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Yongmin Kim, Sheng-Min Wang, Kyung-Phil Kwak, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Chi-Un Pae, Jung-Jin Kim, Won-Myong Bahk
Objective: Despite numerous atypical antipsychotics (AAP) available, many patients with schizophrenia still experience lack of efficacy and persistent side-effects. Switching from one AAP to another with a different side-effect profile has become a common clinical strategy. We aimed to investigate effect of switching to amisulpride in patients who showed suboptimal effect and /or tolerability to current antipsychotics treatment. Methods: This was a 6-week, prospective, multicenter, open-label, flexible-dose study in patients with schizophrenia...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
E J Bluett, E B Lee, M Simone, G Lockhart, M P Twohig, Tera Lensegrav-Benson, Benita Quakenbush-Roberts
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test whether pre-treatment levels of psychological flexibility would longitudinally predict quality of life and eating disorder risk in patients at a residential treatment facility for eating disorders. METHOD: Data on body image psychological flexibility, quality of life, and eating disorder risk were collected from 63 adolescent and 50 adult, female, residential patients (N=113) diagnosed with an eating disorder. These same measures were again collected at post-treatment...
October 19, 2016: Eating Behaviors
Yuchen Gao, Xin Xiong, Spencer Wong, Emeric J Charles, Wendell A Lim, Lei S Qi
The ability to dynamically manipulate the transcriptome is important for studying how gene networks direct cellular functions and how network perturbations cause disease. Nuclease-dead CRISPR-dCas9 transcriptional regulators, while offering an approach for controlling individual gene expression, remain incapable of dynamically coordinating complex transcriptional events. Here, we describe a flexible dCas9-based platform for chemical-inducible complex gene regulation. From a screen of chemical- and light-inducible dimerization systems, we identified two potent chemical inducers that mediate efficient gene activation and repression in mammalian cells...
October 24, 2016: Nature Methods
Fan-Ching Chien, Yang-Hong Dai, Chiung Wen Kuo, Peilin Chen
Flexible polymer nanopillar substrates were used to systematically demonstrate cell alignment and migration guided by the directional formation of focal adhesions. The polymer nanopillar substrates were constructed to various height specifications to provide an extensive variation of flexibility; a rectangular arrangement created spatial confinement between adjacent nanopillars, providing less spacing in the horizontal and vertical directions. Three polymer nanopillar substrates with the diameter of 400 nm and the heights of 400, 800, and 1200 nm were fabricated...
October 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
Imelda Ryona, Jack Henion
Despite many benefits including simple point-of-care sample collection, reduced costs, and simplified shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) techniques have faced adoption resistance such as the hematocrit (Hct) effects and the established preference for bioanalysis of plasma rather than whole blood. One way to potentially circumvent these challenges is to adopt the concept of a dried plasma spot (DPS) technique. One approach to accomplishing this is through an on-card red blood cell (RBC) filtration to generate plasma from whole blood without the need for centrifugation...
October 24, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Marta Franceschi, Lucia Seminara, Strahinja Dosen, Matjia Strbac, Maurizio Valle, Dario Farina
Myoelectric prostheses are successfully controlled using muscle electrical activity, thereby restoring lost motor functions. However, the somatosensory feedback from the prosthesis to the user is still missing. The sensory substitution methods described in the literature comprise mostly simple position and force sensors combined with discrete stimulation units. The present study describes a novel system for sophisticated electrotactile feedback integrating advanced distributed sensing (electronic skin) and stimulation (matrix electrodes)...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Yongwei Nie, Zhensong Zhang, Hanqiu Sun, Tan Su, Guiqing Li
Wide-baseline street image interpolation is useful but very challenging. Existing approaches either rely on heavyweight 3D reconstruction or computationally intensive deep networks. We present a lightweight and efficient method which uses simple homography computing and refining operators to estimate piecewise smooth homographies between input views. To achieve the goal, we show how to combine homography fitting and homography propagation together based on reliable and unreliable superpixel discrimination. Such a combination, other than using homography fitting only, dramatically increases the accuracy and robustness of the estimated homographies...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Chong Sun, Dong Wang, Huchuan Lu
In this paper, we propose an effective person reidentification method with latent variables, which represents a pedestrian as the mixture of a holistic model and a number of flexible models. Three types of latent variables are introduced to model uncertain factors in the re-identification problem, including vertical misalignments, horizontal misalignments and leg posture variations. The distance between two pedestrians can be determined by minimizing a given distance function with respect to latent variables, and then be used to conduct the re-identification task...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Yang Cong, Ji Liu, Gan Sun, Quanzeng You, Yuncheng Li, Jiebo Luo
Initializing an effective dictionary is an indispensable step for sparse representation. In this paper, we focus on the dictionary selection problem with the objective to select a compact subset of basis from original training data instead of learning a new dictionary matrix as dictionary learning models do. We first design a new dictionary selection model via `2;0 norm. For model optimization, we propose two methods: one is the standard forward-backward greedy algorithm, which is not suitable for large-scale problems; the other is based on the gradient cues at each forward iteration and speeds up the process dramatically...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Tanya T Nguyen, Sanja Kovacevic, Sheena I Dev, Kun Lu, Thomas T Liu, Lisa T Eyler
Objective: Disturbances in functional connectivity have been suggested to contribute to cognitive and emotion processing deficits observed in bipolar disorder (BD). Functional connectivity between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions may be particularly abnormal. The goal of the present study was to characterize the temporal dynamics of the default mode network (DMN) connectivity in BD and examine its association with cognition. Method: In a preliminary study, euthymic BD (n = 15) and healthy comparison (HC, n = 19) participants underwent resting-state functional MRI, using high-resolution sequences adapted from the Human Connectome Project, and completed neuropsychological measures of processing speed and executive function...
October 24, 2016: Neuropsychology
Emily S Walker, Seung Ryul Na, Daehwan Jung, Stephen D March, Joon-Seok Kim, Tanuj Trivedi, Wei Li, Li Tao, Minjoo L Lee, Kenneth M Liechti, Deji Akinwande, Seth R Bank
We report the first direct dry transfer of a single-crystalline thin film grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A double cantilever beam fracture technique was used to transfer epitaxial bismuth thin films grown on silicon (111) to silicon strips coated with epoxy. The transferred bismuth films retained electrical, optical, and structural properties comparable to the as-grown epitaxial films. Additionally, we isolated the bismuth thin films on freestanding flexible cured-epoxy post-transfer. The adhesion energy at the bismuth/silicon interface was measured to be ∼1 J/m(2), comparable to that of exfoliated and wet transferred graphene...
October 24, 2016: Nano Letters
Wojciech Pulawski, Michal Jamroz, Michal Kolinski, Andrzej Kolinski, Sebastian Kmiecik
The CABS coarse-grained model is a well-established tool for modeling globular proteins (predicting their structure, dynamics and interactions). Here we introduce an extension of CABS representation and force field (CABS-membrane) to the modeling of the effect of biological membrane environment on the structure of membrane proteins. We validate the CABS-membrane model in folding simulations of 10 short helical membrane proteins not using any knowledge about their structure. The simulations start from random protein conformations placed outside the membrane environment and allow for full flexibility of the modeled proteins during their spontaneous insertion into the membrane...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Yana K Rennie, Patrick J McIntyre, Tito Akindele, Richard Bayliss, Andrew G Jamieson
Inhibition of protein kinases using ATP-competitive compounds is an important strategy in drug discovery. In contrast, the allosteric regulation of kinases through the disruption of protein-protein interactions has not been widely adopted, despite the potential for selective targeting. Aurora-A kinase regulates mitotic entry and mitotic spindle assembly, and is a promising target for anti-cancer therapy. The microtubule-associated protein TPX2 activates Aurora-A through binding to two sites. Aurora-A recognition is mediated by two motifs within the first 43 residues of TPX2, connected by a flexible linker...
October 24, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
J S Kłos, J-U Sommer
We study the conformational properties of dendrimers with flexible spacers in solutions over a wide range of concentrations from dilute solutions to melts. By combining large scale computer simulations using the bond fluctuation model with scaling arguments we identify the semi-dilute regime of dendrimers which is controlled by the concentration behavior of the linear spacers. Associated with this observation we find that the decrease in the size of flexible dendrimers is accompanied by increasing interpenetration between the molecules with increasing concentration of the solution...
October 24, 2016: Soft Matter
Sarah J Davis, Gillian L Vale, Steven J Schapiro, Susan P Lambeth, Andrew Whiten
A vital prerequisite for cumulative culture, a phenomenon often asserted to be unique to humans, is the ability to modify behaviour and flexibly switch to more productive or efficient alternatives. Here, we first established an inefficient solution to a foraging task in five captive chimpanzee groups (N = 19). Three groups subsequently witnessed a conspecific using an alternative, more efficient, solution. When participants could successfully forage with their established behaviours, most individuals did not switch to this more efficient technique; however, when their foraging method became substantially less efficient, nine chimpanzees with socially-acquired information (four of whom witnessed additional human demonstrations) relinquished their old behaviour in favour of the more efficient one...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Takao Matsumoto, Yeong-Gi So, Yuji Kohno, Hidetaka Sawada, Ryo Ishikawa, Yuichi Ikuhara, Naoya Shibata
The interactions between magnetic skyrmions and structural defects, such as edges, dislocations, and grain boundaries (GBs), which are all considered as topological defects, will be important issues when magnetic skyrmions are utilized for future memory device applications. To investigate such interactions, simultaneous visualization of magnetic skyrmions and structural defects at high spatial resolution, which is not feasible by conventional techniques, is essential. Here, taking advantages of aberration-corrected differential phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy, we investigate the interaction of magnetic skyrmions with a small-angle GB in a thin film of FeGe1-xSix...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chaoxiong Ye, Zhonghua Hu, Tapani Ristaniemi, Maria Gendron, Qiang Liu
In visual working memory (VWM) tasks, participants' performance can be improved by a retro-object-cue. However, previous studies have not investigated whether participants' performance can also be improved by a retro-dimension-cue. Three experiments investigated this issue. We used a recall task with a retro-dimension-cue in all experiments. In Experiment 1, we found benefits from retro-dimension-cues compared to neutral cues. This retro-dimension-cue benefit is reflected in an increased probability of reporting the target, but not in the probability of reporting the non-target, as well as increased precision with which this item is remembered...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rebekka Wild, Michael Hothorn
Obtaining well-ordered crystals remains a significant challenge in protein X-ray crystallography. Carrier-driven crystallization can facilitate crystal formation and structure solution of difficult target proteins. We obtained crystals of the small and highly flexible SPX domain from the yeast vacuolar transporter chaperone 4 (Vtc4) when fused to a C-terminal, non-cleavable macro tag derived from human histone macroH2A1.1. Initial crystals diffracted to 3.3 Å resolution. Reductive protein methylation of the fusion protein yielded a new crystal form diffracting to 2...
October 24, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
B Bellana, Z-X Liu, N B Diamond, C L Grady, M Moscovitch
The default mode network (DMN) has been identified reliably during rest, as well as during the performance of tasks such as episodic retrieval and future imagining. It remains unclear why this network is engaged across these seemingly distinct conditions, though many hypotheses have been proposed to account for these effects. Prior to generating hypotheses explaining common DMN involvement, the degree of commonality in the DMN across these conditions, within individuals, must be statistically determined to test whether or not the DMN is truly a unitary network, equally engaged across rest, retrieval and future imagining...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Nelli Erwin, Satyajit Patra, Roland Winter
The ubiquitous Ca(2+)-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) interacts with more than 300 diverse target proteins that are involved in numerous signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. This unique promiscuous target binding behavior and the underlying functional versatility of CaM is a result of its structural flexibility. CaM spans multiple conformational substates in solution providing adaptable binding surfaces for different target proteins. The conformational space of this protein needs to be explored to shed more light on the mechanism of target recognition and protein function...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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