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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785025/an-immune-beige-adipocyte-communication-via-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-signaling
#1
Heejin Jun, Hui Yu, Jianke Gong, Juan Jiang, Xiaona Qiao, Eric Perkey, Dong-Il Kim, Margo P Emont, Alexander G Zestos, Jung-Sun Cho, Jianfeng Liu, Robert T Kennedy, Ivan Maillard, X Z Shawn Xu, Jun Wu
Beige adipocytes have recently been shown to regulate energy dissipation when activated and help organisms defend against hypothermia and obesity. Prior reports indicate that beige-like adipocytes exist in adult humans and that they may present novel opportunities to curb the global epidemic in obesity and metabolic illnesses. In an effort to identify unique features of activated beige adipocytes, we found that expression of the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 2 subunit (Chrna2) was induced in subcutaneous fat during the activation of these cells and that acetylcholine-producing immune cells within this tissue regulated this signaling pathway via paracrine mechanisms...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778801/injury-and-stress-responses-of-adult-neural-crest-derived-cells
#2
REVIEW
Vadims Parfejevs, Ana T Antunes, Lukas Sommer
Multipotent neural crest cells can self-renew and give rise to a plethora of neural and non-neural cell types in the vertebrate embryo. Intriguingly, cells reminiscent of such neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) have also been isolated from various postnatal and adult neural crest (NC)-derived structures. However, it has been debated whether NCSC-like cells in the adult correspond to 'in vitro artefacts' emerging upon isolation or fulfil a physiological role in vivo. Here, we discuss recent findings indicating that in different adult NC derivatives, injury or stress responses induce a NCSC-like state, presumably by reprogramming of differentiated cells such as Schwann cells...
May 17, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778217/the-inflammasome-regulation-of-nitric-oxide-and-antimicrobial-host-defence
#3
Rajalaksmy A Ramachandran, Christopher Lupfer, Hasan Zaki
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signalling molecule that plays diverse physiological functions including antimicrobial host defence. During microbial infection, NO is synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), which is expressed by host immune cells through the recognition of microbial pattern molecules. Therefore, sensing pathogens or their pattern molecules by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are located at the cell surface, endosomal and phagosomal compartment, or in the cytosol, is key in inducing iNOS and eliciting antimicrobial host defence...
2018: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777201/novel-smoothened-inhibitors-for-therapeutic-targeting-of-na%C3%A3-ve-and-drug-resistant-hedgehog-pathway-driven-cancers
#4
Qing-Rou Li, Hui Zhao, Xue-Sai Zhang, Henk Lang, Ker Yu
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) smoothened (SMO) is a key signaling component of the sonic hedgehog (Hh) pathway and a clinically validated target for cancer treatment. The FDA-approved SMO inhibitors GDC-0449/Vismodegib and LDE225/Sonidegib demonstrated clinical antitumor efficacy. Nevertheless, relatively high percentage of treated patients would eventually develop acquired cross resistance to both drugs. Here, based on published structure and activity of GDC-0449 inhibitor class, we replaced its amide core with benzimidazole which retained bulk of the SMO-targeting activity as measured in our Hh/SMO/Gli1-reporter system...
May 18, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774769/serum-mediated-activation-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-a-novel-preconditioning-method
#5
Gyeong Joon Moon, Yeon Hee Cho, Dong Hee Kim, Ji Hee Sung, Jeong Pyo Son, Sooyoon Kim, Jae Min Cha, Oh Young Bang
Stroke induces complex and dynamic, local and systemic changes including inflammatory reactions, immune responses, and repair and recovery processes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to enhance neurological recovery after stroke. We hypothesized that serum factors play a critical role in the activation of bone marrow (BM) MSCs after stroke such as by increasing proliferation, paracrine effects, and rejuvenation. Human MSCs (hMSCs) were grown in fetal bovine serum (FBS), normal healthy control serum (NS), or stroke patient serum (SS)...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773988/microglia-p2y-13-receptors-prevent-astrocyte-proliferation-mediated-by-p2y-1-receptors
#6
Clara Quintas, Nuno Vale, Jorge Gonçalves, Glória Queiroz
Cerebral inflammation is a common feature of several neurodegenerative diseases that requires a fine interplay between astrocytes and microglia to acquire appropriate phenotypes for an efficient response to neuronal damage. During brain inflammation, ATP is massively released into the extracellular medium and converted into ADP. Both nucleotides acting on P2 receptors, modulate astrogliosis through mechanisms involving microglia-astrocytes communication. In previous studies, primary cultures of astrocytes and co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia were used to investigate the influence of microglia on astroglial proliferation induced by ADPβS, a stable ADP analog...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773871/the-somatostatin-secreting-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-in-health-and-disease
#7
REVIEW
Patrik Rorsman, Mark O Huising
The somatostatin-secreting δ-cells comprise ~5% of the cells of the pancreatic islets. The δ-cells have complex morphology and might interact with many more islet cells than suggested by their low numbers. δ-Cells contain ATP-sensitive potassium channels, which open at low levels of glucose but close when glucose is elevated. This closure initiates membrane depolarization and electrical activity and increased somatostatin secretion. Factors released by neighbouring α-cells or β-cells amplify the glucose-induced effects on somatostatin secretion from δ-cells, which act locally within the islets as paracrine or autocrine inhibitors of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion...
May 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772675/silencing-stem-cell-factor-gene-in-fibroblasts-to-regulate-paracrine-factor-productions-and-enhance-c-kit-expression-in-melanocytes-on-melanogenesis
#8
Pin-Hui Li, Li-Heng Liu, Cheng-Chung Chang, Rong Gao, Chung-Hang Leung, Dik-Lung Ma, Hui-Min David Wang
Melanogenesis is a complex physiological mechanism involving various paracrine factors. Skin cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanocytes communicate with one another through secreted regulators, thereby regulating the melanocytes' bio-functions. The stem cell factor (SCF) is a paracrine factor produced by fibroblasts, and its receptor, c-kit, is expressed on melanocytes. Binding of SCF to c-kit activates autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase to switch on its signal transmission. SCF inhibition does not suppress fibroblast proliferation in MTT assay, and SCF silencing induced mRNA expressions of paracrine factor genes, HGF , NRG-1 , and CRH in qPCR results...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772235/autophagy-mediates-enhancement-of-proangiogenic-activity-by-hypoxia-in-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells
#9
Seul-Gi Lee, Young Ae Joe
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been promising source for regenerative cell therapy in ischemic diseases. To improve efficacy of MSC therapy, various priming methods have been developed, and hypoxic priming has been reported to enhance therapeutic efficacy of MSCs by increasing secretion level of growth factors and cytokines. Recently, it has been reported that bone marrow MSCs primed with hypoxic condition show an increase of autophagy. Here, we addressed whether proangiogenic activity increased by hypoxic condition is associated with autophagy...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772024/use-of-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-in-mouse-models-of-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Fang He, Aiting Zhou, Shuo Feng
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) urgently requires effective treatment. Bleomycin-induced lung injury models are characterized by initial inflammation and secondary fibrosis, consistent with the pathological features of IPF. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) exhibit good differentiation potential and paracrine activity and are thus ideal for cell-based clinical therapies. The therapeutic effects of hAECs on lung fibrosis are attributed to many factors. We performed a systematic review of preclinical studies investigating the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis with hAECs to provide suggestions for their clinical use...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770299/regenerative-medicine-therapy-for-single-ventricle-congenital-heart-disease
#11
REVIEW
Chetan Ambastha, Gregory J Bittle, David Morales, Nathaniel Parchment, Progyaparamita Saha, Rachana Mishra, Sudhish Sharma, Alexander Vasilenko, Muthukumar Gunasekaran, Manal T Al-Suqi, Deqiang Li, Peixin Yang, Sunjay Kaushal
One of the most complex forms of congenital heart disease (CHD) involving single ventricle physiology is hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), characterized by underdevelopment of the left ventricle (LV), mitral and aortic valves, and narrowing of the ascending aorta. The underdeveloped LV is incapable of providing long-term systemic flow, and if left untreated, the condition is fatal. Current treatment for this condition consists of three consecutive staged palliative operations: the first is conducted within the first few weeks of birth, the second between 4 to 6 months, and the third and final surgery within the first 4 years...
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765409/a-novel-secretory-vesicle-from-deer-antlerogenic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-media-damsc-cm-promotes-tissue-regeneration
#12
Minkoo Seo, Jin-Chul Kim, Hyung-Ki Kim, Eun Wook Choi, Suyeong Jeong, Ki Chang Nam, Mihue Jang
Multipotent stem cells have the capacity to generate terminally differentiated cell types of each lineage; thus, they have great therapeutic potential for a wide variety of diseases. The most widely available stem cells are derived from human tissues, and their use for therapeutic application is limited by their high cost and low productivity. Herein, we report that conditioned media of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from deer antlers enhanced tissue regeneration through paracrine action via a combination of secreted growth factors and cytokines...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763932/microvesicles-from-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-new-protective-strategy-in-osteoarthritic-chondrocytes
#13
Miguel Tofiño-Vian, Maria Isabel Guillén, María Dolores Pérez Del Caz, Antonio Silvestre, María José Alcaraz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic inflammation contributes to cartilage degeneration during the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) show great potential to treat inflammatory and degradative processes in OA and have demonstrated paracrine effects in chondrocytes. In the present work, we have isolated and characterized the extracellular vesicles from human AD-MSC to investigate their role in the chondroprotective actions of these cells. METHODS: AD-MSC were isolated by collagenase treatment from adipose tissue from healthy individuals subjected to abdominal lipectomy surgery...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763768/effects-on-estrogen-dependent-and-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells-growth-of-ni-ii-zn-ii-and-cd-ii-complexes-with-the-schiff-base-derived-from-pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde-and-5-6-diamino-1-3-dimethyluracil-explored-through-the-renin-angiotensin-system-ras
#14
Nuria A Illán-Cabeza, Sonia B Jiménez-Pulido, Francisco Hueso-Ureña, María J Ramírez-Expósito, Purificación Sánchez-Sánchez, José M Martínez-Martos, Miguel N Moreno-Carretero
A series of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with the Schiff base derived from the condensation 1:1 from pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde and 5,6-diamino-1,3-dimethyluracil (6-amino-1,3-dimethyl-5-[(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)-amino]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, DAAUPic) were synthesized and subsequently characterized by means of elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR and nine of them by X-ray diffraction. Except the [Zn(μ-O,O'-AcO)(N5 ,N6 ,N1F -DAAUPicH-1 )]2 and [Cd(O,O'-NO3 )(μ-O4 ,(N5 ,N6 ,N1F )-DAAUPicH-1 )(H2 O)]2 ·2H2 O dimers and the [Cd(μ-S,N-SCN)(N5 ,N6 ,N1F -DAAUPicH-1 )]n chain-like polymer, all of them display monomeric molecular structures...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760734/dexamethasone-activated-mscs-release-mvs-for-stimulating-osteogenic-response
#15
Mingyan Zhao, Peng Li, Haijia Xu, Qunwen Pan, Rong Zeng, Xiaotang Ma, Zhanghua Li, Hao Lin
The extracellular microvesicles (MVs) are attracting much attention because they are found to be the key paracrine mediator participating in tissue regeneration. Dexamethasone (DXM) is widely accepted as an important regulator in tailoring the differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the effect of DXM on the paracrine signaling of MSCs remains unknown. To this point, we aimed to explore the role of DXM in regulating the paracrine activity of MSCs through evaluating the release and function of MSC-MVs, based on their physicochemical characteristics and support on osteogenic response...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760727/expanded-cd133-cells-from-human-umbilical-cord-blood-improved-heart-function-in-rats-after-severe-myocardial-infarction
#16
Alejandro Correa, Gabriel Salles Ottoboni, Alexandra Cristina Senegaglia, Luiz Guilherme Achcar Capriglione, Nelson Itiro Miyague, Lidiane Maria Boldrini Leite, Valderez Ravaglio Jamur, Carmen Lúcia Kuniyoshi Rebelatto, Márcia Olandoski, Paulo Roberto Slud Brofman
Pharmacological approaches are partially effective in limiting infarct size. Cell therapies using a cell population enriched with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) CD133+ have opened new perspectives for the treatment of ischemic areas after infarction. This preclinical study evaluated the effect of intramyocardial transplantation of purified or expanded human umbilical cord blood-derived CD133+ cells on the recovery of rats following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Histology studies, electrocardiogram, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to evaluate heart recovery...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757956/osteogenic-differentiation-modulates-the-cytokine-chemokine-and-growth-factor-profile-of-ascs-and-shed
#17
Federico Mussano, Tullio Genova, Sara Petrillo, Ilaria Roato, Riccardo Ferracini, Luca Munaron
Great efforts have been made to improve bone regeneration techniques owing to a growing variety of sources of stem cells suitable for autologous transplants. Specifically, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and stems cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) hold great potential for bone tissue engineering and cell therapy. After a preliminary characterization of the main biomolecules ASCs and SHED released in their conditioned media, cells were kept both in normal and osteo-inducing conditions. Conventional assays were performed to prove their osteogenic potential such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (for RUNX-2, collagen type I, osteopontin and osteonectin), alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin production, and von Kossa staining...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757271/the-isolation-and-culture-of-primary-epicardial-cells-derived-from-human-adult-and-fetal-heart-specimens
#18
Esther Dronkers, Asja T Moerkamp, Tessa van Herwaarden, Marie-José Goumans, Anke M Smits
The epicardium, an epithelial cell layer covering the myocardium, has an essential role during cardiac development, as well as in the repair response of the heart after ischemic injury. When activated, epicardial cells undergo a process known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to provide cells to the regenerating myocardium. Furthermore, the epicardium contributes via secretion of essential paracrine factors. To fully appreciate the regenerative potential of the epicardium, a human cell model is required...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756328/serum-derived-carcinoembryonic-antigen-cea-activates-fibroblasts-to-induce-a-local-re-modeling-of-the-extracellular-matrix-that-favors-the-engraftment-of-cea-expressing-tumor-cells
#19
Aws Abdul-Wahid, Marzena Cydzik, Nicholas W Fischer, Aaron Prodeus, John E Shively, Anne Martel, Samira Alminawi, Zeina Ghorab, Neil L Berinstein, Jean Gariépy
Elevated levels of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; CEACAM5) in the serum of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients represent a clinical biomarker that correlates with disease recurrence. However, a mechanistic role for soluble CEA (sCEA) in tumor progression and metastasis remains to be established. In this study, we report that sCEA acts as a paracrine factor, activating human fibroblasts by signalling through both the STAT3 and AKT1-mTORC1 pathways, promoting their transition to a cancer-associated fibroblast (CaF) phenotype...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753686/pharmacological-inhibition-of-the-mitochondrial-nadph-oxidase-4-pkc%C3%AE-gal-3-pathway-reduces-left-ventricular-fibrosis-following-myocardial-infarction
#20
Maria Del Carmen Asensio-Lopez, Antonio Lax Perez, Maria Josefa Fernandez Del Palacio, Yassine Sassi, Roger J Hajjar, Domingo A Pascual-Figal
Although the initial reparative fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI) is crucial for preventing rupture of the ventricular wall, an exaggerated fibrotic response and reactive fibrosis outside the injured area are detrimental. Although metformin prevents adverse cardiac remodeling, as well as provides glycemic control, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly documented. This study describes the effect of mitochondrial NADPH oxidase 4 (mitoNox) and protein kinase C-alpha (PKCα) on the cardiac fibrosis and galectin 3 (Gal-3) expression...
April 23, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
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