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Lithium dementia

Hajime Baba
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that suffering from depression and bipolar disorder may be risk factors for developing dementia. A mechanism of interactions of several factors, such as vascular disease and glucocorticoid, has been speculated to play a role in the development of dementia. It is suggested that the onset of dementia can be prevented or delayed by preventing the onset and recurrence of depression and bipolar disorder. In the prevent of depression, the management of daily life, such as diet and exercise, is important...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
James M Prosser, Ronald R Fieve
A variety of evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that lithium has neurotrophic and cytoprotective properties, and may ameliorate or prevent some disease states. We investigated whether such a protective effect can be observed in human psychiatric patients receiving lithium therapy. We carried out a retrospective chart review of 1028 adult psychiatric male and female outpatients attending four lithium clinics in metropolitan New York City. Patients were divided into two groups based on lithium usage, and the prevalence of neurological and cardiovascular disorders was compared...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Celina S Liu, Myuri Ruthirakuhan, Sarah A Chau, Nathan Herrmann, André F Carvalho, Krista L Lanctôt
Agitation and aggression are common neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and are highly prevalent in people with dementia. When pharmacological intervention becomes necessary, current clinical practice guidelines recommend antipsychotics, cholinesterase inhibitors, and some antidepressants. However, those interventions have modest to low efficacy, and those with the highest demonstrated efficacy have significant safety concerns. As a result, current research is focusing on novel compounds that have different mechanisms of action and that may have a better balance of efficacy over safety...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Janusz K Rybakowski
Lithium is the first choice drug for the long-term prophylaxis of depressive and manic episodes in bipolar disorder (BD). Both experimental and clinical studies show either neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of lithium on brain function, reflecting the propensity of lithium to affect different brain structures. In most experimental studies, lithium, in therapeutic doses, exerts a favourable influence on various cognitive functions. Patients with BD present cognitive problems of mild intensity across mood states, worsening during manic or depressive episodes and, sometimes, also persisting during euthymia...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Seong S Shim, Grace E Stutzmann
Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major public health concern for decades, the pathophysiological mechanism of TBI is not clearly understood, and an effective medical treatment of TBI is not available at present. Of particular concern is sustained TBI, which has a strong tendency to take a deteriorating neurodegenerative course into chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Tauopathy and beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques are known to be the key pathological markers of TBI, which contribute to the progressive deterioration associated with TBI such as CTE and Alzheimer's disease...
May 9, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Robert H Howland
Dementia, once described as the "silent epidemic," is now well known and greatly feared. Although the total number of dementia cases will increase worldwide because of increased life expectancy, eight population-based studies of dementia incidence or prevalence have suggested a declining age-specific risk in the United States and Europe during the past three decades. Many different psychotropic drugs have been introduced since the mid-1950s, and their clinical use has broadened and increased dramatically over time...
March 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Janusz K Rybakowski
Lithium has been used in modern psychiatry for more than 65 years, constituting a cornerstone for the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. A number of biological properties of lithium have been discovered, including its hematological, antiviral and neuroprotective effects. In this article, a systematic review of the effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells is presented. The beneficial effects of lithium on the level of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and growth factors have been reported since 1970s...
April 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Markus Donix, Michael Bauer
BACKGROUND: Lithium shows neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects in vitro and in vivo. Due to its involvement in hippocampal neurogenesis and the interaction with beta-amyloid and neurofibrillary tangle metabolism it has been hypothesized that lithium could have the potential to influence the development of dementia. METHOD: Using the PubMed database and cross-reference search strategies our aim was to specifically identify population (cohort or case-control) studies investigating the association between lithium and dementia...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Huntington Potter, Antoneta Granic, Julbert Caneus
Trisomy 21 and the consequent extra copy of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene and increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide production underlie the universal development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and high risk of AD dementia in people with Down syndrome (DS). Trisomy 21 and other forms of aneuploidy also arise among neurons and peripheral cells in both sporadic and familial AD and in mouse and cell models thereof, reinforcing the conclusion that AD and DS are two sides of the same coin. The demonstration that 90% of the neurodegeneration in AD can be attributed to the selective loss of aneuploid neurons generated over the course of the disease indicates that aneuploidy is an essential feature of the pathogenic pathway leading to the depletion of neuronal cell populations...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Vanessa de Jesus De-Paula, Daniel Shikanai Kerr, Marília Palma Fabiano de Carvalho, Evelin Lisete Schaeffer, Leda Leme Talib, Wagner Farid Gattaz, Orestes Vicente Forlenza
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence supports the neuroprotective properties of lithium, with implications for the treatment and prevention of dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders. Lithium modulates critical intracellular pathways related to neurotrophic support, inflammatory response, autophagy and apoptosis. There is additional evidence indicating that lithium may also affect membrane homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of lithium on cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) activity, a key player on membrane phospholipid turnover which has been found to be reduced in blood and brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Calum Sutherland, Ashleigh C Duthie
Alzheimer's disease clinical trials are failing at an alarming rate, highlighting the desperate need for novel thinking to combat this escalating health crisis. A recent large-scale population study indicates that lithium treatment reduces dementia development, supporting preclinical mechanistic evidence that this commonly used agent might be clinically valuable in dementia.
July 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Takeshi Terao
Lithium, a naturally occurring element, is widely used in clinical settings for psychiatric treatment. Several studies showed that micro-dose lithium (e.g., lithium in drinking water) could have anti-aging and anti-dementia effects in addition to an anti-suicidal effect, although anti-mania and psychosis or anti-cancer effects are yet to be determined. Although these studies do not provide conclusive evidence, further studies are warranted to investigate whether lithium is trace element. If so, future studies would need to determine what levels are required to maintain mental health...
March 22, 2015: World Journal of Psychiatry
Juan Soriano-Barceló, María Tajes Alonso, María Begoña Portela Traba, Alberte Araúxo Vilar, David A Kahn
Chronic neurotoxicity caused by lithium salts can be reversible or irreversible and may appear after years of treatment, even at serum levels considered within the usual therapeutic range. The authors present the case of a patient with bipolar disorder who developed dementia at the age of 54 after being treated with lithium carbonate at therapeutic levels for 4 years. Nevertheless, lithium treatment was continued. At age 56, the patient presented with an acute encephalopathy caused by toxic lithium levels, which resolved only after lithium carbonate was discontinued...
March 2015: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Thuy M Vo, Paul Perry, Michael Ellerby, Kimberly Bohnert
BACKGROUND: Lithium was the first clinically effective mood stabilizer marketed worldwide. However, the medical literature suggests that lithium may have an indication as a neuroprotective agent. METHODS: This review discusses the pharmacologic activity and potential effectiveness of lithium in the context of Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), the 2 most prominent neurodegenerative disorders in the United States. The toxicities of lithium, including lithium-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (LI-EPS) and cognitive impairments at therapeutic blood levels, are discussed...
February 2015: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
Giulia Serra, Athanasios Koukopoulos, Lavinia De Chiara, Alexia E Koukopoulos, Leonardo Tondo, Paolo Girardi, Ross J Baldessarini, Gino Serra
BACKGROUND: Developing safe and effective long-term treatments for bipolar disorder remains a major challenge. Given available treatments, patients with bipolar disorder remain unwell in half of long-term follow-up, mostly in depression. As memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat dementia, has been proposed for testing in bipolar disorder, we carried out a 3 + 3-year, mirror-image, chart-review study of the effects of adding memantine to stably continued, but insufficiently effective, ongoing mood-stabilizing treatments...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Tobias Gerhard, D P Devanand, Cecilia Huang, Stephen Crystal, Mark Olfson
BackgroundLithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3, an enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia.AimsTo examine the association of lithium and dementia risk in a large claims-based US cohort of publicly insured older adults with bipolar disorder.MethodThe cohort included individuals ≥50 years diagnosed with bipolar disorder who did not receive dementia-related services during the prior year. Each follow-up day was classified by past-year cumulative duration of lithium use (0, 1-60, 61-300 and 301-365 days)...
July 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Dominic Hodgkin, Marina Piazza, Maruja Crisante, Carla Gallo, Fabián Fiestas
OBJECTIVES: Describe the availability of psychotropic medications for the treatment of mental disorders in the health care facilities of the Ministry of Health of Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Monthly inventory reports of the availability and consumption of medications in facilities of the Ministry of Health during 2011 were analyzed. Using a cross sectional design, the availability of seven classes of psychotropic medications was determined. Also, the level of care of the establishments and the level of decisional autonomy to purchase medications were determined...
October 2014: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Giulia Serra, Francesca Demontis, Francesca Serra, Lavinia De Chiara, Andrea Spoto, Paolo Girardi, Giulio Vidotto, Gino Serra
UNLABELLED: We review preclinical and clinical evidences strongly suggesting that memantine, an old drug currently approved for Alzheimer's dementia, is an effective treatment for acute mania and for the prevention of manic/hypomanic and depressive recurrences of manic-depressive illness. Lithium remains the first line for the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders, but currently available treatment alternatives for lithium resistant patients are of limited and/or questionable efficacy...
December 22, 2014: World Journal of Psychiatry
Lisa Scheuing, Chi-Tso Chiu, Hsiao-Mei Liao, Gabriel R Linares, De-Maw Chuang
Huntington's disease (HD) is a lethal, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions at exon 1 of the huntingtin (Htt) gene, which encodes for a mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt). Prominent symptoms of HD include motor dysfunction, characterized by chorea; psychiatric disturbances such as mood and personality changes; and cognitive decline that may lead to dementia. Pathologically multiple complex processes and pathways are involved in the development of HD, including selective loss of neurons in the striatum and cortex, dysregulation of cellular autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased neurotrophic and growth factor levels, and aberrant regulation of gene expression and epigenetic patterns...
2014: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Ivan Aprahamian, Franklin S Santos, Bernardo dos Santos, Leda Talib, Breno S Diniz, Márcia Radanovic, Wagner F Gattaz, Orestes V Forlenza
BACKGROUND: Recent studies evaluated the disease-modifying properties of lithium in mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Although potentially effective for these purposes, chronic lithium use in regard to safety in the elderly needs to be better explored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of long-term lithium treatment at subtherapeutic doses on renal function in older adults. Secondary aims were to evaluate the clinical safety and tolerability of this treatment and its effects on thyroid, immune, and glycemic functions...
July 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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