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Cartilage biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544002/biological-effects-and-osteoarthritic-disease-modifying-activity-of-small-molecule-cm-01
#1
Yubo Sun, Andrea Roberts, David R Mauerhan, Michael Cox, Edward N Hanley
Phosphocitrate inhibits cartilage degeneration, however, the prospect of phosphocitrate as an oral disease modifying drug might be limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological effects and disease-modifying activity of a phosphocitrate "analogue", CM-01 (Carolinas Molecule-01), and test the hypothesis that CM-01 is a disease modifying drug for osteoarthritis therapy. The effects of CM-01 on calcium crystal-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and interleukin-1 beta, cell-mediated calcification and production of proteoglycan by chondrocytes were examined in cell cultures...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542404/conditional-removal-of-the-canonical-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-delays-condylar-cartilage-degeneration-induced-by-a-partial-discectomy-in-mice
#2
Jie Fang, Li Xiao, Rebecca Chen, Zhihe Zhao
Recent emerging data indicate that the increase in the expression and activity of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgf-β1) signaling may have detrimental effect to mature articular cartilage of knee joints. However, there is no information about whether or not this is the case in condylar cartilages. The objective of this study is to investigate the protein expression and activity of Tgf-β1 signaling in degenerative condylar cartilages. We also investigate biological effects of the conditional deletion of transforming growth factor receptor type II (Tgfbr2) in condylar cartilage of adult mice after a partial discectomy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539839/ppard-is-an-inhibitor-of-cartilage-growth-in-external-ears
#3
Zhen Zhang, Yanyu Duan, Zhongping Wu, Hui Zhang, Jun Ren, Lusheng Huang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARD) is an important determinant of multiple biological processes. Our previous studies identified a missense mutation in the PPARD gene that significantly reduces its transcription activity, and consequently causes enlarged external ears in pigs. However, the mechanisms underlying the causality has remained largely unknown. Here, we show that PPARD retards the development of auricular cartilage by accelerating the apoptosis of cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs), the terminal differentiation of cartilage cells and the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix in the auricle...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534289/exposure-of-articular-chondrocytes-to-wear-particles-induces-phagocytosis-differential-inflammatory-gene-expression-and-reduced-proliferation
#4
Michael D Kurdziel, Meagan Salisbury, Lige Kaplan, Tristan Maerz, Kevin C Baker
The production of wear debris particulate remains a concern due to its association with implant failure through complex biologic interactions. In the setting of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), damage and wear of the components may introduce debris particulate into the adjacent, otherwise, healthy compartment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of polymeric and metallic wear debris particles on cell proliferation, extracellular matrix regulation, and phagocytosis index of normal human articular chondrocytes (nHACs)...
July 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513602/tetrahelical-structural-family-adopted-by-agcga-rich-regulatory-dna-regions
#5
Vojč Kocman, Janez Plavec
Here we describe AGCGA-quadruplexes, an unexpected addition to the well-known tetrahelical families, G-quadruplexes and i-motifs, that have been a focus of intense research due to their potential biological impact in G- and C-rich DNA regions, respectively. High-resolution structures determined by solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy demonstrate that AGCGA-quadruplexes comprise four 5'-AGCGA-3' tracts and are stabilized by G-A and G-C base pairs forming GAGA- and GCGC-quartets, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501713/an-in-situ-photocrosslinkable-platelet-rich-plasma-complexed-hydrogel-glue-with-growth-factor-controlled-release-ability-to-promote-cartilage-defect-repair
#6
Xiaolin Liu, Yunlong Yang, Xin Niu, Qiuning Lin, Bizeng Zhao, Yang Wang, Linyong Zhu
The repair of articular cartilage injury is a great clinical challenge. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has attracted much attention for the repair of articular cartilage injury, because it contains various growth factors that are beneficial for wound repair. However, current administration methods of PRP face many shortcomings, such as unstable biological fixation and burst release of growth factors, all of which will bring troubles to its application in the repair of articular cartilage and compromise its therapeutic efficacy...
May 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500828/the-impact-of-thyroid-autoimmunity-tpoab-on-bone-density-and-fracture-risk-in-postmenopausal-women
#7
Snezana P Polovina, Dragana Miljic, Sladjana Zivojinovic, Natasa Milic, Dragan Micic, Vera Popovic Brkic
OBJECTIVE: Skeletal development, linear growth, cartilage biology and bone turnover are highly dependent on the activity of thyroid hormones. Thyroid dysfunction affects the skeleton, and autoimmune thyroid disease, manifesting as a chronic inflammatory condition, may be an important contributing factor to impaired bone quality in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measurement of TSH, FT4, TPOAb and bone mineral density and FRAX score calculations were performed in 189 postmenopausal women (110 euthyroid women and 79 women diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism) divided into subgroups according to the presence of TPOAb...
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497265/proteomics-analysis-of-pleomorphic-adenoma-of-the-human-parotid-gland
#8
Ahmet Mutlu, Murat Ozturk, Gurler Akpinar, Murat Kasap, Aylin Kanli
The objective of this study is to perform proteomic analysis of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) in the human parotid gland (PG) with comparison of normal PG. This is an individual prospective randomized controlled trial. This study was performed in a tertiary referral center. Tissue samples of PG and PA were taken after surgical excision of PG from 13 patients. Protein extracts were prepared and protein pools created from the soluble extracts were subjected to 2D-DIGE analysis. Proteins displaying regulation in their abundance were determined and identified using MALDIT-OF/TOF analysis...
May 11, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481047/enhanced-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-stem-cells-using-an-optimized-electrospun-nanofibrous-plla-peg-scaffolds-loaded-with-glucosamine
#9
Samaneh Mirzaei, Akbar Karkhaneh, Masoud Soleimani, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Hasti Seyyed Zonouzi, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz
Recently, tissue engineering has become one of the most important approaches in medical research for the treatment of injuries and lesions. In the present study, Poly (L-lactide) acid (PLLA), and Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) with different ratios and PEG molecular weights were used in order to produce appropriate nanofibrous scaffolds using the electrospinning technique for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Glucosamine was also incorporated into the polymeric scaffolds to enhance the biological properties...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476395/all-arthroscopic-treatment-of-dependent-osteochondral-lesions-of-the-ankle-surgical-technique
#10
Nick R Johnson, Spencer Skinner, Amgad M Haleem
A large number of articular cartilage defect treatments have been described. However, few have discussed the use of biologic agents implanted into the so-called dependent defect arthroscopically. Furthermore, even fewer of these reports have contained a description for treating dependent osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond. Generally, these lesions have been treated with either microfracture or debridement, and the long-term outcomes have been less than satisfactory. With new interest in biologic treatments for osteochondral defects, we believe that bone marrow aspirate concentrate combined with a biologic scaffold provides the necessary components to provide healing of these so-called dependent lesions...
May 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469115/the-cell-biology-and-role-of-resorptive-cells-in-diseases-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Prashant Babaji, Raghu Devanna, Kiran Jagtap, Vishwajit Rampratap Chaurasia, Jeethu John Jerry, Basanta Kumar Choudhury, Dinesh Duhan
Resorptive cells are responsible for the resorption of mineralized matrix of hard tissues. Bone-resorbing cells are called osteoclasts; however, they can resorb mineralized dental tissues or calcified cartilage and then they are called odontoclasts and chondroclasts, respectively. Resorptive cells form when mononuclear precursors derived from a monocyte-macrophage cell lineage are attracted to certain mineralized surfaces and subsequently fuse and adhere onto them for exerting their resorbing activity. These cells are responsible for degradation of calcified extracellular matrix composed of organic molecules and hydroxyapatite...
April 2017: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451604/open-reduction-internal-fixation-of-isolated-chondral-fragments-without-osseous-attachment-in-the-knee-a-case-series
#12
Patrick N Siparsky, James R Bailey, Kevin M Dale, Mitchell R Klement, Dean C Taylor
BACKGROUND: Isolated chondral fractures of the knee are a rare and challenging problem, typically occurring with an acute traumatic event such as dislocation of the patella or ligamentous injury. Historically, repair of unstable chondral fragments without osseous attachment has not been recommended due to concerns about the limited healing potential of cartilage. PURPOSE: To describe a technique for fixation of large isolated chondral fractures of the knee and present 3 cases where large chondral fragments without osseous attachment were fixed successfully with chondral darts and biologic adhesive...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450116/a-characteristic-chondroitin-sulfate-trisaccharide-unit-with-a-sulfated-fucose-branch-exhibits-neurite-outgrowth-promoting-activity-novel-biological-roles-of-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfates-isolated-from-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#13
Miharu Shida, Tadahisa Mikami, Jun-Ichi Tamura, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a class of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains that consist of repeating disaccharide unit composed of glucuronic acid (GlcA) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). CS chains are found throughout the pericellular and extracellular spaces and contribute to the formation of functional microenvironments for numerous biological events. However, their structure-function relations remain to be fully characterized. Here, a fucosylated CS (FCS) was isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus...
April 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447291/investigation-of-contact-characteristics-and-frictional-properties-of-natural-articular-cartilage-at-two-different-surface-configurations
#14
Shanhua Qian, Liyong Zhang, Zi Feng Ni, Chuanhui Huang, Dekun Zhang
Natural cartilage surfaces were macroscopically curved with multi-porous viscoelastic biologic materials with extremely high water, but whether curved surface configuration could play an important role on the contact and frictional properties of natural cartilages fails to be completely understood up to now. In this current study, cartilage samples came from the 18-24 month-old bovine femora. Contact characteristic and frictional properties at two cartilage configurations were investigated using the UMT-2 testing rig and the five-point sliding average method would be adopted to analyze these tested data...
June 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444666/markers-of-bone-and-cartilage-turnover
#15
Henning W Woitge, Markus J Seibel
Over the past few decades, scientists have been trying to identify tissue-specific markers that would help to better understand the pathogenesis of bone and cartilage diseases and could be used clinically for the screening, diagnosis and follow-up of bone or joint diseases. Historically, only a few components known to be involved in bone, mineral or cartilage turnover were available for this purpose (e. g., urine hydroxyproline, serum and urine calcium and phosphate levels). However, since most if not all of these substances have wider biological functions beyond bone, mineral and cartilage metabolism, their clinical value as tissue-specific markers was limited...
April 25, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436002/characterization-of-the-chondrocyte-secretome-in-photoclickable-poly-ethylene-glycol-hydrogels
#16
Margaret C Schneider, Christopher A Barnes, Stephanie J Bryant
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are highly tunable platforms that are promising cell delivery vehicles for chondrocytes and cartilage tissue engineering. In addition to characterizing the type of extracellular matrix (ECM) that forms, understanding the types of proteins that are secreted by encapsulated cells may be important. Thus, the objectives for this study were to characterize the secretome of chondrocytes encapsulated in PEG hydrogels and determine whether the secretome varies as a function of hydrogel stiffness and culture condition...
April 24, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431932/the-lncrna-zbed3-as1-induces-chondrogenesis-of-human-synovial-fluid-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#17
Farong Ou, Kai Su, Jiadong Sun, Wenting Liao, Yu Yao, Youhua Zheng, Zhiguang Zhang
Human synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SFMSCs) have great potential for cartilage induction and are promising for cell-based strategies for articular cartilage repair. Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate chondrogenesis of MSCs. We hypothesized that the divergent lncRNA ZBED3-AS1, which binds locally to chromatin, could promote the expression of zbed3, a novel Axin-interacting protein that activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, involved in chondrogenesis. However, the function of ZBED3-AS1 in SFMSCs is unclear...
April 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428674/comparison-of-clinical-and-radiological-parameters-at-knee-osteoarthritis
#18
Adnana Talic-Tanovic, Zoran Hadziahmetovic, Ivanka Madjar-Simic, Adnan Papovic
INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) or arthrosis represents an inflammatory disease of joints that develops as a result of interaction of mechanical and biological parameters. With disease development, degenerative changes on joint cartilage can be noticeable that affect and cause pathological changes on other parts of a joint resulting in pain and dysfunction of a joint. A. E. Garrod in 1907 described osteoarthritis as a special clinical entity and separated it from a rheumatoid arthritis...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412469/earliest-phases-of-chondrogenesis-are-dependent-upon-angiogenesis-during-ectopic-bone-formation-in-mice
#19
Beth Bragdon, Stephanie Lam, Sherif Aly, Alexandra Femia, Abigail Clark, Amira Hussein, Elise F Morgan, Louis C Gerstenfeld
Endochondral ossification is the process where cartilage forms prior to ossification and in which new bone forms during both fracture healing and ectopic bone formation. Transitioning to ossification is a highly coordinated process between hypertrophic chondrocytes, vascular endothelial cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. A critical biological process that is central to the interactions of these various cell types is angiogenesis. Although it is well established that angiogenesis is crucial for fracture repair, less is known pertaining to the role of angiogenesis in ectopic bone formation...
April 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406876/cartilage-restoration-techniques-for-the-patellofemoral-joint
#20
Robert H Brophy, Robert D Wojahn, Joseph D Lamplot
Symptomatic osteochondral lesions of the patellofemoral joint are clinically challenging to manage because of the limited healing potential of articular cartilage; the complex morphology of the patellofemoral joint; the heterogeneity of the articular surface between patients; and high stresses across the joint, which can be altered by malalignment, tilt, or maltracking. Indications for surgery include traumatic lesions, osteochondritis dissecans, and high-grade chondromalacia in association with persistent pain despite a course of nonsurgical management...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
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