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Neonatal hepatitis

J Jiang, S L Dai, J F Xu, Y Zou, L G Zhu, H Peng, F C Zhu, X J Zhai
Objective: To evaluate the effects of blocking transmission of HBV from mother to infant in Jiangsu, and discuss influencing factors related to development of chronic HBV infection in children of HBsAg positive mother. Methods: HBsAg positive mothers delivered during 2010-2015 in three counties of Jiangsu (Zhangjiagang, Danyang and Taixing) and their neonates were included in the study. The neonates were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg) and hepatitis B immunoglobin (100 units) within 24 hours after birth...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Fengcai Zhu, Henri Deckx, Raphaele Roten, Bart Michiels, Michal Sarnecki
AIM: Compare efficacy, immunogenicity and safety of Hepavax-Gene TF (thimerosal free) vaccine with comparator in Chinese neonates. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, stratified study was conducted at multiple sites in China in healthy neonates, consisting of three doses of Hepavax-Gene TF or Engerix-B vaccines administered at birth, one and six months of age, with a six month follow-up after vaccination. Based on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status of mothers, infants were assigned to one of two study strata for mothers positive for HBV infection (Stratum 1), with or without active replicating virus (Substrata 1a, 1b) and for HBV negative mothers (Stratum 2)...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shiran Shetty, Krishnaveni Janarthanan, Venkatakrishnan Leelakrishnan, Vadakkepat Nirmala
Giant-cell hepatitis (GCH) is characterized by parenchymal inflammation with formation of large multinucleated hepatocytes in response to a variety of insults to the liver. Although it is commonly described in neonates, it rarely occurs in adults. Here we report a case of GCH because of herbal medicine intake.
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Hannah B Anastasio, Maureen Grundy, Meredith L Birsner, Karin J Blakemore
BACKGROUND: Gestational alloimmune liver disease, a form of profound liver failure in the newborn, is the main underlying cause of the entity formerly known as neonatal hemochromatosis. Antepartum maternal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been shown to prevent gestational alloimmune liver disease, which otherwise has a recurrence risk above 90% in subsequent pregnancies. CASE: A 30-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 0120, presented early in gestation. Her previous pregnancy had been complicated by fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, and ultimately fatal fulminant neonatal liver failure...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Shaojie Xin, Long Xiao
The clinical manifestations of hepatitis E are similar to those of other types of viral hepatitis. While acute hepatitis E is usually self-limited, pregnant women and chronic liver disease patients suffering from acute hepatitis E usually present with severe clinical manifestations that may develop into fulminant hepatic failure. Chronic HEV infection is typically only seen in organ transplant patients; most HEV cases are asymptomatic and rarely display jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, or ascites...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sarah A Comerford, Elizabeth A Hinnant, Yidong Chen, Hima Bansal, Shawn Klapproth, Dinesh Rakheja, Milton J Finegold, Dolores Lopez-Terrada, Kathryn A O'Donnell, Gail E Tomlinson, Robert E Hammer
Aberrant wnt/β-catenin signaling and amplification/overexpression of Myc are associated with hepatoblastoma (HB), the most prevalent type of childhood liver cancer. To address their roles in the pathogenesis of HB, we generated mice in which Myc and mutant β-catenin were targeted to immature cells of the developing mouse liver. Perinatal coexpression of both genes promoted the preferential development of HBs over other tumor types in neonatal mice, all of which bore striking resemblance to their human counterparts...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
Hao Zhang, Weipeng Su, Zhixiong Ying, Yueping Chen, Le Zhou, Yue Li, Jingfei Zhang, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may play beneficial roles against intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)-induced hepatic damage in suckling piglets. METHODS: Fourteen IUGR and seven normal birth weight (NBW) neonatal male piglets were selected. Piglets were weaned at 7 days of postnatal age and fed the control formula milk (NBW-CON and IUGR-CON groups) or the control formula milk supplemented with 1...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Bapesh K Bollu, Michael J Dawrant, Kunal Thacker, Gordon Thomas, Murthy Chenapragadda, Kevin Gaskin, Albert Shun
PURPOSE: Inspissated bile syndrome (IBS) is a rare cause of obstructive jaundice in neonates and infants with several treatment options reported. We present our experience with the use of minimally invasive ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy drain catheter placement with ongoing saline lavage in neonates and infants. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy, from February 2010 till June 2015. We reviewed the technical and clinical success along with complications of the procedure...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Di Yan, Christian Domes, Robert Domes, Timea Frosch, Jürgen Popp, Mathias W Pletz, Torsten Frosch
Fiber enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (FERS) is introduced for chemically selective and ultrasensitive analysis of the biomolecules hematin, hemoglobin, biliverdin, and bilirubin. The abilities for analyzing whole intact, oxygenated erythrocytes are proven, demonstrating the potential for the diagnosis of red blood cell related diseases, such as different types of anemia and hemolytic disorders. The optical fiber enables an efficient light-guiding within a miniaturized sample volume of only a few micro-liters and provides a tremendously improved analytical sensitivity (LODs of 0...
October 17, 2016: Analyst
Jing Tan, Shiyao Huang, Guolin He, Li Tang, Yan Ren, Jinghuan Zheng, Xinghui Liu, Xin Sun
Objective To explore the impact of maternal hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier status on neonatal outcomes. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from medical records database of six hospitals in China. Information on maternal characteristics and selected neonatal outcomes was retrieved for all women who delivered singleton infants between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2010.Results A total of 21,947 singleton newborns and their mothers were included. The prevalence of maternal HBsAg positivity was 4...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Zachary M Parker, Tracy Jo Pasieka, George A Parker, David A Leib
: The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure which is often fatal. While herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFNαβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015). METHODS: We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Abdelmoneim Em Kheir, Wisal Ma Ahmed, Israa Gaber, Sara Ma Gafer, Badreldin M Yousif
Cholestasis in early infancy represents a diagnostic dilemma and most of these infants suffer either from extrahepatic biliary atresia or idiopathic neonatal hepatitis. Differentiation between the two conditions may be extremely difficult both clinically and biochemically, and a diagnostic liver biopsy is usually required. We report on a Sudanese infant who presented at the age of 4 weeks with prolonged cholestatic jaundice, abdominal ultrasound was inconclusive, HIDA scan was suggestive of extrahepatic biliary atresia and the diagnosis of idiopathic neonatal hepatitis was only reached by liver biopsy...
2016: Sudan J Paediatr
Zhen Wang, Jinfeng Zeng, Tingting Li, Xin Zheng, Xiaoxuan Xu, Xianlin Ye, Liang Lu, Weigang Zhu, Baocheng Yang, Jean-Pierre Allain, Chengyao Li
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program at birth has been implemented nationwide since 1992 in China. However, current HBV prevalence status in blood donors has not been entirely examined, which may impact HBV safety in blood donations as the vaccinees over 18 years old progressively become the majority population of blood donors. METHODS: In this study, 569,145 blood donors were screened for HBsAg by rapid tests and enzyme immunoassays, among them 475,538 blood samples with negative HBsAg were further screened for HBV DNA by nucleic acid testing between 2005 and 2014 at Shenzhen blood center...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Celine S Lages, Julia Simmons, Avery Maddox, Keaton Jones, Rebekah Karns, Rachel Sheridan, Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa, Sujit Mohanty, Matthew Kofron, Pierre Russo, Yui-Hsi Wang, Claire Chougnet, Alexander G Miethke
: Biliary atresia is a fibroinflammatory obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary tree in neonates. While intrahepatic bile duct proliferation is universal at diagnosis, bile duct paucity develops later. We hypothesized that polarized T helper lymphocyte responses orchestrate progression of intrahepatic biliary injury in this disease. IL-17A-GFP, CD11c/DTR and IL17RA-/- mice were used to examine T-lymphocyte polarization, inflammatory leukocyte recruitment and biliary injury in rhesus-rotavirus induced biliary atresia...
September 19, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Shevanthi Nayagam, Mark Thursz, Elisa Sicuri, Lesong Conteh, Stefan Wiktor, Daniel Low-Beer, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of effective prevention and treatment interventions, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to cause nearly 1 million deaths each year. WHO aspires to global control and elimination of HBV infection. We aimed to evaluate the potential impact of public health interventions against HBV, propose targets for reducing incidence and mortality, and identify the key developments required to achieve them. METHODS: We developed a simulation model of the global HBV epidemic, incorporating data on the natural history of HBV, prevalence, mortality, vaccine coverage, treatment dynamics, and demographics...
September 13, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Ying-Jan Weng, Anne Husebekk, Björn Skogen, Mette Kjaer, Liang-Tzung Lin, Thierry Burnouf
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a severe disease that is caused by maternal alloantibodies generated during pregnancy or at delivery as a result of incompatibility between maternal and fetal human platelet antigens (HPAs) inherited from the father. Antibody-mediated immune suppression using anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulins is thought to be able to prevent FNAIT caused by HPA-1a. A fractionation process to prepare anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulin (Ig) G (IgG) from human plasma was therefore developed...
2016: PloS One
Zahra Ahmadinejad, Zahra Abdi Liae, Saideh Salehizadeh, Sedighe Mansori, Neda Alijani
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B infection is a universal concern. This infection can lead to chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Neonates born to HBsAg-positive mothers are at high risk of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, especially for HBeAg-positive mothers or neonates who have not received hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) and HBV vaccines. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of post-exposure prophylaxis in these infants to prevent infection...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Ali Akbar Velayati, Setareh Mamishi, Mahmood Nabavi, Arezoo Aghakhani, Farahnaz Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Mohammad-Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Shahram Sabeti, Mohammad Banifazl, Fatemeh Azimian-Zavareh, Fatemeh Motevalli, Sepehr Soleymani, Amitis Ramezani
A nationwide hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program for neonates was launched in Iran in 1993. Despite the success of this program, concern about its long-term success still remains, because breakthrough infections due to emergence of surface mutants have been reported in immunized children. We aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HBV and vaccine escape mutants among individuals born after the initiation of the nationwide vaccination program in Iran. This study included 1115 participants younger than 23 years old, with 223 in each age cohort...
December 2016: Archives of Virology
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