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Markus Köhler, Patrick Oßwald, Dominik Krueger, Ryan Whitside
This manuscript describes a high-temperature flow reactor experiment coupled to the powerful molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) technique. This flexible tool offers a detailed observation of chemical gas-phase kinetics in reacting flows under well-controlled conditions. The vast range of operating conditions available in a laminar flow reactor enables access to extraordinary combustion applications that are typically not achievable by flame experiments. These include rich conditions at high temperatures relevant for gasification processes, the peroxy chemistry governing the low temperature oxidation regime or investigations of complex technical fuels...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lisa N Chesner, Colin Campbell
The purpose of this method is to provide a flexible, rapid, and quantitative technique to examine the kinetics of DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) repair in mammalian cell lines. Rather than globally assaying removal of xenobiotic-induced or spontaneous chromosomal DPC removal, this assay examines the repair of a homogeneous, chemically defined lesion specifically introduced at one site within a plasmid DNA substrate. Importantly, this approach avoids the use of radioactive materials and is not dependent on expensive or highly-specialized technology...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tomislav Rončević, Damir Vukičević, Nada Ilić, Lucija Krce, Goran Gajski, Marija Tonkić, Ivana Goić-Barišić, Larisa Zoranić, Yogesh Sonavane, Monica Benincasa, Davor Juretić, Ana Maravić, Alessandro Tossi
Antimicrobial peptides often show broad-spectrum activity due to a mechanism based on bacterial membrane disruption, which also reduces development of permanent resistance, a desirable characteristic in view of the escalating multidrug resistance problem. Host cell toxicity however requires design of artificial variants of natural AMPs to increase selectivity and reduce side effects. Kiadins were designed using rules obtained from natural peptides active against E. coli and a validated computational algorithm based on a training set of such peptides, followed by rational conformational alterations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Hyun Ju, Dabin Park, Jooheon Kim
The fabrication of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)-doped polyaniline (PANI)-coated SnSe0.8S0.2 (PANI-SnSeS) nanosheets and their application to flexible thermoelectric composite films are demonstrated. The thermoelectric power factor of PANI-SnSeS nanosheets was optimized by manipulating the number of PANI coating cycles, and changes in their electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were investigated and analyzed by considering carrier transport properties. An optimized, solution-based procedure for introducing inorganic nanoparticles comprising PANI-SnSeS nanosheets into a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix maximized the power factor...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hua Xu, Jian Xin Xiang, Yi Fei Lu, Ming Kun Zhang, Jia Jia Li, Bingbing Gao, Yuanjin Zhao, Zhongze Gu
In this study, a multifunctional wearable sensing device based on two different graphene films is fabricated and can achieve simultaneous detection of physiological signals and VOC biomarkers without mutual signal interference. The wearable device was designed with two sensing components: on the upper layer of the device, four kinds of porphyrin-modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films were prepared and used for a sensor array that could sufficiently react with VOC vapors to achieve highly sensitive detection...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Piran R Kidambi, Dhanushkodi D Mariappan, Nicholas T Dee, Andrey Vyatskikh, Sui Zhang, Rohit Karnik, A John Hart
Scalable, cost-effective synthesis and integration of graphene is imperative to realize large-area applications such as nanoporous atomically thin membranes (NATMs). Here, we report a scalable route to the production of NATMs via high-speed, continuous synthesis of large-area graphene by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD), combined with casting of a hierarchically porous polymer support. To begin, we designed and built a two zone roll-to-roll graphene CVD reactor, which sequentially exposes the moving foil substrate to annealing and growth atmospheres, with a sharp, isothermal transition between the zones...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yasin Yurt, Gül Şener, Yavuz Yakut
BACKGROUND: Foot orthoses are widely used in conservative treatment of painful flexible flatfoot however research is limited to choose the best option in orthotic treatment. AIM: We aimed to compare the effects of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) and conventional insole types in comparison with sham insole, on pain and health related quality of life in patients with painful flexible flatfoot. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Yuan-Sheng Lee, Nirveek Bhattacharjee, Albert Folch
Here we demonstrate a 3D-printable microvalve that is transparent, built with a biocompatible resin, and has a simple architecture that can be easily scaled up into large arrays. The open-at-rest valve design is derived from Quake's PDMS valve design. We used a stereolithographic (SL) 3D printer to print a thin (25 or 10 μm-thick) membrane (1200 or 500 μm-diam.) that is pneumatically pressed (∼3-6 psi) over a bowl-shaped seat to close the valve. We used poly(ethylene diacrylate) (MW = 258) (PEG-DA-258) as the resin because it yields transparent cytocompatible prints...
March 19, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Jimmy Tat, Adam Hart, Adam Cota, Khalid Alsheikh, Dominique Behrends, Paul A Martineau
Distal biceps tendon ruptures are treated operatively in active healthy individuals. Treatment consists of either single- or double-incision techniques, each with its own set of advantages and complications. The double incision was traditionally preferred for a more anatomic reattachment of the distal biceps tendon, but there has been renewed interest in the single-incision anterior approach given its lower risk for heterotopic ossification. However, current single-incision techniques cannot achieve anatomic reconstruction of the distal biceps because of a restricted operational angle with standard rigid instruments...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Sailen Barik
The two classical immunophilin families, found essentially in all living cells, are: cyclophilin (CYN) and FK506-binding protein (FKBP). We previously reported a novel class of immunophilins that are natural chimera of these two, which we named dual-family immunophilin (DFI). The DFIs were found in either of two conformations: CYN-linker-FKBP (CFBP) or FKBP-3TPR-CYN (FCBP). While the 3TPR domain can serve as a flexible linker between the FKBP and CYN modules in the FCBP-type DFI, the linker sequences in the CFBP-type DFIs are relatively short, diverse in sequence, and contain no discernible motif or signature...
2018: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Nishant Patel, Ravi N Srinivasa, Joseph J Gemmete, Jeffrey Forris Beecham Chick
Biliary interventions are commonplace in interventional radiology. Occasionally, an anastomotic occlusion is encountered that cannot be traversed with fluoroscopy alone. Endoscopy is a tool that should be added to the interventional radiology armamentarium. Unfortunately, most departments do not have endoscopes regularly available for use by nonendoscopists. The disposable single-use flexible LithoVue scope has the potential to provide many applications for interventional radiologists. It is relatively low cost and is easy to use with a simple setup for novice endoscopists...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Yang-Hsueh Chen, Yu-Ju Lin
While self-regulation has long been recognized as an important characteristic of an individual, instruments assessing the general aptitude of self-regulation remain limited especially in Asian countries. This study re-validated Carey et al.'s (2004) Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire based on a national sample of Taiwanese college students ( N = 1,988). Item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) yielded 22 items in five internally consistent factors. Descriptive findings showed that, a lack of proactiveness and volitional control, and a decrease of self-regulation throughout the college span appeared to be an overarching problem among Taiwanese college students...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Hui Zhao, Mingsan Miao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the application characteristics of Zhongjing prescription topical Chinese medicine. METHODS: in this paper, according to the dosage form, Zhongjing topical agent will be divided into suppository, smoked lotion, apply is scattered, plug nasal powder four categories. Through an analysis on its books, records, and clinical applications, we are able to sum up the application characteristics of the zhongjing agent for external use. RESULTS: in the clinical medicine, topical Zhongjing prescription cure of the disease has a long history of the role, through the analysis of Zhongjing topical prescription whole thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking and characteristics of treatment technology that has the characteristics of topical drugs, dosage form differentiation flexible, external treatment for internal diseases, both inside and outside...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Linda Aimée Hartford Kvæl, Jonas Debesay, Anne Langaas, Asta Bye, Astrid Bergland
OBJECTIVE: Although the concept of patient participation has been discussed for a number of years, there is still no clear definition of what constitutes the multidimensional concept, and the application of the concept in an intermediate care (IC) context lacks clarity. Therefore this paper seeks to identify and explore the attributes of the concept, to elaborate ways of understanding the concept of patient participation for geriatric patients in the context of IC. METHODS: Walker and Avant's model of Concept analysis [1] based on a literature review...
March 5, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Vibhuti Agrahari, Vivek Agrahari
Block copolymers are widely utilized in the design of nanoformulations owing to their excellent physicochemical properties, flexible structure and functional chemistry. Advances in polymer synthetic approaches have significantly enhanced the ability to rationally design the block copolymers with tailor-made functionality and variable molecular weight. Hence, block copolymers have been extensively applied in the formulation of nanostructure materials. In this review, block copolymer classification, synthesis, characterization, stimuli-responsive behavior and nanostructure applications are summarized...
March 15, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Ke Ding, Xing Zhang, Jan Mrazek, Valerie A Kickhoefer, Mason Lai, Hwee L Ng, Otto O Yang, Leonard H Rome, Z Hong Zhou
Prior crystal structures of the vault have provided clues of its structural variability but are non-conclusive due to crystal packing. Here, we obtained vaults by engineering at the N terminus of rat major vault protein (MVP) an HIV-1 Gag protein segment and determined their near-atomic resolution (∼4.8 Å) structures in a solution/non-crystalline environment. The barrel-shaped vaults in solution adopt two conformations, 1 and 2, both with D39 symmetry. From the N to C termini, each MVP monomer has three regions: body, shoulder, and cap...
March 7, 2018: Structure
Silvana Konermann, Peter Lotfy, Nicholas J Brideau, Jennifer Oki, Maxim N Shokhirev, Patrick D Hsu
Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems endow microbes with diverse mechanisms for adaptive immunity. Here, we analyzed prokaryotic genome and metagenome sequences to identify an uncharacterized family of RNA-guided, RNA-targeting CRISPR systems that we classify as type VI-D. Biochemical characterization and protein engineering of seven distinct orthologs generated a ribonuclease effector derived from Ruminococcus flavefaciens XPD3002 (CasRx) with robust activity in human cells. CasRx-mediated knockdown exhibits high efficiency and specificity relative to RNA interference across diverse endogenous transcripts...
March 8, 2018: Cell
Yin Shuen Tan, Shao Wen Amanda Teo, Yiying Pei, Julia Huina Sng, Hong Wei Yap, Ying Pin Toh, Lalit K R Krishna
A consistent mentoring approach is key to unlocking the full benefits of mentoring, ensuring effective oversight of mentoring relationships and preventing abuse of mentoring. Yet consistency in mentoring between senior clinicians and medical students (novice mentoring) which dominate mentoring processes in medical schools is difficult to achieve particularly when mentors practice in both undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools. To facilitate a consistent approach to mentoring this review scrutinizes common aspects of mentoring in undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools to forward a framework for novice mentoring in medical schools...
March 17, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Amy E Mitchell, Koa Whittingham, Stanley Steindl, James Kirby
To evaluate the acceptability and potential utility of a small package of online resources designed to improve self-compassion for mothers of infants. A within-groups repeated-measures study design was used. A community sample of 262 mothers who were ≤ 24 months post-partum were given access to a set of online resources (two videos plus a tip sheet) that outlined simple techniques for increasing self-compassion drawn from compassion-focused therapy (CFT). Participants completed pre-intervention assessment, followed by post-intervention assessment 1 month later...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Victoria O'Callaghan, Richard Parker, Natalie Mills, Katherine M Kirk, Jan Scott, Anna Vinkhuyzen, Daniel F Hermens, Penelope A Lind, Tracey A Davenport, Jane M Burns, Melissa Connell, Brendan P Zietsch, James Scott, Margaret J Wright, Sarah E Medland, John McGrath, Nicholas G Martin, Ian B Hickie, Nathan A Gillespie
PURPOSE: The Nineteen and Up study (19Up) assessed a range of mental health and behavioural problems and associated risk factors in a genetically informative Australian cohort of young adult twins and their non-twin siblings. As such, 19Up enables detailed investigation of genetic and environmental pathways to mental illness and substance misuse within the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Sample (BLTS). PARTICIPANTS: Twins and their non-twin siblings from Queensland, Australia; mostly from European ancestry...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
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