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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676834/working-while-unwell-workplace-impairment-in-people-with-severe-asthma
#1
Sarah A Hiles, Erin S Harvey, Vanessa M McDonald, Matthew Peters, Philip Bardin, Paul N Reynolds, John W Upham, Melissa Baraket, Zaheerodin Bhikoo, Jeffrey Bowden, Ben Brockway, Li Ping Chung, Belinda Cochrane, Gloria Foxley, Jeffrey Garrett, Mark Hew, Lata Jayaram, Christine Jenkins, Constance Katelaris, Gregory Katsoulotos, Mariko S Koh, Vicky Kritikos, Marina Lambert, David Langton, Alexis Lara Rivero, Guy B Marks, Peter G Middleton, Aldoph Nanguzgambo, Naghmeh Radhakrishna, Helen Reddel, Janet Rimmer, Anne Marie Southcott, Michael Sutherland, Francis Thien, Peter Ab Wark, Ian A Yang, Elaine Yap, Peter G Gibson
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma affects quality of life; however, its impact on workplace productivity is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare workplace productivity - absenteeism and presenteeism - and impairment in daily activities in severe and non-severe asthma over time and identify characteristics associated with presenteeism in severe asthma. METHODS: The Severe Asthma Web-based Database (SAWD) is an ongoing observational registry from Australia, New Zealand and Singapore...
April 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676641/toxic-and-genomic-influences-of-inhaled-nanomaterials-as-a-basis-for-predicting-adverse-outcome
#2
Penny Nymark, Pekka Kohonen, Vesa Hongisto, Roland C Grafström
An immense variety of different types of engineered nanomaterials are currently being developed and increasingly applied to consumer products. Importantly, engineered nanomaterials may pose unexplored adverse health effects because of their small size. Particularly in occupational settings, the dustiness of certain engineered nanomaterials involves risk of inhalation and influences on lung function. These facts call for quick and cost-effective safety testing practices, such as that obtained through multiparametric high-throughput screening using cultured human lung cells...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676640/a-pilot-study-assessing-the-ability-of-5-aminosalicylic-acid-to-modulate-the-immune-response-in-chronic-beryllium-disease
#3
Brian J Day, Jie Huang, Briana Q Barkes, May Gillespie, Li Li, Lisa A Maier
Chronic beryllium disease is a granulomatous lung disease, characterized by the accumulation of macrophages and beryllium-specific CD4+ T-cells that proliferate and produce T-helper cell type 1 cytokines. Previous studies indicate that beryllium-mediated oxidative stress enhances cytokine response in chronic beryllium disease CD4+ T-cells. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is currently used to treat inflammatory bowel disease and has both antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions. We hypothesized that 5-ASA therapy may be a beneficial therapy in chronic beryllium disease...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676628/increasing-the-resolution-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-definition-lessons-from-a-cohort-with-remote-but-extensive-exposure-to-secondhand-tobacco-smoke
#4
Mehrdad Arjomandi, Siyang Zeng, Paul D Blanc, Warren M Gold
RATIONALE: The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria require a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) to forced vital capacity (FVC) (FEV1 /FVC) of less than 0.70 for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, whereas other criteria emphasize a lower limit of normal approach. However, the use of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (or lower limit of normal) criteria may result in classification of many smokers with respiratory morbidities as not having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676622/low-to-moderate-arsenic-exposure-and-respiratory-health-in-american-indian-communities
#5
Martha Powers, Tiffany R Sanchez, Maria Grau-Perez, Fawn Yeh, Kevin Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Christine M George, Christopher Heaney, Lyle G Best, Jason Umans, Robert H Brown, Ana Navas-Acien
RATIONALE: Exposure to inorganic arsenic, through drinking naturally-contaminated water, is an established cause of lung cancer. Evidence on the impact of arsenic exposure on lung function, however, is less conclusive. The evidence available, mostly from populations exposed to water arsenic levels >100 μg/L, suggests that arsenic exposure is associated with lower lung function. Prospective studies and studies examining low-to-moderate levels of water arsenic exposure (<50 μg/L) the level relevant for U...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674361/is-decreased-lung-function-associated-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-korea
#6
Soo Kyoung Kim, Ji Cheol Bae, Jong-Ha Baek, Kyu Yeon Hur, Moon-Kyu Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim
OBJECTIVE: There is some evidence that lung function and chronic kidney disease (CKD) may be related. We evaluated the impact of lung function on the development of CKD in a large-scale longitudinal study. METHOD: Retrospective longitudinal analyses were conducted among subjects who participated in comprehensive health check-ups at least four times during 7 years (between 2006 and 2012). We investigated the development of CKD during the follow-up period according to lung function status...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672359/benefits-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-case-report
#7
Fabio Perrotta, Andrea Bianco, Giovanni Cioffi, Antonio Cennamo, Gennaro Mazzarella
CLINICAL CASE: We describe the case of a 50-y-old man with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) who underwent pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). The 8-wk training program, including resistance training and aerobic exercises, was conducted 3 d/wk under physiotherapist supervision. Clinical and functional assessment was performed prior to and following the program. At the end of the training program, meaningful improvements in primary outcomes, including spirometry values and exertional parameters, were noted...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672122/pruning-of-the-pulmonary-vasculature-in-asthma-the-sarp-cohort
#8
Samuel Y Ash, Farbod N Rahaghi, Carolyn E Come, James C Ross, Alysha G Colon, Juan Carlos Cardet-Guisasola, Eleanor M Dunican, Eugene R Bleecker, Mario Castro, John V Fahy, Sean B Fain, Benjamin M Gaston, Eric A Hoffman, Nizar N Jarjour, David T Mauger, Sally E Wenzel, Bruce D Levy, Raul San Jose Estepar, Elliot Israel, George R Washko
RATIONALE: Loss of the peripheral pulmonary vasculature, termed vascular pruning, is associated with disease severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine if pulmonary vascular pruning is associated with asthma severity and exacerbations. METHODS: We measured the total pulmonary blood vessel volume (TBV) and the blood vessel volume of vessels less than 5mm2 in cross sectional area (BV5) and of vessels less than 10mm2 (BV10) in cross sectional area on non-contrast computed tomographic scans of participants from the Severe Asthma Research Program...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672033/declining-pulmonary-function-in-populations-with-long-term-exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-enriched-pm2-5
#9
Meili Shen, Jie Xing, Qianpeng Ji, Zhihui Li, Yanhua Wang, Hongwei Zhao, Qingrong Wang, Ting Wang, Liwei Yu, Xiuchuan Zhang, Yaxin Sun, Zhihu Zhang, Yong Niu, Huanqiang Wang, Wen Chen, Yufei Dai, Wenge Su, Huawei Duan
This study assesses the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants on inflammatory response and lung function. We selected 390 male coke oven workers with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 115 control workers. Pulmonary function tests were performed in all subjects. The average duration in the exposed group was 9.10 years. The total amount of PAHs was more enriched in PM2.5 which collected from the coke oven workshop compared with the control areas...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671915/estimating-long-term-treatment-effects-in-observational-data-a-comparison-of-the-performance-of-different-methods-under-real-world-uncertainty
#10
Simon J Newsome, Ruth H Keogh, Rhian M Daniel
In the presence of time-dependent confounding, there are several methods available to estimate treatment effects. With correctly specified models and appropriate structural assumptions, any of these methods could provide consistent effect estimates, but with real-world data, all models will be misspecified and it is difficult to know if assumptions are violated. In this paper, we investigate five methods: inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models, history-adjusted marginal structural models, sequential conditional mean models, g-computation formula, and g-estimation of structural nested models...
April 19, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671629/impaired-left-ventricular-filling-is-associated-with-decreased-pulse-oximetry-values
#11
Lene Gjelseth Dalbak, Henrik Schirmer, Jørund Straand, Ibrahimu Mdala, Ole Geir Solberg, Hasse Melbye
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between echocardiographic measures of diastolic left ventricular dysfunction and decreased arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation measured with pulse oximetry (SpO2 ). DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional population-based survey of Norwegian adults. Values obtained using echocardiography, pulse oximetry, and spirometry were included. The primary outcome was abnormal mitral Doppler inflow, defined as normal: E/A ratio 0...
April 19, 2018: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671605/effects-of-budesonide-and-surfactant-in-preterm-fetal-sheep
#12
T Brett Kothe, Emily Royse, Matthew W Kemp, Augusto F Schmidt, Fabrizio Salomone, Masatoshi Saito, Haruo Usuda, Shimpei Watanabe, Gabrielle C Musk, Alan H Jobe, Noah H Hillman
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation causes lung injury and systemic inflammatory responses in preterm sheep, and is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Budesonide added to surfactant decreased BPD by 20% in infants. OBJECTIVE: Determine the effects of budesonide and surfactant on injury from high tidal volume (VT) ventilation in preterm lambs. METHODS: Ewes at 125 {plus minus} 1 day GA had fetal surgery to expose fetal head and chest with placental circulation intact...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671603/longitudinal-modeling-of-lung-function-trajectories-in-smokers-with-and-without-copd
#13
James C Ross, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Craig P Hersh, Farbod N Rahaghi, Gonzalo V Sánchez-Ferrero, Margaret M Parker, Augusto A Litonjua, David Sparrow, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, George R Washko, Raúl San José Estépar
RATIONALE: The relationship between longitudinal lung function trajectories, chest computed tomography (CT) imaging, and genetic predisposition to COPD has not been explored. OBJECTIVES: 1) To model trajectories using a data-driven approach applied to longitudinal data spanning adulthood in the Normative Aging Study (NAS), and 2) to apply these models to demographically similar subjects in the COPDGene Study with detailed phenotypic characterization including chest CT...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670674/tiotropium-for-the-treatment-of-asthma-patient-selection-and-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
V Madhu Chari, Robert Andrew McIvor
Asthma is a chronic disease of airway inflammation with a large global burden. Despite established, guideline-based stepwise therapy, a significant proportion of patients remain symptomatic and poorly controlled. As such, there is a need for additional safe, effective, convenient, and cost-effective therapies that can be broadly applied across a range of asthma phenotypes. Tiotropium is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) that leads to bronchodilation by blocking endogenous acetylcholine receptors in the airways...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670537/impact-of-different-tidal-volume-levels-at-low-mechanical-power-on-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-in-rats
#15
Lillian Moraes, Pedro L Silva, Alessandra Thompson, Cintia L Santos, Raquel S Santos, Marcos V S Fernandes, Marcelo M Morales, Vanessa Martins, Vera L Capelozzi, Marcelo G de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia R M Rocco
Tidal volume (VT ) has been considered the main determinant of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Recently, experimental studies have suggested that mechanical power transferred from the ventilator to the lungs is the promoter of VILI. We hypothesized that, as long as mechanical power is kept below a safe threshold, high VT should not be injurious. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of different VT levels and respiratory rates (RR) on lung function, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), alveolar ultrastructure, and expression of genes related to inflammation [interleukin (IL)-6], alveolar stretch (amphiregulin), epithelial [club cell secretory protein (CC)16] and endothelial [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1] cell injury, and extracellular matrix damage [syndecan-1, decorin, and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9] in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) under low-power mechanical ventilation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670345/practical-considerations-when-prescribing-a-long-acting-muscarinic-antagonist-for-patients-with-copd
#16
REVIEW
Anthony D D'Urzo, Peter Kardos, Russell Wiseman
COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation, progressive breathlessness, cough, and sputum production. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are one of the recommended first-choice therapeutic options for patients with COPD, and several new agents have been developed in recent years. A literature search identified 14 published randomized, placebo-controlled studies of the efficacy and safety of LAMAs in patients with COPD, with improvements seen in lung function, exacerbations, breathlessness, and health status...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669795/electroacupuncture-reduces-hypothalamic-and-medullary-expression-of-orexins-and-their-receptors-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Xin-Fang Zhang, Qin Qin, Wen-Ye Geng, Chuan-Wei Jiang, Yong Liu, Xiao-Li Liu, Jing Li, Zi-Bing Liu
OBJECTIVES: Decreased lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is correlated with abnormal excitability of the respiratory centre where orexin neuropeptides from the hypothalamus are responsible for regulating respiration. We hypothesised that improvements in pulmonary function with electroacupuncture (EA) may be related to orexins in a rat model of COPD. METHODS: The COPD model was established by cigarette smoke exposure and lipopolysaccharide injection...
April 18, 2018: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669347/combined-pancreatic-islet-lung-liver-transplantation-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-cystic-fibrosis-related-diabetes
#18
Philippe Klee, Mirjam Dirlewanger, Vanessa Lavallard, Valerie A McLin, Anne Mornand, Nadine Pernin, Laetitia-Marie Petit, Paola M Soccal, Barbara E Wildhaber, Urs Zumsteg, Jean-Louis Blouin, Thierry Berney, Valerie M Schwitzgebel
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the most frequent extrapulmonary complication of cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: We report the first combined pancreatic islet-lung-liver transplantation in a 14-year-old adolescent. CFTR was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Further genes were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. RESULTS: The patient was diagnosed with CF at the age of 14 months. Nine years later, after diagnosis of CFRD, the patient's BMI and lung function began to decline...
April 18, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669172/the-cardiorespiratory-response-and-physiological-determinants-of-the-assisted-6-minute-handbike-cycle-test-in-adult-males-with-muscular-dystrophy
#19
Christopher I Morse, Emma L Bostock, Harriet M Twiss, Laura H Kapp, Paul Orme, Matthew F Jacques
INTRODUCTION: Assisted six-minute cycle test (A6MCT) distance was assessed in adults with muscular dystrophy (MD). METHODS: Forty-eight males, including Duchenne (DMD), limb-girdle (LGMD), fascioscapulohumeral (FSHD), Becker (BMD), and non-MD (CTRL), completed handgrip strength (HGS), lung function (FEV1, FVC), body fat and biceps thickness assessments. During the A6MCT, ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2 ), carbon dioxide (VCO2 ) and heart rate (HR) were recorded...
April 18, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668605/patients-with-mild-paraquat-poisoning-treated-with-prolonged-low-dose-methylprednisolone-have-better-lung-function-a-retrospective-analysis
#20
Jie Gao, Zongxun Cao, Shunyi Feng, Yangying Song, Wenjing Bai, Shumin Zhao, Suli Zhang, Yong Li
Lung dysfunction is an important characteristic of injury induced by paraquat (PQ). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of prolonged low-dose methylprednisolone (MP) treatment on lung function in patients with mild PQ poisoning. We analyzed the results of lung function testing in all patients with mild PQ poisoning admitted to Cangzhou Central Hospital between January 2012 and August 2017. Patients were grouped according to short-term treatment (3 mg/kg/day MP for 3 days) or prolonged treatment (3 mg/kg/day MP for 3 days, followed by dosage reduction by half every 3 days, with treatment terminated when a dosage of 0...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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