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Lithium dementia

Michael Berk, Stephanie Cowdery, Lana Williams, Gin S Malhi
Recent data might subtly recalibrate the risk/benefit ratio of lithium, the prototypical mood stabiliser for bipolar disorder. There are hints that lithium might be associated with a reduction in dementia risk and as noted in this Journal, a surprising reduction in the risk of cancer.
July 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
S Madhusoodanan, Varudhini Reddy, Sonya Mohan
INTRODUCTION: Lithium is known to cause certain neurological deficits. However, reports of aphasia secondary to lithium toxicity are scant. We report the case of a 70 year old African American woman with a history of schizoaffective disorder and mild dementia who developed transient intermittent aphasia secondary to lithium toxicity. METHODS: Patient was admitted because of agitation, delusional behavior, and loud and pressured speech. Her previous medications included divalproex sodium 500mg po bid, valproic acid 250mg po qd, risperidone 3...
May 31, 2017: Current Drug Safety
Jeffrey Fessel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the hypotheses stating the importance of amyloid or of its oligomers in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Published studies were examined. RESULTS: The importance of amyloid in the pathogenesis of AD is well established, yet accepting it as the main cause for AD is problematic, because amyloid-centric treatments have provided no clinical benefit and about one-third of cognitively normal, older persons have cerebral amyloid plaques...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
W J Fessel
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease involves multiple pathways that, at the macrolevel, include decreased proliferation plus increased loss affecting neurons, astrocytes, and capillaries and, at the subcellular level, involve several elements: amyloid/amyloid precursor protein, presenilins, the unfolded protein response, the ubiquitin/proteasome system, the Wnt/catenin system, the Notch signaling system, mitochondria, mitophagy, calcium, and tau. Data presented show the intimate, anatomical interactions between neurons, astrocytes, and capillaries; the interactions between the several subcellular factors affecting those cells; and the treatments that are currently available and that might correct dysfunctions in the subcellular factors...
May 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
J Budni, D P Feijó, H Batista-Silva, M L Garcez, F Mina, T Belletini-Santos, L R Krasilchik, A P Luz, G L Schiavo, J Quevedo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. The main hallmarks of this disease include progressive cognitive dysfunction and an accumulation of soluble oligomers of β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42 peptide. In this research, we show the effects of lithium and memantine on spatial memory and neuroinflammation in an Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced animal model of dementia in rats. Aβ 1-42 oligomers were administered intrahippocampally to male wistar rats to induce dementia. Oral treatments with memantine (5mg/kg), lithium (5mg/kg), or both drugs in combination were performed over a period of 17days...
March 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Chin Cheng, Peter Zandi, Elizabeth Stuart, Ching-Heng Lin, Pei-Yu Su, G Caleb Alexander, Tsuo-Hung Lan
OBJECTIVE: Current evidence for the association between use of lithium and risk of dementia is mixed. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of Alzheimer's disease associated with use of lithium. METHODS: A population-based, nested case-control study was conducted using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in 2002 covering 24.5 million beneficiaries of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2009...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Davangere P Devanand, Gregory H Pelton, Kristina D'Antonio, Jesse G Strickler, William C Kreisl, James Noble, Karen Marder, Anne Skomorowsky, Edward D Huey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Hajime Baba
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that suffering from depression and bipolar disorder may be risk factors for developing dementia. A mechanism of interactions of several factors, such as vascular disease and glucocorticoid, has been speculated to play a role in the development of dementia. It is suggested that the onset of dementia can be prevented or delayed by preventing the onset and recurrence of depression and bipolar disorder. In the prevent of depression, the management of daily life, such as diet and exercise, is important...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
James M Prosser, Ronald R Fieve
A variety of evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that lithium has neurotrophic and cytoprotective properties, and may ameliorate or prevent some disease states. We investigated whether such a protective effect can be observed in human psychiatric patients receiving lithium therapy. We carried out a retrospective chart review of 1028 adult psychiatric male and female outpatients attending four lithium clinics in metropolitan New York City. Patients were divided into two groups based on lithium usage, and the prevalence of neurological and cardiovascular disorders was compared...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Celina S Liu, Myuri Ruthirakuhan, Sarah A Chau, Nathan Herrmann, André F Carvalho, Krista L Lanctôt
Agitation and aggression are common neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and are highly prevalent in people with dementia. When pharmacological intervention becomes necessary, current clinical practice guidelines recommend antipsychotics, cholinesterase inhibitors, and some antidepressants. However, those interventions have modest to low efficacy, and those with the highest demonstrated efficacy have significant safety concerns. As a result, current research is focusing on novel compounds that have different mechanisms of action and that may have a better balance of efficacy over safety...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Janusz K Rybakowski
Lithium is the first choice drug for the long-term prophylaxis of depressive and manic episodes in bipolar disorder (BD). Both experimental and clinical studies show either neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects of lithium on brain function, reflecting the propensity of lithium to affect different brain structures. In most experimental studies, lithium, in therapeutic doses, exerts a favourable influence on various cognitive functions. Patients with BD present cognitive problems of mild intensity across mood states, worsening during manic or depressive episodes and, sometimes, also persisting during euthymia...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Seong S Shim, Grace E Stutzmann
Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major public health concern for decades, the pathophysiological mechanism of TBI is not clearly understood, and an effective medical treatment of TBI is not available at present. Of particular concern is sustained TBI, which has a strong tendency to take a deteriorating neurodegenerative course into chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Tauopathy and beta amyloid (Aβ) plaques are known to be the key pathological markers of TBI, which contribute to the progressive deterioration associated with TBI such as CTE and Alzheimer's disease...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Robert H Howland
Dementia, once described as the "silent epidemic," is now well known and greatly feared. Although the total number of dementia cases will increase worldwide because of increased life expectancy, eight population-based studies of dementia incidence or prevalence have suggested a declining age-specific risk in the United States and Europe during the past three decades. Many different psychotropic drugs have been introduced since the mid-1950s, and their clinical use has broadened and increased dramatically over time...
March 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Janusz K Rybakowski
Lithium has been used in modern psychiatry for more than 65 years, constituting a cornerstone for the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. A number of biological properties of lithium have been discovered, including its hematological, antiviral and neuroprotective effects. In this article, a systematic review of the effect of lithium on hematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells is presented. The beneficial effects of lithium on the level of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and growth factors have been reported since 1970s...
April 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Markus Donix, Michael Bauer
BACKGROUND: Lithium shows neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects in vitro and in vivo. Due to its involvement in hippocampal neurogenesis and the interaction with beta-amyloid and neurofibrillary tangle metabolism it has been hypothesized that lithium could have the potential to influence the development of dementia. METHOD: Using the PubMed database and cross-reference search strategies our aim was to specifically identify population (cohort or case-control) studies investigating the association between lithium and dementia...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Huntington Potter, Antoneta Granic, Julbert Caneus
Trisomy 21 and the consequent extra copy of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene and increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide production underlie the universal development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and high risk of AD dementia in people with Down syndrome (DS). Trisomy 21 and other forms of aneuploidy also arise among neurons and peripheral cells in both sporadic and familial AD and in mouse and cell models thereof, reinforcing the conclusion that AD and DS are two sides of the same coin. The demonstration that 90% of the neurodegeneration in AD can be attributed to the selective loss of aneuploid neurons generated over the course of the disease indicates that aneuploidy is an essential feature of the pathogenic pathway leading to the depletion of neuronal cell populations...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Vanessa de Jesus De-Paula, Daniel Shikanai Kerr, Marília Palma Fabiano de Carvalho, Evelin Lisete Schaeffer, Leda Leme Talib, Wagner Farid Gattaz, Orestes Vicente Forlenza
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence supports the neuroprotective properties of lithium, with implications for the treatment and prevention of dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders. Lithium modulates critical intracellular pathways related to neurotrophic support, inflammatory response, autophagy and apoptosis. There is additional evidence indicating that lithium may also affect membrane homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of lithium on cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) activity, a key player on membrane phospholipid turnover which has been found to be reduced in blood and brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Calum Sutherland, Ashleigh C Duthie
Alzheimer's disease clinical trials are failing at an alarming rate, highlighting the desperate need for novel thinking to combat this escalating health crisis. A recent large-scale population study indicates that lithium treatment reduces dementia development, supporting preclinical mechanistic evidence that this commonly used agent might be clinically valuable in dementia.
July 2015: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Takeshi Terao
Lithium, a naturally occurring element, is widely used in clinical settings for psychiatric treatment. Several studies showed that micro-dose lithium (e.g., lithium in drinking water) could have anti-aging and anti-dementia effects in addition to an anti-suicidal effect, although anti-mania and psychosis or anti-cancer effects are yet to be determined. Although these studies do not provide conclusive evidence, further studies are warranted to investigate whether lithium is trace element. If so, future studies would need to determine what levels are required to maintain mental health...
March 22, 2015: World Journal of Psychiatry
Juan Soriano-Barceló, María Tajes Alonso, María Begoña Portela Traba, Alberte Araúxo Vilar, David A Kahn
Chronic neurotoxicity caused by lithium salts can be reversible or irreversible and may appear after years of treatment, even at serum levels considered within the usual therapeutic range. The authors present the case of a patient with bipolar disorder who developed dementia at the age of 54 after being treated with lithium carbonate at therapeutic levels for 4 years. Nevertheless, lithium treatment was continued. At age 56, the patient presented with an acute encephalopathy caused by toxic lithium levels, which resolved only after lithium carbonate was discontinued...
March 2015: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
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