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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238229/suspecting-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-what-the-busy-primary-care-clinician-needs-to-know
#1
REVIEW
Diego J Maselli, Bravein Amalakuhan, Holly Keyt, Alejandro A Diaz
AIMS: Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) is a chronic, progressive respiratory disorder characterised by irreversibly and abnormally dilated airways, persistent cough, excessive sputum production and recurrent pulmonary infections. In the last several decades, its prevalence has increased, making it likely to be encountered in the primary care setting. The aim was to review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of NCFB, with an emphasis on the role of computed tomography (CT)...
February 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237967/heterozygous-vangl2-looptail-mice-reveal-novel-roles-for-the-planar-cell-polarity-pathway-in-adult-lung-homeostasis-and-repair
#2
Thanushiyan Poobalasingam, Laura L Yates, Simone A Walker, Miguel Pereira, Nina Y Gross, Akmol Ali, Maria Kolatsi-Joannou, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Juha Pekkanen, Eugenia Papakrivopoulou, David A Long, Mark Griffiths, Darcy Wagner, Melanie Königshoff, Matthew Hind, Cosetta Minelli, Clare M Lloyd, Charlotte H Dean
Lung diseases impose a huge economic and health burden worldwide. A key aspect of several adult lung diseases, such as Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and Chronic Obstructive pulmonary Disease (COPD), including emphysema, is aberrant tissue repair, which leads to an accumulation of damage and impaired respiratory function. Currently, there are few effective treatments available for these diseases and their incidence is rising.The Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway is critical for the embryonic development of many organs, including kidney and lung...
February 24, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236369/patients-hospitalized-with-an-infective-exacerbation-of-bronchiectasis-unrelated-to-cystic-fibrosis-clinical-physiological-and-sputum-characteristics
#3
Victoria Venning, James Bartlett, Lata Jayaram
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiectasis is a growing health burden both globally and in Australasia. Associated with repeated respiratory infections, the disease often results in hospital admission, impaired quality of life, reduced lung function and shortened life expectancy. We describe the local clinical, physiological and sputum characteristics in patients hospitalized with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis. METHODS: This study examined the medical records of all 61 adults admitted to a metropolitan Australian hospital with an infective exacerbation of bronchiectasis in a calendar year...
February 24, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235977/use-of-concomitant-inhaled-corticosteroids-pooled-data-from-two-phase-iii-studies-of-aclidinium-plus-formoterol-in-copd
#4
Anthony D'Urzo, Dave Singh, Esther Garcia Gil
Bronchodilator therapy is the backbone of the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In some patients, inhaled corticosteroids can be prescribed in combination with bronchodilators. Through a subgroup analysis of pooled data from two large phase III clinical trials of bronchodilator therapy according to concomitant inhaled corticosteroid use (user vs. non-user), we sought to evaluate the clinical benefit of adding inhaled corticosteroids to dual bronchodilator therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
December 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231656/-acute-effect-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-small-airway-lung-functions-among-school-children-in-shanghai
#5
L J Zhang, C Y Guo, H H Xu, D Xu, X B Shen, X Y Du, M H Zhang, J G Tan, J H Zhang, C Y Dong, H L Qian, Y W Shi, M Z Pan, X D Zhou
Objective: To study the acute effects of compound ambient air pollution on small airway lung functions among school children in Shanghai. Method: A longitudinal survey on lung functions was conducted among 233 school-children from three schools (A, B and C, located in innerring, mid-ring and outer-ring areas). Lung function test was performed once a week for 3 times respectively, among children in school A and B in Dec. 2013 and in school C in Dec. 2014. The fourth lung function test was tested in Jun. 2014 and May 2015 in the respective schools...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231596/-impact-of-a-senso-motoric-intervention-in-copd-patients-participating-in-an-outpatient-pulmonary-rehabilitation-program-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
M Spielmanns, K Müller, N Schott, A Winkler, H Polanski, C Nell, T Boeselt, A R Koczulla, J H Storre, W Windisch, F S Magnet, K Baum
Objective: Exercise training provides a cornerstone of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in COPD-patients. However, the components of the training are not yet fully investigated. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a sensory-motoric training (SMT) in comparison to a conventional strength training (KT) according to the physical performance. Patients and Methods: 43 COPD patients were randomized and participated either in the intervention group (SMT = 30 minutes SMT per day) or in the control group (KT = 30 minutes KT per day)...
February 23, 2017: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230051/cellular-senescence-mediates-fibrotic-pulmonary-disease
#7
Marissa J Schafer, Thomas A White, Koji Iijima, Andrew J Haak, Giovanni Ligresti, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Ann L Oberg, Jodie Birch, Hanna Salmonowicz, Yi Zhu, Daniel L Mazula, Robert W Brooks, Heike Fuhrmann-Stroissnigg, Tamar Pirtskhalava, Y S Prakash, Tamara Tchkonia, Paul D Robbins, Marie Christine Aubry, João F Passos, James L Kirkland, Daniel J Tschumperlin, Hirohito Kita, Nathan K LeBrasseur
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease characterized by interstitial remodelling, leading to compromised lung function. Cellular senescence markers are detectable within IPF lung tissue and senescent cell deletion rejuvenates pulmonary health in aged mice. Whether and how senescent cells regulate IPF or if their removal may be an efficacious intervention strategy is unknown. Here we demonstrate elevated abundance of senescence biomarkers in IPF lung, with p16 expression increasing with disease severity...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228162/efficacy-and-safety-of-indacaterol-glycopyrronium-fixed-dose-combination-in-mild-to-moderate-copd-patients-symptomatic-on-tiotropium-in-korea-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Chin Kook Rhee, Hye Yun Park, Jeong-Woong Park, Ji-Hyun Lee, Tae-Hyung Kim, Sei Won Lee, Ji Ye Jung, Song Kim, Yong Il Hwang, Ki-Suck Jung
BACKGROUND: Long-acting bronchodilator monotherapy (long-acting β2-agonist [LABA] or long-acting muscarinic antagonist [LAMA]) is extensively used for treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with mild-to-moderate airflow limitation. However, a substantial number of patients remain symptomatic despite treatment with a single bronchodilator, necessitating a change in therapy. METHODS: This 12-week, randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase IV study aims to show that the once-daily indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) 110/50 μg fixed-dose LABA/LAMA combination results in an improved lung function in symptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate COPD who switch from once-daily tiotropium 18 μg...
February 22, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227684/a-novel-wireless-wearable-fluorescence-image-guided-surgery-system
#9
Kunshan He, Yamin Mao, Jinzuo Ye, Yu An, Shixin Jiang, Chongwei Chi, Jie Tian, Kunshan He, Yamin Mao, Jinzuo Ye, Yu An, Shixin Jiang, Chongwei Chi, Jie Tian, Shixin Jiang, Jinzuo Ye, Kunshan He, Chongwei Chi, Jie Tian, Yamin Mao, Yu An
Segmentectomy using indocyanine green (ICG) has become a primary treatment option to achieve a complete resection and preserve lung function in early-stage lung cancer. However, owing to a lack of appropriate intraoperative imaging systems, it is a huge challenge for surgeons to identify the intersegmental plane during the operation, leading to poor prognosis. Thus, we developed a novel wireless wearable fluorescence image-guided surgery system (LIGHTEN) for fast and accurate identification of intersegmental planes in human patients...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226405/comparative-effectiveness-of-long-acting-beta2-agonist-combined-with-a-long-acting-muscarinic-antagonist-or-inhaled-corticosteroid-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Jennifer C Samp, Min J Joo, Glen T Schumock, Gregory S Calip, A Simon Pickard, Todd A Lee
INTRODUCTION: Several dual bronchodilator fixed dose inhaler medications were recently approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These products combine a long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA). In clinical trials, the separate mechanisms of the bronchodilators resulted in improved lung function. COPD treatment guidelines currently recommend combination LABA/LAMA as alternative therapy to combination LABA/ inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)...
February 22, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223791/impact-of-exacerbations-on-respiratory-system-impedance-measured-by-a-forced-oscillation-technique-in-copd-a-prospective-observational-study
#11
Takahiro Kamada, Masahiro Kaneko, Hiromi Tomioka
BACKGROUND: Forced oscillation technique (FOT) has been reported to be useful in the evaluation and management of obstructive lung disease, including COPD. To date, no data are available concerning long-term changes in respiratory system impedance measured by FOT. Additionally, although exacerbations have been reported to be associated with excessive lung function decline in COPD, the impact of exacerbations on the results of FOT has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes in respiratory system impedance and the influence of exacerbations thereon...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223466/short-term-effect-of-autogenic-drainage-on-ventilation-inhomogeneity-in-adult-subjects-with-stable-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#12
William Poncin, Grégory Reychler, Noémie Leeuwerck, Nathalie Bauwens, Anne-Sophie Aubriot, Candice Nader, Giuseppe Liistro, Sophie Gohy
BACKGROUND: Lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity derived from a multiple-breath washout test, is a promising tool for assessing airway function in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. However, it is unknown whether ventilation inhomogeneity could improve after successful elimination of excessive secretions within bronchiectasis. The objective of this work was to assess the short-term effects of lung secretion clearance using the autogenic drainage technique on standard lung function tests and LCI in subjects with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis...
February 21, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223398/exertional-dyspnoea-in-interstitial-lung-diseases-the-clinical-utility-of-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing
#13
Matteo Bonini, Giuseppe Fiorenzano
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterised by alveolar and interstitial damage, pulmonary inflammation (usually associated with fibrosis), decreased lung function and impaired gas exchange, which can be attributed to either a known or an unknown aetiology. Dyspnoea is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in patients with ILD, significantly impacting quality of life. The mechanisms causing dyspnoea are complex and not yet fully understood. However, it is recognised that dyspnoea occurs when there is an imbalance between the central respiratory efferent drive and the response of the respiratory musculature...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222269/restoring-cftr-function-reduces-airway-bacteria-and-inflammation-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis-and-chronic-lung-infections
#14
Katherine B Hisert, Sonya L Heltshe, Christopher Pope, Peter Jorth, Xia Wu, Rachael M Edwards, Matthew Radey, Frank J Accurso, Daniel J Wolter, Gordon Cooke, Ryan J Adam, Suzanne Carter, Brenda Grogan, Jan L Launspach, Seamas C Donnelly, Charles Gallagher, James E Bruce, David Stoltz, Michael J Welsh, Lucas R Hoffman, Edward F McKone, Pradeep K Singh
RATIONALE: Previous work indicates that ivacaftor improves CFTR activity and lung function in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and G551D-CFTR mutations, but does not reduce density of bacteria or markers of inflammation in the airway. These findings raise the possibility that infection and inflammation may progress independently of CFTR activity once CF lung disease is established. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the relationship between CFTR activity, airway microbiology and inflammation, and lung function in subjects with CF and chronic airway infections...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222012/effects-of-the-nasal-passage-on-forced-oscillation-lung-function-measurements
#15
Chuong Ngo, Karl Krüger, Thomas Vollmer, Stefan Winter, Bernhard Penzlin, Sylvia Lehmann, Steffen Leonhardt, Berno Misgeld
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a non-invasive pulmonary function test which is based on the measurement of respiratory impedance. Recently, promising results were obtained by the application of FOT on patients with respiratory failure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). By using a nasal mask instead of a mouthpiece, the influences of the nasal passage and upper shunt alter the measured mechanical impedance. In this paper, we investigated the effects of the nasal passage and mask on FOT measurements from eight healthy subjects...
February 21, 2017: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220848/elevated-expression-of-placental-growth-factor-is-associated-with-airway-wall-vascular-remodelling-and-thickening-in-smokers-with-asthma
#16
Dong Wu, Tianwen Lai, Yalian Yuan, Min Chen, Jun Xia, Wen Li, Guihai Pan, Binfan Yuan, Quanchao Lv, Yanyu Li, Dongmin Li, Bin Wu
The increased expression of placental growth factor (PlGF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergy-related asthma suggests its role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In asthmatic smokers, airway remodelling is accompanied by an accelerated decline in lung function. However, whether PlGF contributes to the persistent airflow obstruction and vascular remodelling typically seen in asthmatic smokers is unknown. In this study we measured lung function, airway-wall thickening, and PlGF levels in serum and induced sputum in 74 asthmatic and 42 healthy smokers and never-smokers...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220305/homeobox-wnt-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-signaling-is-augmented-during-alveogenesis-in-mice-lacking-superoxide-dismutase-3-extracellular
#17
Tania A Thimraj, Rahel L Birru, Ankita Mitra, Holger Schulz, George D Leikauf, Koustav Ganguly
Superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular (SOD3) polymorphisms have been implicated in reduced pulmonary function development and altered risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We previously reported that gene-targeted Sod3-/- mice have impaired lung function and human SOD3 variants are associated with reduced pulmonary function in children. Reduced lung SOD3 levels were reported in mice with lower lung function with the greatest difference occurring during alveogenesis phase [postnatal (P) days 14-28]...
February 20, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220034/exhaled-and-nasal-nitric-oxide-in-relation-to-lung-function-blood-cell-counts-and-disease-characteristics-in-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Christina Krantz, Christer Janson, Annika Hollsing, Kjell Alving, Andrei Malinovschi
BACKGROUND: Patients with CF have similar or lower exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and lower nasal nitric oxide (nNO) levels than controls. There are divergent results on alveolar NO (CalvNO) concentrations in relation to CF. There are inconsistent results on correlation between different nitric oxide parameters and lung function and inflammation in CF. AIM: To compare FeNO, CalvNO and nNO levels between subjects with CF, asthma and healthy controls and to study whether these parameters are related to lung function, blood cell counts or clinical characteristics in CF patients...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219428/characteristics-and-longitudinal-progression-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-gold-b-patients
#19
Philip J Lawrence, Umme Kolsum, Vandana Gupta, Gavin Donaldson, Richa Singh, Bethan Barker, Leena George, Adam Webb, Anthony J Brookes, Christopher Brightling, Jadwiga Wedzicha, Dave Singh
BACKGROUND: The characteristics and natural history of GOLD B COPD patients are not well described. The clinical characteristics and natural history of GOLD B patients over 1 year in a multicentre cohort of COPD patients in the COPDMAP study were assessed. We aimed to identify the subgroup of patients who progressed to GOLD D (unstable GOLD B patients) and identify characteristics associated with progression. METHODS: Three hundred seventy COPD patients were assessed at baseline and 12 months thereafter...
February 20, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219060/steady-state-therapy-with-azithromycin-or-low-dose-prednisolone-in-paediatric-cystic-fibrosis-patients-inflammatory-markers-and-disease-progression
#20
Galina Shmarina, Alexander Pukhalsky, Lucine Avakian, Sergey Semykin, Daria Pukhalskaya, Vladimir Alioshkin
BACKGROUND: Anti-inflammatory therapy is a logical approach to slowing the inevitable lung function deterioration in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study's aim was to evaluate inflammatory markers and disease progression in paediatric CF patients chronically treated with azithromycin or low-dose prednisolone. METHODS: The study included 204 patients with CF and 100 healthy controls; 102 CF patients were treated with basic therapy only (without anti-inflammatory treatment; WAT), and 102 individuals received basic therapy along with azithromycin (n = 59) or low-dose prednisolone (n = 43)...
February 21, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
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