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Neonatal hepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550648/pregnancy-outcome-in-more-than-5000-births-to-women-with-viral-hepatitis-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-sweden
#1
Knut Stokkeland, Jonas Filip Ludvigsson, Rolf Hultcrantz, Anders Ekbom, Jonas Höijer, Matteo Bottai, Olof Stephansson
Previous studies have shown inconsistent results with respect to hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcome in women with HBV or HCV. In a nationwide cohort of births between 2001 and 2011 we investigated the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in 2990 births to women with HBV and 2056 births to women with HCV using data from Swedish healthcare registries. Births to women without HBV (n = 1090 979), and births without HCV (n = 1091 913) served as population controls...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543299/low-occurrence-of-hbsag-but-high-frequency-of-transient-occult-hbv-infection-in-vaccinated-and-hbig-administered-infants-born-to-hbsag-positive-mothers
#2
Shan Zhou, Tingting Li, Jean-Pierre Allain, Bin Zhou, Yuming Zhang, Mei Zhong, Yongshui Fu, Chengyao Li
The status of chronic and occult HBV infection (OBI) in neonatal hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin (HBIG) vaccinated infants born to HBsAg+ mothers was investigated at a major hospital in China. Seventy-seven and 15 blood samples were collected in first or second follow-up detection from the vaccinated babies aged 3 to 36 months born to 43 HBsAg+ or plus 25 HBeAg+ mothers. HBV infection was analyzed between the paired baby and mother by serology and DNA analysis. Among 77 children born to 68 HBsAg+ mothers, 3...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534970/correlation-of-four-potential-biomarkers-of-liver-fibrosis-with-liver-function-and-grade-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-a-neonatal-cholestatic-rat-model
#3
Ning Tang, Yaping Zhang, Zeyu Liu, Xuemei Ai, Qinghong Liang
The present study investigated the correlation between four serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis, liver function and pathological hepatic fibrosis grade in neonatal cholestatic rats. A total of 38 Sprague‑Dawley rats, aged 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG), control group (CG) and the blank control group (BCG). EG received intragastric administration of 1% α‑naphthylisothiocyanate, 75 mg/kg, to induce acute cholestasis liver injury, CG and BCG were set as control groups. Blood samples from all groups were collected 48 h following the procedure...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534828/how-ketamine-affects-livers-of-pregnant-mice-and-developing-mice
#4
Hoi Man Cheung, Tony Chin Hung Chow, David Tai Wai Yew
It is well known that ketamine abuse can induce liver damage in adult addicts, but the effects of ketamine abuse in pregnant mothers on their offspring have received less attention. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5-day ketamine injections (30 mg/kg) to pregnant Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice during early gestation or mid-gestation on the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of the mothers and the offspring. We also looked into whether administering ketamine treatment to the mothers had any effects on the extent of fibrosis, cell proliferation and cell death in the livers of the newborns...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521632/hepatic-calcified-tumor-like-mass-complicating-umbilical-vein-catheterization-in-a-neonate
#5
Jeffrey M Resnick, Brett Carmichael, Audra Winder, Kathleen M Dominguez
Presented is a case of a hepatic calcified mass complicating umbilical vein catheterization in a neonate and diagnosed by wedge biopsy. Wedge biopsy of the hepatic mass, situated in proximity to the falciform ligament, revealed expansion of portal tracts by fibrosis and calcification. Some aggregates of calcified material appeared in ectatic vascular spaces. The biopsy findings accounted for the radiographic appearance of the mass and the constellation of features were deemed indicative of calcification secondary to umbilical vein catheterization...
June 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515290/a-point-mutation-in-the-rhesus-rotavirus-vp4-protein-generated-through-rotavirus-reverse-genetics-system-attenuates-the-murine-model-of-biliary-atresia
#6
Sujit K Mohanty, Bryan Donnelly, Phylicia Dupree, Inna Lobeck, Sarah Mowery, Jaroslaw Meller, Monica McNeal, Greg Tiao
Rotavirus infection is one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness in humans. In neonatal mice, rhesus rotavirus (RRV) can induce biliary atresia (BA), a disease resulting in inflammatory obstruction of the extra-hepatic biliary tract and intrahepatic bile ducts. We have previously shown that the amino acid, arginine (R) within the sequence "SRL" (amino acids 445-447) on the RRV VP4 protein is required for viral binding and entry into biliary epithelial cells. To determine if the single amino acid (R) influences the pathogenicity of the virus, we generated a recombinant virus with a single amino acid mutation at this site through a reverse genetics system...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506343/-current-status-of-research-on-infantile-cholestatic-liver-disease-in-china-a-visualization-analysis
#7
Qiong Liao, Chao-Min Wan, Yu Zhu, Xiao-Yan Yang, Min Shu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current status of research on infantile cholestatic liver disease in China and future research trends. METHODS: A co-word analysis was performed in October 2016. Document retrieval and screening were performed in the Chinese databases CNKI and Wanfang Data using "cholestasis" and "infant" as key words. Excel 2010 was used to establish a co-occurrence matrix of high-frequency key words, and Ucinet 6.0 and Netdraw were used to develop a visualized network of these high-frequency key words...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497075/development-of-a-novel-aav-gene-therapy-cassette-with-improved-safety-features-and-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#8
Kamal K E Gadalla, Thishnapha Vudhironarit, Ralph D Hector, Sarah Sinnett, Noha G Bahey, Mark E S Bailey, Steven J Gray, Stuart R Cobb
Rett syndrome (RTT), caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MECP2 gene, is a neurological disorder characterized by severe impairment of motor and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of vector design, dosage, and delivery route on the efficacy and safety of gene augmentation therapy in mouse models of RTT. Our results show that AAV-mediated delivery of MECP2 to Mecp2 null mice by systemic administration, and utilizing a minimal endogenous promoter, was associated with a narrow therapeutic window and resulted in liver toxicity at higher doses...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495266/maternal-pre-pregnancy-infection-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-the-risk-of-preterm-birth-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Jue Liu, Shikun Zhang, Min Liu, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of child death in children younger than 5 years. Large cohort studies in developed countries have shown that maternal hepatitis B virus infection is associated with preterm birth, but there is little reliable evidence from China and other developing countries, where hepatitis B virus prevalence is intermediate or high. Hence, we designed this study to investigate the association between pre-pregnancy hepatitis B virus infection and risk of preterm and early preterm birth...
June 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486481/temporal-changes-in-sphingolipids-and-systemic-insulin-sensitivity-during-the-transition-from-gestation-to-lactation
#10
J Eduardo Rico, Sina Saed Samii, Alice T Mathews, Jacqueline Lovett, Norman J Haughey, Joseph W McFadden
Reduced insulin action develops naturally during the peripartum to ensure maternal nutrient delivery to the fetus and neonate. However, increased insulin resistance can facilitate excessive lipolysis which in turn promotes metabolic disease in overweight dairy cattle. Increased fatty acid availability favors the accumulation of the sphingolipid ceramide and is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, however, the relationship between sphingolipid metabolism and insulin resistance during the peripartum remains largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469521/congenital-hepatic-cyst
#11
Aldo Recinos, Tarik Zahouani, Juan Guillen, Benamanahalli Rajegowda
Congenital hepatic cyst is a rare and nonsymptomatic condition in infants and children. Its incidence is 2.5% in the postnatal life with a much lower incidence in the prenatal period. Incidental finding on antenatal imaging is the most common presentation. We present a case of a newborn in whom fetal ultrasound detected a cyst within the fetal liver. Postnatal imaging revealed a liver cyst in the right lobe of the liver, with no other intrahepatic structure affected. Liver function tests were abnormal, but the patient was asymptomatic...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468285/immune-tolerant-chronic-hepatitis-b-the-unrecognized-risks
#12
REVIEW
Patrick T F Kennedy, Samuel Litwin, Grace E Dolman, Antonio Bertoletti, William S Mason
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) progresses through multiple phases, including immune tolerant, immune active, immune control, and, in a subset of patients who achieve immune control, reactivation. The first, the immune tolerant phase, is considered to be prolonged in duration but essentially benign in nature, lacking long-term consequences, and thus not recommended for antiviral therapy. This review challenges the notion that the immune tolerant phase is truly benign and considers the possibility that events during this phase may contribute significantly to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the premature death of 25% of HBV carriers worldwide...
April 29, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468062/-sero-epidemiological-analysis-on-hepatitis-b-among-children-aged-1-14-years-old-born-to-hbsag-positive-mother-in-china-2014
#13
F Z Wang, H Zheng, G M Zhang, N Miao, X J Sun, F Q Cui
Objective: To analyze the sero-epidemiological features of hepatitis B among children aged 1-14 years old who were born to HBsAg positive mothers. Methods: Based on the results from the hepatitis B national sero-survey in 2014, children aged 1-14 years old born to HBsAg positive mother were involved in this study. Positive rates on HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc by gender, age, nationality, birth place, residency (urban/rural), region (eastern/central/western) and related factors of HBsAg and anti-HBs for children under research, were analyzed by SPSS 18...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465360/male-sex-associated-with-increased-risk-of-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#14
M Katherine Charles, William O Cooper, Lauren M Jansson, Judith Dudley, James C Slaughter, Stephen W Patrick
BACKGROUND: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Factors associated with development of the syndrome are poorly understood; however, infant sex may influence the risk of NAS. Our objective was to determine if infant sex was associated with the development or severity of the syndrome in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used vital statistics and prescription, outpatient, and inpatient administrative data for mothers and infants enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program between 2009 and 2011...
May 2, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462680/does-placental-mdsc-mediated-modulation-of-arginine-levels-help-protect-the-foetus-from-auxotrophic-pathogens
#15
Abdul Qader Tahir Ismail
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immunosuppressive precursors of dendritic cells, macrophages and granulocytes. MDSCs normally quickly differentiate, but have elevated levels in chronic infection and cancer, where they help tumours evade the immune system through induction of T-cell dysfunction. MDSC levels are also raised in pregnancy, and in the neonate. During pregnancy they may help to prevent maternal rejection of the semiallogenic foetus. In the immediate postnatal period they may aid in allowing tolerance of gut microbiological colonisation and non-pathological environmental antigens...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444819/antenatal-maternal-hepatitis-b-care-is-a-predictor-of-timely-perinatal-administration-of-hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin
#16
Suong Tt Le, Lukas Sahhar, Stephanie Spring, William Sievert, Anouk T Dev
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus continues to occur despite universal recommendations for neonatal immune prophylaxis therapy (IPT) and infant vaccination. AIM: To characterise the risk factors for failure to provide timely IPT and completion of the infant hepatitis B vaccination schedule for children born to mothers with Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess compliance with universal guidelines for neonatal IPT for children born to CHB mothers at Monash Health, Australia from 2008 to 2013...
April 26, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437308/effectiveness-of-shotblocker-for-immunization-pain-in-full-term-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Seda Caglar, Funda Büyükyılmaz, Gülhan Coşansu, Sabiha Çağlayan
Nonpharmacologic strategies exist to manage procedural pain in healthy newborn infants. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the efficacy of ShotBlocker for managing injection pain associated with the first intramuscular hepatitis B vaccine given to healthy full-term neonates. This randomized controlled trial study was conducted in a private university hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, in which 100 healthy term neonates were randomly assigned to either a ShotBlocker (n = 50) or control group (n = 50)...
April 2017: Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432012/novel-compound-heterozygous-mutations-in-the-pex1-gene-in-two-chinese-newborns-with-zellweger-syndrome-based-on-whole-exome-sequencing
#18
Meng-Meng Ge, LiYuan Hu, ZhiHua Li, GuoQiang Cheng, Kai Yan, YanTing Kong, HuiJun Wang, Lin Yang, WenHao Zhou
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) represent a spectrum of human genetic disorders that are characterized by damaged peroxisome assembly. In the newborn period, the characteristics of affected patients include dysmorphic facial features, neonatal hypotonia, seizures, ocular abnormalities, poor feeding, liver cysts with hepatic dysfunction and skeletal defects. These can be caused by a defect in at least 14 different PEX genes. In this study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on samples from two Chinese newborns with clinical features of Zellweger syndrome...
April 19, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425250/retrospective-analysis-of-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomesof-intrahepatic-cholestasis-of-pregnancy-at-gazi-university
#19
Berrin Günaydin, Merih Bayram, Melis Altuğ, Semra Cevher, Nuray Bozkurt
BACKGROUND/AIM: Maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes in parturients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) have been retrospectively documented. We aimed to present pregnancy outcomes of parturients with ICP who underwent delivery. The study was conducted during a 1-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After ethics committee approval, data from 1 January to 31 December 2015 were collected to identify parturients with ICP. RESULTS: Ten out of 37 patients underwent normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (NSVD), and the remaining 27 parturients underwent cesarean section (CS)...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420911/comparison-of-foeto-maternal-outcome-in-pregnant-women-with-hepatitis-e-a-review-of-12-years
#20
Tahira Naru, Farheen Yousuf, Ayesha Malik, Sumaira Naz, Humera Ismail
OBJECTIVE: To compare adverse maternal and foetal outcome in pregnant women with hepatitis E immunoglobulin M reactive versus non-reactive. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised records of pregnant patients at any gestational age with clinical and biochemical evidence of hepatitis E from January 2002 and December 2014. . Maternal and perinatal outcome of the subjects were analysed. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis...
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
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