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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719229/experiences-using-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-safer-conception-among-hiv-serodiscordant-heterosexual-couples-in-the-united-states
#1
Angela R Bazzi, Ashley A Leech, Dea L Biancarelli, Meg Sullivan, Mari-Lynn Drainoni
Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising HIV prevention strategy for HIV serodiscordant couples (HIV-infected male, uninfected female) seeking safer conception. However, most research on PrEP for safer conception has focused on couples in sub-Saharan Africa; little is known about the perspectives or experiences of heterosexual couples in the United States. We conducted qualitative interviews with six couples (six women and five of their male partners) receiving PrEP for conception services at an urban safety net hospital in the US Northeast...
July 18, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718498/assessing-hiv-acquisition-risks-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states-of-america
#2
Ram K Shrestha, Stephanie L Sansom, David W Purcell
Men who have sex with men (MSM) can reduce their risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by using various prevention strategies and by understanding the effectiveness of each option over the short- and long-term. Strategies examined were: circumcision; insertive anal sex only; consistent, 100% self-reported condom use; and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PrEP efficacy was based on three levels of adherence. The cumulative HIV acquisition risk among MSM over periods of 1 year and 10 years were estimated with and without single and combinations of prevention strategies...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716658/stool-antigen-immunodetection-for-diagnosis-of-giardia-duodenalis-infection-in-human-subjects-with-hiv-and-cancer
#3
Maryam Nooshadokht, Behjat Kalantari-Khandani, Iraj Sharifi, Hossein Kamyabi, Namal P M Liyanage, Laurel A Lagenaur, Martin F Kagnoff, Steven M Singer, Zahra Babaei, Shahram Solaymani-Mohammadi
Human infection with the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis is one the most common parasitic diseases worldwide. Higher incidence rates of giardiasis have been reported from human subjects with multiple debilitating chronic conditions, including hypogammaglobulinemia and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). In the current study, stool specimens were collected from 199 individuals diagnosed with HIV or cancer and immunocompetent subjects. The sensitivity of microscopy-based detection on fresh stool preparations, trichrome staining and stool antigen immunodetection for the diagnosis of G...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716149/transition-into-adult-care-factors-associated-with-level-of-preparedness-among-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-cambodia
#4
Siyan Yi, Chanrith Ngin, Khuondyla Pal, Vohith Khol, Sovannary Tuot, Sokunmealiny Sau, Pheak Chhoun, Gitau Mburu, Sok Chamreun Choub, Kolab Chhim, Penhsun Ly
BACKGROUND: Preparing adolescents for transition into adult care and supporting their acquisition of self-health care management skills is a critical determinant of their post-transition HIV care outcomes. However, there is a scarcity of research on effective transition strategies. This study explores factors associated with adolescent preparedness for transition into adult care in Cambodia. METHODS: In August 2016, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 adolescents living with HIV aged 15-17, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy clinics, utilizing a structured questionnaire...
July 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716042/tuberculosis-and-hiv-are-the-leading-causes-of-adult-death-in-northwest-ethiopia-evidence-from-verbal-autopsy-data-of-dabat-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-2007-2013
#5
Yigzaw Kebede, Gashaw Andargie, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Tadesse Awoke, Mezgebu Yitayal, Solomon Mekonnen, Mamo Wubshet, Temesgen Azmeraw, Yihunie Lakew, Kassahun Alemu
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on causes of death form the basis for building evidence on health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In Ethiopia, the majority of deaths occur at home and civil registration systems are not yet functional. The main objective of verbal autopsy (VA) is to describe the causes of death at the community or population level where civil registration and death certification systems are weak and where most people die at home without having had contact with the health system...
July 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715159/alcohol-antiretroviral-interactive-toxicity-beliefs-as-a-potential-barrier-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#6
Seth C Kalichman, Lisa Eaton
INTRODUCTION: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers as much as 90% protection against HIV transmission. However, the effectiveness of PrEP depends on uptake and adherence to even intermittent dosing. Along with intoxication leading to unintentional non-adherence, believing that alcohol mixed with pharmaceuticals is harmful (i.e., interactive toxicity beliefs) may lead to poor uptake and intentional non-adherence. METHODS: HIV-negative sexually active men who have sex with men (N = 272) at a large Gay Pride event in Atlanta, GA, completed anonymous surveys of demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, alcohol use and PrEP-related alcohol interactive toxicity beliefs...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710996/the-fourth-generation-alere-tm-hiv-combo-rapid-test-improves-detection-of-acute-infection-in-mtn-003-voice-samples
#7
Edward Livant, Amy Heaps, Cliff Kelly, Rashika Maharaj, Natasha Samsunder, Lindiwe Nhlangulela, Patrick Karugaba, Ravindre Panchia, Jeanne Marrazzo, Zvavahera Mike Chirenje, Urvi M Parikh
BACKGROUND: Early and accurate detection of HIV is crucial when using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention to avoid PrEP initiation in acutely infected individuals and to minimize the risk of drug resistance in individuals with breakthrough infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine if fourth-generation antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) would have detected HIV infection earlier than the third-generation RDT used in MTN-003 (VOICE). STUDY DESIGN: 5029 VOICE participants were evaluated with third-generation Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2, OraQuick ADVANCE(®) Rapid HIV-1/2, Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV-1/2 and Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/2+O EIA; and fourth-generation Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo, Conformité Européene (CE)-Marked Alere™ HIV Combo and Bio-Rad HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710190/stigma-kills-the-psychological-effects-of-emotional-abuse-and-discrimination-towards-a-patient-with-hiv-in-uganda
#8
Simon Ruffell
Our patient is a 58-year-old Ugandan woman. After her husband's death in 1994, the patient was forced to leave her home by her late husband's family and arrangements were made for her mother to provide care until her inevitable death. The patient suffered from multiple mental health disturbances as a result of discrimination. Socially isolated after years of self-neglect, she prepared to overdose. In 2007, she became open regarding her status after receiving psychosocial support from various sources. She opened her home as an HIV clinic with the help of a local doctor, and subsequently the majority of her psychological symptoms were resolved...
July 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709161/roles-of-medication-responsibility-executive-and-adaptive-functioning-in-adherence-for-children-and-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv
#9
Patricia A Garvie, Sean S Brummel, Susannah M Allison, Kathleen M Malee, Claude A Mellins, Megan L Wilkins, Lynnette L Harris, E Doyle Patton, Miriam C Chernoff, Richard M Rutstein, Mary E Paul, Sharon L Nichols
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence is a critical but challenging developmental task for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV). Understanding how medication responsibility, executive functions (EFs) and adaptive functioning (AF) influence adherence may help prepare adolescents for transition to adulthood. METHODS: Participants included PHIV children and adolescents 7-16 years of age enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Adolescent Master Protocol, who were prescribed antiretroviral medications...
August 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708811/challenges-in-translating-prep-interest-into-uptake-in-an-observational-study-of-young-black-msm
#10
Charlotte-Paige Rolle, Eli S Rosenberg, Aaron J Siegler, Travis H Sanchez, Nicole Luisi, Kevin Weiss, Scott Cutro, Carlos Del Rio, Patrick S Sullivan, Colleen F Kelley
BACKGROUND: HIV incidence among US young, black MSM (YBMSM) is high, and structural barriers (e.g. lack of health insurance) may limit access to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). Research studies conducted with YBMSM must ensure access to the best available HIV prevention methods, including PrEP. METHODS: We implemented an optional, non-incentivized PrEP program in addition to standard HIV prevention services in a prospective, observational cohort of HIV-negative YBMSM in Atlanta, GA...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705153/a-randomized-clinical-pharmacokinetic-trial-of-tenofovir-in-blood-plasma-and-urine-in-adults-with-perfect-moderate-and-low-prep-adherence-the-target-study
#11
Tim R Cressey, Oraphan Siriprakaisil, Virat Klinbuayaem, Justice Quame-Amaglo, Rachel W Kubiak, Pra-Ornsuda Sukrakanchana, Kanchana Than-In-At, Jared Baeten, Wasna Sirirungsi, Ratchada Cressey, Paul K Drain
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is key component of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV, but existing tools to monitor drug adherence are often inaccurate. Detection of tenofovir (TFV) in accessible biological samples, such as fingerprick blood, urine or oral fluid samples could be a novel objective measure of recent TDF adherence. To measure TFV concentrations associated with different levels of TDF adherence, we designed a randomized clinical trial to assess the blood, urine and oral fluid concentrations of TFV in adults with perfect, moderate and low drug adherence...
July 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702853/condomless-anal-sex-among-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-biomedical-context-matters
#12
Alison J Hughes, Yea-Hung Chen, Susan Scheer
Data from Medical Monitoring Project was used to determine if partner type is associated with condomless anal sex (CAS) and insertive condomless anal sex (ICAS) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Participants reported HIV status and PrEP use of up to five anal sex partners. Partner type was categorized as HIV-positive, HIV status unknown, HIV-negative on PrEP or HIV-negative not on PrEP. To account for correlation of multiple observations per participant, generalized estimating equations were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals of CAS and ICAS...
July 12, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700394/medication-adherence-condom-use-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-australian-preexposure-prophylaxis-users
#13
Luxi Lal, Jennifer Audsley, Dean A Murphy, Christopher K Fairley, Mark Stoove, Norm Roth, Richard Moore, Ban K Tee, Nalagafiar Puratmaja, Peter L Anderson, David Leslie, Robert M Grant, John De Wit, Edwina Wright
OBJECTIVE: HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) decreases risk of HIV acquisition; however, its efficacy is closely dependent on adherence. There is also concern that the preventive effect of PrEP may be offset by risk compensation, notably an increase in condomless anal sex. DESIGN: Multisite, open-label demonstration study that recruited people at current or recent risk of HIV infection in Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: Participants were recruited from three general practice clinics and one sexual health clinic in Melbourne and consented to take daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (TFV/FTC) for 30 months...
July 31, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698149/gelatin-modified-lipid-nanoparticles-for-anti-retroviral-drug-delivery
#14
Joshy K S, Snigdha S, Nandakumar Kalarikkal, Laly A Pothen, Sabu Thomas
The major challenges to clinical application of zidovudine are its moderate aqueous solubility and relative short half-life and serious side effects due to frequent administrations. We investigated the preparation of zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles based on lipids which were further modified with the polymer gelatin. Formulation and stability of the modified nanoparticles were analysed from the physico-chemical characterizations. The interactions of nanoparticles with blood components were tested by hemolysis and aggregation studies...
July 8, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695388/measuring-acceptability-and-preferences-for-implementation-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-using-conjoint-analysis-an-application-to-primary-hiv-prevention-among-high-risk-drug-users
#15
Roman Shrestha, Pramila Karki, Frederick L Altice, Oleksandr Dubov, Liana Fraenkel, Tania Huedo-Medina, Michael Copenhaver
Although people who use drugs (PWUD) are one of the key risk populations who could benefit from the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), to date, little attention has been given to incorporating PrEP into HIV prevention approaches targeting this underserved group. This study investigated the acceptability of PrEP based on a number of known PrEP attributes among high-risk PWUD in a drug treatment setting. A total of 400 HIV-negative PWUD, who reported drug- and/or sex-related risk behaviors were recruited from a methadone clinic to complete a stated preference (full-profile conjoint) survey...
July 10, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693084/-survey-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-threshold-in-shandong-province-in-2013-2015
#16
X G Sun, H Y Yu, S L Su, B Lin, J H Li, L Lin, X R Tao, Y S Qian, D M Kang, H Xing
Objective: To survey the prevalence of drug resistant HIV-1 in Shandong province in 2013-2015. Methods: WHO truncated sequential sampling technique was adopted by using 77 and 53 samples of newly diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and aged 16-25 years in Shandong province in 2013 and 2015. RNA was prepared and HIV-1 pol region was amplified by RT-PCR and nested PCR. Pol genetic mutation associated with drug resistance was analyzed. Results: The success rates for sequence acquisition of the survey were 100% (77/77) and 94% (50/53) in 2013 and 2015, and the main subtype was CRF01_AE...
July 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692542/the-effect-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-on-the-progression-of-hiv-1-seroconversion
#17
Deborah Donnell, Eric Ramos, Connie Celum, Jared Baeten, Joan Dragavon, Jordan Tappero, Jairam R Lingappa, Allan Ronald, Kenneth Fife, Robert W Coombs
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) alters timing and patterns of seroconversion when PrEP use continues after HIV-1 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective testing of the timing of Fiebig stage HIV-1 seroconversion in the Partners PrEP Study, a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of PrEP conducted in Kenya and Uganda. METHODS: Specimens from 138 seroconverters were collected every 3 months and when HIV-1 infection was suspected based on monthly rapid HIV-1 tests...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692536/asymptomatic-anorectal-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-infections-are-associated-with-systemic-cd8-t-cell-activation
#18
Vinicius A Vieira, Vivian I Avelino-Silva, Natalia B Cerqueira, Dayane A Costa, Priscilla R Costa, Ricardo P Vasconcelos, Valdez R Madruga, Ronaldo Ismério Moreira, Brenda Hoagland, Valdiléa G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Esper G Kallás
BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been established as a pivotal strategy in HIV prevention. However, bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), are also highly prevalent. Although the presence of STI-related mucosal lesions is a known risk factor for HIV acquisition, the potential increase in risk associated with asymptomatic STIs is not completely understood. Recent data demonstrated higher T cell activation is a risk factor for sexually acquired HIV-1 infection...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692209/the-science-of-durban-aids-2016
#19
Chris Beyrer, Olive Shisana, Stefan D Baral, Koleka Milsana, Kenneth H Mayer, Anton Pozniak, Bruce D Walker, Souleman Mboup, Annette H Sohn, David Serwadda, Helen Rees, Sergii Dvoriak, Mitchell Warren, Safiatou Thiam, Wafaa M El-Sadr, Xavier Hospital, Owen Ryan, Nicolas Thomson, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: The science presented at the 21st International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa, in July 2016, addressed the state of the field across basic, clinical, prevention, law and policy and implementation science. METHODS AND RESULTS: The AIDS response has seen remarkable achievements in scientific advances, in translation of those advances into prevention, treatment and care for affected individuals and communities, and in large scale implementation - reaching 18 million people with antiviral therapy by mid-year 2016...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691439/awareness-and-willingness-to-use-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Grace W Mwai, Chanrith Ngin, Kolab Chhim, Khoundyla Pal, Ewemade Igbinedion, Paula Holland, Sok Chamreun Choub, Gitau Mburu
INTRODUCTION: To facilitate provision of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a better understanding of potential demand and user preferences is required. This review assessed awareness and willingness to use oral PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) in LMIC. METHODS: Electronic literature search of Cochrane library, Embase, PubMed, PsychINFO, CINHAL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was conducted between July and September 2016...
June 26, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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