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Neonatal hepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612320/scrub-typhus-causing-neonatal-hepatitis-with-acute-liver-failure-a-case-series
#1
Shailja Vajpayee, R K Gupta, M L Gupta
Neonatal hepatitis with acute liver failure due to varied etiology including various infections is reported in the past. Scrub typhus as a cause of neonatal hepatitis has rarely been reported in literature. A high index of clinical suspicion is required for early diagnosis and timely treatment. Severity and prognosis of the disease varies widely because several different strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi exist with different virulence. Delayed diagnosis can result in complication and significant morbidity and mortality...
June 14, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610623/transplantation-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduces-liver-fibrosis-more-effectively-than-wharton-s-jelly%C3%A2-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#2
Mathiyazhagan Rengasamy, Gurbind Singh, Noor Atiqah Fakharuzi, Siddikuzzaman, Sudha Balasubramanian, Priyanka Swamynathan, Charan Thej, Gopinath Sasidharan, Pawan Kumar Gupta, Anjan Kumar Das, Ahmad Zuhairi Abd Rahman, Kamal Shaik Fakiruddin, Lim Moon Nian, Zubaidah Zakaria, Anish S Majumdar
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from various tissues have shown moderate therapeutic efficacy in reversing liver fibrosis in preclinical models. Here, we compared the relative therapeutic potential of pooled, adult human bone marrow (BM)- and neonatal Wharton's jelly (WJ)-derived MSCs to treat CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with CCl4 for 8 weeks to induce irreversible liver fibrosis. Ex-vivo expanded, pooled human MSCs obtained from BM and WJ were intravenously administered into rats with liver fibrosis at a dose of 10 × 10(6) cells/animal...
June 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607625/hepatic-portal-venous-gas-in-children-younger-than-2-years-old-radiological-and-clinical-characteristics-in-diseases-other-than-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#3
Marzena Barczuk-Falęcka, Przemysław Bombiński, Zofia Majkowska, Michał Brzewski, Stanisław Warchoł
BACKGROUND: Hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) is a rare imaging finding in children. It can be an important manifestation of severe diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates or bowel wall rupture in older children. However, there are many other diseases presenting with HPVG that do not necessarily require a surgical intervention. CASE REPORT: In the period between 2011-2015, there were 12 cases of HPVG in children aged up to 24 months in our hospital...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607029/age-dependent-protein-abundance-of-cytosolic-alcohol-and-aldehyde-dehydrogenases-in-human-liver
#4
Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Andrea Gaedigk, Robin E Pearce, J Steven Leeder, Bhagwat Prasad
Hepatic cytosolic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADHs and ALDHs) catalyze the biotransformation of xenobiotics (e.g., cyclophosphamide and ethanol) and vitamin A. Because age-dependent hepatic abundance of these proteins is unknown, we quantified protein expression of ADHs and ALDH1A1 in a large cohort of pediatric and adult human livers by LC-MS/MS proteomics. Purified proteins were used as calibrators. Two to three surrogate peptides per protein were quantified in trypsin digests of liver cytosolic samples and calibrator proteins under optimal conditions of reproducibility...
June 12, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599244/cb-1r-and-glp-1r-gene-expressions-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-liver-of-diabetic-rats-treated-with-sitagliptin
#5
Zeynep Mine Coskun, Meral Koyuturk, Sezin Karabulut, Sema Bolkent
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem affecting millions of people. Controlled eating and regular physical activity are important for the management of type 2 diabetes. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 enzyme (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin is a potent agent for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sitagliptin on the liver of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, in terms of (i) the expression levels of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB-1R) and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), (ii) alterations in the number and localization of these peptides, and (iii) changes in histological and oxidative damage...
March 20, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595534/a-review-of-levetiracetam-in-neonates
#6
Amit Agrawal, Anita Banergee
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures are the most common clinical manifestation of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction and are associated with various neurological sequelae. There are currently no evidence-based guidelines for the management of neonatal seizures and currently used drugs such as phenobarbital, and phenytoin have limited efficacy and potential toxicities. Newer second line anticonvulsant, levetiracetam, has been used in refractory neonatal seizures despite limited data and off-label use...
June 6, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594770/placental-abruption-with-delayed-fetal-compromise-in-maternal-acetaminophen-toxicity
#7
Juliana Taney, Hannah Anastasio, Amanda Paternostro, Vincenzo Berghella, Amanda Roman
BACKGROUND: After maternal acetaminophen overdose, fetal fulminant liver failure, stillbirth, neonatal death, or preterm delivery may occur. CASE: A 27-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 1, presented at 28 weeks of gestation after unintentional acetaminophen overdose. Four days after ingestion, her laboratory values worsened, including serum aspartate aminotransferase of 5,460 units/L, alanine aminotransferase of 4,936 units/L, and international normalized ratio of 2...
June 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583322/ocular-findings-in-patients-with-cholestatic-disorders-of-infancy-a-single-centre-experience
#8
Hanaa El-Karaksy, Dalia Hamed, Hanan Fouad, Engy Mogahed, Heba Helmy, Fotouh Hasanain
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Neonatal cholestasis can be associated with ocular findings that might aid in its diagnosis, e.g., Alagille syndrome (AGS) and Niemann Pick disease (NPD). We aimed to investigate the frequency of ocular manifestations in infants with cholestasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included cholestatic infants presenting to the Paediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Paediatric Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. All infants underwent examination of lid, ocular motility, anterior and posterior segments and measurement of intraocular pressure, cycloplegic refraction, ocular ultrasonography and vision...
June 2, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571223/neonatal-hyperthyroidism-with-fulminant-liver-failure-a-case-report
#9
Mohammed Hasosah, Khalid Alsaleem, Mansour Qurashi, Abdullah Alzaben
Neonatal hyperthyroidism is a rare disease that is seen in infants born to mothers with Graves' disease. Hepatic manifestation of neonatal hyperthyroidism is extremely rare. We describe a neonate with fulminant liver failure secondary to neonatal hyperthyroidism caused by maternal Graves's disease. The baby was admitted with low birth weight and hepatosplenomegaly. At day 2 of life, the baby was irritable and he developed respiratory distress and fulminant hepatic failure which required mechanical ventilation...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557994/the-societal-cost-of-heroin-use-disorder-in-the-united-states
#10
Ruixuan Jiang, Inyoung Lee, Todd A Lee, A Simon Pickard
OBJECTIVE: Heroin use in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. The objective of this paper is to estimate the annual societal cost of heroin use disorder in the United States in 2015 US dollars. METHODS: An analytic model was created that included incarceration and crime; treatment for heroin use disorder; chronic infectious diseases (HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Tuberculosis) and their treatments; treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome; lost productivity; and death by heroin overdose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555168/a-case-of-sevoflurane-use-during-pregnancy-in-the-management-of-persistent-status-asthmaticus
#11
Jessica Parrott, Mitch Tener, Katie Dennis, Matthew Sharpe, Cecily Clark-Ganheart
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is rarely used for the treatment of status asthmaticus. We report a case of sevoflurane hepatotoxicity in pregnancy with presentation similar to HELLP syndrome. CASE: A G2P1001 at 23 weeks in status asthmaticus presented with pCO2 > 130 and pH < 7. She was nonresponsive to traditional therapy. Sevoflurane was added for a 24 hr period. Respiratory status improved. Extubation occurred on day 12. Workup for preeclampsia spectrum disorders occurred due to maternal hypertension...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550648/pregnancy-outcome-in-more-than-5000-births-to-women-with-viral-hepatitis-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-sweden
#12
Knut Stokkeland, Jonas Filip Ludvigsson, Rolf Hultcrantz, Anders Ekbom, Jonas Höijer, Matteo Bottai, Olof Stephansson
Previous studies have shown inconsistent results with respect to hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcome in women with HBV or HCV. In a nationwide cohort of births between 2001 and 2011 we investigated the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in 2990 births to women with HBV and 2056 births to women with HCV using data from Swedish healthcare registries. Births to women without HBV (n = 1090 979), and births without HCV (n = 1091 913) served as population controls...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543299/low-occurrence-of-hbsag-but-high-frequency-of-transient-occult-hbv-infection-in-vaccinated-and-hbig-administered-infants-born-to-hbsag-positive-mothers
#13
Shan Zhou, Tingting Li, Jean-Pierre Allain, Bin Zhou, Yuming Zhang, Mei Zhong, Yongshui Fu, Chengyao Li
The status of chronic and occult HBV infection (OBI) in neonatal hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin (HBIG) vaccinated infants born to HBsAg+ mothers was investigated at a major hospital in China. Seventy-seven and 15 blood samples were collected in first or second follow-up detection from the vaccinated babies aged 3 to 36 months born to 43 HBsAg+ or plus 25 HBeAg+ mothers. HBV infection was analyzed between the paired baby and mother by serology and DNA analysis. Among 77 children born to 68 HBsAg+ mothers, 3...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534970/correlation-of-four-potential-biomarkers-of-liver-fibrosis-with-liver-function-and-grade-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-a-neonatal-cholestatic-rat-model
#14
Ning Tang, Yaping Zhang, Zeyu Liu, Xuemei Ai, Qinghong Liang
The present study investigated the correlation between four serum biomarkers of liver fibrosis, liver function and pathological hepatic fibrosis grade in neonatal cholestatic rats. A total of 38 Sprague‑Dawley rats, aged 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG), control group (CG) and the blank control group (BCG). EG received intragastric administration of 1% α‑naphthylisothiocyanate, 75 mg/kg, to induce acute cholestasis liver injury, CG and BCG were set as control groups. Blood samples from all groups were collected 48 h following the procedure...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534828/how-ketamine-affects-livers-of-pregnant-mice-and-developing-mice
#15
Hoi Man Cheung, Tony Chin Hung Chow, David Tai Wai Yew
It is well known that ketamine abuse can induce liver damage in adult addicts, but the effects of ketamine abuse in pregnant mothers on their offspring have received less attention. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5-day ketamine injections (30 mg/kg) to pregnant Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice during early gestation or mid-gestation on the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of the mothers and the offspring. We also looked into whether administering ketamine treatment to the mothers had any effects on the extent of fibrosis, cell proliferation and cell death in the livers of the newborns...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521632/hepatic-calcified-tumor-like-mass-complicating-umbilical-vein-catheterization-in-a-neonate
#16
Jeffrey M Resnick, Brett Carmichael, Audra Winder, Kathleen M Dominguez
Presented is a case of a hepatic calcified mass complicating umbilical vein catheterization in a neonate and diagnosed by wedge biopsy. Wedge biopsy of the hepatic mass, situated in proximity to the falciform ligament, revealed expansion of portal tracts by fibrosis and calcification. Some aggregates of calcified material appeared in ectatic vascular spaces. The biopsy findings accounted for the radiographic appearance of the mass and the constellation of features were deemed indicative of calcification secondary to umbilical vein catheterization...
June 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515290/a-point-mutation-in-the-rhesus-rotavirus-vp4-protein-generated-through-rotavirus-reverse-genetics-system-attenuates-the-murine-model-of-biliary-atresia
#17
Sujit K Mohanty, Bryan Donnelly, Phylicia Dupree, Inna Lobeck, Sarah Mowery, Jaroslaw Meller, Monica McNeal, Greg Tiao
Rotavirus infection is one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness in humans. In neonatal mice, rhesus rotavirus (RRV) can induce biliary atresia (BA), a disease resulting in inflammatory obstruction of the extra-hepatic biliary tract and intrahepatic bile ducts. We have previously shown that the amino acid, arginine (R) within the sequence "SRL" (amino acids 445-447) on the RRV VP4 protein is required for viral binding and entry into biliary epithelial cells. To determine if the single amino acid (R) influences the pathogenicity of the virus, we generated a recombinant virus with a single amino acid mutation at this site through a reverse genetics system...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506343/-current-status-of-research-on-infantile-cholestatic-liver-disease-in-china-a-visualization-analysis
#18
Qiong Liao, Chao-Min Wan, Yu Zhu, Xiao-Yan Yang, Min Shu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current status of research on infantile cholestatic liver disease in China and future research trends. METHODS: A co-word analysis was performed in October 2016. Document retrieval and screening were performed in the Chinese databases CNKI and Wanfang Data using "cholestasis" and "infant" as key words. Excel 2010 was used to establish a co-occurrence matrix of high-frequency key words, and Ucinet 6.0 and Netdraw were used to develop a visualized network of these high-frequency key words...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497075/development-of-a-novel-aav-gene-therapy-cassette-with-improved-safety-features-and-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#19
Kamal K E Gadalla, Thishnapha Vudhironarit, Ralph D Hector, Sarah Sinnett, Noha G Bahey, Mark E S Bailey, Steven J Gray, Stuart R Cobb
Rett syndrome (RTT), caused by loss-of-function mutations in the MECP2 gene, is a neurological disorder characterized by severe impairment of motor and cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of vector design, dosage, and delivery route on the efficacy and safety of gene augmentation therapy in mouse models of RTT. Our results show that AAV-mediated delivery of MECP2 to Mecp2 null mice by systemic administration, and utilizing a minimal endogenous promoter, was associated with a narrow therapeutic window and resulted in liver toxicity at higher doses...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495266/maternal-pre-pregnancy-infection-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-the-risk-of-preterm-birth-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Jue Liu, Shikun Zhang, Min Liu, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of child death in children younger than 5 years. Large cohort studies in developed countries have shown that maternal hepatitis B virus infection is associated with preterm birth, but there is little reliable evidence from China and other developing countries, where hepatitis B virus prevalence is intermediate or high. Hence, we designed this study to investigate the association between pre-pregnancy hepatitis B virus infection and risk of preterm and early preterm birth...
June 2017: Lancet Global Health
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