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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350843/high-hiv-prevalence-and-incidence-among-women-in-southern-mozambique-evidence-from-the-mdp-microbicide-feasibility-study
#1
Sibone Mocumbi, Mitzy Gafos, Khatia Munguambe, Ruth Goodall, Sheena McCormack
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting large scale HIV prevention clinical trials in Mozambique by measuring HIV prevalence and incidence among women of reproductive age. This paper describes the baseline socio-demographic characteristics of the Mozambique Microbicides Development Programme (MDP) feasibility cohort, baseline prevalence of HIV and other STIs, and HIV incidence. METHODS: The Mozambique MDP feasibility study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 in urban Mavalane and rural Manhiça, in Southern Mozambique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343120/nanoemulgel-using-a-bicephalous-heterolipid-as-a-novel-approach-to-enhance-transdermal-permeation-of-tenofovir
#2
Sanjeev Rambharose, Rahul S Kalhapure, Thirumala Govender
Improvements in permeation enhancement strategies, such as nanoemulsions (NEs) and nanoemulgels (NEGs), have led to a renewed interest in transdermal drug delivery (TDD). This study aimed to investigate the potential of LLA1E, a novel dendritic permeation enhancer, as an oily phase in the development of a NEG for the TDD of tenofovir (TNF). TNF loaded NEs (TNEs) were prepared and analysed for mean globule diameter (MGD), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP) and morphology. NEGs of the TNEs (TNEGs) were prepared and evaluated for ex vivo transdermal permeation efficacy...
March 19, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328548/characterization-of-hiv-seroconverters-in-a-tdf-ftc-prep-study-hptn-067-adapt
#3
Mariya V Sivay, Maoji Li, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Yinfeng Zhang, Sarah E Hudelson, Mark A Marzinke, Rivet K Amico, Andrew Redd, Craig W Hendrix, Peter L Anderson, Kevin Bokoch, Linda Gail-Bekker, Frits van Griensven, Sharon Mannheimer, James P Hughes, Robert Grant, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: HPTN 067/ADAPT evaluated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in women (South Africa) and men who have sex with men (Thailand, US). Participants received once-weekly directly observed TDF/FTC (DOT), and were then randomized to daily, time-driven, or event-driven PrEP. This report describes characterization of 12 HIV seroconversion events in this trial. METHODS: HIV rapid testing was performed at study sites...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322067/the-future-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection
#4
Ayşe Elif Özdener, Tae Eun Park, Julie Kalabalik, Rachna Gupta
People at high risk for HIV acquisition should be offered pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) is currently the only medication recommended for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in people at high risk for HIV transmission. This article will review medications currently under investigation and the future landscape of PrEP therapy. Areas covered: This article will review clinical trials that have investigated nontraditional regimens of TDF/FTC, antiretroviral agents from different drug classes such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) as potential PrEP therapies...
March 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320347/facilitators-and-barriers-to-uptake-and-adherence-to-lifelong-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#5
Esther Buregyeya, Rose Naigino, Aggrey Mukose, Fred Makumbi, Godfrey Esiru, Jim Arinaitwe, Joshua Musinguzi, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uganda started implementing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) in line with the WHO 2012 guidelines. This study explored experiences of HIV infected pregnant and breastfeeding women regarding barriers and facilitators to uptake and adherence to lifelong ART. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional qualitative study conducted in three districts (Masaka, Mityana and Luwero) in Uganda, between February and May 2014...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315708/2016-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#6
REVIEW
Ramesh Akkina, Heinz Ellerbrok, William Hall, Hideki Hasegawa, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Harold Kleanthous, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Victor Romanowski, Hirofumi Sawa, Anders Vahlne
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 in order to strengthen research and responses to current viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemic threats. There are now 38 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. GVN scientists meet annually to learn about each other's current research, address collaborative priorities and plan future programs. The 2016 meeting was held from October 23-25 in Hokkaido, Japan, in partnership with the Japanese Society for Virology, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan and the Research Center for Zoonosis Control of Hokkaido University...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315051/development-of-antibody-modified-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-the-targeted-delivery-of-sirna-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-as-a-strategy-for-inhibiting-hiv-replication-in-astrocytes
#7
Jijin Gu, Karam Al-Bayati, Emmanuel A Ho
RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing offers a novel treatment and prevention strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV was found to infect and replicate in human brain cells and can cause neuroinfections and neurological deterioration. We designed dual-antibody-modified chitosan/small interfering RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles to deliver siRNA across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) targeting HIV-infected brain astrocytes as a strategy for inhibiting HIV replication. We hypothesized that transferrin antibody and bradykinin B2 antibody could specifically bind to the transferrin receptor (TfR) and bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R), respectively, and deliver siRNA across the BBB into astrocytes as potential targeting ligands...
March 17, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300601/functional-contacts-between-mper-and-the-anti-hiv-1-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-4e10-extend-into-the-core-of-the-membrane
#8
Edurne Rujas, Sara Insausti, Miguel García-Porras, Rubén Sánchez-Eugenia, Kouhei Tsumoto, José L Nieva, Jose M M Caaveiro
The exceptional breadth of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the transmembrane protein gp41 makes this class of antibodies an ideal model to design HIV vaccines. From a practical point of view, however, the preparation of vaccines eliciting bNAbs is still a major roadblock that limits their clinical application. Fresh mechanistic insights are necessary to develop more effective strategies. In particular, the function of the unusually long complementary determining region three of the heavy chain (CDRH3) of 4E10, an anti-MPER bNAb, is an open question that fascinates researchers in the field...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296796/updates-to-the-spectrum-estimations-and-projections-package-model-for-estimating-trends-and-current-values-for-key-hiv-indicators
#9
John Stover, Tim Brown, Robert Puckett, Wiwat Peerapatanapokin
BACKGROUND: The Spectrum model is used by national programs and UNAIDS to prepare annual estimates of the status of the HIV epidemic in 160 countries. The model and assumptions are updated regularly under the guidance of the UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections in response to new data, studies, and program needs. This study describes the most recent updates for the 2016 round of estimates. METHODS: Meetings of the UNAIDS Reference Group include individuals with extensive knowledge of HIV programs, research, statistics, and public policy...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296524/challenges-to-opioid-treatment-programs-after-hurricane-sandy-patient-and-provider-perspectives-on-preparation-impact-and-recovery
#10
Harlan Matusow, Ellen Benoit, Luther Elliott, Eloise Dunlap, Andrew Rosenblum
Over 300,000 patients with an opioid use disorder (OUD) receive methadone maintenance therapy from opioid treatment programs (OTPs) in the United States. Large numbers of these attend OTPs located in New York and New Jersey, areas (largely but not exclusively coastal) impacted by Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) on October 29th, 2012. Disruption of methadone dispensing and other services can have severe consequences to patients (and treatment seekers) such as relapse, dropping out of treatment and resumption or increase in HIV/HCV injection risk behaviors...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291050/medication-sharing-is-rare-among-african-hiv-1-serodiscordant-couples-enrolled-in-an-efficacy-trial-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-hiv-1-prevention
#11
Kerry A Thomson, Jessica E Haberer, Mark Marzinke, Andrew Mujugira, Craig Hendrix, Connie Celum, Patrick Ndase, Alan Ronald, David R Bangsberg, Jared M Baeten
Sharing of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) medications is a concern for PrEP implementation. For HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, sharing may undermine HIV-1 prevention benefits and also cause antiretroviral resistance if taken by HIV-1 infected partners. Within a PrEP efficacy trial among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, we assessed the occurrence of PrEP sharing by self-report and plasma tenofovir concentrations in HIV-1 infected partners. PrEP sharing was self-reported at <0.01% of visits and 0-1.6% of randomly selected and 0% of purposively selected specimens from HIV-1 infected participants had detectable tenofovir concentrations (median: 66...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291047/the-impact-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-individual-based-model
#12
Parastu Kasaie, Jeff Pennington, Maunank S Shah, Stephen A Berry, Danielle German, Colin P Flynn, Chris Beyrer, David W Dowdy
OBJECTIVES: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended for preventing HIV infection among individuals at high risk, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Although its individual-level efficacy is proven, questions remain regarding population-level impact of PrEP implementation. DESIGN: We developed an agent-based simulation of HIV transmission among MSM, accounting for demographics, sexual contact network, HIV disease stage and use of antiretroviral therapy...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290256/preparing-the-sexual-health-workforce-to-deliver-integrated-services-is-education-the-answer-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-impact-of-sexual-health-education-on-developing-integrated-policy-and-practice
#13
Judy Brook, Debra Salmon, Rachael-Anne Knight
Aim This study aimed to explore the ability of sexual health nurses working in the South West of England, to implement new learning within existing sexual health service delivery models. Drawing on Lipsky's account of street-level bureaucracy to conceptualise policy implementation, the impact of workforce learning on the development of integrated services across this region of the United Kingdom was assessed. BACKGROUND: In order to achieve the United Nations' goal of universal access to sexual health, it is essential for reproductive and sexual health, including HIV provision, to integrate into a single service...
March 14, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288232/-tenofovir-associated-fanconi-s-syndrome-and-rickets-in-a-hiv-infected-girl
#14
Marcela Zúñiga, Armando Galindo, María Isabel Galaz, Maritza Vivanco, Patricio Romero, Paulina Balboa, Claudia Torrejón
Tenofovir (TDF) is an inhibitor of reverse transcriptase nucleotide analogue, although it has good tolerability and high anti-retroviral activity, its effect on the kidney has been a concern. OBJECTIVE: To describe a girl infected with HIV who presented Fanconi syndrome during antiretroviral therapy with TDF. CLINICAL CASE: We describe a HIV-1-infected girl, who after 18 months treatment with TDF presented loss of strength and pain of the lower extremities with functional impairment...
February 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286983/stigma-medical-mistrust-and-perceived-racism-may-affect-prep-awareness-and-uptake-in-black-compared-to-white-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-jackson-mississippi-and-boston-massachusetts
#15
Sean Cahill, S Wade Taylor, Steven A Elsesser, Leandro Mena, DeMarc Hickson, Kenneth H Mayer
Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than two thirds of new HIV infections in the U.S., with Black MSM experiencing the greatest burden. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce MSM's vulnerability to HIV infection. Uptake of PrEP has been limited, particularly among racial and ethnic minority MSM. Four semi-structured focus groups with gay and bisexual men and other MSM at risk for HIV infection were convened in Boston and Jackson in late 2013. The analysis plan utilized a within-case, across-case approach to code and analyze emerging themes, and to compare results across the two cities...
March 12, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286972/-they-said-be-careful-sexual-health-communication-sources-and-messages-for-adolescent-girls-living-with-perintally-acquired-hiv-infection
#16
Stephanie L Marhefka, Shana M Green, Vinita Sharma, Claude A Mellins
Due to advances in highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), children "who perinatally acquired HIV infection" (PHIV+) in the United States have been reaching adolescence and adulthood in large numbers. As youth PHIV + become sexually active it is important to understand their sources of sexual health information and the messages communicated by those sources to safeguard their sexual health and that of their partners. This paper explores sexual health communication for adolescent girls PHIV + in comparison to adolescent girls who were exposed but did not acquire HIV perinatally (PHIV-) to understand how HIV infection influences the sexual health communication needs of the former...
March 12, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285168/design-and-use-of-mouse-control-dna-for-dna-biomarker-extraction-and-pcr-detection-from-urine-application-for-transrenal-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dna-detection
#17
Hali Bordelon, Keersten M Ricks, Megan E Pask, Patricia K Russ, Francesca Solinas, Mark L Baglia, Philip A Short, Andrew Nel, Jonathan Blackburn, Keertan Dheda, Carlos Zamudio, Tatiana Cáceres, David W Wright, Frederick R Haselton, April C Pettit
Urine samples are increasingly used for diagnosing infections including Escherichia coli, Ebola virus, and Zika virus. However, extraction and concentration of nucleic acid biomarkers from urine is necessary for many molecular detection strategies such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Since urine samples typically have large volumes with dilute biomarker concentrations making them prone to false negatives, another impediment for urine-based diagnostics is the establishment of appropriate controls particularly to rule out false negatives...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279949/usability-and-acceptability-of-a-mobile-comprehensive-hiv-prevention-app-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-pilot-study
#18
Patrick S Sullivan, Robert Driggers, Joanne D Stekler, Aaron Siegler, Tamar Goldenberg, Sarah J McDougal, Jason Caucutt, Jeb Jones, Rob Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most impacted by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the only subgroup in the United States among which new HIV diagnoses are not decreasing. To achieve the US National HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Strategy goals of reducing new diagnoses by 25%, high (eg, 30-50%) coverage of multiple HIV prevention interventions is needed in both urban and rural areas. Mobile phone "apps" are an important channel through which prevention services could be provided at scale and at low marginal cost...
March 9, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276922/science-technology-power-and-sex-prep-and-hiv-positive-gay-men-in-paris
#19
Julien Brisson, Vinh-Kim Nguyen
The pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) drug Truvada is a new HIV prevention technology that is predominantly promoted as relevant to HIV-negative gay men. This paper explores what PrEP represents for HIV-positive gay men living in Paris, based upon data collected through interviews and ethnographic research. While HIV-positive gay men do not directly consume Truvada through PrEP, they nonetheless hold opinions and understandings of this drug, specifically as it relates to their own sexuality. This paper expands the representations and meanings of this new technology in a different light through the voices of gay men living with HIV in Paris...
February 21, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275449/epidemiology-of-hiv-programmatic-progress-and-gaps-in-last-10-years-in-nepal
#20
EDITORIAL
Tarun Paudel, Nihal Singh, Megha Raj Banjara, Sambhu Prasad Kafle, Yadu Chandra Ghimire, Bhesh Raj Pokharel, Bir Bahadur Rawal, Komal Badal, Madhav Chaulagain, Razia Pendse, Prakash Ghimire
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nepal has made progress with the control of HIV infection in recent years. There have been changes in epidemiology, programme interventions in different population groups, and changes in policies over the last 10 years, particularly in diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, this review was conducted to identify the effectiveness of different interventions/policies in different sub-populations at risk, targeted towards epidemiology and treatment outcomes for those with HIV infection in Nepal...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
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