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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140872/an-experimental-investigation-of-implicit-hiv-and-prep-stigma-evidence-for-ancillary-benefits-of-prep-use
#1
Sarit A Golub, Corina Lelutiu-Weinberger, Anthony Surace
BACKGROUND: PrEP stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward PrEP users) has been widely documented and is considered a significant barrier to implementation. However, few studies have examined PrEP stigma using implicit measures designed to reduce demand characteristics in responding. This study examined implicit PrEP- and HIV-related stigma among gay and bisexual men using geospatial social networking applications (i.e., "hookup apps"). METHODS: Participants were presented with four simulated online profiles (pre-tested for comparability) paired with each of the following characteristics: HIV-negative, HIV-positive, on PrEP, or Substance User...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138982/characterizing-the-hiv-prevention-and-care-continua-in-a-sample-of-transgender-youth-in-the-u-s
#2
Sari L Reisner, Laura Jadwin-Cakmak, Jaclyn M White Hughto, Miguel Martinez, Liz Salomon, Gary W Harper
In the U.S., transgender and other gender minority (TG) youth are an at-risk group understudied in HIV prevention and treatment. This study sought to characterize the HIV prevention and care continua in a diverse sample of 181 sexually-active TG ages 16-24 years (mean age = 20.7 years; 76.8% trans feminine; 69.1% youth of color) recruited July-December 2015 in 14 U.S. cities. Overall, 30.9% reported living with HIV, of which 71.4% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 55.0% were medication adherent; 65...
November 14, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136745/-willingness-and-influencing-factors-of-using-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-301-men-have-sex-with-men-in-wuhan-city-2015
#3
P Y Xie, X Wang, P L Liu, X D Tan, W Zhou
Objective: To understand willingness and influencing factors of using pre-exposure prophylaxis (Pr-EP) among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: Snow ball sampling was employed to recruit MSM in the social spaces (like bars and bathrooms) with focused activities by MSM and internet (QQ and Wechat) in Wuhan between August and November, 2015. 304 MSM were considered eligible when they were self-identified MSM and has had sex with men in the previous 12 months, over the age of 18 and have full civil liability...
November 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135656/frequency-of-monitoring-kidney-function-in-hiv-uninfected-persons-using-daily-oral-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#4
Kenneth K Mugwanya, Jared M Baeten, Christina Wyatt, Nelly R Mugo, Connie L Celum, Allan Ronald, John Kiarie, Elly Katabira, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: Wide-scale implementation of oral tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is now policy in many settings. However, the optimal frequency for monitoring kidney function remains uncertain. We investigated the impact of 6-monthly compared to 3-monthly creatinine clearance (CrCl) monitoring on the identification of moderate kidney dysfunction, defined as CrCl <60 mL/min. METHODS: Data were from two prospective daily oral PrEP studies in Kenya and Uganda: the Partners PrEP Study, a randomized safety and efficacy trial of PrEP that conducted 3-monthly CrCl monitoring (n=4404) and the Partners Demonstration Project (n=954), an open-label delivery study of PrEP that used 6-monthly monitoring...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135652/are-hiv-seroconversions-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-associated-with-social-network-proximity-to-recently-or-long-term-hiv-infected-individuals
#5
Ethan Morgan, Britt Skaathun, Rebeccah Duvoisin, Stuart Michaels, John A Schneider
Debate remains as to the relative HIV transmission contributions from individuals who are recently HIV infected and individuals who have long-term infections. In this study, we examine the relationship between new HIV seroconversions occurring among young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and network proximity to recently or long-term HIV infected individuals. A cohort of YBMSM (N = 618) was generated through respondent driven sampling across three waves. A recent HIV infection was defined as either: 1) a confirmed seroconversion ≤9 months prior to interview date or 2) a laboratory confirmed acute infection; long-term HIV infected individuals were defined as a diagnosis date ≥9 months prior to interview date...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132291/hiv-prevention-needs-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-swaziland
#6
Bhekie Sithole
Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV burden and also often face multiple other challenges accessing HIV services, including legal and social issues. Although Swaziland recently started responding with interventions for MSM, significant gaps still exist both in information and programming. This study aimed to explore the HIV prevention needs of MSM in Swaziland, including factors elevating their risks and vulnerabilities to HIV infection; to find out what HIV prevention strategies exist; and to determine how best to meet the prevention needs of MSM...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132162/what-recent-history-has-taught-us-about-responding-to-emerging-infectious-disease-threats
#7
Catharine I Paules, Robert W Eisinger, Hilary D Marston, Anthony S Fauci
Presidential administrations face any number of unexpected crises during their tenure, and global pandemics are among the most challenging. As of January 2017, one of the authors had served under 5 presidents as the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. During each administration, the government faced unexpected pandemics, ranging from the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which began during the Reagan administration, to the recent Zika outbreak in the Americas, which started during the Obama administration...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129570/poly-vinyl-pyrrolidone-lipid-based-hybrid-nanoparticles-for-anti-viral-drug-delivery
#8
K S Joshy, S Snigdha, George Anne, Kalarikkal Nandakumar, Pothen Laly A, Thomas Sabu
Zidovudine (AZT) is an antiviral drug with moderate solubility in water. It has limited application due to its short half life in vivo and consequent requirement for frequent administrations. To solve this problem, zidovudine loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/stearic acid (SA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticles (PSNPs) were developed.The hybrid nanoparticles were prepared by emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The physico chemical characterizations of the PSNPs was done by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
November 9, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127535/predictors-of-hiv-testing-and-their-influence-on-prep-acceptance-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Tsz Ho Kwan, Shui Shan Lee
HIV testing is the gateway to biomedical means of prevention and treatment. Identifying predictors of HIV testing is important to inform future preventive interventions. Of 444 men who have sex with men without known HIV infection enrolled in a study in Hong Kong, 64% had ever been HIV-tested. Testers were generally older, better educated, had a higher monthly income, and more likely self-identified as gay. Testers often used Internet and frequented saunas for sex networking, compared with non-testers attending bars, massage centres and public toilets...
November 10, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124421/if-you-film-it-will-they-watch-factors-associated-with-willingness-to-view-safer-sex-messaging-in-internet-based-sexually-explicit-media
#10
Martin J Downing, Nadav Antebi-Gruszka, Eric W Schrimshaw, Sabina Hirshfield
Research on the association between viewing condomless sex in sexually explicit media (SEM) and engaging in risk behavior suggests the need for SEM-based safer sex messaging (e.g., PrEP, condom use), though few studies have considered viewer willingness to watch SEM containing HIV/STI prevention messages. Online survey data from a racially diverse sample of 859 men and women were used to investigate factors associated with willingness to watch SEM with safer sex messaging. Analyses were conducted separately for three groups: heterosexual men and other men who only report sex with women, heterosexual women and other women who only report sex with men, and gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men...
November 9, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122384/strengthening-global-vaccine-access-for-adolescents-and-adults
#11
REVIEW
Angeline Nanni, Stefanie Meredith, Stephanie Gati, Karin Holm, Tom Harmon, Ann Ginsberg
Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults...
November 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121497/mannosylcalix-n-arenes-as-multivalent-ligands-for-dc-sign
#12
Ilaria Morbioli, Vanessa Porkolab, Andrea Magini, Alessandro Casnati, Franck Fieschi, Francesco Sansone
DC-SIGN is a receptor protruded from the membrane of immature dendritic cells (DCs) that participates in the activation of the immune response through the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). On the other hand, HIV exploits the interaction between high-mannose structures of its envelope glycoprotein gp120 and DC-SIGN to be transported towards and infect T-cells. DC-SIGN is involved in the recognition process in the form of a tetramer and the multiple exposition of carbohydrate recognition sites (CRSs) is amplified by the formation on the DCs membrane of patches of tetramers...
October 31, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119473/preference-of-oral-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-versus-rectal-tenofovir-reduced-glycerin-1-gel-regimens-for-hiv-prevention-among-cisgender-men-and-transgender-women-who-engage-in-receptive-anal-intercourse-with-men
#13
Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Rebecca Giguere, Curtis Dolezal, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Iván C Balán, William Brown, Christine Rael, Barbra A Richardson, Jeanna M Piper, Linda-Gail Bekker, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Pedro Gonzales, Timothy H Holtz, Albert Liu, Kenneth H Mayer, Carmen D Zorrilla, Javier R Lama, Ian McGowan, Ross D Cranston
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV transmission. Yet, some may prefer not to take systemic daily medication. MTN-017 was a 3-period, phase 2 safety and acceptability study of microbicide gel applied rectally either daily or before and after receptive anal intercourse (RAI), compared to daily oral tablet. At baseline, cisgender men and transgender women who reported RAI (N = 187) rated the daily oral regimen higher in overall liking, ease of use, and likelihood of future use than the gel regimens...
November 8, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119472/msm-at-highest-risk-for-hiv-acquisition-express-greatest-interest-and-preference-for-injectable-antiretroviral-prep-compared-to-daily-oral-medication
#14
Katie B Biello, Matthew J Mimiaga, Christopher M Santostefano, David S Novak, Kenneth H Mayer
Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for nearly 70% of new HIV diagnoses, with young black MSM at the highest risk for infection in the United States. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can decrease HIV acquisition in at-risk individuals by over 90%. However, therapeutic efficacy requires a daily pill, posing adherence challenges. Experimental modalities, including injectable PrEP given once every 2 months, may improve adherence among those most in need. To assess interest in and preference for injectable PrEP, an online survey was mounted on two popular MSM sexual networking apps...
November 8, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113139/anti-hiv-activity-of-ocimum-labiatum-extract-and-isolated-pheophytin-a
#15
Petrina Kapewangolo, Martha Kandawa-Schulz, Debra Meyer
Ocimum plants are traditionally used to manage HIV/AIDS in various African countries. The effects of Ocimum labiatum extract on HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) is presented here along with characterization of an identified bioactive compound, achieved through ¹H- and (13)C-NMR. The extract's effect on HIV-1 replication was assessed by HIV-1 p24 antigen capture. Cytotoxicity of samples was evaluated using tetrazolium dyes and real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES). Ocimum labiatum inhibited HIV-1 PR with an IC50 value of 49...
November 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112956/hiv-1-persistence-following-extremely-early-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-art-during-acute-hiv-1-infection-an-observational-study
#16
Timothy J Henrich, Hiroyu Hatano, Oliver Bacon, Louise E Hogan, Rachel Rutishauser, Alison Hill, Mary F Kearney, Elizabeth M Anderson, Susan P Buchbinder, Stephanie E Cohen, Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen, Christopher W Pohlmeyer, Remi Fromentin, Rebecca Hoh, Albert Y Liu, Joseph M McCune, Jonathan Spindler, Kelly Metcalf-Pate, Kristen S Hobbs, Cassandra Thanh, Erica A Gibson, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Robert F Siliciano, Richard W Price, Douglas D Richman, Nicolas Chomont, Janet D Siliciano, John W Mellors, Steven A Yukl, Joel N Blankson, Teri Liegler, Steven G Deeks
BACKGROUND: It is unknown if extremely early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may lead to long-term ART-free HIV remission or cure. As a result, we studied 2 individuals recruited from a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program who started prophylactic ART an estimated 10 days (Participant A; 54-year-old male) and 12 days (Participant B; 31-year-old male) after infection with peak plasma HIV RNA of 220 copies/mL and 3,343 copies/mL, respectively. Extensive testing of blood and tissue for HIV persistence was performed, and PrEP Participant A underwent analytical treatment interruption (ATI) following 32 weeks of continuous ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112073/benefits-and-risks-of-rapid-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Nathan Ford, Chantal Migone, Alexandra Calmy, Bernhard Kerschberger, Steve Kanters, Sabin Nsanzimana, Edward J Mills, Graeme Meintjes, Marco Vitoria, Meg Doherty, Zara Shubber
BACKGROUND: More recent attention has focused on the question of how quickly ART should be started once HIV diagnosis is confirmed. We assessed whether rapid ART initiation improves patient outcomes. METHODS: We searched 5 databases from inception up to August 2017. Rapid ART initiation was defined as initiation within 14 days of HIV diagnosis. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: Across the randomized trials, ART start on the same day increased viral suppression at 12 months (3 trials: RR 1...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112071/the-role-of-menopause-in-tenofovir-diphosphate-and-emtricitabine-triphosphate-concentrations-in-cervical-tissue
#18
Melanie R Nicol, Lindsey M Brewers, Angela Dm Kashuba, Craig Sykes
OBJECTIVE: Although postmenopausal women have behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV infection, the activity of pre-exposure prophylaxis agents in older adults has not been well studied. DESIGN: We used an ex-vivo approach to compare the tissue concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate (TFVdp) and emtricitabine triphosphate (FTCtp) in cervical tissues from premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHOD: Cervical explants from 16 premenopausal and 11 postmenopausal women were incubated in 10-300 μg/mL tenofovir or emtricitabine for 24 hours...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108450/comparing-provider-and-client-preferences-for-hiv-prevention-services-in-south-africa-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#19
John Shaver, Patrick Sullivan, Aaron Siegler, Alex de Voux, Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya, Linda-Gail Bekker, Stefan D Baral, Andrea L Wirtz, Chris Beyrer, Ben Brown, Rob Stephenson
Combination prevention efforts are now recommended toward reducing HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). Understanding the perceptions of both MSM and service providers is critical to informing the development of prevention packages and ultimately improving intervention effectiveness. This study assessed the preferences of MSM and health service providers in the administration of HIV-prevention efforts. Qualitative data were gathered from a series of separate MSM and health care provider focus groups in 2 South African cities...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108000/whole-genome-sequencing-of-extreme-phenotypes-identifies-variants-in-cd101-and-ube2v1-associated-with-increased-risk-of-sexually-acquired-hiv-1
#20
Romel D Mackelprang, Michael J Bamshad, Jessica X Chong, Xuanlin Hou, Kati J Buckingham, Kathryn Shively, Guy deBruyn, Nelly R Mugo, James I Mullins, M Juliana McElrath, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Mary J Emond, Jairam R Lingappa
Host genetic variation modifying HIV-1 acquisition risk can inform development of HIV-1 prevention strategies. However, associations between rare or intermediate-frequency variants and HIV-1 acquisition are not well studied. We tested for the association between variation in genic regions and extreme HIV-1 acquisition phenotypes in 100 sub-Saharan Africans with whole genome sequencing data. Missense variants in immunoglobulin-like regions of CD101 and, among women, one missense/5' UTR variant in UBE2V1, were associated with increased HIV-1 acquisition risk (p = 1...
November 6, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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