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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910722/post-exposure-prophylaxis-awareness-and-use-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-london-who-use-geosocial-networking-smartphone-applications
#1
William C Goedel, Daniel Hagen, Perry N Halkitis, Richard E Greene, Marybec Griffin-Tomas, Forrest A Brooks, DeMarc Hickson, Dustin T Duncan
The number of new HIV infections continues to be on the rise in many high-income countries, most notably among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite recent attention to the use of antiretroviral medications as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM, considerably less research has been devoted to examining the awareness and use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Based on a convenience sample of 179 self-reported HIV-uninfected MSM using a geosocial-networking smartphone application, this study is among the first to examine the awareness and use of PEP and their demographic and behavioral correlates among MSM in London...
December 2, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906014/acceptability-and-use-of-ready-to-use-supplementary-food-compared-to-corn-soy-blend-as-a-targeted-ration-in-an-hiv-program-in-rural-haiti-a-qualitative-study
#3
Anne G Beckett, Debbie Humphries, J Gregory Jerome, Jessica E Teng, Patrick Ulysse, Louise C Ivers
BACKGROUND: Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) is increasingly used as a component of food rations for adults with HIV. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative study to evaluate the acceptability and use of peanut-based RUSF compared to corn-soy blend (CSB) among adults living with HIV in rural Haiti who had been enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial comparing the impact of those rations. A total of 13 focus groups were conducted with 84 participants-42 selected from the RUSF arm of the study, and 42 from the CSB arm-using a guide with pre-designated core topics and open-ended questions...
February 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905998/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-challenges-and-opportunities-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-us
#4
REVIEW
Hyman M Scott, Jeffrey D Klausner
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown high efficacy in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several large clinical trials, and more recently in "real world" reports of clinical implementation and a PrEP demonstration project. Those studies also demonstrated high bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence and raised the discussion of how PrEP may impact STI control efforts, especially in the setting of increasing Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance and the increase in syphilis cases among MSM...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902602/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-dried-blood-spots-for-hiv-1-viral-load-quantification-a-laboratory-assessment-of-3-commercial-assays
#5
Pieter Pannus, Maarten Claus, Maria Mercedes Perez Gonzalez, Nathan Ford, Katrien Fransen
The use of dried blood spots (DBS) instead of plasma as a specimen type for HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing facilitates the decentralization of specimen collection and can increase access to VL testing in resource-limited settings. The performance of DBS for VL testing is lower, however, when compared to the gold standard sample type plasma. In this diagnostic accuracy study, we evaluated 3 VL assays with DBS.Participants were recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Both plasma and DBS specimens were prepared and tested for HIV-1 VL with the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 test v2...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900741/-from-evidence-to-health-policy-making-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#6
Nai-Ying Ko
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in combination with traditional prevention strategies (such as condom use, voluntary HIV counseling and testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections), has been shown to effectively prevent HIV infection. As of September 2015, the World Health Organization recommends that people at substantial risk of HIV infection should be offered PrEP as an additional prevention choice, as part of comprehensive prevention. This article introduces how to apply a systematic review using the methodology of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to write clinical guidelines...
December 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900502/values-and-preferences-on-the-use-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-hiv-prevention-among-multiple-populations-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#7
Florence M Koechlin, Virginia A Fonner, Sarah L Dalglish, Kevin R O'Reilly, Rachel Baggaley, Robert M Grant, Michelle Rodolph, Ioannis Hodges-Mameletzis, Caitlin E Kennedy
Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of antiretroviral drugs by HIV-negative people to prevent HIV infection. WHO released new guidelines in 2015 recommending PrEP for all populations at substantial risk of HIV infection. To prepare these guidelines, we conducted a systematic review of values and preferences among populations that might benefit from PrEP, women, heterosexual men, young women and adolescent girls, female sex workers, serodiscordant couples, transgender people and people who inject drugs, and among healthcare providers who may prescribe PrEP...
November 29, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898570/are-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-guidelines-for-preexposure-prophylaxis-specific-enough-formulation-of-a-personalized-hiv-risk-score-for-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-initiation
#8
Matthew R Beymer, Robert E Weiss, Catherine A Sugar, Linda B Bourque, Gilbert C Gee, Donald E Morisky, Suzanne B Shu, Marjan Javanbakht, Robert K Bolan
BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention tool for populations at highest risk for HIV infection. Current US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for identifying PrEP candidates may not be specific enough to identify gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) at the highest risk for HIV infection. We created an HIV risk score for HIV-negative MSM based on Syndemics Theory to develop a more targeted criterion for assessing PrEP candidacy...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898566/antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-is-not-associated-with-risky-sexual-behavior-among-heterosexual-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-persons-in-serodiscordant-partnerships
#9
Andrew Mujugira, Connie Celum, Kenneth Ngure, Katherine K Thomas, Elly Katabira, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have assessed whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) use is associated with changes in sexual risk behavior of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in known HIV-serodiscordant partnerships. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of HIV-infected persons with known uninfected partners enrolled in the Partners Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Study in Kenya and Uganda. Antiretroviral therapy use and self-reported sexual behavior were ascertained every 3 months...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898526/uptake-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-in-a-national-cohort-of-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-the-united-states-the-motivational-prep-cascade
#10
Jeffrey T Parsons, H Jonathon Rendina, Jonathan M Lassiter, Thomas H F Whitfield, Tyrel J Starks, Christian Grov
OBJECTIVES: The HIV care cascade provides milestones to track the progress of HIV-positive people from seroconversion through viral suppression. We propose a Motivational PrEP Cascade involving five stages based upon the Transtheoretical Model of Change. METHODS: We analyzed data from 995 men in One Thousand Strong, a longitudinal study of a national panel of HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in the United States. RESULTS: Nearly all (89%) participants were sexually active in the past 3 months, and 65% met CDC criteria for PrEP candidacy...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896552/primary-care-physicians-willingness-to-prescribe-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#11
E Jennifer Edelman, Brent A Moore, Sarah K Calabrese, Gail Berkenblit, Chinazo Cunningham, Viraj Patel, Karran Phillips, Jeanette M Tetrault, Minesh Shah, David A Fiellin, Oni Blackstock
Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP) is recommended for people who inject drugs (PWID). Despite their central role in disease prevention, willingness to prescribe PrEP to PWID among primary care physicians (PCPs) is largely understudied. We conducted an online survey (April-May 2015) of members of a society for academic general internists regarding PrEP. Among 250 respondents, 74% (n = 185) of PCPs reported high willingness to prescribe PrEP to PWID. PCPs were more likely to report high willingness to prescribe PrEP to all other HIV risk groups (p's < 0...
November 28, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895697/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#12
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893604/implementation-of-preexposure-prophylaxis-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-at-a-new-england-sexually-transmitted-diseases-clinic
#13
Philip A Chan, Tiffany R Glynn, Catherine E Oldenburg, Madeline C Montgomery, Ashley E Robinette, Alexi Almonte, Julia Raifman, Leandro Mena, Rupa Patel, Kenneth H Mayer, Laura S Beauchamps, Amy S Nunn
BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is efficacious in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed PrEP uptake among MSM presenting for services at a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic. METHODS: Men who have sex with men presenting to the Rhode Island STD Clinic between October 2013 and November 2014 were educated about, and offered, PrEP. We categorized PrEP engagement using an implementation cascade to describe gaps in uptake which described MSM who: (1) were educated about PrEP, (2) indicated interest, (3) successfully received follow-up contact, (4) scheduled an appointment, (5) attended an appointment, and (6) initiated PrEP (ie, received a prescription)...
November 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892469/total-synthesis-of-feglymycin-based-on-a-linear-convergent-hybrid-approach-using-micro-flow-amide-bond-formation
#14
Shinichiro Fuse, Yuto Mifune, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Hiroshi Tanaka
Feglymycin is a naturally occurring, anti-HIV and antimicrobial 13-mer peptide that includes highly racemizable 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycines (Dpgs). Here we describe the total synthesis of feglymycin based on a linear/convergent hybrid approach. Our originally developed micro-flow amide bond formation enabled highly racemizable peptide chain elongation based on a linear approach that was previously considered impossible. Our developed approach will enable the practical preparation of biologically active oligopeptides that contain highly racemizable amino acids, which are attractive drug candidates...
November 28, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885552/prep-awareness-familiarity-comfort-and-prescribing-experience-among-us-primary-care-providers-and-hiv-specialists
#15
Andrew E Petroll, Jennifer L Walsh, Jill L Owczarzak, Timothy L McAuliffe, Laura M Bogart, Jeffrey A Kelly
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was FDA approved in 2012, but uptake remains low. To characterize what would facilitate health care providers' increased PrEP prescribing, we conducted a 10-city, online survey of 525 primary care providers (PCPs) and HIV providers (HIVPs) to assess awareness, knowledge, and experience with prescribing PrEP; and, comfort with and barriers to PrEP-related activities. Fewer PCPs than HIVPs had heard of PrEP (76 vs 98%), felt familiar with prescribing PrEP (28 vs. 76%), or had prescribed it (17 vs...
November 24, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883309/likely-impact-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-on-hiv-epidemics-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#16
Iryna B Zablotska
Rapid developments in the field of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals offer a promise to bring HIV transmission among gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to zero by 2030. This review evaluates studies, which modelled the impact of PrEP on HIV diagnoses, and discusses the progress towards PrEP implementation. Studies in English, conducted after 2010 among MSM in countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) were reviewed. Six modelling studies were included, three of which had been conducted outside the US...
November 25, 2016: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880833/prioritizing-risk-in-preparation-for-a-demonstration-project-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study-of-oral-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-female-sex-workers-in-south-india
#17
Sushena Reza-Paul, Lisa Lazarus, Monika Doshi, Syed Hafeez Ur Rahman, Manjula Ramaiah, Raviprakash Maiya, Venugopal Ms, K T Venukumar, Sundar Sundararaman, Marissa Becker, Stephen Moses, Robert Lorway
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873082/i-can-see-clearly-now-using-active-visualisation-to-improve-adherence-to-art-and-prep
#18
EDITORIAL
Annie S K Jones, Keith J Petrie
Non-adherence remains a perplexing issue in HIV treatment. After decades of research supporting the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy, non-adherence to medication remains an important issue. For patients who are non-adherent to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), there appears to be a mismatch between their model of illness and the necessity for ART treatment. We propose that 'active visualisation' is a technique that could be utilised to improve understanding of treatment and subsequently adherence for both individuals living with HIV and those at-risk of infection...
November 21, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873081/awareness-and-acceptability-of-pre-exposure-hiv-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-baltimore
#19
Susan A Fallon, Ju Nyeong Park, Christine Powell Ogbue, Colin Flynn, Danielle German
This paper assessed characteristics associated with awareness of and willingness to take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among Baltimore men who have sex with men (MSM). We used data from BESURE-MSM3, a venue-based cross-sectional HIV surveillance study conducted among MSM in 2011. Multivariate regression was used to identify characteristics associated with PrEP knowledge and acceptability among 399 participants. Eleven percent had heard of PrEP, 48% would be willing to use PrEP, and none had previously used it...
November 21, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872326/pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-europe-review-of-evidence-for-a-much-needed-prevention-tool
#20
REVIEW
Thijs Reyniers, Elske Hoornenborg, Bea Vuylsteke, Kristien Wouters, Marie Laga
In many Western countries with good coverage of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programmes the annual number of HIV infections is still high and not (yet) declining among men who have sex with men (MSM). This might indicate that antiretroviral treatment roll-out alone will not turn around the course of the epidemic and that new, additional tools are needed. Antiretrovirals used as prevention tools for people not yet infected with HIV, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could be such important additional tools...
November 21, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
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