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"Lung function"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475121/cardiopulmonary-effects-of-overnight-indoor-air-filtration-in-healthy-non-smoking-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-crossover-study
#1
Xiaoxing Cui, Feng Li, Jianbang Xiang, Lin Fang, Ming Kei Chung, Drew B Day, Jinhan Mo, Charles J Weschler, Jicheng Gong, Linchen He, Dong Zhu, Chengjian Lu, Hailong Han, Yinping Zhang, Junfeng Jim Zhang
BACKGROUND: More than 90% of the world's population lives in areas where outdoor air pollution levels exceed health-based limits. In these areas, individuals may use indoor air filtration, often on a sporadic basis, in their residences to reduce exposure to respirable particles (PM2.5 ). Whether this intervention can lead to improvements in health outcomes has not been evaluated. METHODS: Seventy non-smoking healthy adults, aged 19 to 26 years, received both true and sham indoor air filtration in a double-blinded randomized crossover study...
February 20, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475034/stable-state-mr-proadrenomedullin-is-associated-with-severe-exacerbations-in-copd
#2
Emanuel Citgez, Maaike Zuur-Telgen, Job van der Palen, Paul van der Valk, Daiana Stolz, Marjolein Brusse-Keizer
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of Midrange-proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is associated with worse outcome in different diseases among which COPD. The association of stable state MR-proADM with severe exacerbations of COPD requiring hospitalisation (severe AECOPD), or with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in COPD patients has not been studied yet. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of stable state MR-proADM with severe AECOPD and CAP in COPD patients...
February 20, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474424/the-longitudinal-association-between-changes-in-lung-function-and-changes-in-abdominal-visceral-obesity-in-korean-non-smokers
#3
Eun Kyung Choe, Hae Yeon Kang, Young Lee, Seung Ho Choi, Hee Joung Kim, Joo Sung Kim
Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, might be related to decreased lung function. We aimed to investigate whether obesity indices are associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in asymptomatic non-smokers through a longitudinal cohort study. The clinical records of 1,145 subjects (428 males, mean age 52.3 years) who underwent a comprehensive health evaluation, including spirometry and abdominal fat computed tomography, at least twice between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and analysed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474110/chronic-azithromycin-use-in-cystic-fibrosis-and-risk-of-treatment-emergent-respiratory-pathogens
#4
Jonathan D Cogen, Frankline Onchiri, Julia Emerson, Ronald L Gibson, Lucas R Hoffman, David P Nichols, Margaret Rosenfeld
RATIONALE: Azithromycin has been shown to improve lung function and reduce the number of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis patients. Concerns remain, however, regarding the potential emergence of treatment-related respiratory pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine if chronic azithromycin use (defined as thrice weekly administration) is associated with increased rates of detection of eight specific respiratory pathogens. METHODS: We performed a new-user, propensity-score matched retrospective cohort study utilizing data from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry...
February 23, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471466/changes-in-metabolites-present-in-lung-lining-fluid-following-exposure-of-humans-to-ozone
#5
WanYun Cheng, Kelly E Duncan, Andrew J Ghio, Cavin Ward-Caviness, Edward D Karoly, David Diaz-Sanchez, Rory B Conolly, Robert B Devlin
Controlled human exposure to the oxidant air pollutant ozone causes decrements in lung function and increased inflammation as evidenced by neutrophil influx into the lung and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the airways. Here we describe a targeted metabolomics evaluation of human bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) following controlled in vivo exposure to ozone to gain greater insight into its pulmonary effects. In a two-arm cross-over study, each healthy adult human volunteer was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA) and to 0...
February 19, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471032/results-of-an-asthma-education-program-delivered-via-telemedicine-in-rural-schools
#6
Tamara T Perry, Jill S Halterman, Rita H Brown, Chunqiao Luo, Shemeka M Randle, Cassandra R Hunter, Mallikarjuna Rettiganti
BACKGROUND: Asthma morbidity is high among low-income children living in rural U.S. regions, yet few interventions have been designed to reduce asthma burden among rural populations. OBJECTIVE: Examine the impact of a school-based asthma education program delivered via telemedicine among children living in an impoverished, rural region. METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomized trial with rural children, ages 7-14 years, comparing a school-based telemedicine asthma education intervention to usual care...
February 19, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470928/longitudinal-assessment-of-lung-function-in-bpd-survivors-from-birth-to-adulthood-the-padova-bpd-study
#7
Laura Moschino, Matteo Stocchero, Marco Filippone, Silvia Carraro, Eugenio Baraldi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470920/long-term-microevolution-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-differs-between-mildly-and-severely-affected-cystic-fibrosis-lungs
#8
Jens Klockgether, Nina Cramer, Sebastian Fischer, Lutz Wiehlmann, Burkhard Tümmler
RATIONALE: The chronic airway infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa determine morbidity in most individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). P. aeruginosa may persist for decades in CF lungs which provides the rare opportunity to study the long-term within-host evolution of a bacterial airway pathogen. OBJECTIVES: To resolve the genetic adaptation of P. aeruginosa in CF lungs from the onset of colonization until the patient's death or permanent replacement by another P...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470844/reference-values-for-respiratory-impedance-measured-by-the-forced-oscillation-technique-in-adult-men-and-women
#9
Fernando Carlos Vetromille Ribeiro, Agnaldo José Lopes, Pedro Lopes de Melo
INTRODUCTION: The Forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a particularly useful test of the mechanical properties of the respiratory system that has an increasingly important role in lung function laboratories. There is general agreement in the literature that the determination of reference values is of utmost importance in the clinical use of the FOT. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to present reference values for whole-breath FOT measurements, establish which anthropometric variables were more predictive of impedance parameters, and provide all the details to adequately adopt these reference equations in individual laboratories...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470503/sevoflurane-posttreatment-prevents-oxidative-and-inflammatory-injury-in-ventilator-induced-lung-injury
#10
Julie Wagner, Karl M Strosing, Sashko G Spassov, Ziwei Lin, Helen Engelstaedter, Sabine Tacke, Alexander Hoetzel, Simone Faller
Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving clinical treatment but it can induce or aggravate lung injury. New therapeutic strategies, aimed at reducing the negative effects of mechanical ventilation such as excessive production of reactive oxygen species, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and transmigration as well as activation of neutrophil cells, are needed to improve the clinical outcome of ventilated patients. Though the inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane is known to exert organ-protective effects, little is known about the potential of sevoflurane therapy in ventilator-induced lung injury...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470355/effects-of-warm-versus-cold-ischemic-donor-lung-preservation-on-the-underlying-mechanisms-of-injuries-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#11
Ilker Iskender, Marcelo Cypel, Tereza Martinu, Manyin Chen, Jin Sakamoto, Hyunhee Kim, Keke Yu, Huiqing Lin, Zehong Guan, Kohei Hashimoto, Thomas K Waddell, Mingyao Liu, Shaf Keshavjee
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury related to lung transplantation is a major contributor to early postoperative morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that donation after cardiac death donor lungs experience warm ischemic conditions that activate different injurious mechanisms compared with donor lungs that undergo prolonged cold ischemic conditions. METHODS: Rat donor lungs were preserved under different cold ischemic times (CIT: 12 hours or 18 hours), or under warm ischemia time (WIT: 3 hours) after cardiac death, followed by single left lung transplantation...
February 20, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470317/the-effects-of-leukocyte-filtration-on-cell-salvaged-autologous-blood-transfusion-on-lung-function-and-lung-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-reactions-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-lumbar-spinal-surgery
#12
Lili Xu, Jianjun Shen, Jianliang Sun, Patrick M McQuillan, Zhiyong Hu
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate the effects of leukocyte filtration of autologous salvaged blood on lung function, lung inflammatory reaction, and oxidative stress reaction in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty elderly patients undergoing lumbar spinal surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups: Leukocyte Filter group and Control group. Serum levels of inflammatory markers including white blood cell and polymorphonuclear count, neutrophil elastase, serum surfactant protein A, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, superoxide dismutase, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and respiratory function markers including dynamic respiratory system compliance, oxygenation index, and respiratory index were measured immediately before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately before blood transfusion (T1), and 1 (T2), 6 (T3), and 12 hours (T4) after end of blood transfusion...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469677/spirometric-criteria-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-clinical-trials-of-pharmacotherapy
#13
Carlos A Vaz Fragoso, Thomas M Gill, Linda S Leo-Summers, Peter H Van Ness
Clinical trials of pharmacotherapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often include older persons with moderate-to-severe airflow-obstruction, as defined by the Global Initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). In this context, spirometric airflow-obstruction establishes COPD. Because GOLD misidentifies COPD and its severity in older persons, we set out to apply more age-appropriate spirometric criteria from the Global Lung function Initiative (GLI) in a prior clinical trial of COPD pharmacotherapy, specifically the Towards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) trial - N = 6,112, mean age 65 years...
February 2018: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469613/aging-and-anatomical-variations-in-lung-tissue-stiffness
#14
Delphine Sicard, Andrew J Haak, Kyoung Moo Choi, Alexandria R Craig, Laura E Fredenburgh, Daniel J Tschumperlin
Lung function is inherently mechanical in nature, and depends on the capacity to conduct air and blood to and from the gas exchange regions. Variations in the elastic properties of the human lung across anatomical compartments and with aging are likely important determinants of lung function, but remain relatively poorly characterized. Here we applied atomic force microscopy to characterize human lung tissue from subjects ranging in age from 11 to 60 years old. We observed striking anatomical variations in elastic modulus, with the airways (200-350 µm diameter) the stiffest and the parenchymal regions the most compliant...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469196/the-relationship-between-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-childhood-asthma-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Jose A Castro-Rodriguez, Sejal Saglani, Carlos E Rodriguez-Martinez, Maria A Oyarzun, Louis Fleming, Andrew Bush
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to perform a systematic review of all studies with direct measurements of both airway inflammation and remodeling in the subgroup of children with repeated wheezing and/or persistent asthma severe enough to warrant bronchoscopy, to address whether airway inflammation precedes remodeling or is a parallel process, and also to assess the impact of remodeling on lung function. METHODS: Four databases were searched up to June 2017. Two independent reviewers screened the literature and extracted relevant data...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467669/establishment-and-evaluation-of-a-rat-model-of-sidestream-cigarette-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Genfa Wang, Nabijan Mohammadtursun, Jing Sun, Yubao Lv, Hualiang Jin, Jinpei Lin, Lingwen Kong, Zhengxiao Zhao, Hongying Zhang, Jingcheng Dong
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common cause of mortality worldwide. The current lack of an animal model that can be established within a certain time frame and imitate the unique features of the disease is a major limiting factor in its study. The present study established and evaluated an animal model of COPD that represents the early and advanced stage features using short-, middle-, and long-term sidestream cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. One hundred and nine Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 10 groups for different periods of sidestream CS exposure or no exposure (i...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467204/the-role-of-air-pollution-and-lung-function-in-cognitive-impairment
#17
Anke Hüls, Andrea Vierkötter, Dorothea Sugiri, Michael J Abramson, Ulrich Ranft, Ursula Krämer, Tamara Schikowski
Air pollution has been associated with impaired lung and cognitive function, especially impairment in visuo-construction performance (VCP). In this article, we evaluate whether the effect of air pollution on VCP is mediated by lung function.We used data from the SALIA cohort (baseline 1985-1994 and follow-up 2007-2010) including 587 women aged 55 years at baseline. Particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) exposures at baseline were estimated via land-use regression models. Lung function was characterised by averages between baseline and follow-up...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466963/pediatric-severe-asthma-a-case-series-report-and-perspectives-on-anti-ige-treatment
#18
Virginia Mirra, Silvia Montella, Francesca Santamaria
BACKGROUND: The primary goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control for reducing the risk of future exacerbations and progressive loss of lung function. Asthma not responding to treatment may result in significant morbidity. In many children with uncontrolled symptoms, the diagnosis of asthma may be wrong or adherence to treatment may be poor. It is then crucial to distinguish these cases from the truly "severe therapy-resistant" asthmatics by a proper filtering process...
February 21, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466893/physical-function-in-u-s-older-adults-compared-with-other-populations-a-multinational-study
#19
Dana A Glei, Noreen Goldman, Carol D Ryff, Maxine Weinstein
OBJECTIVE: We compare physical performance from three U.S. national surveys and nationally representative surveys in England, Taiwan, and Costa Rica. METHOD: For each performance test, we use local mean smoothing to plot the age profiles by sex and survey wave and then fit a linear regression model to the pooled data, separately by sex, to test for significant differences across surveys controlling for age and height. RESULTS: Age profiles of performance vary across U...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465476/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-guide-for-nurse-practitioners
#20
Michelle Vega-Olivo, Gerard J Criner
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare disease characterized by decline in lung function, dyspnea, and cough. The clinical course of IPF is variable and unpredictable. Early referral to specialists is key to ensure timely and accurate diagnosis. Two antifibrotic drugs (nintedanib and pirfenidone) have been approved for the treatment of IPF.
February 19, 2018: Nurse Practitioner
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