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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644004/the-intricate-effects-of-alpha-amino-and-lysine-modifications-on-arginine-methylation-on-the-n-terminal-tail-of-histone-h4
#1
Melody D Fulton, Jing Zhang, Maomao He, Meng-Chiao Ho, Y George Zheng
Chemical modifications on the DNA and nucleosomal histones tightly control the gene transcription program in eukaryotic cells. The "histone code" hypothesis proposes that the frequency, combination, and location of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on the core histones compose a complex network of epigenetic regulation. Currently, there are at least 23 different types and over 450 histone PTMs discovered, and the PTMs on lysine and arginine residues account for a crucial part of the histone code. Although significant progress has been achieved in recent years, the molecular basis for the histone code is far from being fully understood...
June 23, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643239/serum-histones-as-biomarkers-of-the-severity-of-heatstroke-in-dogs
#2
Yaron Bruchim, Isaac Ginsburg, Gilad Segev, Ahmad Mreisat, Yochai Avital, Itamar Aroch, Michal Horowitz
Heatstroke is associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, leading to multiple organ dysfunction and death. Currently, there is no specific treatment decreasing hyperthermia-induced inflammatory/hemostatic derangements. Emerging studies indicate that histones leaking from damaged cells into the extracellular space are toxic, pro-inflammatory, and pro-thrombotic. We therefore hypothesize that serum histones (sHs) are elevated during heatstroke and are associated with the severity of the disease. Sixteen dogs with heatstroke and seven healthy controls were included in the study...
June 22, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643114/synergistic-cardioprotective-effects-of-raav9-cyclina2-combined-with-fibrin-glue-in-rats-after-myocardial-infarction
#3
Wen Cao, Ya-Fei Chang, Ai-Chao Zhao, Bang-Dang Chen, Fen Liu, Yi-Tong Ma, Xiang Ma
The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of rAAV9-CyclinA2 combined with fibrin glue (FG) in vivo in rats after myocardial infarction (MI). Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 groups (15 in each group): sham, MI, rAAV9-green fluorescent protein (GFP) + MI, rAAV9-CyclinA2 + MI, FG + MI, and rAAV9-CyclinA2 + FG + MI. Packed virus (5 × 10(11)vg/ml) in 150 µl of normal saline or FG was injected into the infarcted myocardium at five locations in rAAV9-GFP + MI, rAAV9-CyclinA2 + MI, and rAAV9-CyclinA2 + FG + MI groups...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642803/transcriptomic-profiles-of-aging-in-na%C3%A3-ve-and-memory-cd4-cells-from-mice
#4
Jackson Taylor, Lindsay Reynolds, Li Hou, Kurt Lohman, Wei Cui, Stephen Kritchevsky, Charles McCall, Yongmei Liu
BACKGROUND: CD4+ T cells can be broadly divided into naïve and memory subsets, each of which are differentially impaired by the aging process. It is unclear if and how these differences are reflected at the transcriptomic level. We performed microarray profiling on RNA derived from naïve (CD44(low)) and memory (CD44(high)) CD4+ T cells derived from young (2-3 month) and old (28 month) mice, in order to better understand the mechanisms of age-related functional alterations in both subsets...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641467/green-tea-polyphenol-egcg-causes-anti-cancerous-epigenetic-modulations-in-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-cells
#5
Veronika Borutinskaitė, Aida Virkšaitė, Giedrė Gudelytė, Rūta Navakauskienė
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to possess diverse anti-cancerous properties. We demonstrated EGCG ability to inhibit acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell proliferation and cause apoptosis. In addition, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed elevated expression of genes associated with cell cycle arrest and differentiation (p27, PCAF, C/EBPα, and C/EBPɛ). Furthermore, EGCG caused anti-cancerous epigenetic changes: downregulation of epigenetic modifiers DNMT1, HDAC1, HDAC2, and G9a was observed by RT-qPCR analysis...
June 22, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640454/direct-quantification-of-gamma-h2ax-by-cell-based-high-throughput-screening-for-evaluation-of-genotoxicity-of-pesticides-in-a-human-thyroid-cell-lines
#6
Jerome M Hershman, Bryan France, Kevin Hon, Robert Damoiseaux
Genotoxicity is thought to be the cause of many cancers. Genotoxicity due to environmental toxins may be partly responsible for the dramatic increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer over the past two decades. Here, we present a fully automatable assay platform that directly quantifies the phosphorylation of nuclear histone gamma H2AX (γH2AX), a specific cellular marker for DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) via immunohistochemistry and laser scanning cytometry. It multiplexes γH2AX with total cell number measured as propidium iodide and calculates the percentage of cells with DSBs...
June 22, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638339/nutritional-and-pharmacological-strategies-to-regulate-microglial-polarization-in-cognitive-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Emiliano Peña-Altamira, Sabrina Petralla, Francesca Massenzio, Marco Virgili, Maria L Bolognesi, Barbara Monti
The study of microglia, the immune cells of the brain, has experienced a renaissance after the discovery of microglia polarization. In fact, the concept that activated microglia can shift into the M1 pro-inflammatory or M2 neuroprotective phenotypes, depending on brain microenvironment, has completely changed the understanding of microglia in brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia polarization is particularly important in aging since an increased inflammatory status of body compartments, including the brain, has been reported in elderly people...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634362/reconstructing-the-phylogeny-of-blattodea-robust-support-for-interfamilial-relationships-and-major-clades
#8
Zongqing Wang, Yan Shi, Zhiwei Qiu, Yanli Che, Nathan Lo
Cockroaches are among the most recognizable of all insects. In addition to their role as pests, they play a key ecological role as decomposers. Despite numerous studies of cockroach phylogeny in recent decades, relationships among most major lineages are yet to be resolved. Here we examine phylogenetic relationships among cockroaches based on five genes (mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COII; nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3), and infer divergence times on the basis of 8 fossils. We included in our analyses sequences from 52 new species collected in China, representing 7 families...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634230/similarity-in-gene-regulatory-networks-suggests-that-cancer-cells-share-characteristics-of-embryonic-neural-cells
#9
Zan Zhang, Anhua Lei, Liyang Xu, Lu Chen, Yonglong Chen, Xuena Zhang, Yan Gao, Xiaoli Yang, Min Zhang, Ying Cao
Cancer cells are immature cells resulting from cellular reprogramming by gene misregulation, and re-differentiation is expected to reduce malignancy. It is unclear, however, whether cancer cells can undergo terminal differentiation. Here, we show that, inhibition of the epigenetic modification enzymes enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 3, lysine demethylase 1A (LSD1), or DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), which all promote cancer development and progression, leads to postmitotic neuron-like differentiation with loss of malignant features in distinct solid cancer cell lines...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634176/impact-of-glycemic-variability-on-chromatin-remodeling-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-target-hba1c-levels
#10
Sarah Costantino, Francesco Paneni, Rodolfo Battista, Lorenzo Castello, Giuliana Capretti, Sergio Chiandotto, Luigi Tanese, Giulio Russo, Dario Pitocco, Gaetano A Lanza, Massimo Volpe, Thomas F Lüscher, Francesco Cosentino
Intensive glycemic control (IGC) targeting HbA1c fails to show an unequivocal reduction of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), however the underlining mechanisms remain elusive. Epigenetic changes are emerging as important mediators of cardiovascular damage and may play a role in this setting. This study investigates whether epigenetic regulation of the adaptor protein p66(Shc), a key driver of mitochondrial oxidative stress, contributes to persistent vascular dysfunction in T2D patients despite IGC...
June 20, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632772/characterization-of-slow-cycling-cells-in-the-mouse-cochlear-lateral-wall
#11
Yang Li, Kotaro Watanabe, Masato Fujioka, Kaoru Ogawa
Cochlear spiral ligament fibrocytes (SLFs) play essential roles in the physiology of hearing including ion recycling and the generation of endocochlear potential. In adult animals, SLFs can repopulate after damages, yet little is known about the characteristics of proliferating cells that support SLFs' self-renewal. Here we report in detail about the characteristics of cycling cells in the spiral ligament (SL). Fifteen P6 mice and six noise-exposed P28 mice were injected with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) for 7 days and we chased BrdU retaining cells for as long as 60 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630953/distribution-of-acetylated-histone-4-in-normal-liver-and-acetaminophen-induced-liver-damage
#12
N Nakamura, Chang C-W, X Yang, Q Shi, W F Salminen, A Suzuki
To describe cell-specific acetylation of histones and their zonal localization in normal mouse liver and characterize their changes in acetaminophen (APAP)-damaged mouse liver 24 hr after APAP exposure, we performed an immunohistochemical study using normal and APAP-injured mouse livers. Cell-specific expression of acetylated H4 was observed in normal mouse liver. The highest acetylated H4 expression levels were found in bile duct epithelial cells, followed by sinusoidal non-parenchymal cells, venous endothelial cells, and hepatocytes...
2017: SM J Biol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630893/a-d53-repression-motif-induces-oligomerization-of-topless-corepressors-and-promotes-assembly-of-a-corepressor-nucleosome-complex
#13
Honglei Ma, Jingbo Duan, Jiyuan Ke, Yuanzheng He, Xin Gu, Ting-Hai Xu, Hong Yu, Yonghong Wang, Joseph S Brunzelle, Yi Jiang, Scott B Rothbart, H Eric Xu, Jiayang Li, Karsten Melcher
TOPLESS are tetrameric plant corepressors of the conserved Tup1/Groucho/TLE (transducin-like enhancer of split) family. We show that they interact through their TOPLESS domains (TPDs) with two functionally important ethylene response factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motifs of the rice strigolactone signaling repressor D53: the universally conserved EAR-3 and the monocot-specific EAR-2. We present the crystal structure of the monocot-specific EAR-2 peptide in complex with the TOPLESS-related protein 2 (TPR2) TPD, in which the EAR-2 motif binds the same TPD groove as jasmonate and auxin signaling repressors but makes additional contacts with a second TPD site to mediate TPD tetramer-tetramer interaction...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629630/design-synthesis-and-tumor-cell-growth-inhibitory-activity-of-3-nitro-2h-cheromene-derivatives-as-histone-deacetylaes-inhibitors
#14
Shuai Tan, Feng He, Tingting Kong, Jingde Wu, Zhaopeng Liu
As a continuous research for the discovery of coumarin-based targeted anticancer agents, we designed and synthesized a series of novel histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors using the 8-ethoxy-3-nitro-2H-chromene as the surface binding or cap group, linear dicarboxylic acid or ω-amino acid moiety with different length as the linking motif, ortho-aminoanilides, amides or α-aminoamides as the zinc binding group and the internal cavity motifs. Most of these 3-nitro-2H-chromene derivatives exhibited good growth inhibitory activity against K562, A549, MCF-7, PC3 and Hela cells and were more potent than the reference drug SAHA and MS-275...
June 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628306/lysine-deacetylation-by-hdac6-regulates-the-kinase-activity-of-akt-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#15
Jonathan Iaconelli, Jasmin Lalonde, Bradley Watmuff, Bangyan Liu, Ralph Mazitschek, Stephen J Haggarty, Rakesh Karmacharya
AKT family of serine-threonine kinases functions downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to transmit signals by direct phosphorylation of a number of targets, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and β-catenin. AKT binds to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3) generated by PI3K activation, which results in its membrane localization and subsequent activation through phosphorylation by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)...
June 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627608/silencing-of-lsd1-gene-modulates-histone-methylation-and-acetylation-and-induces-the-apoptosis-of-jeko-1-and-molt-4-cells
#16
Zhong-Kai Zou, Yi-Qun Huang, Yong Zou, Xu-Ke Zheng, Xu-Dong Ma
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) has been identified and biochemically characterized in epigenetics; however, the pathological roles of its dysfunction in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia remain to be elucidated. In this study, we evaluated LSD1, and histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4)me1 and H3K4me2 expression in patients with MCL and silenced LSD1 in JeKo‑1 and MOLT‑4 cells, in order to define its role in JeKo‑1 and MOLT‑4 cell proliferation and apoptosis. We retrospectively analyzed the protein expression of LSD1, and mono- and dimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me1 and H3K4me2), and cyclin D1 and Ki67 in 30 cases of MCL by immunohistochemistry...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627341/-protective-effects-of-valproic-acid-on-gut-barrier-function-after-major-burn-injury-and-its-mechanism
#17
Hongmin Luo, Sen Hu, Huining Bian, Shaoyi Zheng, Bing Xiong, Zhifeng Huang, Zuan Liu, Chuanwei Sun, Lianghua Ma, Hanhua Li, Wen Yu, Minghua Du, Huade Chen, Wen Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential protective effects of valproic acid (VPA) on gut barrier function after major burn injury in rats and its mechanism. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into sham + normal saline (NS), sham + VPA, scald + NS, and scald + VPA groups, with 10 rats in each group. Rat with 55% total body surface area (TBSA) third-degree severe-burns model was reproduced by immersing into 80 °C water, and the rats in sham groups were given sham-burns by immersing into 37 °C water...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627340/-experimental-study-on-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-human-peripheral-blood-induced-by-paraquat-in-vitro
#18
Wei Jin, Jian Lu, Hui Xie, Yiqun Jiang, Xiaoxiao Meng, Yong Zhu, Ruilan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether paraquat (PQ) can induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in human peripheral blood. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy human peripheral blood, and the cells were identified by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) strain. The cells were treated with different concentrations of PQ [0 (as control), 200, 400, 600, 800, 1 000 and 1 200 μmol/L], and the cell viability was measured by cell proliferation and CCK-8 cytotoxicity detection kit, and the median lethal concentration of PQ was selected...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624023/enhanced-radiation-damage-caused-by-iodinated-contrast-agents-during-ct-examination
#19
Ling Wang, Qiang Li, Xi-Ming Wang, Guang-Yu Hao, Jie-Bao, Su Hu, Chun-Hong Hu
OBJECTIVE: To access the effect of iodinate contrast agent (ICA) on DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes during computed tomography (CT) examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This present study was approved by the institutional ethics committee; written informed patient consent was obtained from 70 patients. A total of 48 patients underwent computed tomography urography (CTU), in which only one time CT scanning was examined after injecting ICA, and 22 patients received unenhanced whole abdominal CT, among them 10 patients were selected to get ICA injection immediately after irradiation...
July 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623430/a-phase-i-ii-study-of-suberoylanilide-hydroxamic-acid-saha-in-combination-with-trastuzumab-herceptin-in-patients-with-advanced-metastatic-and-or-local-chest-wall-recurrent-her2-amplified-breast-cancer-a-trial-of-the-ecog-acrin-cancer-research-group-e1104
#20
Lori J Goldstein, Fengmin Zhao, Molin Wang, Ramona F Swaby, Joseph A Sparano, Neal J Meropol, Kapil N Bhalla, Christine M Pellegrino, R Katherine Alpaugh, Carla I Falkson, Paula Klein, George W Sledge
PURPOSE: Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat), a small molecule inhibitor of histone deacetylase, attenuates signaling pathways known to confer trastuzumab resistance. A combination of SAHA and trastuzumab may be a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of trastuzumab against breast cancer. In this Phase I/II study, we evaluated the toxicity and response rate after treatment with SAHA and trastuzumab in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer with trastuzumab-resistant progressive disease...
June 16, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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