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Cartilage biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910738/cartilage-repair-in-the-degenerative-ageing-knee
#1
Mats Brittberg, Andreas H Gomoll, José A Canseco, Jack Far, Martin Lind, James Hui
Background and purpose - Cartilage damage can develop due to trauma, resulting in focal chondral or osteochondral defects, or as more diffuse loss of cartilage in a generalized organ disease such as osteoarthritis. A loss of cartilage function and quality is also seen with increasing age. There is a spectrum of diseases ranging from focal cartilage defects with healthy surrounding cartilage to focal lesions in degenerative cartilage, to multiple and diffuse lesions in osteoarthritic cartilage. At the recent Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015, regenerative challenges in an ageing population were discussed by clinicians and basic scientists...
December 2, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#2
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiate into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909662/osteochondral-autograft-transfer-technique-for-glenoid-osteochondral-defect
#3
Douglas J Wyland, Clint Beicker
Glenoid osteochondral defects can be a significant source of pain and disability in an active population. Many treatments are available, but most joint-preserving procedures are limited to debridement, abrasion chondroplasty, or marrow-stimulation techniques, all of which depend on healthy underlying bone and none of which address underlying bony pathology. Osteochondral autograft transfer has been a successful form of treatment for lesions in the knee, elbow, and ankle, especially when subchondral bone is involved...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906096/biological-and-functional-evaluation-of-a-novel-pyrolytic-carbon-implant-for-the-treatment-of-focal-osteochondral-defects-in-the-medial-femoral-condyle-assessment-in-a-canine-model
#4
Samantha L Salkeld, Laura P Patron, Joan C Lien, Stephen D Cook, Deryk G Jones
BACKGROUND: Osteochondral defects continue to be a clinical treatment challenge, and when left untreated, may cause pain and functional impairment. Pyrolytic carbon is a unique isotropic biomaterial used in heart valve and small joint replacements due to its excellent wear properties and biocompatibility with bone and articular cartilage. Therefore, a proposed solution is to utilize a focal pyrolytic carbon hemiarthroplasty implant as an alternative resurfacing treatment strategy for isolated cartilage lesions...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904662/influence-of-biological-scaffold-regulation-on-the-proliferation-of-chondrocytes-and-the-repair-of-articular-cartilage
#5
Si-Qun Wang, Jun Xia, Jie Chen, Jian-Xi Lu, Yi-Bing Wei, Fei-Yan Chen, Gang-Yong Huang, Jing-Sheng Shi, Yong-Lin Yu
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of hard tissue engineering scaffold (the material is β-TCP) with different micro-structures on the proliferation of chondrocytes, and the influence of its composite erythrocytes on the repair of articular cartilage defects. METHODS: Rabbit cartilage cells were on β-TCP bioceramic scaffold with different micro-structures in vitro, the proliferation growth trend of chondrocytes within the scaffold was calculated, and a optimal micro-structure suitable for cartilage cell growth was determined...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899064/gdf5-mediated-enhancement-of-chondrocyte-phenotype-is-inhibited-by-heparin-implication-for-the-use-of-heparin-in-the-clinic-and-in-tissue-engineering-applications
#6
Bethanie Imogen Ayerst, Raymond A A Smith, Victor Nurcombe, Anthony J Day, Catherine L R Merry, Simon Cool
The highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin is widely used in the clinic as an anticoagulant, and researchers are now using it to enhance stem cell expansion/ differentiation protocols, as well as to improve the delivery of growth factors for tissue engineering strategies. Growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) belongs to the bone morphogenetic protein family of proteins and is vital for skeletal formation, however, its interaction with heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) has not been studied. We identify GDF5 as a novel heparin/ HS-binding protein, and show that HS proteoglycans are vital in localizing GDF5 to the cell surface...
November 29, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896800/principal-component-analysis-in-the-evaluation-of-osteoarthritis
#7
Stephanie E Calce, Helen K Kurki, Darlene A Weston, Lisa Gould
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate advantages of principal component analysis (PCA) as a standardized procedure in the evaluation of osteoarthritis (OA) in a skeletal series to: (1) compute aggregate scores for joint complexes that accurately capture pathological expression, (2) reveal which variables describe the most sample variation in OA, (3) enable inter- and intra-sample comparison of results, and (4) formulate predictive models from component-based arthritic scores...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886803/relapsing-polychondritis-a-2016-update-on-clinical-features-diagnostic-tools-treatment-and-biological-drug-use
#8
REVIEW
Alexis Mathian, Makoto Miyara, Fleur Cohen-Aubart, Julien Haroche, Miguel Hie, Micheline Pha, Philippe Grenier, Zahir Amoura
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a very rare autoimmune disease characterised by a relapsing inflammation of the cartilaginous tissues (joints, ears, nose, intervertebral discs, larynx, trachea and cartilaginous bronchi), which may progress to long-lasting atrophy and/or deformity of the cartilages. Non-cartilaginous tissues may also be affected, such as the eyes, heart, aorta, inner ear and skin. RP has a long and unpredictable course. Because no randomised therapeutic trials are available, the treatment of RP remains mainly empirical...
April 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886065/dual-function-of-glucosamine-in-gelatin-hyaluronic-acid-cryogel-to-modulate-scaffold-mechanical-properties-and-to-maintain-chondrogenic-phenotype-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#9
Chih-Hao Chen, Chang-Yi Kuo, Yan-Jie Wang, Jyh-Ping Chen
Glucosamine (GlcN) fulfills many of the requirements as an ideal component in scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering. The incorporation of GlcN in a gelatin/hyaluronic acid (GH) cryogel scaffold could provide biological cues in maintaining the phenotype of chondrocytes. Nonetheless, substituting gelatin with GlcN may also decrease the crosslinking density and modulate the mechanical properties of the cryogel scaffold, which may be beneficial as physical cues for chondrocytes in the scaffold. Thus, we prepared cryogel scaffolds containing 9% GlcN (GH-GlcN9) and 16% GlcN (GH-GlcN16) by carbodiimide-mediated crosslinking reactions at -16 °C...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875945/3d-printing-articular-cartilage-recapitulating-the-complexity-of-native-tissue
#10
Ting Guo, Josephine Lembong, Lijie Grace Zhang, John P Fisher
In the past few decades, the field of tissue engineering combined with rapid prototyping (RP) techniques has been successful in creating biological substitutes that mimic tissues. Its applications in regenerative medicine have drawn efforts in research from various scientific fields, diagnostics, and clinical translation to therapies. While some areas of therapeutics are well developed, such as skin replacement, many others such as cartilage repair can still greatly benefit from tissue engineering and RP due to the low success and / or inefficiency of current existing, often surgical treatments...
November 22, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871993/msc-exosome-as-a-cell-free-msc-therapy-for-cartilage-regeneration-implications-for-osteoarthritis-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Wei Seong Toh, Ruenn Chai Lai, James Hoi Po Hui, Sai Kiang Lim
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies have demonstrated efficacy in cartilage repair in animal and clinical studies. The efficacy of MSC-based therapies which was previously predicated on the chondrogenic potential of MSC is increasingly attributed to the paracrine secretion, particularly exosomes. Exosomes are thought to function primarily as intercellular communication vehicles to transfer bioactive lipids, nucleic acids (mRNAs and microRNAs) and proteins between cells to elicit biological responses in recipient cells...
November 18, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870898/functional-tissue-analysis-reveals-successful-cryopreservation-of-human-osteoarthritic-synovium
#12
Mathijs G A Broeren, Marieke de Vries, Miranda B Bennink, Peter L E M van Lent, Peter M van der Kraan, Marije I Koenders, Rogier M Thurlings, Fons A J van de Loo
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease affecting cartilage and is the most common form of arthritis worldwide. One third of OA patients have severe synovitis and less than 10% have no evidence of synovitis. Moreover, synovitis is predictive for more severe disease progression. This offers a target for therapy but more research on the pathophysiological processes in the synovial tissue of these patients is needed. Functional studies performed with synovial tissue will be more approachable when this material, that becomes available by joint replacement surgery, can be stored for later use...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866057/effect-of-crosslinking-in-cartilage-like-collagen-microstructures
#13
Ying-Chun Chen, Minsi Chen, Eamonn A Gaffney, Cameron P Brown
The mechanical performance of biological tissues is underpinned by a complex and finely balanced structure. Central to this is collagen, the most abundant protein in our bodies, which plays a dominant role in the functioning of tissues, and also in disease. Based on the collagen meshwork of articular cartilage, we have developed a bottom-up spring-node model of collagen and examined the effect of fibril connectivity, implemented by crosslinking, on mechanical behaviour. Although changing individual crosslink stiffness within an order of magnitude had no significant effect on modelling predictions, the density of crosslinks in a meshwork had a substantial impact on its behaviour...
October 15, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865793/multiplexed-mass-spectrometry-monitoring-of-biomarker-candidates-for-osteoarthritis
#14
Patricia Fernández-Puente, Valentina Calamia, Lucía González-Rodríguez, Lucía Lourido, María Camacho-Encina, Natividad Oreiro, Cristina Ruiz-Romero, Francisco J Blanco
: The methods currently available for the diagnosis and monitoring of osteoarthritis (OA) are very limited and lack sensitivity. Being the most prevalent rheumatic disease, one of the most disabling pathologies worldwide and currently untreatable, there is a considerable interest pointed in the verification of specific biological markers for improving its diagnosis and disease progression studies. Considering the remarkable development of targeted proteomics methodologies in the frame of the Human Proteome Project, the aim of this work was to develop and apply a MRM-based method for the multiplexed analysis of a panel of 6 biomarker candidates for OA encoded by the Chromosome 16, and another 8 proteins identified in previous shotgun studies as related with this pathology, in specimens derived from the human joint and serum...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863512/rheumatoid-synovial-fibroblasts-differentiate-into-distinct-subsets-in-the-presence-of-cytokines-and-cartilage
#15
Adam P Croft, Amy J Naylor, Jennifer L Marshall, Debbie L Hardie, Birgit Zimmermann, Jason Turner, Guillaume Desanti, Holly Adams, Adrian I Yemm, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Jean-Michel Dayer, Elena Neumann, Andrew Filer, Christopher D Buckley
BACKGROUND: We investigated two distinct synovial fibroblast populations that were located preferentially in the lining or sub-lining layers and defined by their expression of either podoplanin (PDPN) or CD248, and explored their ability to undergo self-assembly and transmigration in vivo. METHODS: Synovial fibroblasts (SF) were cultured in vitro and phenotypic changes following stimulation with interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were examined...
November 18, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859817/lncrnas-novel-players-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-and-osteoarthritis
#16
REVIEW
Wen-Kang Chen, Xiao-Hua Yu, Wei Yang, Cheng Wang, Wen-Si He, Yi-Guo Yan, Jian Zhang, Wen-Jun Wang
The term long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) refers to a group of RNAs with length more than 200 nucleotides, limited protein-coding potential, and having widespread biological functions, including regulation of transcriptional patterns and protein activity, formation of endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and natural microRNA (miRNA) sponges. Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) and osteoarthritis (OA) are the most common chronic, prevalent and age-related degenerative musculoskeletal disorders. Numbers of lncRNAs are differentially expressed in human degenerative nucleus pulposus tissue and OA cartilage...
November 9, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859234/elements-and-elasmobranchs-hypotheses-assumptions-and-limitations-of-elemental-analysis
#17
M N McMillan, C Izzo, B Wade, B M Gillanders
Quantifying the elemental composition of elasmobranch calcified cartilage (hard parts) has the potential to answer a range of ecological and biological questions, at both the individual and population level. Few studies, however, have employed elemental analyses of elasmobranch hard parts. This paper provides an overview of the range of applications of elemental analysis in elasmobranchs, discussing the assumptions and potential limitations in cartilaginous fishes. It also reviews the available information on biotic and abiotic factors influencing patterns of elemental incorporation into hard parts of elasmobranchs and provides some comparative elemental assays and mapping in an attempt to fill knowledge gaps...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853832/old-drugs-with-new-skills-fenoprofen-as-an-allosteric-enhancer-at-melanocortin-receptor-3
#18
Trinidad Montero-Melendez, Rachel A E Forfar, Jennifer M Cook, Jeffrey C Jerman, Debra L Taylor, Mauro Perretti
The efficiency of drug research and development has paradoxically declined over the last decades despite major scientific and technological advances, promoting new cost-effective strategies such as drug repositioning by systematic screening for new actions of known drugs. Here, we performed a screening for positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) at melanocortin (MC) receptors. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug fenoprofen, but not the similar compound ibuprofen, presented PAM activity at MC3, MC4, and MC5 receptors...
November 16, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846904/an-ex-vivo-human-cartilage-repair-model-to-evaluate-the-potency-of-a-cartilage-cell-transplant
#19
Christoph Bartz, Miriam Meixner, Petra Giesemann, Giulietta Roël, Grit-Carsta Bulwin, Jeske J Smink
BACKGROUND: Cell-based therapies such as autologous chondrocyte implantation are promising therapeutic approaches to treat cartilage defects to prevent further cartilage degeneration. To assure consistent quality of cell-based therapeutics, it is important to be able to predict the biological activity of such products. This requires the development of a potency assay, which assesses a characteristic of the cell transplant before implantation that can predict its cartilage regeneration capacity after implantation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843894/linking-cellular-and-mechanical-processes-in-articular-cartilage-lesion-formation-a-mathematical-model
#20
Georgi I Kapitanov, Xiayi Wang, Bruce P Ayati, Marc J Brouillette, James A Martin
Post-traumatic osteoarthritis affects almost 20% of the adult US population. An injurious impact applies a significant amount of physical stress on articular cartilage and can initiate a cascade of biochemical reactions that can lead to the development of osteoarthritis. In our effort to understand the underlying biochemical mechanisms of this debilitating disease, we have constructed a multiscale mathematical model of the process with three components: cellular, chemical, and mechanical. The cellular component describes the different chondrocyte states according to the chemicals these cells release...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
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