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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916550/epigallocatechin-gallate-improves-airway-inflammation-through-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-signaling-pathway-in-asthmatic-mice
#1
Lishen Shan, Xinyuan Kang, Fen Liu, Xuxu Cai, Xiaohua Han, Yunxiao Shang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on airway inflammation in mice with bronchial asthma, and the regulatory mechanism of transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1 signaling pathway, so as to provide theoretical basis for research and development of a novel drug for clinical treatment. Mouse models of bronchial asthma were established and injected with dexamethasone and EGCG via the caudal vein. 7 days later, bronchoalveolar tissue was collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915320/genome-wide-assessment-of-gene-by-smoking-interactions-in-copd
#2
Boram Park, So-My Koo, Jaehoon An, MoonGyu Lee, Hae Yeon Kang, Dandi Qiao, Michael H Cho, Joohon Sung, Edwin K Silverman, Hyeon-Jong Yang, Sungho Won
Cigarette smoke exposure is a major risk factor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its interactions with genetic variants could affect lung function. However, few gene-smoking interactions have been reported. In this report, we evaluated the effects of gene-smoking interactions on lung function using Korea Associated Resource (KARE) data with the spirometric variables-forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ). We found that variations in FEV1 were different among smoking status. Thus, we considered a linear mixed model for association analysis under heteroscedasticity according to smoking status...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914961/activity-of-telavancin-against-s-aureus-isolated-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients-including-those-with-decreased-susceptibility-to-ceftaroline
#3
Melanie Roch, Maria Celeste Varela, Agustina Taglialegna, Warren E Rose, Adriana E Rosato
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquisition in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients confers a worse clinical outcome with increased rate of declined lung function. Telavancin, an approved lipoglycopeptide used to treat infections due to S. aureus has a dual mode of action causing inhibition of the peptidoglycan synthesis and membrane depolarization. CF-associated MRSA infections remain an important problem with no foreseeable decline in prevalence rates. Although telavancin is currently in clinical use for complicated skin infections and hospital-acquired pneumonia, the activity against CF- associated S...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914746/multi-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-st235-in-cystic-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Annabelle C Lee, Andrew L Jones
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is associated with a decline in lung function and overall poorer prognosis in the cystic fibrosis population. Molecular typing of P. aeruginosa has identified multiple clonal strains with increased virulence and transmissibility. P. aeruginosa ST235 is an emerging clonal strain with multi-drug resistance and is associated with more virulent infections. Novel cephalosporins, which have recently been introduced to clinical practice, may have higher efficacy against multi-drug resistant bacteria...
May 18, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914743/the-use-of-lumacaftor-ivacaftor-to-treat-acute-deterioration-in-paediatric-cystic-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
James A Hammond, Gary J Connett
Lumacaftor/ivacaftor is a precision medicine targeting the defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients homozygous for Phe508del genotype. Whilst there is evidence for efficacy in children aged 6-11 years who are stable with good lung function, there are little data about the use of this medication for children with acute deterioration in this age group. We describe the use of this drug to treat a child with an unusually severe exacerbation of CF lung disease and review the potential of lumacaftor/ivacaftor as a rescue therapy in the paediatric CF population...
May 19, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914685/glucocorticosteroids-administration-is-associated-with-increased-regulatory-t-cells-in-equine-asthmatic-lungs
#6
Roxane Boivin, Amandine Vargas, Patricia Cano, Jean-Pierre Lavoie
Recurrent inflammation in severe equine asthma causes a remodeling of the airways leading to incompletely reversible airway obstruction. Despite the improvement of clinical signs and lung function with glucocorticoids (GC), inflammation, translated by an increased percentage of neutrophils, persists in the airways. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and play an important role in balancing the immune response by suppressing effector lymphocyte activity. However, interactions between Treg, neutrophils and glucocorticosteroids in vivo are unclear, particularly in asthma...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914609/identification-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-subgroups-in-13-asian-cities
#7
W J Kim, V Gupta, M Nishimura, H Makita, L Idolor, C Roa, L-C Loh, C-K Ong, J-S Wang, W Boonsawat, K D Gunasekera, D Madegedara, H-P Kuo, C-H Wang, C Wang, T Yang, Y-X Lin, F W S Ko, D S C Hui, L T T Lan, Q T T Vu, A B Bhome, A Ng, J B Seo, B Y Lee, J S Lee, Y-M Oh, S-D Lee
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous condition that can differ in its clinical manifestation, structural changes and response to treatment. OBJECTIVE: To identify subgroups of COPD with distinct phenotypes, evaluate the distribution of phenotypes in four related regions and calculate the 1-year change in lung function and quality of life according to subgroup. METHODS: Using clinical characteristics, we performed factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis in a cohort of 1676 COPD patients from 13 Asian cities...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914128/respiratory-diagnostic-tools-in-neuromuscular-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jackie Chiang, Kevan Mehta, Reshma Amin
Children with neuromuscular disease (NMD) are at risk of acquiring respiratory complications. Both clinical assessments and respiratory diagnostic tests are important to optimize the respiratory health and care of such children. The following respiratory diagnostic tools and their utility for evaluating children with NMD are discussed in this article: lung function testing (spirometry and lung volumes), peak cough flow (PCF), respiratory muscle strength testing, oximetry, capnography, and polysomnography.
June 15, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913229/inhaled-peppermint-rosemary-and-eucalyptus-essential-oils-do-not-change-spirometry-in-healthy-individuals
#9
Ferenc Köteles, Péter Babulka, Renáta Szemerszky, Zsuzsanna Dömötör, Szilvia Boros
Essential oils of herbal origin are widely used in the treatment of diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract primarily due to their antibacterial and antiviral effects. Menthol, the major component of the essential oil of mint (Mentha) species, exhibits antispasmodic activity, which might result in improved lung function. In a randomized experiment, 106 healthy participants received nebulized peppermint, eucalyptus, or rosemary essential oil for 15 min or no treatment (control). None of the essential oils had an impact on the measured spirometric variables (forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow, the ratio of the volume of air forcibly blown out in the first second to forced vital capacity)...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910839/primary-and-secondary-caregiver-reports-of-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-asthma-are-they-comparable
#10
Robin S Everhart, Jessica L Greenlee, Marcia A Winter, Barbara H Fiese
Purpose: This study aimed to compare primary and secondary caregiver QOL within families of children with asthma and determine the potential importance of including secondary caregiver QOL in clinical and research settings. Methods: Participants included 118 families of children with asthma that had primary and secondary caregivers. Families completed measures in a single research session. Caregivers reported on QOL, psychological functioning, and family burden; children completed a measure of QOL...
June 2018: Applied Research in Quality of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910611/long-term-safety-of-tiotropium-olodaterol-respimat-%C3%A2-in-patients-with-moderate-to-very-severe-copd-and-renal-impairment-in-the-tonado-%C3%A2-studies
#11
Craig LaForce, Eric Derom, Ulrich Bothner, Isabel M Kloer, Matthias Trampisch, Roland Buhl
Introduction: The safety, lung function efficacy, and symptomatic benefits of combined tiotropium and olodaterol in patients with COPD were established in the 1-year TONADO® studies (NCT01431274; NCT01431287). As tiotropium is predominantly excreted by the kidneys, the long-term safety profile of tiotropium/olodaterol was investigated in patients with renal impairment in a prespecified safety analysis of the TONADO studies. Methods: These were 2 replicate, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 52-week Phase III studies that assessed tiotropium/olodaterol compared with tiotropium or olodaterol alone (all via Respimat® ) in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909073/changes-in-the-breath-sound-spectrum-with-bronchodilation-in-children-with-asthma
#12
Mariko Nukaga, Hideyuki Tabata, Mayumi Enseki, Kota Hirai, Hiroyuki Furuya, Masahiko Kato, Hiroyuki Mochizuki
BACKGROUND: Breath sound parameters have been suggested to be new biomarkers of airway function in patients with asthma. METHODS: We investigated the effect of bronchodilation on breath sound parameters in sixty-four children (mean age, 8.9 years; range, 6-16 years) using a breath sound analyzer. The breath sound parameters included frequency limiting 50% and 99% of the power spectrum (F50 and F99 ), roll-off from 600-1200 Hz (slope), and spectrum curve indices such as the ratios of the third and fourth power area to the total area of the power spectrum (P3 /PT and P4 /PT ), total area under the curve (A3 /AT and B4 /AT ), and the ratio of power and frequency at 50% and 75% of the highest frequency of the power spectrum (RPF75 and RPF50 )...
June 13, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908857/midlife-contributors-to-socioeconomic-differences-in-frailty-during-later-life-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Eric J Brunner, Martin J Shipley, Sara Ahmadi-Abhari, Carlos Valencia Hernandez, Jessica G Abell, Archana Singh-Manoux, Ichiro Kawachi, Mika Kivimaki
BACKGROUND: Health inequalities persist into old age. We aimed to investigate risk factors for socioeconomic differences in frailty that could potentially be modified through policy measures. METHODS: In this multi-wave longitudinal cohort study (Whitehall II study), we assessed participants' socioeconomic status, behavioural and biomedical risk factors, and disease status at age 45-55 years, and frailty (defined according to the Fried phenotype) at baseline and at one or more of three clinic visits about 18 years later (mean age 69 years [SD 5·9])...
June 13, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908291/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-interleukin-8-and-eosinophil-cationic-protein-as-serum-markers-of-glucocorticoid-efficacy-in-the-treatment-of-bronchial-asthma
#14
Jing Ren, Yong Sun, Gang Li, Xiao-Jue Zhu, Jin-Guo Cui
BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma (BA) is a common chronic respiratory disease that has exhibited a rising global incidence in recent years. Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of BA. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in BA. The present study investigated whether TNF-α, IL-8 and ECP were associated with the clinical stages and severity of BA and the efficacy of glucocorticoids in the treatment of BA...
June 13, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908246/refractory-ceramic-fibers-fiber-characteristics-potential-health-effects-and-clinical-observations
#15
Mark J Utell, L Daniel Maxim
Refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) are amorphous fibers that belong to a class of materials termed synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), also called man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs), which includes alkaline earth silicate wool, glass wool, rock (stone) wool, slag wool, and special-purpose glass fibers. RCFs are more durable and biopersistent than several other SVFs, although very much less biopersistent than either amosite or crocidolite asbestos. Chronic inhalation studies indicated that rats and hamsters exposed to RCF fibers developed fibrosis and tumors...
June 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908154/an-integrative-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-study-of-lung-function-in-asthmatic-children
#16
Rachel S Kelly, Bo L Chawes, Kevin Blighe, Yamini V Virkud, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Michael J McGeachie, Clary B Clish, Kevin Bullock, Juan C Celedón, Scott T Weiss, Jessica A Lasky-Su
BACKGROUND: Single-omic analyses have provided some insight into the basis of lung function in asthmatic children, but the underlying biological pathways are still poorly understood. METHODS: Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to identify modules of co-regulated gene transcripts and metabolites in blood, among 325 children with asthma from the 'Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica' study. The biology of modules associated with lung function; as measured by FEV1 , FEV1 /FVC-ratio, bronchodilator response, and airway responsiveness to methacholine, was explored...
June 13, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907867/the-common-%C3%AE-chain-cytokine-il-7-promotes-immunopathogenesis-during-fungal-asthma
#17
Kristen M Reeder, Chad W Dunaway, Jonathan P Blackburn, Zhihong Yu, Sadis Matalon, Annette T Hastie, Elizabeth J Ampleford, Deborah A Meyers, Chad Steele
Asthmatics sensitized to fungi are reported to have more severe asthma, yet the immunopathogenic pathways contributing to this severity have not been identified. In a pilot assessment of human asthmatics, those subjects sensitized to fungi demonstrated elevated levels of the common γ-chain cytokine IL-7 in lung lavage fluid, which negatively correlated with the lung function measurement PC20. Subsequently, we show that IL-7 administration during experimental fungal asthma worsened lung function and increased the levels of type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), proallergic chemokines (CCL17, CCL22) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β)...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907488/correlation-of-regional-lung-ventilation-and-gas-transfer-to-red-blood-cells-implications-for-functional-avoidance-radiation-therapy-planning
#18
Leith J Rankine, Ziyi Wang, Bastiaan Driehuys, Lawrence B Marks, Chris R Kelsey, Shiva K Das
PURPOSE: To investigate the degree to which lung ventilation and gas exchange are regionally correlated, using the emerging technology of hyperpolarized (HP)-129 Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Hyperpolarized-129 Xe MRI studies were performed on 17 institutional review board-approved human subjects, including 13 healthy volunteers, 1 emphysema patient, and 3 non-small cell lung cancer patients imaged before and approximately 11 weeks after radiation therapy (RT)...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904028/prognosis-and-follow-up-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Estrella Fernández Fabrellas, Ricardo Peris Sánchez, Cristina Sabater Abad, Gustavo Juan Samper
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a devastating progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) with no known cause, is the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. With a median survival of 3⁻5 years following diagnosis, IPF is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function and quality of life in most patients. Prognostic factors recognized classically that influence mortality include functional, clinical and radiological parameters. However, in recent years, there has also been progress in the knowledge of genetic factors and biomarkers that may be useful in the prognostic evaluation of these patients...
June 14, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904014/is-it-time-to-change-the-definition-of-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmornary-disease-what-do-we-need-to-add
#20
REVIEW
Maria Montes de Oca, Maria Eugenia Laucho-Contreras
Acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are associated with increased mortality, rate of hospitalization, use of healthcare resources, and have a negative impact on disease progression, quality of life and lung function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is an imperative need to homogenize the definition of AECOPD because the incidence of exacerbations has a significant influence or implication on treatment decision making, particularly in pharmacotherapy and could impact the outcome or change the statistical significance of a therapeutic intervention in clinical trials...
June 14, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
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