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"Lung function"

Samuel Y Ash, Alejandro A Diaz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to summarize the most recent evidence related to imaging and severe asthma, both with regard to advances in imaging research and to their current and potential clinical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work in imaging in severe asthma has principally been using computed tomography (CT) and MRI, as well as the integration of the two. Some of the most notable findings include the use of CT imaging biomarkers to create unique clusters of asthmatics, and the use of co-registration to link CT images of airways with regional variation in ventilation in MRI...
October 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Diane Lefaudeux, Bertrand De Meulder, Matthew J Loza, Nancy Peffer, Anthony Rowe, Frédéric Baribaud, Aruna T Bansal, Rene Lutter, Ana R Sousa, Julie Corfield, Ioannis Pandis, Per S Bakke, Massimo Caruso, Pascal Chanez, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Louise J Fleming, Stephen J Fowler, Ildiko Horvath, Norbert Krug, Paolo Montuschi, Marek Sanak, Thomas Sandstrom, Dominic E Shaw, Florian Singer, Peter J Sterk, Graham Roberts, Ian M Adcock, Ratko Djukanovic, Charles Auffray, Kian F Chung
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease in which there is a differential response to asthma treatments. This heterogeneity needs to be evaluated so that a personalised management approach can be provided. OBJECTIVES: We stratified patients with moderate-to-severe asthma based on clinico-physiological parameters and performed an -omics analysis of sputum. METHODS: Partition-around-medoid clustering was applied to a training set of 266 asthma participants from the European U-BIOPRED adult cohort using 8 pre-specified clinic-physiological variables...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
John Nixon, Paul Newbold, Tomas Mustelin, Gary P Anderson, Roland Kolbeck
Eosinophils have been linked with asthma for more than a century, but their role has been unclear. This review discusses the roles of eosinophils in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and describes therapeutic antibodies that affect eosinophilia. The aims of pharmacologic treatments for pulmonary conditions are to reduce symptoms, slow decline or improve lung function, and reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are important in managing symptoms and exacerbations in asthma and COPD...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ken M Kunisaki, Dennis E Niewoehner, Gary Collins, Bitten Aagaard, Nafisah B Atako, Elzbieta Bakowska, Amanda Clarke, Giulio Maria Corbelli, Ernest Ekong, Sean Emery, Elizabeth B Finley, Eric Florence, Rosa M Infante, Cissy M Kityo, Juan Sierra Madero, Daniel E Nixon, Ellen Tedaldi, Jørgen Vestbo, Robin Wood, John E Connett
BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries...
October 20, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Meredith C Fidler, Jack Beusmans, Paul Panorchan, Frederick Van Goor
Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator that enhances chloride transport by acting directly on CFTR to increase its channel gating activity, has been evaluated in patients with different CFTR mutations. Several previous analyses have reported no statistical correlation between change from baseline in ppFEV1 and reduction in sweat chloride levels for individuals treated with ivacaftor. The objective of the post hoc analysis described here was to expand upon previous analyses and evaluate the correlation between sweat chloride levels and absolute ppFEV1 changes across multiple cohorts of patients with different CF-causing mutations who were treated with ivacaftor...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Alexander J Hose, Martin Depner, Sabina Illi, Susanne Lau, Thomas Keil, Ulrich Wahn, Oliver Fuchs, Petra Ina Pfefferle, Elisabeth Schmaußer-Hechfellner, Jon Genuneit, Roger Lauener, Anne M Karvonen, Caroline Roduit, Jean-Charles Dalphin, Josef Riedler, Juha Pekkanen, Erika von Mutius, Markus J Ege, Carl Peter Bauer, Johannes Forster, Fred Zepp, Volker Wahn, Antje Schuster, Renate L Bergmann, Karl E Bergmann, Andreas Reich, Linus Grabenhenrich, Bianca Schaub, Georg J Loss, Harald Renz, Michael Kabesch, Marjut Roponen, Anne Hyvärinen, Pekka Tiittanen, Sami Remes, Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer, Remo Frei, Vincent Kaulek, Marie-Laure Dalphin, Gert Doekes, Nicole Blümer, Urs Frey
BACKGROUND: Phenotypes of childhood-onset asthma are characterized by distinct trajectories and functional features. For atopy, definition of phenotypes during childhood is less clear. OBJECTIVE: To define phenotypes of atopic sensitization over the first 6 years of life by a latent class analysis (LCA) integrating three dimensions of atopy: allergen specificity, time course, and levels of specific IgE. METHODS: Phenotypes were defined by LCA in 680 children of the MAS and 766 of the PASTURE birth cohorts and compared to classical non-disjunctive definitions of seasonal, perennial, and food sensitization with respect to atopic diseases and lung function...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Laszlo Kunos, Zsofia Lazar, Fruzsina Martinovszky, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Daniel Kovacs, Bianka Forgo, Peter Horvath, Gyorgy Losonczy, Andras Bikov
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder, characterised by collapse of the upper airways during sleep. The impact of sleep-disordered breathing on pulmonary function indices is however currently not well described. The aim of the study was to evaluate diurnal change in lung function indices in a cohort of patients with OSA and relate pulmonary function changes to disease severity. METHODS: 42 patients with OSA and 73 healthy control subjects participated in the study...
October 21, 2016: Lung
Ana S Cravo, Jim Bush, Girish Sharma, Rebecca Savioz, Claire Martin, Simon Craige, Tanvir Walele
A randomised, parallel group clinical study was performed to evaluate the safety profile of an e-vapour product (EVP; 2.0% nicotine) in smokers of conventional cigarettes (CCs) switching to use the EVP for 12 weeks. During the study, no clinically significant product-related findings were observed in terms of vital signs, electrocardiogram, lung function tests and standard clinical laboratory parameters. Adverse events (AEs) reported by EVP subjects were more frequent during the first week after switching to the EVP...
October 18, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Ashleigh A McGirr, Kevin L Schwartz, Upton Allen, Melinda Solomon, Beate Sander
Background Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at higher risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, which can lead to a decline in lung function. A monoclonal antibody, palivizumab (PMB), effectively prevents RSV hospitalizations; however, the high cost of PMB, approximately C$10,000 per patient per RSV season, limits its widespread use. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PMB prophylaxis in CF children less than 2 years of age from the Canadian healthcare payer's perspective. Methods In 2014, a Markov cohort model of CF disease and infant RSV infections in the Canadian setting was developed based on literature data...
October 21, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Luis Ig Ribeiro, Philip W Ind
As cannabis use increases, physicians need to be familiar with the effects of both cannabis and tobacco on the lungs. However, there have been very few long-term studies of cannabis smoking, mostly due to legality issues and the confounding effects of tobacco. It was previously thought that cannabis and tobacco had similar long-term effects as both cause chronic bronchitis. However, recent large studies have shown that, instead of reducing forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FVC), marijuana smoking is associated with increased FVC...
October 20, 2016: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Y Liang, J Wang, C Chang, T Amannisa, Y C Sun, B He, W Z Yao
Objective: To analysis the correlative factors that probably affect serum leptin levels in asthmatic patients. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with asthma and 29 health controls who were admitted into outpatient clinic of Peking University Third Hospital from April 2014 to December 2015 were consecutively enrolled in our study prospectively. Serum leptin level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sex, body mass index (BMI), onset age of asthma, allergen detection test, induced sputum cell count and classification, lung function test and asthma control level were recorded...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Ping Wei, Jia-Wei Yang, Hai-Wen Lu, Bei Mao, Wen-Lan Yang, Jin-Fu Xu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is presently no clear evidence on the effect of combined treatment for non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist (LABA). The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of salmeterol-fluticasone combined inhaled therapy for non-CF bronchiectasis with airflow limitation. METHODS: An observational study was performed in 120 non-CF bronchiectasis patients diagnosed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning of the chest...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
A J Byrne, M Weiss, S A Mathie, S A Walker, H L Eames, D Saliba, C M Lloyd, I A Udalova
Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a key transcription factor involved in the control of the expression of proinflammatory cytokine and responses to infection, but its role in regulating pulmonary immune responses to allergen is unknown. We used genetic ablation, adenoviral vector-driven overexpression, and adoptive transfer approaches to interrogate the role of IRF5 in pulmonary immunity and during challenge with the aeroallergen, house dust mite. Global IRF5 deficiency resulted in impaired lung function and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition...
October 19, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
B Jayakrishnan, Nasser Al-Busaidi, Ahsan Al-Lawati, Jojy George, Omar A Al-Rawas, Yaqoub Al-Mahrouqi, Nabil Al-Lawati
BACKGROUND: Though clinical features of sarcoidosis follow a similar pattern, some heterogeneity is seen in different ethnic and racial groups. OBJECTIVES: To describe for the first time the clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis patients in the Sultanate of Oman. METHODS: The data on all cases of sarcoidosis followed up in the two tertiary hospitals in Oman were retrieved retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the 92 patients, for representing the ethnic data only Omani patients (n=83) were included...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Francesca de Blasio, Francesco de Blasio, Giulia Miracco Berlingieri, Andrea Bianco, Marta La Greca, Frits M E Franssen, Luca Scalfi
BACKGROUND: Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. OBJECTIVES: To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Suzanne Miller, Amanda P Henry, Emily Hodge, Alexander K Kheirallah, Charlotte K Billington, Tracy L Rimington, Sangita K Bhaker, Ma'en Obeidat, Erik Melén, Simon K Merid, Caroline Swan, Catherine Gowland, Carl P Nelson, Ceri E Stewart, Charlotte E Bolton, Iain Kilty, Anders Malarstig, Stuart G Parker, Miriam F Moffatt, Andrew J Wardlaw, Ian P Hall, Ian Sayers
INTRODUCTION: Genome-Wide Association Studies have identified associations between lung function measures and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and chromosome region 6p21 containing the gene for the Advanced Glycation End Product Receptor (AGER, encoding RAGE). We aimed to (i) characterise RAGE expression in the lung, (ii) identify AGER transcripts, (iii) ascertain if SNP rs2070600 (Gly82Ser C/T) is associated with lung function and serum sRAGE levels and (iv) identify whether the Gly82Ser variant is functionally important in altering sRAGE levels in an airway epithelial cell model...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin T Kopp, Juan Antonio Ortega-García, S Christy Sadreameli, Jack Wellmerling, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka, Rohan Thompson, Sharon McGrath-Morrow, Judith A Groner
Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) has multiple adverse effects on lung function and growth, nutrition, and immune function in children; it is increasingly being recognized as an important modifier of disease severity for children with chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). This review examines what is known regarding the prevalence of SHSe in CF, with the majority of reviewed studies utilizing parental-reporting of SHSe without an objective biomarker of exposure. A wide range of SHSe is reported in children with CF, but under-reporting is common in studies involving both reported and measured SHSe...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Iben McCormick-Ricket, Melanie Canterberry, Atif Ghaffar, Nereida A Parada, Thomas W Carton
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in smoky venues puts patrons and employees at risk for immediate respiratory symptoms. Although much literature focuses on outcomes associated with chronic ETS exposure, the current study assesses changes in lung function after acute exposure. METHODS: Ninety-six nonsmoking, healthy adults were exposed to ETS at a bar. Lung function [eg, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)] was assessed at baseline, immediately after 3 hours of ETS exposure, and 2 hours after exiting the bar...
October 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Eralda Hegendörfer, Bert Vaes, Elena Andreeva, Catharina Matheï, Gijs Van Pottelbergh, Jean-Marie Degryse
OBJECTIVES: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is proposed as a marker of healthy ageing and FEV1 expressions that are independent of reference values have been reported to be better at predicting mortality in older adults. We assess and compare the predictive value of different FEV1 expressions for mortality, hospitalization, and physical and mental decline in adults aged 80 and older. DESIGN: Population-based, prospective, cohort study. SETTING: The BELFRAIL study, Belgium...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Robert E Kelly, Robert J Obermeyer, Donald Nuss
BACKGROUND: Recently, technical improvement in the ability to measure lung function and the severity of chest deformity have enabled progress in understanding the mechanism of limitations of lung function in pectus excavatum. METHODS: After establishing that most patients with pectus excavatum do have symptoms of exercise intolerance, easy fatigability, and shortness of breath with exertion, lung function has been evaluated by a variety of methods in different centers...
September 2016: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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