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Cartilage biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934396/evaluation-of-shared-genetic-aetiology-between-osteoarthritis-and-bone-mineral-density-identifies-smad3-as-a-novel-osteoarthritis-risk-locus
#1
Sophie Hackinger, Katerina Trajanoska, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Eleni Zengini, Julia Steinberg, Graham R S Ritchie, Konstantinos Hatzikotoulas, Arthur Gilly, Evangelos Evangelou, John P Kemp, David Evans, Thorvaldur Ingvarsson, Helgi Jonsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Andrew W McCaskie, Roger A Brooks, Jeremy M Wilkinson, Fernando Rivadeneira, Eleftheria Zeggini
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common complex disease with high public health burden and no curative therapy. High bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with an increased risk of developing OA, suggesting a shared underlying biology. Here, we performed the first systematic overlap analysis of OA and BMD on a genome wide scale. We used summary statistics from the GEFOS consortium for lumbar spine (n = 31,800) and femoral neck (n = 32,961) BMD, and from the arcOGEN consortium for three OA phenotypes (hip, ncases=3,498; knee, ncases=3,266; hip and/or knee, ncases=7,410; ncontrols=11,009)...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924384/fgfr3-deficient-mice-have-accelerated-fracture-repair
#2
Yangli Xie, Fengtao Luo, Wei Xu, Zuqiang Wang, Xianding Sun, Meng Xu, Junlan Huang, Dali Zhang, Qiaoyan Tan, Bo Chen, Wanling Jiang, Xiaolan Du, Lin Chen
Bone fracture healing is processed through multiple biological stages that partly recapitulates the skeletal development process. FGFR3 is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis during embryonic stage and plays an important role in both chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. We have investigated the role of FGFR3 in fracture healing using unstabilized fracture model and found that gain-of-function mutation of FGFR3 inhibits the initiation of chondrogenesis during cartilage callus formation. Here, we created closed, stabilized proximal tibia fractures with an intramedullary pin in Fgfr3(-/-)mice and their littermate wild-type mice...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923317/calcified-cartilage-or-bone-collagens-in-the-tessellated-endoskeletons-of-cartilaginous-fish-sharks-and-rays
#3
Ronald Seidel, Michael Blumer, Elisabeth-Judith Pechriggl, Kady Lyons, Brian K Hall, Peter Fratzl, James C Weaver, Mason N Dean
The primary skeletal tissue in elasmobranchs -sharks, rays and relatives- is cartilage, forming both embryonic and adult endoskeletons. Only the skeletal surface calcifies, exhibiting mineralized tiles (tesserae) sandwiched between a cartilage core and overlying fibrous perichondrium. These two tissues are based on different collagens (Coll II and I, respectively), fueling a long-standing debate as to whether tesserae are more like bone (Coll 1-based) or calcified cartilage in their matrix composition. We demonstrate that stingray (Urobatis halleri) tesserae are bipartite, having an upper Coll I-based "cap" that merges into a lower Coll II-based "body" zone, although tesserae are surrounded by cartilage...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915523/-biologic-reconstruction-of-full-sized-cartilage-defects-of-the-hip-a-guideline-from-the-dgou-group-clinical-tissue-regeneration-and-the-hip-committee-of-the-aga
#4
Stefan Fickert, Matthias Aurich, Dirk Albrecht, Peter Angele, Lorenz Büchler, Michael Dienst, Christoph Erggelet, Jürgen Fritz, Christoph Gebhart, Hans Gollwitzer, Moritz Kindler, Christoph Lampert, Henning Madry, Gregor Möckel, Phillip Niemeyer, Jörg Schröder, Christian Sobau, Gunter Spahn, Wolfgang Zinser, Stefan Landgraeber
Background Symptomatic pre-arthritic deformities such as femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip dysplasia often lead to localised cartilage defects and subsequently to osteoarthritis. The present review of the working group "Clinical Tissue Regeneration" of the German Society of Orthopaedics and Trauma (DGOU) and the hip committee of the AGA (German speaking Society for Arthroscopy and Joint Surgery) provides an overview of current knowledge of the diagnosis and surgical treatment of cartilage defects, in order to infer appropriate therapy recommendations for the hip...
September 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915300/inflammation-in-osteoarthritis
#5
Salvador Vilá
Advances in the understanding of chondrocytes and the synovial membrane as targets of and participants in the inflammatory process in articular joints have provided insights into the role of inflammation in cartilage and subchondral bone injury in rheumatic diseases. Reports that describe the inflammatory cellular infiltration of synovial membranes in patients with osteoarthritis, studies that associate cartilage structural injury with synovial membrane inflammatory status, the development of new imaging modalities that quantitatively measure synovial membrane inflammation and basic science advances that explore inflammatory pathways in the synovial cavity all suggest that inflammation plays an important role in cartilage injury in osteoarthritis...
September 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892372/transcriptomic-analysis-of-thalidomide-challenged-chick-embryo-suggests-possible-link-between-impaired-vasculogenesis-and-defective-organogenesis
#6
Vimal Veeriah, Pavitra Kumar, Lakshmikirupa Sundaresan, Zeenath Mafitha, Ravi Gupta, Uttara Saran, Jeganathan Manivannan, Suvro Chatterjee
Since the conception of thalidomide as a teratogen approximately 30 hypotheses have been put forward to explain the developmental toxicity of the molecule. However, no systems biology approach has been taken to understand the phenomena yet. The proposed work was aimed to explore the mechanism of thalidomide toxicity in developing chick embryo in the context of transcriptomics by using genome wide RNA sequencing data. In this study, we challenged the developing embryo at the stage of blood island formations (HH8) which is the most vulnerable stage for thalidomide-induced deformities...
September 11, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891340/do-model-polymer-therapeutics-sufficiently-diffuse-through-articular-cartilage-to-be-a-viable-therapeutic-route
#7
Alison Powell, Bruce Caterson, Clare Hughes, Alison Paul, Craig James, Stephen Hopkins, Omar Mansour, Peter Griffiths
The ability of a polymer therapeutic to access the appropriate subcellular location is crucial to its efficacy, and is defined to a large part by the many and complex cellular biological and biochemical barriers such a construct must traverse. It is shown here that model dextrin conjugates are able to pass through a cartilaginous extracellular matrix into chondrocytes, with little perturbation of the matrix structure, indicating that targeting of potential therapeutics through a cartilaginous extracellular matrix should prove possible...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890259/silk-fibroin-chondroitin-sulfate-scaffold-with-immuno-inhibition-property-for-articular-cartilage-repair
#8
Feifei Zhou, Xianzhu Zhang, Dandan Cai, Jun Li, Qin Mu, Wei Zhang, Shouan Zhu, Yangzi Jiang, Weiliang Shen, Shufang Zhang, Hong Wei Ouyang
The demand of favorable scaffolds has increased for the emerging cartilage tissue engineering. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and silk fibroin have been investigated and reported with safety and excellent biocompatibility as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the rapid degradation rate of pure CS scaffolds presents a challenge to effectively recreate neo-tissue similar to natural articular cartilage. Meanwhile the silk fibroin is well used as a structural constituent material because its remarkable mechanical properties, long-lasting in vivo stability and hypoimmunity...
September 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879659/extracellular-matrix-particle-glycosaminoglycan-composite-hydrogels-for-regenerative-medicine-applications
#9
Vince Beachley, Garret Ma, Chris Papadimitriou, Matt Gibson, Michael Corvelli, Jennifer Elisseeff
Tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex material made up of fibrous proteins and ground substance (glycosaminoglycans, GAGs) that are secreted by cells. ECM contains important biological cues that modulate cell behaviors, and it also serves as a structural scaffold to which cells can adhere. For clinical applications, where immune rejection is a constraint, ECM can be processed using decellularization methods intended to remove cells and donor antigens from tissue or organs, while preserving native biological cues essential for cell growth and differentiation...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875826/current-treatment-options-for-osteoarthritis
#10
Sevdalina Lambova, Walter Hermann, Ulf Müller-Ladner
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (ОА) is the most common joint disease and a leading cause for impaired function and disability with significant treatment costs and socio-economic burden. Despite recent achievements in the knowledge on disease pathogenesis, the treatment is still a challenge and contrary to inflammatory joint diseases, no disease-modifying drugs are currently available for OA. OBJECTIVE: Different response in different localizations of the disease further complicates the therapeutic choice...
August 29, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872083/-repair-of-articular-cartilage-defects-by-autologous-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-allogeneic-costal-chondrocytes-in-the-knee-of-wuzhishan-miniature-pigs
#11
Cheng Yang, Jiangdong Ni, Shou Zhang, Zhongcheng Fan
To investigate the feasibility of construction of tissue engineered cartilage by co-culture of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and costal chondrocytes (CCs), and to provide theoretical basis and experimental basis for clinical repair of articular cartilage defects by Wuzhishan miniature pig knee cartilage defects with co-cultured cells.
 Methods: Density gradient centrifugation method was used to isolate BMSCs from Wuzhishan miniature pig. The double enzyme digestion method was used to isolate CCs...
August 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865136/covalent-binding-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-3-to-3d-plotted-scaffolds-for-osteochondral-tissue-regeneration
#12
Andrea Di Luca, Michel Klein-Gunnewiek, Julius G Vancso, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Edmondo M Benetti, Lorenzo Moroni
Engineering the osteochondral tissue presents some challenges mainly relying in its function of transition from the subchondral bone to articular cartilage and the gradual variation in several biological, mechanical and structural features. A possible solution for osteochondral regeneration might be the design and fabrication of scaffolds presenting a gradient able to mimic this transition. Covalent binding of biological factors proved to enhance cell adhesion and differentiation in two-dimensional culture substrates...
September 2, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864934/gene-therapy-for-chondral-and-osteochondral-regeneration-is-the-future-now
#13
REVIEW
Daniele Bellavia, F Veronesi, V Carina, V Costa, L Raimondi, A De Luca, R Alessandro, M Fini, G Giavaresi
Gene therapy might represent a promising strategy for chondral and osteochondral defects repair by balancing the management of temporary joint mechanical incompetence with altered metabolic and inflammatory homeostasis. This review analysed preclinical and clinical studies on gene therapy for the repair of articular cartilage defects performed over the last 10 years, focussing on expression vectors (non-viral and viral), type of genes delivered and gene therapy procedures (direct or indirect). Plasmids (non-viral expression vectors) and adenovirus (viral vectors) were the most employed vectors in preclinical studies...
September 1, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855706/chondrogenesis-and-osteogenesis-are-one-continuous-developmental-and-lineage-defined-biological-process
#14
Yan Jing, Junjun Jing, Ling Ye, Xiaohua Liu, Stephen E Harris, Robert J Hinton, Jian Q Feng
Although chondrogenesis and osteogenesis are considered as two separate processes during endochondral bone formation after birth, recent studies have demonstrated the direct cell transformation from chondrocytes into bone cells in postnatal bone growth. Here we use cell lineage tracing and multiple in vivo approaches to study the role of Bmpr1a in endochondrogenesis. Our data showed profound changes in skeletal shape, size and structure when Bmpr1a was deleted using Aggrecan-Cre (ERT2) in early cartilage cells with a one-time tamoxifen injection...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839448/the-disease-modifying-effects-of-hyaluronan-in-the-osteoarthritic-disease-state
#15
REVIEW
Mathew A Nicholls, Anke Fierlinger, Faizan Niazi, Mohit Bhandari
Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been a treatment modality for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) for many years now. Since HA was first introduced for the treatment of painful knee OA, much has been elucidated regarding both the etiology of this disease and the mechanisms by which HA may mitigate joint pain and tissue destruction. The objectives of this article are to (1) describe the etiology and pathophysiology of OA including both what is known about the genetics and biochemistry, (2) describe the role of HA on disease progression, (3) detail the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions of HA in OA, and (4) present evidence of disease-modifying effects of HA in the preservation and restoration of the extracellular matrix...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833034/rheumatoid-arthritis-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-cocultured-with-pbmc-increased-peripheral-cd4-cxcr5-icos-t-cells-numbers
#16
Yawei Tang, Bing Wang, Xiaotong Sun, Han Li, Xunli Ouyang, Jing Wei, Bingbing Dai, Yan Zhang, Xia Li
"Circulating" T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, characterized by their surface phenotypes CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+, have been identified as the CD4+ T cell subset specialized in supporting the activation, expansion and differentiation of B cells. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are critical in promoting inflammation and cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the interaction between FLS and T cells is considered to facilitate FLS activation and T cells recruitment. However, it remains unknown whether RA-FLS cocultured with activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) has immunoregulatory effects on peripheral Tfh cells...
August 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831830/biological-treatment-of-the-knee-with-platelet-rich-plasma-or-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrates
#17
Gilbert Moatshe, Elizabeth R Morris, Mark E Cinque, Cecilia Pascual-Garrido, Jorge Chahla, Lars Engebretsen, Robert F Laprade
- Knee pathologies including focal cartilage injuries, osteoarthritis (OA), and ligament injuries are common. The poor regeneration and healing potential of cartilage has led to the search for other treatment modalities with improved healing capacity. Furthermore, with an increasing elderly population that desires to remain active, the burden of knee pathologies is expected to increase. Increased sports participation and the desire to return to activities faster is also demanding more effective and minimally invasive treatment options...
August 23, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828504/tissue-engineering-relevant-characteristics-of-ex-vivo-and-monolayer-expanded-chondrocytes-from-the-notch-versus-trochlea-of-human-knee-joints
#18
Matthias Aurich, Gunther Olaf Hofmann, Bernd Rolauffs
PURPOSE: The aim was to analyse the biological characteristics of chondrocytes from the two biopsy sites notch vs. trochlea of human knee joints. The question was whether tissue engineering-relevant characteristics such as viability and mRNA expression profile would be comparable ex vivo and after monolayer expansion, as these are parts of routine autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). METHODS: Biopsies from the intercondylar notch and the lateral aspect of the trochlea from 20 patients with ICRS grades 3 and 4 cartilage defects were harvested during arthroscopy...
August 21, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818745/a-systematic-review-on-the-role-of-eicosanoid-pathways-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
REVIEW
Malvina Hoxha
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by the production of eicosanoids, cytokines, adhesion molecules, infiltration of T and B lymphocytes in the synovium and oxygen reduction accompanied by the cartilage degradation. Eicosanoids are responsible for the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone, however neither steroids, nor the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cannot slow down cartilage and bone destruction providing only symptomatic improvement. The current rheumatoid arthritis treatment options include mainly the use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, the corticosteroids, the NSAIDs and biological agents...
August 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818625/the-therapeutic-potential-of-crth2-dp2-beyond-allergy-and-asthma
#20
REVIEW
Katharina Jandl, Akos Heinemann
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 has been in the focus of research for quite a long time, but its biological effects and its roles in human disease are still not fully characterized. When in 2001 a second major PGD2 receptor termed chemoattractant receptor homologue expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2; alternative name DP2) was discovered, diverse investigations started to shed more light on the complex and often controversial actions of the prostaglandin. With various immunomodulating effects, such as induction of migration, activation, and cytokine release of leukocytes observed both in vivo and in vitro, CRTH2 has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of allergic diseases...
August 14, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
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