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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161786/oral-submucous-fibrosis-an-etiological-dilemma
#1
Aanchal Sharma, Rajesh Kumar, Navdeep Johar, Husain Sabir
Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF), is a well-recognized, oral potentially malignant disorder predominantly affecting the South- Asian countries. OSF causes unique generalized fibrosis of the submucosal oral soft tissues, resulting in marked rigidity of the oral mucosa leading to progressive inability to open the mouth, rigidity of lips and difficulty in protruding the tongue. In this review we have discussed the multifactorial etiology of this potentially malignant disorder, including Chillies, Nutritional Deficiencies, Inducible nitric oxide synthsis (iNOS), genetic and immunological predisposition; and most importantly the role of areca nut and the effect of copper content in it...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160944/ketogenic-diet-suppresses-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-rats
#2
Ditte Dencker, Anna Molander, Morgane Thomsen, Chantal Schlumberger, Gitta Wortwein, Pia Weikop, Helene Benveniste, Nora D Volkow, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder is under-diagnosed and under-treated, and up to 50% of alcohol abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate was recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls...
November 21, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160892/growth-of-a-sea-urchin-like-rutile-tio2-hierarchical-microsphere-film-on-ti-foil-for-a-quasi-solid-state-dye-sensitized-solar-cell
#3
Jin Hyok Ri, Shufang Wu, Jingpeng Jin, Tianyou Peng
A sea urchin-like rutile TiO2 microsphere (RMS) film was fabricated on Ti foil via a hydrothermal process. The resulting rutile TiO2 hierarchical microspheres with a diameter of 5-6 μm are composed of nanorods with a diameter of ∼200 nm and a length of 1-2 μm. The sea urchin-like hierarchical structure leads to the Ti foil-based RMS film possessing much better light-scattering capability in the visible region than the bare Ti foil. By using it as an underlayer of a nanosized anatase TiO2 film (bTPP3) derived from a commercially available paste (TPP3), the corresponding bilayer Ti foil-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) only gives a conversion efficiency of 4...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160714/understanding-aqueous-stability-and-filtration-capability-of-mos2-membranes
#4
Zhongying Wang, Qingsong Tu, Sunxiang Zheng, Jeffrey J Urban, Shaofan Li, Baoxia Mi
Membranes made of layer-stacked two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets have recently shown great promise for water filtration. At present, the reported water fluxes vary significantly while the accountable structure and properties of MoS2 nanochannels are largely unknown. This paper aims to mechanistically relate the performance of MoS2 membranes to the size of their nanochannels in different hydration states. We discovered that fully hydrated MoS2 membranes retained a 1.2-nm interlayer spacing (or 0...
November 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160536/use-of-the-ishikawa-diagram-in-a-case-control-analysis-to-assess-the-causes-of-a-diffuse-lamellar-keratitis-outbreak
#5
Luis Henrique Lira, Flávio E Hirai, Marivaldo Oliveira, Waldir Portellinha, Eliane Mayumi Nakano
PURPOSE: To identify the causes of a diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) outbreak using a systematic search tool in a case-control analysis. METHODS: An Ishikawa diagram was used to guide physicians to determine the potential risk factors involved in this outbreak. Coherence between the occurrences and each possible cause listed in the diagram was verified, and the total number of eyes at risk was used to calculate the proportion of affected eyes. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression to determine the independent effect of the risk factors, after controlling for confounders and test interactions...
September 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159558/theoretical-investigation-of-the-safety-of-nitroguanidine-based-pbxs-containing-the-nonpolar-desensitizing-agent-polytetrafluoroethylene
#6
Zhong-Qing Xue, Jing He, Jun Zhang, Xi-Liang Zhang, Yin-Gang Chen, Fu-de Ren
In order to elucidate why the inclusion of a nonpolar desensitizing agent in polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) affects their sensitivity and safety, the intermolecular interactions between nitroguanidine (NQ: a high-energy-density compound used as a propellant and in explosive charges) and F2C=CF2 were investigated theoretically at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2p) and M06-2X/6-311++G(2df,2p) levels of theory, focusing especially on the influence of intermolecular interactions on the strength of the trigger bond in NQ...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158402/structural-insights-into-enzymatic-4-2-aza-cycloaddition-in-thiopeptide-antibiotic-biosynthesis
#7
Dillon P Cogan, Graham A Hudson, Zhengan Zhang, Taras V Pogorelov, Wilfred A van der Donk, Douglas A Mitchell, Satish K Nair
The [4+2] cycloaddition reaction is an enabling transformation in modern synthetic organic chemistry, but there are only limited examples of dedicated natural enzymes that can catalyze this transformation. Thiopeptides (or more formally thiazolyl peptides) are a class of thiazole-containing, highly modified, macrocyclic secondary metabolites made from ribosomally synthesized precursor peptides. The characteristic feature of these natural products is a six-membered nitrogenous heterocycle that is assembled via a formal [4+2] cycloaddition between two dehydroalanine (Dha) residues...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158359/are-cocaine-seeking-habits-necessary-for-the-development-of-addiction-like-behavior-in-rats
#8
Bryan F Singer, Monica Fadanelli, Alex B Kawa, Terry E Robinson
Drug self-administration models of addiction typically require animals to make the same response (e.g., a lever-press or nose-poke) over and over to procure and take drugs. By their design, such procedures often produce behavior controlled by stimulus-response (S-R) habits. This has supported the notion of addiction as a "drug habit", and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of such behavior. However, for addicts to procure drugs, like cocaine, often requires considerable ingenuity and flexibility in seeking behavior, which, by definition, precludes the development of habits...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158264/azole-resistance-in-a-candida-albicans-mutant-lacking-the-abc-transporter-cdr6-roa1-depends-on-tor-signaling
#9
Nitesh Kumar Khandelwal, Neeraj Chauhan, Parijat Sarkar, Brooke D Esquivel, Paola Coccetti, Ashutosh Singh, Alix T Coste, Meghna Gupta, Dominique Sanglard, Theodore C White, Murielle Chauvel, Christophe dEnfert, Amitabha Chattopadhyay, Naseem A Gaur, Alok Kumar Mondal, Rajendra Prasad
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters help export various substrates across the cell membrane and significantly contribute to drug resistance. However, a recent study reported an unusual case in which the loss of an ABC transporter in Candida albicans, orf19.4531 (previously named ROA1), increases resistance against antifungal azoles, which was attributed to an altered membrane potential in the mutant strain. To get further mechanistic insights into this phenomenon, here we confirmed that the plasma membrane localized transporter (renamed CDR6/ROA1 for consistency with C...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156012/mitral-valve-repair-using-a-prosthetic-ring-with-chordal-sizing-system-a-modified-technique-in-the-presence-of-myxomatous-leaflets
#10
Antonio Lio, Antonio Miceli, Matteo Ferrarini, Mattia Glauber
A semi-rigid complete ring including a chordal sizing system has been introduced with the aim of standardizing neochordae implantation. Instructions for use of this ring suggest to pass the neochordae through the free margin of mitral leaflets. We introduce a modification of this technique in the presence of myxomatous leaflets.
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156011/pulmonary-resection-for-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-based-on-survival-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Hyunsuk Frank Roh, Jihoon Kim, Seung Hyuk Nam, Jung Mogg Kim
We investigated the survival benefit of pulmonary resection for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. To weigh the survival benefit of pulmonary resection for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis who have undergone surgical treatment combined with medical chemotherapy compared with medical chemotherapy alone, we did a meta-analysis of available studies containing a hazard ratio for pulmonary resection. Among 1726 articles, 6 clinical reports, with a mean sample size of 47 patients per report, met the inclusion criteria...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155710/dna-nanotubes-as-a-versatile-tool-to-study-semiflexible-polymers
#12
Jörg Schnauß, Martin Glaser, Jessica S Lorenz, Carsten Schuldt, Christin Möser, Martin Sajfutdinow, Tina Händler, Josef A Käs, David M Smith
Mechanical properties of complex, polymer-based soft matter, such as cells or biopolymer networks, can be understood in neither the classical frame of flexible polymers nor of rigid rods. Underlying filaments remain outstretched due to their non-vanishing backbone stiffness, which is quantified via the persistence length (lp), but they are also subject to strong thermal fluctuations. Their finite bending stiffness leads to unique, non-trivial collective mechanics of bulk networks, enabling the formation of stable scaffolds at low volume fractions while providing large mesh sizes...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155591/mechanics-of-protein-adaptation-to-high-temperatures
#13
Guillaume Stirnemann, Fabio Sterpone
Inspired by Somero's corresponding state principle that relates protein enhanced thermal stability with mechanical rigidity, we deployed state of the art computational techniques (based on atomistic steered molecular dynamics and Hamiltonian-replica exchange simulations) to study the in silico realization of mechanical and thermal unfolding of two homologous Csp proteins that have evolved to thrive in different thermal environments. By complementing recent single-molecule experiments, we unambiguously show that, for these homologues whose structures are very similar, the increased thermal resistance of the thermophilic variant is not associated with an increased mechanical stability...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155552/reliably-modeling-the-mechanical-stability-of-rigid-and-flexible-metal-organic-frameworks
#14
Sven M J Rogge, Michel Waroquier, Veronique Van Speybroeck
Over the past two decades, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have matured from interesting academic peculiarities toward a continuously expanding class of hybrid, nanoporous materials tuned for targeted technological applications such as gas storage and heterogeneous catalysis. These oft-times crystalline materials, composed of inorganic moieties interconnected by organic ligands, can be endowed with desired structural and chemical features by judiciously functionalizing or substituting these building blocks...
November 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155232/refusal-of-cervical-spine-immobilization-after-blunt-trauma-implications-for-initial-evaluation-and-management-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
James M Tatum, Navpreet K Dhillon, Ara Ko, Eric J T Smith, Nicolas Melo, Galinos Barmparas, Eric J Ley
INTRODUCTION: Rigid cervical collars are routinely placed in the pre-hospital setting after significant blunt trauma. Patients who are deemed competent by field personnel (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≥13, no major distracting injury and not grossly intoxicated) may refuse cervical collar placement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all adult trauma patients presenting to a Level 1 trauma center after blunt trauma with a GCS≥13 and no distracting injury or gross intoxication from January 2014 to December 2014...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155107/structural-insights-of-rmxyn10a-a-prebiotic-producing-gh10-xylanase-with-a-non-conserved-aglycone-binding-region
#16
Anna Aronsson, Fatma Güler, Maxim V Petoukhov, Susan J Crennell, Dmitri I Svergun, Javier A Linares-Pastén, Eva Nordberg Karlsson
Hydrolysis of arabinoxylan (AX) by glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) xylanases produces xylo- and arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides ((A)XOS) which have shown prebiotic effects. The thermostable GH10 xylanase RmXyn10A has shown great potential to produce (A)XOS. In this study, the structure of RmXyn10A was investigated, the catalytic module by homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis and the arrangement of its five domains by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Substrate specificity was explored in silico by manual docking and molecular dynamic simulations...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155085/ir-spectroscopy-analysis-of-pancreatic-lipase-related-protein-2-interaction-with-phospholipids-2-discriminative-recognition-of-various-micellar-systems-and-characterization-of-plrp2-dppc-bile-salt-complexes
#17
Eduardo Mateos-Diaz, Priscila Sutto-Ortiz, Moulay Sahaka, Deborah Byrne, Hélène Gaussier, Frédéric Carrière
The interaction of pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) with various micelles containing phospholipids was investigated using pHstat enzyme activity measurements, differential light scattering, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and transmission IR spectroscopy. Various micelles of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and lysophosphatidylcholine were prepared with either bile salts (sodium taurodeoxycholate or glycodeoxycholate) or Triton X-100, which are substrate-dispersing agents commonly used for measuring phospholipase activities...
November 16, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154266/rehabilitation-of-neglected-monteggia-fracture-dislocations-in-children
#18
Azad Yıldırım, Kemal Nas
PURPOSE: There are limited studies related to the rehabilitation of neglected Monteggia fracture-dislocations. This study reports the results of the rehabilitation of neglected Monteggia fractures and dislocations and the best treatment options available. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirteen children were rehabilitated between 2009 and 2012. A retrospective chart review was conducted to record the following: age, gender, anatomic region of fractures, time delay from symptom onset to fracture, Bado classification, Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) which includes pain, range of motion and daily life comfort, surgeries, length of hospitalization, location and pattern of fracture, length of follow-up and complications...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154164/molecular-insights-into-inclusion-complexes-of-mansonone-e-and-h-enantiomers-with-various-%C3%AE-cyclodextrins
#19
Panupong Mahalapbutr, Bodee Nutho, Peter Wolschann, Warinthorn Chavasiri, Nawee Kungwan, Thanyada Rungrotmongkol
The structural dynamics and stability of inclusion complexes of mansonone E (ME) and H (MH) including their stereoisomers with various βCDs (methylated- and hydroxypropylated-βCDs) were investigated by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculations. The simulation results revealed that mansonones are able to form inclusion complexes with βCDs. The guest molecules are not completely inserted into the host cavity, their preferably positions are nearby the secondary rim with the oxane ring dipping into the hydrophobic inner cavity...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152327/proangiogenic-alginate-g-pyrrole-hydrogel-with-decoupled-control-of-mechanical-rigidity-and-electrically-conductivity
#20
Ross J DeVolder, Yongbeom Seo, Hyunjoon Kong
Background: An electrically conductive hydrogel has emerged to regulate cellular secretion activities with electrical stimulation. However, the electrical conductivity of typical hydrogel systems decreases with increasing elastic modulus of the hydrogels because of decreased transport of ions through a polymeric cross-linked mesh. Method: This study hypothesized that the inverse dependency between electrical conductivity and elastic modulus would be made through the cross-linking of conductive monomer-units conjugated to a hydrophilic polymeric backbone...
2017: Biomaterials Research
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