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Human error

Bethany A Matus, Kayla M Bridges, John V Logomarsino
BACKGROUND: Individualized feeding care plans and safe handling of milk (human or formula) are critical in promoting growth, immune function, and neurodevelopment in the preterm infant. Feeding errors and disruptions or limitations to feeding processes in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are associated with negative safety events. Feeding errors include contamination of milk and delivery of incorrect or expired milk and may result in adverse gastrointestinal illnesses. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effect(s) of centralized milk preparation, use of trained technicians, use of bar code-scanning software, and collaboration between registered dietitians and registered nurses on feeding safety in the NICU...
June 21, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Kay Prüfer
Motivation: The study of ancient genomes can elucidate the evolutionary past. However, analyses are complicated by base-modifications in ancient DNA molecules that result in errors in DNA sequences. These errors are particularly common near the ends of sequences and pose a challenge for genotype calling. Results: I describe an iterative method that estimates genotype frequencies and errors along sequences to allow for accurate genotype calling from ancient sequences...
June 21, 2018: Bioinformatics
Samantha L Isenberg, Melissa D Carter, Michael A Miller, Aleksandra I Noras, Mike A Mojica, Sean T Carlsen, Chinthaka P Bulathsinghala, Jerry D Thomas, Rudolph C Johnson
Ricin and abrin are toxic ribosome-inactivating proteins found in plants. Exposure to these toxins can be detected using the biomarkers ricinine and abrine, which are present in the same plant sources as the toxins. The concentration of the biomarkers in urine and blood will be dependent upon the purification of abrin or ricin, the route of exposure, and the length of time between exposure and sample collection. Here, we present the first diagnostic assay for the simultaneous quantification of both ricinine and abrine in blood matrices...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Nilotpal Sanyal, Min-Tzu Lo, Karolina Kauppi, Srdjan Djurovic, Ole A Andreassen, Valen E Johnson, Chi-Hua Chen
Motivation: Multiple marker analysis of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) data has gained ample attention in recent years. However, because of the ultra high-dimensionality of GWAS data, such analysis is challenging. Frequently used penalized regression methods often lead to large number of false positives, whereas Bayesian methods are computationally very expensive. Motivated to ameliorate these issues simultaneously, we consider the novel approach of using nonlocal priors in an iterative variable selection framework...
June 19, 2018: Bioinformatics
Joeri J Meijsen, Alexandros Rammos, Archie Campbell, Caroline Hayward, David J Porteous, Ian J Deary, Riccardo E Marioni, Kristin K Nicodemus
Motivation: The genomic architecture of human complex diseases is thought to be attributable to single markers, polygenic components and epistatic components. No study has examined the ability of tree-based methods to detect epistasis in the presence of a polygenic signal. We sought to apply decision tree-based methods, C5.0 and logic regression, to detect epistasis under several simulated conditions, varying strength of interaction and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure. We, then applied the same methods to the phenotype of educational attainment in a large population cohort...
June 19, 2018: Bioinformatics
Davide Mancino, Naji Kharouf
This article aims at investigating endodontic anatomical variants in the human maxillary premolars allowing the planning of safer and faster shaping procedures. Endodontic literature describes maxillary 2nd premolars as some of the easiest teeth to treat, as they have either one or two straight canals. Rarely they may sometimes have two dilacerated canals. This paper reports two clinical cases of maxillary premolars whose anatomy is quite unusual. In the first case report we describe a maxillary 2nd premolar with a single root and two dilacerated merged canals...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Yanyong Kang, Oleg Kuybeda, Parker W de Waal, Somnath Mukherjee, Ned Van Eps, Przemyslaw Dutka, X Edward Zhou, Alberto Bartesaghi, Satchal Erramilli, Takefumi Morizumi, Xin Gu, Yanting Yin, Ping Liu, Yi Jiang, Xing Meng, Gongpu Zhao, Karsten Melcher, Oliver P Ernst, Anthony A Kossiakoff, Sriram Subramaniam, H Eric Xu
In the PDF version of this Article, owing to a typesetting error, an incorrect figure was used for Extended Data Fig. 5; the correct figure was used in the HTML version. This has been corrected online.
June 21, 2018: Nature
Kyung Woo Kim, Ho Chan Lim, Jae Hee Park, Sang Gyu Park, Ye Jin Park, Hm Hak Cho
Background: Organizations are pursing complex and diverse aims to generate higher profits. Many workers experience high work intensity such as workload and work pressure in this organizational environment. Especially, psychological burden is a commonly used term in workplace of Republic of Korea. This study focused on defining the psychological burden from the perspective of occupational safety and health and tried to develop a scale for psychological burden. Methods: The 48 preliminary questionnaire items for psychological burden were prepared by a focus group interview with 16 workers through the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II and Mindful Awareness Attention Scale...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Reza Kazemi, Majid Motamedzade, Rostam Golmohammadi, Hamidreza Mokarami, Rasoul Hemmatjo, Rashid Heidarimoghadam
Background: Night shift work is associated with many problems such as sleep deprivation, sleepiness, decreased cognitive performance, increased human errors, and fatigue. This study set out to measure cognitive performance, melatonin rhythms, and sleep after different consecutive night shifts (7 vs. 4) among control room operators (CORs). Methods: The participants included 60 CORs with a mean age of 30.2 years (standard deviation, 2.0) from a petrochemical complex located in Southern Iran...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Tu-Son Nguyen, Thi Lien Huong Nguyen, Thi Thuy Van Pham, Susan Hua, Quy Chau Ngo, Shu Chuen Li
Background: Incorrect use of inhalers is very common and subsequently leads to poor control of COPD. Among health care providers, pharmacists are in the best position to educate patients about the correct use of inhaler devices. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led training on the improvement of inhaler technique for COPD patients in Vietnam. Patients and methods: For this pre- and post-intervention study, standardized checklists of correct use of metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) were used to evaluate the inhaler technique...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Ishak Altinpinar, Ersan Basar
Given the needs of the growing world population, the importance of the transportation sector has steadily increased. Maritime and aviation fields are considered two crucial parts of this sector. Transportation accidents must be minimized in order to ensure timely delivery of natural resources, sustainable production, and safety of life and property. Human error plays an important role in transportation accidents and is the cause of 70% to 90% of all aviation and maritime accidents. It is a well-known fact that these errors can be minimized by enhancing the perception of safety culture for individuals, corporations, and nations...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Qiao Zhou, Douglas A Melton
Change history: In this Insight Review, '1989' has been changed to '1998' in the sentence "This deep understanding of pancreatic development was put to the service of regenerative medicine in 1998, when human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) were successfully cultured and opened the door to developing methods of deriving pancreatic islets from hES cells66.". This error has been corrected online.
June 20, 2018: Nature
Robert F Lachlan, Oliver Ratmann, Stephen Nowicki
Cultural traditions have been observed in a wide variety of animal species. It remains unclear, however, what is required for social learning to give rise to stable traditions: what level of precision and what learning strategies are required. We address these questions by fitting models of cultural evolution to learned bird song. We recorded 615 swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana) song repertoires, and compared syllable frequency distributions to the output of individual-based simulations. We find that syllables are learned with an estimated error rate of 1...
June 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Kwanghyun Han, Nam-Ho Kim, Dongjun Shin
There is a growing interest in soft actuators for human-friendly robotic applications. However, it is very challenging for conventional soft actuators to achieve both a large working distance and high force. To address this problem, we present a high-contraction ratio pneumatic artificial muscle (HCRPAM), which has a novel actuation concept. The HCRPAM can contract substantially while generating a large force suitable for a wide range of robotic applications. Our proposed prototyping method allows for an easy and quick fabrication, considering various design variables...
June 20, 2018: Soft Robotics
(no author information available yet)
Gaspari T, Spizzo I, Liu HB, et al. (2018) Dapagliflozin attenuates human vascular endothelial cell activation and induces vasorelaxation: A potential mechanism for inhibition of atherogenesis. Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research 2018; 15(1): 64-73. DOI: 10.1177/1479164117733626 The authors have highlighted a typographical error which exists in the NFκB reverse primer sequence outlined in the paper. The published NFκB reverse primer sequence reads 5'-TGT-CGT-GCT-CCA-CAC-AGC-CAG-GT-3'. The correct sequence for the NFκB reverse primer sequence should read 5'-TGT-CGT-GCT-CCA-CAG-CCA-GGT-3'...
June 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Erfan Shahabpoor, Aleksandar Pavic
Continuous monitoring of natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications including disease monitoring, rehabilitation, and professional sports. Wearable inertial measurement units are successfully used to measure body kinematics in real-life environments and to estimate total walking ground reaction forces GRF(t) using equations of motion. However, for inverse dynamics and clinical gait analysis, the GRF(t) of each foot is required separately. Using an experimental dataset of 1243 tri-axial separate-foot GRF(t) time histories measured by the authors across eight years, this study proposes the 'Twin Polynomial Method' (TPM) to estimate the tri-axial left and right foot GRF(t) signals from the total GRF(t) signals...
June 19, 2018: Sensors
Kendra J Adams, Natalie F Smith, Cesar E Ramirez, Francisco Fernandez-Lima
In the present work, the potential for rapid, targeted analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in diluted human blood plasma using liquid chromatography coupled with trapped ion mobility spectrometry and TOF high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-TIMS-TOF MS) was evaluated. Experimental OH-PCB collisional cross section (CCSN2 ) and gas-phase candidate structures (<3% error) are reported for the first time and used, in addition to the LC retention time and accurate m / z , as OH-PCB identification features in order to increase the detection selectivity...
April 2018: International Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Sergey V Melnikov, Keith D Rivera, Denis Ostapenko, Arthur Makarenko, Neil D Sanscrainte, James J Becnel, Mark J Solomon, Catherine Texier, Darryl J Pappin, Dieter Söll
Microsporidia are parasitic fungi-like organisms that invade the interior of living cells and cause chronic disorders in a broad range of animals, including humans. These pathogens have the tiniest known genomes among eukaryotic species, for which they serve as a model for exploring the phenomenon of genome reduction in obligate intracellular parasites. Here we report a case study to show an apparent effect of overall genome reduction on the primary structure and activity of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, indispensable cellular proteins required for protein synthesis...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jonathan B Dingwell, Nicole K Bohnsack-McLagan, Joseph P Cusumano
As humans walk or run, external (environmental) and internal (physiological) disturbances induce variability. How humans regulate this variability from stride-to-stride can be critical to maintaining balance. One cannot infer what is "controlled" based on analyses of variability alone. Assessing control requires quantifying how deviations are corrected across consecutive movements. Here, we assessed walking and running, each at two speeds. We hypothesized differences in speed would drive changes in variability, while adopting different gaits would drive changes in how people regulated stepping...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Muneaki Hashimoto, Hirokazu Sakamoto, Yusuke Ido, Masato Tanaka, Shouki Yatsushiro, Kazuaki Kajimoto, Masatoshi Kataoka
BACKGROUND: Five species of Plasmodium are known to infect humans. For proper treatment of malaria, accurate identification of the parasite species is crucial. The current gold standard for malaria diagnosis is microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears. Since the parasite species are identified by microscopists who manually search for the parasite-infected red blood cells (RBCs), misdiagnosis due to human error tends to occur in case of low parasitaemia or mixed infection...
June 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
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