivation involving chromosome missegregation, fragmentation, and re-ligation that span three consecutive cell cycles...
December 5, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918474/hazard-management-dealt-by-safety-professionals-in-colleges-the-impact-of-individual-factors
#12
Tsung-Chih Wu, Chi-Hsiang Chen, Nai-Wen Yi, Pei-Chen Lu, Shan-Chi Yu, Chien-Peng Wang
Identifying, evaluating, and controlling workplace hazards are important functions of safety professionals (SPs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and frequency of hazard management dealt by safety professionals in colleges. The authors also explored the effects of organizational factors/individual factors on SPs' perception of frequency of hazard management. The researchers conducted survey research to achieve the objective of this study. The researchers mailed questionnaires to 200 SPs in colleges after simple random sampling, then received a total of 144 valid responses (response rate = 72%)...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916922/a-context-recognition-aided-pdr-localization-method-based-on-the-hidden-markov-model
#13
Yi Lu, Dongyan Wei, Qifeng Lai, Wen Li, Hong Yuan
Indoor positioning has recently become an important field of interest because global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are usually unavailable in indoor environments. Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) is a promising localization technique for indoor environments since it can be implemented on widely used smartphones equipped with low cost inertial sensors. However, the PDR localization severely suffers from the accumulation of positioning errors, and other external calibration sources should be used. In this paper, a context-recognition-aided PDR localization model is proposed to calibrate PDR...
November 30, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916437/animal-testing-is-still-the-best-way-to-find-new-treatments-for-patients
#14
Silvio Garattini, Giuliano Grignaschi
Experimental research proceeds by hypotheses formulated on the basis of previous or new knowledge and then tested. If they are accepted, they serve as the basis for further hypotheses, and if they are rejected new hypotheses can be developed. In other words, when we are at the frontiers of knowledge the path is forged by "trial and error". When a trial shows a hypothesis is wrong, this is a step toward making fewer errors. This process also applies to drug development. There is no magic formula at present to predict - at the pre-clinical level - the therapeutic value of a drug for people with a disease...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913348/automatic-refinement-strategies-for-manual-initialization-of-object-trackers
#15
Hao Zhu, Fatih Porikli
Tracking objects across multiple frames is a wellinvestigated problem in computer vision. The majority of the existing algorithms assume an accurate initialization is readily available. However, in many real-life settings, in particular for applications where the video is streaming in real-time, the initialization has to be provided by a human operator. This limitation raises an inevitable uncertainty issue. Here, we first collect a large and new dataset of inputs that consists of more than 20K human initialization clicks, called as HIC, by several subjects under three practical user interface scenarios for the popular TB50 tracking benchmark...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913178/estimating-the-material-properties-of-heel-pad-sub-layers-using-inverse-finite-element-analysis
#16
Nafiseh Ahanchian, Christopher J Nester, David Howard, Lei Ren, Daniel Parker
Detailed information about the biomechanical behaviour of plantar heel pad tissue contributes to our understanding of load transfer when the foot impacts the ground. The objective of this work was to obtain the hyperelastic and viscoelastic material properties of heel pad sub-layers (skin, micro-chamber and macro-chamber layers) in-vivo. An anatomically detailed 3D Finite Element model of the human heel was used to derive the sub-layer material properties. A combined ultrasound imaging and motorised platform system was used to compress heel pad and to create input data for the Finite Element model...
November 29, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913131/using-phenomenological-models-for-forecasting-the-2015-ebola-challenge
#17
Bruce Pell, Yang Kuang, Cecile Viboud, Gerardo Chowell
BACKGROUND: The rising number of novel pathogens threatening the human population has motivated the application of mathematical modeling for forecasting the trajectory and size of epidemics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We summarize the real-time forecasting results of the logistic equation during the 2015 Ebola challenge focused on predicting synthetic data derived from a detailed individual-based model of Ebola transmission dynamics and control. We also carry out a post-challenge comparison of two simple phenomenological models...
November 19, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912044/mutations-in-prosc-disrupt-cellular-pyridoxal-phosphate-homeostasis-and-cause-vitamin-b6-dependent-epilepsy
#18
Niklas Darin, Emma Reid, Laurence Prunetti, Lena Samuelsson, Ralf A Husain, Matthew Wilson, Basma El Yacoubi, Emma Footitt, W K Chong, Louise C Wilson, Helen Prunty, Simon Pope, Simon Heales, Karine Lascelles, Mike Champion, Evangeline Wassmer, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Philippa B Mills, Peter T Clayton
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, functions as a cofactor in humans for more than 140 enzymes, many of which are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. A deficiency of PLP can present, therefore, as seizures and other symptoms that are treatable with PLP and/or pyridoxine. Deficiency of PLP in the brain can be caused by inborn errors affecting B6 vitamer metabolism or by inactivation of PLP, which can occur when compounds accumulate as a result of inborn errors of other pathways or when small molecules are ingested...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911755/transformation-of-vestibular-signals-for-the-control-of-standing-in-humans
#19
Patrick A Forbes, Billy L Luu, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Elizabeth A Croft, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
: During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911420/-role-of-immunological-factors-in-the-development-of-myopic-choroidal-neovascularization
#20
A G Shchuko, N V Zaitseva, T N Yur'eva, E R Chernykh, I M Mikhalevich, A V Grigor'eva
AIM: To study the concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humor of the anterior chamber in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) and to compare the results to their ophthalmic status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 19 patients (19 eyes) with mCNV treated with intravitreal ranibizumab were included in the study. The control group consisted of 15 patients (15 eyes) with myopia who had cataract surgery. Age, sex, and refractive error distribution were similar to that in the study group...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
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