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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228072/curcumin-and-endothelial-function-evidence-and-mechanisms-of-protective-effects
#1
Maryam Saberi Karimian, Matteo Pirro, Thomas P Johnston, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: The endothelium is a large paracrine organ regulating cell growth, vascular tone and thrombogenicity as well as platelet and leukocyte interactions. Endothelial function can be assessed by non-invasive techniques [e.g. flow-mediated vasodilation, nitroglycerin-mediated dilation and pulse wave velocity] and measuring specific circulating biomarkers [cell adhesion molecules, endothelial microparticles and endothelial progenitor cells]. Impaired endothelial function plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, heart failure, ischemia-reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions...
February 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227910/development-of-a-three-dimensional-lattice-free-multiscale-model-of-the-mammary-terminal-end-bud
#2
Joseph D Butner, Vittorio Cristini, Zhihui Wang, Joseph D Butner, Vittorio Cristini, Zhihui Wang, Vittorio Cristini, Joseph D Butner, Zhihui Wang
The terminal end bud (TEB) is a bulbous structure composed of highly proliferative cells that is responsible for mammary gland development during the pubertal stage. This is a highly organized process, involving cellular differentiation hierarchies regulated by endocrine and paracrine signaling. Here, we present development of a lattice-free, three dimensional multiscale agent based model of the TEB to study the effects of cellular phenotypic hierarchies, endocrine and paracrine signaling, and proliferation demographics on pubertal mammary gland development...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222747/ire1%C3%AE-xbp1-pathway-promotes-melanoma-progression-by-regulating-il-6-stat3-signaling
#3
Cheng Chen, Xuejun Zhang
BACKGROUND: The IRE1α-XBP1 pathway is the most conserved branch of the unfolded protein response pathways, which are activated during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. The IRE1α-XBP1 pathway plays a critical role in various cancers. However, the role of this pathway in melanoma cell growth remains unclear. METHODS: Sixty-one pairs of melanoma specimens and corresponding normal tissues from patients were stained with XBP1...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220125/hgf-secreted-by-activated-kupffer-cells-induces-apoptosis-of-plasmodium-infected-hepatocytes
#4
Lígia Antunes Gonçalves, Joana Rodo, Lurdes Rodrigues-Duarte, Luciana Vieira de Moraes, Carlos Penha-Gonçalves
Malaria liver stage infection is an obligatory parasite development step and represents a population bottleneck in Plasmodium infections, providing an advantageous target for blocking parasite cycle progression. Parasite development inside hepatocytes implies a gross cellular insult evoking innate host responses to counteract intra-hepatocytic infection. Using primary hepatocyte cultures, we investigated the role of Kupffer cell-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in malaria liver stage infection. We found that Kupffer cells from Plasmodium-infected livers produced high levels of HGF, which trigger apoptosis of infected hepatocytes through a mitochondrial-independent apoptosis pathway...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218474/electrical-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-schwann-cell-like-phenotypes-using-inkjet-printed-graphene-circuits
#5
Suprem R Das, Metin Uz, Shaowei Ding, Matthew T Lentner, John A Hondred, Allison A Cargill, Donald S Sakaguchi, Surya Mallapragada, Jonathan C Claussen
Graphene-based materials (GBMs) have displayed tremendous promise for use as neurointerfacial substrates as they enable favorable adhesion, growth, proliferation, spreading, and migration of immobilized cells. This study reports the first case of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into Schwann cell (SC)-like phenotypes through the application of electrical stimuli from a graphene-based electrode. Electrical differentiation of MSCs into SC-like phenotypes is carried out on a flexible, inkjet-printed graphene interdigitated electrode (IDE) circuit that is made highly conductive (sheet resistance < 1 kΩ/sq) via a postprint pulse-laser annealing process...
February 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217371/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-pancreatitis
#6
REVIEW
Murli Manohar, Alok Kumar Verma, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Nathan L Sanders, Anil Mishra
Pancreatitis is inflammation of pancreas and caused by a number of factors including pancreatic duct obstruction, alcoholism, and mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Pancreatitis is represented as acute pancreatitis with acute inflammatory responses and; chronic pancreatitis characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils), monocytes, macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These inflammatory cells are known to play a central role in initiating and promoting inflammation including pancreatic fibrosis, i...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216675/extracellular-superoxide-dismutase-expression-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-modulates-cancer-cell-growth-and-migration
#7
Alessia Parascandolo, Francesca Rappa, Francesco Cappello, Jaehyup Kim, David A Cantu, Herbert Chen, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Peiman Hematti, Maria Domenica Castellone, Marco Salvatore, Mikko O Laukkanen
Tumor stroma-secreted growth factors, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence tumor development from early stages to the metastasis phase. Previous studies have demonstrated downregulation of ROS-producing extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) in thyroid cancer cell lines although according to recent data, the expression of SOD3 at physiological levels stimulates normal and cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, to analyze the expression of SOD3 in tumor stroma, we characterized stromal cells from the thyroid...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216372/hepatitis-b-virus-xprotein-stimulates-high-mobility-group-box-1-secretion-and-enhances-hepatocellular-carcinoma-metastasis
#8
Shuzhen Chen, Zihui Dong, Pinghua Yang, Xianming Wang, Guangzhi Jin, Han Yu, Lei Chen, Liang Li, Liang Tang, Shilei Bai, Hexin Yan, Feng Shen, Wenming Cong, Wen Wen, Hongyang Wang
: Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we reported that overexpression of HBx in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells could induce the secretion of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) to promote invasion and metastasis of HCC in an autocrine/paracrine manner. HBx triggered an increase of cytoplasmic calcium and activated CAMKK/CAMKIV pathway, leading to subsequent translocation and release of HMGB1. HMGB1 neutralizing antibody, as well as calcium chelator or inhibitors of CAMKK/CAMKIV, could remarkably reduce invasion and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro and in a murine HCC metastasis model in vivo...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214889/regulatory-role-of-mirna-375-in-expression-of-bmp15-gdf9-receptors-and-its-effect-on-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-bovine-cumulus-cells
#9
Hongyan Chen, Chang Liu, Hao Jiang, Yan Gao, Mingqiang Xu, Jiawei Wang, Siyuan Liu, Yao Fu, Xulei Sun, Jiajun Xu, Jiabao Zhang, Lisheng Dai
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, these two factors can regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, and other functions in the ovary locally. Furthermore, GDF9 and BMP15 play vital roles in follicular growth, atresia, ovulation, fertilization, reproduction, and maintenance. Numerous studies have demonstrated a synergy between BMP15 and GDF9...
January 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214882/il-1%C3%AE-up-regulates-il-6-expression-in-bovine-granulosa-cells-via-mapks-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#10
Meng Yang, Xurong Wang, Lei Wang, Xuezhi Wang, Jianxi Li, Zhiqiang Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: IL-6 is one of the main cytokines in regulating ovarian follicular development and ovulation. However, the factors that regulate IL-6 expression in follicles are still unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of IL-1α on IL-6 expression in granulosa cells. METHODS: IL-6 expression after IL-1α with/without inhibitors treatment was analyzed by RT-qPCR and ELISA. The phosphorylation of proteins induced by IL-1α was analyzed by western blot...
January 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207189/effects-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-co-culture-on-calcium-induced-differentiation-of-normal-human-keratinocytes
#11
Shyam Kishor Sah, Hae Young Kim, Ji Hae Lee, Seong-Wook Lee, Hyung-Sik Kim, Yeon-Soo Kim, Kyung-Sun Kang, Tae-Yoon Kim
The influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on keratinocytes in altered microenvironments is poorly understood. Here, we co-cultured umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs with normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to evaluate their paracrine effect in the presence of high extracellular calcium (Ca(2+) ) concentration. High Ca(2+) environment to keratinocytes can disrupt normal skin barrier function due to abnormal/premature differentiation of keratinocytes. Surprisingly, we found that MSCs suppress both proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes under a high Ca(2+) environment in TGFβ1-dependent manner...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206960/an-autocrine-paracrine-circuit-of-growth-differentiation-factor-gdf-15-has-a-role-for-maintenance-of-breast-cancer-stem-like-cells
#12
Asako Sasahara, Kana Tominaga, Tatsunori Nishimura, Masao Yano, Etsuko Kiyokawa, Miki Noguchi, Masakuni Noguchi, Hajime Kanauchi, Toshihisa Ogawa, Hiroshi Minato, Keiichiro Tada, Yasuyuki Seto, Arinobu Tojo, Noriko Gotoh
Cancer stem cells are thought to be responsible for tumor growth, recurrence, and resistance to conventional cancer therapy. However, it is still unclear how they are maintained in tumor tissues. Here, we show that the growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), a member of the TGFβ family, may maintain cancer stem-like cells in breast cancer tissues by inducing its own expression in an autocrine/paracrine manner. We found that GDF15, but not TGFβ, increased tumor sphere formation in several breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived primary breast cancer cells...
February 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202523/cancer-stem-cells-regulate-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-via-activation-of-hedgehog-signaling-in-mammary-gland-tumors
#13
Giovanni Valenti, Hazel M Quinn, Guus Jje Heynen, Linxiang Lan, Jane D Holland, Regina Vogel, Annika Wulf-Goldenberg, Walter Birchmeier
Many tumors display intracellular heterogeneity, with subsets of cancer stem cells (CSC) that sustain tumor growth, recurrence, and therapy resistance. Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) have been shown to support and regulate CSC function. Here we investigated the interactions between CSCs and CAFs in mammary gland tumors driven by combined activation of Wnt/β-catenin and Hgf/Met signaling in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In this setting, CSCs secreted the hedgehog ligand SHH, which regulated CAFs via paracrine activation of Hedgehog signaling...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202489/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-promotes-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-and-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
Jiwang Chen, Justin R Sysol, Sunit Singla, Shuangping Zhao, Aya Yamamura, Daniela Valdez-Jasso, Taimur Abbasi, Krystyna M Shioura, Sakshi Sahni, Vamsi Reddy, Arvind Sridhar, Hui Gao, Jaime Torres, Sara M Camp, Haiyang Tang, Shui Quing Ye, Suzy Comhair, Raed Dweik, Paul Hassoun, Jason X-J Yuan, Joe G N Garcia, Roberto F Machado
Background -Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe and progressive disease, a hallmark of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), is a cytozyme which regulates intracellular NAD levels and cellular redox state, regulates histone deacetylases, promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. We hypothesized that NAMPT promotes pulmonary vascular remodeling, and that inhibition of NAMPT could attenuate pulmonary hypertension. Methods -Plasma and mRNA and protein levels of NAMPT were measured in the lungs and isolated pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) from PAH patients, as well as in lungs of rodent models of pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
February 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192115/substance-p-enhances-proliferation-and-paracrine-potential-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro
#15
Suna Kim, Jiyuan Piao, Youngsook Son, Hyun Sook Hong
Stem cells have tremendous promise to treat intractable diseases. Notably, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are actively being investigated because of ease of sampling and high repopulation capacity in vitro. ADSCs can exert a therapeutic effect through differentiation and paracrine potential, and these actions have been proven in many diseases, including cutaneous and inflammatory diseases. Transplantation of ADSCs necessitates therapeutic quantities and thus, long term ex vivo culture of ADSCs. However, this procedure can impair the activity of ADSCs and provoke cellular senescence, leading to low efficacy in vivo...
February 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191768/multimodal-delivery-of-isogenic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-yields-synergistic-protection-from-retinal-degeneration-and-vision-loss
#16
Benjamin Bakondi, Sergey Girman, Bin Lu, Shaomei Wang
We previously demonstrated that subretinal injection (SRI) of isogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduced the severity of retinal degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons rats in a focal manner. In contrast, intravenous MSC infusion (MSC(IV) ) produced panoptic retinal rescue. By combining these treatments, we now show that MSC(IV) supplementation potentiates the MSC(SRI) -mediated rescue of photoreceptors and visual function. Electrophysiological recording from superior colliculi revealed 3.9-fold lower luminance threshold responses (LTRs) and 22% larger functional rescue area from combined treatment compared with MSC(SRI) alone...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187434/interface-between-breast-cancer-cells-and-the-tumor-microenvironment-using-platelet-rich-plasma-to-promote-tumor-angiogenesis-influence-of-platelets-and-fibrin-bundles-on-the-behavior-of-breast-tumor-cells
#17
Sheila Siqueira Andrade, Joana Tomomi Sumikawa, Eloísa Dognani Castro, Fabricio Pereira Batista, Edgar Paredes-Gamero, Lilian Carolina Oliveira, Izabel Monastério Guerra, Giovani Bravin Peres, Renan Pelluzzi Cavalheiro, Luiz Juliano, Afonso Pinto Nazário, Gil Facina, Siu Mui Tsai, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva, Manoel João Batista Castello Girão
Cancer progression is associated with an evolving tissue interface of direct epithelial-tumor microenvironment interactions. In biopsies of human breast tumors, extensive alterations in molecular pathways are correlated with cancer staging on both sides of the tumor-stroma interface. These interactions provide a pivotal paracrine signaling to induce malignant phenotype transition, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We explored how the direct contact between platelets-fibrin bundles primes metastasis using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a source of growth factors and mimics the provisional fibrin matrix between actively growing breast cancer cells and the tumor stroma...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186708/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-as-mediators-of-anti-inflammatory-effects-endorsement-of-macrophage-polarization
#18
Claudia Lo Sicco, Daniele Reverberi, Carolina Balbi, Valentina Ulivi, Elisa Principi, Luisa Pascucci, Pamela Becherini, Maria Carla Bosco, Luigi Varesio, Chiara Franzin, Michela Pozzobon, Ranieri Cancedda, Roberta Tasso
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are effective therapeutic agents enhancing the repair of injured tissues mostly through their paracrine activity. Increasing evidences show that besides the secretion of soluble molecules, the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) represents an alternative mechanism adopted by MSCs. Since macrophages are essential contributors toward the resolution of inflammation, which has emerged as a finely orchestrated process, the aim of the present study was to carry out a detailed characterization of EVs released by human adipose derived-MSCs to investigate their involvement as modulators of MSC anti-inflammatory effects inducing macrophage polarization...
January 31, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186467/effect-of-the-microenvironment-on-mesenchymal-stem-cells-paracrine-signalling-opportunities-to-engineer-the-therapeutic-effect
#19
Gina Diamanta Kusuma, James Carthew, Rebecca Lim, Jessica Ellen Frith
Cues from the extracellular environment, including physical stimuli, are well known to affect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) properties in terms of proliferation and differentiation. Many therapeutic strategies are now targeting this knowledge to increase the efficacy of cell therapies, typically employed to repair tissue functions in the event of injury, either by direct engraftment into the target tissue or differentiation into mature tissues. However, it is now envisioned that harnessing the repertoire of factors secreted by MSCs (termed the secretome) may provide an alternate to these cell therapies...
February 10, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181589/developmental-stage-dependent-effects-of-cardiac-fibroblasts-on-function-of-stem-cell-derived-engineered-cardiac-tissues
#20
Brian Liau, Christopher P Jackman, Yanzhen Li, Nenad Bursac
We investigated whether the developmental stage of mouse cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) influences the formation and function of engineered cardiac tissues made of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (mESC-CMs). Engineered cardiac tissue patches were fabricated by encapsulating pure mESC-CMs, mESC-CMs + adult CFs, or mESC-CMs + fetal CFs in fibrin-based hydrogel. Tissue patches containing fetal CFs exhibited higher velocity of action potential propagation and contractile force amplitude compared to patches containing adult CFs, while pure mESC-CM patches did not form functional syncytium...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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