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Paracrine activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330929/adipocytes-affect-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells-to-develop-the-resistance-to-cytotoxic-action-of-nk-cells-with-alterations-of-pd-l1-nkg2d-ligand-levels-in-tumor-cells
#1
Lijun Xu, Mingjing Shen, Xiaodong Chen, Rongying Zhu, Dong-Rong Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C Keng, Yuhchyau Chen, Soo Ok Lee
BACKGROUND: Obesity affects prostate cancer (PCa) progression, and the periprostatic adipose tissue adjacent to the prostate is considered a driving force of disease progression. Adipocytes are the main cell population in adipose tissues and their paracrine role contributes to PCa progression, however its implication in modulating immune reactions remains largely unknown. We investigated the adipocyte role in controlling the susceptibility of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) cells to the cytotoxic action of natural killer (NK) cells...
January 12, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329638/role-of-the-il-33-st2l-axis-in-colorectal-cancer-progression
#2
Miho Akimoto, Keizo Takenaga
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) has been identified as a natural ligand of ST2L. IL-33 primarily acts as a key regulator of Th2 responses through binding to ST2L, which is antagonized by soluble ST2 (sST2). The IL-33/ST2L axis is involved in various inflammatory pathologies, including ulcerative colitis (UC). Several recent investigations have also suggested that the IL-33/ST2L axis plays a role in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. In CRC, tumor- and stroma-derived IL-33 may activate ST2L on various cell types in an autocrine and paracrine manner...
January 9, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325547/paracrine-and-epigenetic-control-of-caf-induced-metastasis-the-role-of-hotair-stimulated-by-tgf-%C3%A3-1-secretion
#3
Yu Ren, Huan-Huan Jia, Yi-Qi Xu, Xuan Zhou, Xiao-Hui Zhao, Yun-Fei Wang, Xin Song, Zhi-Yan Zhu, Ting Sun, Yan Dou, Wei-Ping Tian, Xiu-Lan Zhao, Chun-Sheng Kang, Mei Mei
BACKGROUND: The communication between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and cancer cells facilitate tumor metastasis. In this study, we further underlying the epigenetic mechanisms of CAFs feed the cancer cells and the molecular mediators involved in these processes. METHODS: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with CAFs culture conditioned medium, respectively. Cytokine antibody array, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to identify the key chemokines...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323156/ischemia-induced-neuronal-cell-death-is-mediated-by-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1
#4
Jinkun Wang, Yan Gan, Pengcheng Han, Junxiang Yin, Qingwei Liu, Soha Ghanian, Feng Gao, Guanghui Gong, Zhiwei Tang
The chemokine fractalkine (CX3CL1) and its receptor CX3CR1 play a fundamental role in the pathophysiology of stroke. Previous studies have focused on a paracrine interaction between neurons that produce fractalkine and microglia that express CX3CR1 receptors in the central nervous system. Recent findings have demonstrated the functional expression of CX3CR1 receptors by hippocampal neurons, suggesting their involvement in neuroprotective and neurodegenerative actions. To elucidate the roles of neuronal CX3CR1 in neurodegeneration induced by ischemic stroke, a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) was employed...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321175/upregulation-of-gh-but-not-igf1-in-the-hippocampus-of-the-lactating-dam-after-kainic-acid-injury
#5
Elvira C Arellanes-Licea, Jose Avila-Mendoza, Elizabeth C Ramirez-Martinez, Eugenia Ramos, Nancy Uribe-Gonzalez, Carlos Aramburo, Teresa Morales, Maricela Luna
Lactation embodies a natural model of morphological, neurochemical, and functional brain plasticity. In this reproductive stage, the hippocampus of the female is less sensitive to excitotoxins in contrast to nulliparity. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) are known to be neuroprotective in several experimental models of brain lesion. Here, activation of the GH-IGF1 pituitary-brain axis following kainic acid (7.5 mg/kg ip KA) lesion was studied in lactating and nulliparous rats. Serum concentrations of GH and IGF1 were uncoupled in lactation...
January 10, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318960/the-role-of-inflammation-in-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-heart-diseases
#6
Zdenek Matloch, Anna Cinkajzlova, Milos Mraze, Martin Haluzik
Epicardial adipose tissue is not only a specific adipose tissue depot but also an active endocrine organ producing numerous substances with an important role in the development of obesity-related heart diseases. It is located between myocardium and visceral pericardium and consists predominantly of adipocytes, immunocompetent cells, ganglia and interconnecting nerve branches. Several studies documented a positive correlation between pericardial and epicardial fat and left ventricular hypertrophy and septal thickening, leading to diastolic dysfunction, electrocardiographic abnormalities and facilitating cardiac failure...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309331/adipose-derived-tissue-in-the-treatment-of-dermal-fibrosis-antifibrotic-effects-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#7
Anna A Borovikova, Mary E Ziegler, Derek A Banyard, Garrett A Wirth, Keyianoosh Z Paydar, Gregory R D Evans, Alan David Widgerow
Treatment of hypertrophic scars and other fibrotic skin conditions with autologous fat injections shows promising clinical results; however, the underlying mechanisms of its antifibrotic action have not been comprehensively studied. Adipose-derived stem cells, or stromal cell-derived factors, inherent components of the transplanted fat tissue, seem to be responsible for its therapeutic effects on difficult scars. The mechanisms by which this therapeutic effect takes place are diverse and are mostly mediated by paracrine signaling, which switches on various antifibrotic molecular pathways, modulates the activity of the central profibrotic transforming growth factor β/Smad pathway, and normalizes functioning of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the recipient site...
January 5, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308613/effect-of-transplantation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-conditioned-medium-on-ovarian-function-morphology-and-cell-death-in-cyclophosphamide-treated-rats
#8
Nasrin Khanmohammadi, Hamid Reza Sameni, Moslem Mohammadi, Abbas Pakdel, Majid Mirmohammadkhani, Houman Parsaie, Sam Zarbakhsh
OBJECTIVES: Although stem cell transplantation has beneficial effects on tissue regeneration, but there are still problems such as high cost and safety issues. Since stem cell therapy is largely dependent on paracrine activity, in this study, utilization of transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)-secretome instead of the cells, into damaged ovaries was evaluated to overcome the limitations of stem cell transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, BMSCs were cultured and 25-fold concentrated conditioned medium (CM) from BMSCs was prepared...
April 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298862/deregulation-of-hippo-taz-pathway-during-renal-injury-confers-a-fibrotic-maladaptive-phenotype
#9
Sandybell Anorga, Jessica M Overstreet, Lucas L Falke, Jiaqi Tang, Roel G Goldschmeding, Paul J Higgins, Rohan Samarakoon
Although yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), nuclear transducers of the Hippo pathway, are mostly silent in adult organs, aberrant activation of YAP/TAZ promotes tumorigenesis and abnormal tissue repair. The extent of involvement of TAZ in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. In our study, increased TAZ nuclear accumulation and expression in the tubulointerstitium was readily evident in 3 models of renal injury including obstructive, aristolochic acid (AA), and diabetic nephropathy, correlating with fibrosis progression...
January 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297621/amnion-epithelial-cell-derived-exosomes-restrict-lung-injury-and-enhance-endogenous-lung-repair
#10
Jean L Tan, Sin N Lau, Bryan Leaw, Hong P T Nguyen, Lois A Salamonsen, Mohamed I Saad, Siow T Chan, Dandan Zhu, Mirja Krause, Carla Kim, William Sievert, Euan M Wallace, Rebecca Lim
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by chronic inflammation, severe scarring, and stem cell senescence. Stem cell-based therapies modulate inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways by release of soluble factors. Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles should be explored as a potential therapy for IPF. Human amnion epithelial cell-derived exosomes (hAEC Exo) were isolated and compared against human lung fibroblasts exosomes. hAEC Exo were assessed as a potential therapy for lung fibrosis. Exosomes were isolated and evaluated for their protein and miRNA cargo...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296744/substrate-bound-ccl21-and-icam1-combined-with-soluble-il-6-collectively-augment-the-expansion-of-antigen-specific-murine-cd4-t-cells
#11
Shimrit Adutler-Lieber, Irina Zaretsky, Helena Sabany, Elena Kartvelishvily, Ofra Golani, Benjamin Geiger, Nir Friedman
Immune processes within the complex microenvironment of the lymph node involve multiple intercellular, cell-matrix, and paracrine interactions, resulting in the expansion of antigen-specific T cells. Inspired by the lymph node microenvironment, we aimed to develop an ex vivo "synthetic immune niche" (SIN), which could effectively stimulate the proliferation of antigen-activated CD4+ T cells. This engineered SIN consisted of surfaces coated with the chemokine C-C motif ligand 21 (CCL21) and with the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), coupled with the soluble cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) added to the culture medium...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290800/exosomes-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood-accelerate-cutaneous-wound-healing-through-mir-21-3p-mediated-promotion-of-angiogenesis-and-fibroblast-function
#12
Yin Hu, Shan-Shan Rao, Zhen-Xing Wang, Jia Cao, Yi-Juan Tan, Juan Luo, Hong-Ming Li, Wei-She Zhang, Chun-Yuan Chen, Hui Xie
The application of blood plasma for soft tissue wound healing is receiving much more attention recently. Exosomes are critical paracrine mediators that can be obtained from biological fluids including plasma and be able to induce regenerative effects by transferring bioactive molecules such as microRNAs (miRNAs). This study aimed to investigate the effects of exosomes from human umbilical cord blood plasma (UCB-Exos) on wound healing and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Methods: UCB-Exos were isolated by ultracentrifugation and subcutaneously injected into full-thickness skin wounds in mice...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281806/stem-cell-inspired-secretome-rich-injectable-hydrogel-to-repair-injured-cardiac-tissue
#13
Renae Waters, Perwez Alam, Settimio Pacelli, Aparna R Chakravarti, Rafeeq P H Ahmed, Arghya Paul
The objective of this study was to develop an injectable and biocompatible hydrogel that can deliver a cocktail of therapeutic biomolecules (secretome) secreted by human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) to the peri-infarct myocardium. Gelatin and Laponite® were combined to formulate a shear-thinning, nanocomposite hydrogel (nSi Gel) as an injectable carrier of secretome (nSi Gel+). The growth factor composition and the pro-angiogenic activity of the secretome were tested in vitro by evaluating the proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells...
December 24, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280266/senescence-promotes-in%C3%A2-vivo-reprogramming-through-p16ink4a-and-il-6
#14
Lluc Mosteiro, Cristina Pantoja, Alba de Martino, Manuel Serrano
Cellular senescence is a damage response aimed to orchestrate tissue repair. We have recently reported that cellular senescence, through the paracrine release of interleukin-6 (IL6) and other soluble factors, strongly favors cellular reprogramming by Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM) in nonsenescent cells. Indeed, activation of OSKM in mouse tissues triggers senescence in some cells and reprogramming in other cells, both processes occurring concomitantly and in close proximity. In this system, Ink4a/Arf-null tissues cannot undergo senescence, fail to produce IL6, and cannot reprogram efficiently; whereas p53-null tissues undergo extensive damage and senescence, produce high levels of IL6, and reprogram efficiently...
December 27, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278511/the-adrenal-gland-microenvironment-in-health-disease-and-during-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
Waldemar Kanczkowski, Mariko Sue, Stefan R Bornstein
The adrenal gland is a key component of the stress system in the human body. Multiple direct and paracrine interactions between different cell types and their progenitors take place within the adrenal gland microenvironment. These unique interactions are supported by high vascularization and the adrenal cortex extracellular matrix. Alterations in the adrenal gland microenvironment are known to influence the progression of several pathological conditions, such as obesity and sepsis, and to be influenced by these disorders...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277675/the-inhibitory-influence-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-environment-and-wnt-antagonism-on-breast-tumour-cell-lines
#16
Malini Visweswaran, Frank Arfuso, Rodney J Dilley, Philip Newsholme, Arun Dharmarajan
Tumours exhibit a heterogeneous mix of cell types that reciprocally regulate their growth in the tumour stroma, considerably affecting the progression of the disease. Both adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and Wnt signalling pathway are vital in driving breast tumour growth. Hence, we examined the effect of secreted factors released by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and further explored the anti-tumour property of the Wnt antagonist secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast tumour cells...
December 19, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276753/indian-hedgehog-suppresses-a-stromal-cell-driven-intestinal-immune-response
#17
B Florien Westendorp, Nikè V J A Büller, Olga N Karpus, Willemijn A van Dop, Jan Koster, Rogier Versteeg, Pim J Koelink, Clinton Y Snel, Sander Meisner, Joris J T H Roelofs, Anja Uhmann, Emiel Ver Loren van Themaat, Jarom Heijmans, Heidi Hahn, Vanesa Muncan, Manon E Wildenberg, Gijs R van den Brink
Background & Aims: Upon intestinal epithelial damage a complex wound healing response is initiated to restore epithelial integrity and defend against pathogenic invasion. Epithelium-derived Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) functions as a critical sensor in this process. Signaling occurs in a paracrine manner because the receptor for Ihh is expressed only in the mesenchyme, but the exact Hedgehog target cell has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to elucidate further the nature of this target cell in the context of intestinal inflammation...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275861/natural-killer-cells-control-tumor-growth-by-sensing-a-growth-factor
#18
Alexander D Barrow, Melissa A Edeling, Vladimir Trifonov, Jingqin Luo, Piyush Goyal, Benjamin Bohl, Jennifer K Bando, Albert H Kim, John Walker, Mary Andahazy, Mattia Bugatti, Laura Melocchi, William Vermi, Daved H Fremont, Sarah Cox, Marina Cella, Christian Schmedt, Marco Colonna
Many tumors produce platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-DD, which promotes cellular proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stromal reaction, and angiogenesis through autocrine and paracrine PDGFRβ signaling. By screening a secretome library, we found that the human immunoreceptor NKp44, encoded by NCR2 and expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and innate lymphoid cells, recognizes PDGF-DD. PDGF-DD engagement of NKp44 triggered NK cell secretion of interferon gamma (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) that induced tumor cell growth arrest...
December 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274429/retinoic-acid-synthesis-by-ng2-expressing-cells-promotes-a-permissive-environment-for-axonal-outgrowth
#19
Maria B Goncalves, Yue Wu, Diogo Trigo, Earl Clarke, Tony Malmqvist, John Grist, Carl Hobbs, Thomas Carlstedt, Jonathan P T Corcoran
Stimulation of retinoic acid (RA) mediated signalling pathways following neural injury leads to regeneration in the adult nervous system and numerous studies have shown that the specific activation of the retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) is required for this process. Here we identify a novel mechanism by which neuronal RARβ activation results in the endogenous synthesis of RA which is released in association with exosomes and acts as a positive cue to axonal/neurite outgrowth. Using an established rodent model of RARβ induced axonal regeneration, we show that neuronal RARβ activation upregulates the enzymes involved in RA synthesis in a cell specific manner; alcohol dehydrogenase7 (ADH7) in neurons and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) in NG2 expressing cells (NG2+ cells)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274272/the-role-of-the-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-in-cancer-a-comprehensive-review
#20
REVIEW
Ana Marija Skoda, Dora Simovic, Valentina Karin, Vedran Kardum, Semir Vranic, Ljiljana Serman
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway was first identified in the common fruit fly. It is a highly conserved evolutionary pathway of signal transmission from the cell membrane to the nucleus. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in the embryonic development. It exerts its biological effects through a signaling cascade that culminates in a change of balance between activator and repressor forms of glioma-associated oncogene (Gli) transcription factors. The components of the Hh signaling pathway involved in the signaling transfer to the Gli transcription factors include Hedgehog ligands (Sonic Hh [SHh], Indian Hh [IHh], and Desert Hh [DHh]), Patched receptor (Ptch1, Ptch2), Smoothened receptor, Suppressor of fused homolog, kinesin-7, protein kinase A, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP)...
December 23, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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