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Paracrine activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534511/stromal-derived-igf2-promotes-colon-cancer-progression-via-paracrine-and-autocrine-mechanisms
#1
C Unger, N Kramer, D Unterleuthner, M Scherzer, A Burian, A Rudisch, M Stadler, M Schlederer, D Lenhardt, A Riedl, S Walter, A Wernitznig, L Kenner, M Hengstschläger, J Schüler, W Sommergruber, H Dolznig
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)2/IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling axis has an important role in intestinal carcinogenesis and overexpression of IGF2 is an accepted risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Genetic amplifications and loss of imprinting contribute to the upregulation of IGF2, but insufficiently explain the extent of IGF2 expression in a subset of patients. Here, we show that IGF2 was specifically induced in the tumor stroma of CRC and identified cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) as the major source...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534507/cecr1-mediated-cross-talk-between-macrophages-and-vascular-mural-cells-promotes-neovascularization-in-malignant-glioma
#2
C Zhu, I Chrifi, D Mustafa, M van der Weiden, P J M Leenen, D J Duncker, J M Kros, C Cheng
Glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) are most malignant brain tumors characterized by profound vascularization. The activation of macrophages strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis during GBM development. Previously, we showed that extracellular adenosine deaminase protein Cat Eye Syndrome Critical Region Protein 1 (CECR1) is highly expressed by M2-like macrophages in GBM where it defines macrophage M2 polarization and contributes to tumor expansion. In this study, the effect of CECR1 in macrophages on tumor angiogenesis was investigated...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534085/atp-induced-ca-2-signalling-mechanisms-in-the-regulation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration
#3
REVIEW
Lin-Hua Jiang, Fatema Mousawi, Xuebin Yang, Sėbastien Roger
The ability of cells to migrate to the destined tissues or lesions is crucial for physiological processes from tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis and immune responses, and also for stem cell-based regenerative medicines. Cytosolic Ca(2+) is a primary second messenger in the control and regulation of a wide range of cell functions including cell migration. Extracellular ATP, together with the cognate receptors on the cell surface, ligand-gated ion channel P2X receptors and a subset of G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors, represents common autocrine and/or paracrine Ca(2+) signalling mechanisms...
May 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529328/perivascular-adipose-tissue-epiphenomenon-or-local-risk-factor
#4
REVIEW
K Schäfer, I Drosos, S Konstantinides
Obesity is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying the link between increased body weight and vascular disease are incompletely understood. Over the past 15 years, perivascular adipose tissue has emerged as active component of the vessel wall involved in vascular homeostasis. However, perivascular adipose tissue can adopt detrimental properties under the influence of obesity and other factors and contribute actively to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Conversely, changes of the vessel wall may negatively affect perivascular adipose tissue qualities...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525896/activation-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-ii-by-am1241-protects-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-oxidative-damage-and-enhances-their-therapeutic-efficacy-in-myocardial-infarction-mice-via-stat3-activation
#5
Dong Han, Xiang Li, Wen-Si Fan, Jiang-Wei Chen, Tian-Tian Gou, Tao Su, Miao-Miao Fan, Meng-Qi Xu, Ya-Bin Wang, Sai Ma, Ya Qiu, Feng Cao
The poor survival of cells in ischemic sites diminishes the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell therapy. Previously we and others have reported that Cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) is protective during heart ischemic injury for its anti-oxidative activity. However, whether CB2 activation could improve the survival and therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in ischemic myocardium and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we showed evidence that CB2 agonist AM1241 treatment could improve the functional survival of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in vitro as well as in vivo...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525384/secretome-analysis-of-breast-cancer-associated-adipose-tissue-to-identify-paracrine-regulators-of-breast-cancer-growth
#6
Lapeire Lore, Hendrix An, Lecoutere Evelyne, Van Bockstal Mieke, Vandesompele Jo, Maynard Dawn, Braems Geert, Van Den Broecke Rudy, Müller Cathérine, Bracke Marc, Cocquyt Véronique, Denys Hannelore, De Wever Olivier
Adipose tissue secretes a plethora of adipokines as evidenced by characterization of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue secretomes. However, adipose tissue composition and secretion pattern is depot and disease dependent, influencing the adipose tissue secretome. We investigated the secretome of cancer-associated adipose tissue (CAAT) explants from breast cancer patients and explored its role in breast cancer proliferation. CAAT proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and human protein antibody arrays and stimulated proliferation of three breast cancer cell lines...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524456/endothelial-microparticles-released-by-activated-protein-c-protect-beta-cells-through-epcr-par1-and-annexin-a1-fpr2-pathways-in-islets
#7
Guillaume Kreutter, Mohamad Kassem, Ali El Habhab, Philippe Baltzinger, Malak Abbas, Julie Boisrame-Helms, Lamia Amoura, Jean Peluso, Blandine Yver, Zobairi Fatiha, Geneviève Ubeaud-Sequier, Laurence Kessler, Florence Toti
Islet transplantation is associated with early ischaemia/reperfusion, localized coagulation and redox-sensitive endothelial dysfunction. In animal models, islet cytoprotection by activated protein C (aPC) restores islet vascularization and protects graft function, suggesting that aPC triggers various lineages. aPC also prompts the release of endothelial MP that bear EPCR, its specific receptor. Microparticles (MP) are plasma membrane procoagulant vesicles, surrogate markers of stress and cellular effectors...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521061/extracellular-camp-activates-molecular-signalling-pathways-associated-with-sperm-capacitation-in-bovines
#8
Carlos Agustín I Alonso, Claudia E Osycka-Salut, Luciana Castellano, Andreína Cesari, Nicolás Di Siervi, Adrián Mutto, Anders Johannisson, Jane M Morrell, Carlos Davio, Silvina Perez-Martinez
STUDY QUESTION: Is extracellular cAMP involved in the regulation of signalling pathways in bovine sperm capacitation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Extracellular cAMP-induced sperm capacitation through the activation of different signalling pathways that involve phospholipase C (PLC), PKC/ERK1-2 signalling and an increase in sperm Ca2+ levels, as well as soluble AC and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In order to fertilize the oocyte, ejaculated spermatozoa must undergo a series of changes in the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520923/decrease-in-expression-of-hoxa10-in-the-decidua-after-embryo-implantation-promotes-trophoblast-invasion
#9
Geeta Godbole, Pankaj Suman, Ankita Malik, Mosami Galvankar, Niraj Joshi, Asgerally Fazleabas, Satish Kumar Gupta, Deepak Modi
A central step towards successful pregnancy involves invasion of the trophoblast cells into the decidua for placentation. Herein, we show that in the human and baboon decidua, HOXA10 expression is downregulated post-implantation and this reduction is most prominent in the decidual cells juxtaposed to the invading placental villi. Intriguingly, the supernatants derived from HOXA10 depleted human decidual cells increase the invasiveness of the trophoblast cell lines ACH-3P and JEG3 in vitro; this increase is due to higher expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and reduced expression of tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) in both the cell lines...
May 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518141/caf-secreted-cxcl1-conferred-radioresistance-by-regulating-dna-damage-response-in-a-ros-dependent-manner-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Hongfang Zhang, Jing Yue, Zhenzhen Jiang, Rongjing Zhou, Ruifei Xie, Yiping Xu, Shixiu Wu
Five-year survival rate of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients treated with radiotherapy is <20%. Our study aimed to investigate whether cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), one major component of tumor microenvironment, were involved in tumor radioresistance in ESCC. By use of human chemokine/cytokine array, human chemokine CXCL1 was found to be highly expressed in CAFs compared with that in matched normal fibroblasts. Inhibition of CXCL1 expression in CAFs significantly reversed CAF-conferred radioresistance in vitro and in vivo...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515430/a-microfluidic-chip-for-screening-individual-cancer-cells-via-eavesdropping-on-autophagy-inducing-crosstalk-in-the-stroma-niche
#11
Hacer Ezgi Karakas, Junyoung Kim, Juhee Park, Jung Min Oh, Yongjun Choi, Devrim Gozuacik, Yoon-Kyoung Cho
Autophagy is a cellular homeostatic mechanism where proteins and organelles are digested and recycled to provide an alternative source of building blocks and energy to cells. The role of autophagy in cancer microenvironment is still poorly understood. Here, we present a microfluidic system allowing monitoring of the crosstalk between single cells. We used this system to study how tumor cells induced autophagy in the stromal niche. Firstly, we could confirm that transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) secreted from breast tumor cells is a paracrine mediator of tumor-stroma interaction leading to the activation of autophagy in the stroma component fibroblasts...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515224/activin-a-regulates-activation-of-mouse-neutrophils-by-smad3-signalling
#12
Yan Qi, Jingyan Ge, Chunhui Ma, Na Wu, Xueling Cui, Zhonghui Liu
Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, acts as a pro-inflammatory factor in acute phase response, and influences the pathological progress of neutrophil-mediated disease. However, whether activin A can exert an effect on the activities of neutrophils remains unclear. In this study, we found that the release of activin A was enhanced from neutrophils of mouse when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, neutrophils were not only the source of activin A but also the target cells in response to activin A, in which canonical activin signalling components existed, and levels of ACTRIIA, SMAD3 and p-SMAD3 proteins were elevated in activin A-treated neutrophils...
May 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512448/the-potential-role-of-contraction-induced-myokines-in-the-regulation-of-metabolic-function-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Brian P Carson
Skeletal muscle represents the largest organ in the body, comprises 36-42% of body weight, and has recently been recognized as having an endocrine function. Proteins expressed and released by muscle that have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine bioactivities have been termed myokines. It is likely that muscle contraction represents the primary stimulus for the synthesis and secretion of myokines to enable communication with other organs such as the liver, adipose tissue, brain, and auto-regulation of muscle metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510614/connexin-dependent-intercellular-stress-signaling-in-tissue-homeostasis-and-tumor-development
#14
Jarosław Czyż, Katarzyna Piwowarczyk, Milena Paw, Marcin Luty, Tomasz Wróbel, Jessica Catapano, Zbigniew Madeja, Damian Ryszawy
Cellular stress responses determine tissue development, homeostasis and pathogenesis. Paracrine signaling, exchange of mechanical stimuli and intercellular transfer of small metabolites via connexin-built gap junctional channels are involved in the cellular stress detection and propagation of stress stimuli in multicellular networks. Cellular stress responses are also regulated through the activity of unpaired connexons (hemichannels) and via the intracellular interference of connexins with the cell cycle and pro-apoptotic machinery...
May 17, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506744/hepatic-stellate-cells-as-key-target-in-liver-fibrosis
#15
Takaaki Higashi, Scott L Friedman, Yujin Hoshida
Progressive liver fibrosis, induced by chronic viral and metabolic disorders, leads to more than one million deaths annually via development of cirrhosis, although no antifibrotic therapy has been approved to date. Transdifferentiation (or "activation") of hepatic stellate cells is the major cellular source of matrix protein-secreting myofibroblasts, the major driver of liver fibrogenesis. Paracrine signals from injured epithelial cells, fibrotic tissue microenvironment, immune and systemic metabolic dysregulation, enteric dysbiosis, and hepatitis viral products can directly or indirectly induce stellate cell activation...
May 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503549/learning-from-mother-nature-innovative-tools-to-boost-endogenous-repair-of-critical-or-difficult-to-heal-large-tissue-defects
#16
REVIEW
Ranieri Cancedda, Sveva Bollini, Fiorella Descalzi, Maddalena Mastrogiacomo, Roberta Tasso
For repair of chronic or difficult-to-heal tissue lesions and defects, major constraints exist to a broad application of cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches, i.e., transplantation of "ex vivo" expanded autologous stem/progenitor cells, alone or associated with carrier biomaterials. To enable a large number of patients to benefit, new strategies should be considered. One of the main goals of contemporary regenerative medicine is to develop new regenerative therapies, inspired from Mother Nature. In all injured tissues, when platelets are activated by tissue contact, their released factors promote innate immune cell migration to the wound site...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501941/paracrine-release-of-il-2-and-anti-ctla-4-enhances-the-ability-of-artificial-polymer-antigen-presenting-cells-to-expand-antigen-specific-t-cells-and-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-a-mouse-model
#17
Lei Zhang, Limin Wang, Khawar Ali Shahzad, Tao Xu, Xin Wan, Weiya Pei, Chuanlai Shen
Accumulating evidence indicates that bead-based artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) are a powerful tool to induce antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. To date, most conventional aAPCs have been generated by coupling an antigen signal (signal 1) and one or two costimulatory signals, such as anti-CD28 with anti-LFA1 or anti-4-1BB (signal 2), onto the surfaces of cell-sized or nanoscale magnetic beads or polyester latex beads. The development of a biodegradable scaffold and the combined use of multiple costimulatory signals as well as third signals for putative clinical applications is the next step in the development of this technology...
May 13, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501478/osr1-functions-downstream-of-hedgehog-pathway-to-regulate-foregut-development
#18
Lu Han, Jingyue Xu, Emily Grigg, Megan Slack, Praneet Chaturvedi, Rulang Jiang, Aaron M Zorn
During early fetal development, paracrine Hedgehog (HH) ligands secreted from the foregut epithelium activate Gli transcription factors in the surrounding mesenchyme to coordinate formation of the respiratory system, digestive track and the cardiovascular network. Although disruptions to this process can lead to devastating congenital defects, the underlying mechanisms and downstream targets, are poorly understood. We show that the zinc finger transcription factor Osr1 is a novel HH target as Osr1 expression in the foregut mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and the effector of HH pathway Gli3 binds to a conserved genomic loci near Osr1 promoter region...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500600/comprehensive-assessments-of-energy-balance-in-mice
#19
Justin L Grobe
Increasing evidence supports a major role for the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in energy balance physiology. The RAS exists as a circulating system but also as a local paracrine/autocrine signaling mechanism in target tissues including the gastrointestinal tract, the brain, the kidney, and distinct adipose beds. Through activation of various receptors in these target tissues, the RAS contributes to the control of food intake behavior, digestive efficiency, spontaneous physical activity, and aerobic and anaerobic resting metabolism...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495448/nrf2-in-keratinocytes-modulates-uvb-induced-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-melanocytes-through-mapk-signaling
#20
Saowanee Jeayeng, Adisak Wongkajornsilp, Andrzej T Slominski, Siwanon Jirawatnotai, Somponnat Sampattavanich, Uraiwan Panich
Responses of melanocytes (MC) to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can be influenced by their neighbouring keratinocytes (KC). We investigated the role of Nrf2 in regulating paracrine effects of KC on UVB-induced MC responses through phosphorylation of MAPKs in association with oxidative stress in primary human MC cocultured with primary human KC using a transwell co-culture system and small-interfering RNA-mediated silencing of Nrf2 (siNrf2). The mechanisms by which Nrf2 modulated paracrine factors including α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and paracrine effects of KC on UVB-mediated apoptosis were also assessed...
May 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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