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Paracrine activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#1
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936742/cardiac-progenitor-cell-derived-exosomes-as-cell-free-therapeutic-for-cardiac-repair
#2
E A Mol, M J Goumans, J P G Sluijter
Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have emerged as potential therapy to improve cardiac repair and prevent damage in cardiac diseases. CPCs are a promising cell source for cardiac therapy as they can generate all cardiovascular lineages in vitro and in vivo. Originating from the heart itself, CPCs may be destined to activate endogenous repair mechanisms. These CPCs release paracrine molecules that are able to stimulate cardiac repair mechanisms, including stimulation of vessel formation and inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935639/isolation-and-characterization-of-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-cells-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#3
Toshio Suzuki, Erica J Carrier, Megha A Talati, Anandharajan Rathinasabapathy, Xinping Chen, Rintaro Nishimura, Yuji Tada, Koichiro Tatsumi, James D West
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a process in which endothelial cells lose polarity and cell-to-cell contacts, and undergo a dramatic remodeling of the cytoskeleton. It has been implicated in initiation and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the characteristics of cells which have undergone EndMT-cells in vivo have not been reported and so remain unclear. To study this, sugen5416 and hypoxia (SuHx)-induced PAH was established in Cdh5-Cre / Gt(ROSA)26Sor(tm4(ACTB-tdTomato,-EGFP)Luo)/J double-transgenic mice, in which GFP was stably expressed in pan-endothelial cells...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932075/role-of-tissue-microenvironment-resident-adipocytes-in-colon-cancer
#4
EDITORIAL
Maria Tabuso, Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam, Raghu Adya, Ramesh P Arasaradnam
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multifactorial disease characterized by several genetic and epigenetic alterations occurring in epithelial cells. It is increasingly recognized that tumour progression is also regulated by tumour microenvironment (TME). The bidirectional cross-talk between tumour resident adipocytes and cancer cells within TME has been proposed as active contributor to carcinogenesis. Tumour resident adipocytes exhibit an activated phenotype characterized by increased secretion of pro-tumorigenic factors (angiogenic/inflammatory/immune) which contribute to cancer cell proliferation, invasion, neoangiogenesis, evasion of immune surveillance and therapy resistance...
August 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931863/thp-1-derived-macrophages-render-lung-epithelial-cells-hypo-responsive-to-legionella-pneumophila-a-systems-biology-study
#5
Christine Schulz, Xin Lai, Wilhelm Bertrams, Anna Lena Jung, Alexandra Sittka-Stark, Christina Elena Herkt, Harshavadhan Janga, Katja Zscheppang, Christina Stielow, Leon Schulte, Stefan Hippenstiel, Julio Vera, Bernd Schmeck
Immune response in the lung has to protect the huge alveolar surface against pathogens while securing the delicate lung structure. Macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells constitute the first line of defense and together orchestrate the initial steps of host defense. In this study, we analysed the influence of macrophages on type II alveolar epithelial cells during Legionella pneumophila-infection by a systems biology approach combining experimental work and mathematical modelling. We found that L. pneumophila-infected THP-1-derived macrophages provoke a pro-inflammatory activation of neighboring lung epithelial cells, but in addition render them hypo-responsive to direct infection with the same pathogen...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929450/intrarenal-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-the-old-and-the-new
#6
REVIEW
Silas Culver, Caixia Li, Helmy M Siragy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) is an independent paracrine hormonal system with an increasingly prominent role in hypertension and renal disease. Two enzyme components of this system are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and more recently discovered ACE2. The purpose of this review is to describe recent discoveries regarding the roles of intrarenal ACE and ACE2 and their interaction. RECENT FINDINGS: Renal tubular ACE contributes to salt-sensitive hypertension...
September 19, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928383/human-stem-cells-alter-the-invasive-properties-of-somatic-cells-via-paracrine-activation-of-mtorc1
#7
Margit Rosner, Ha Thi Thanh Pham, Richard Moriggl, Markus Hengstschläger
Controlled invasion is essential during many physiological processes, whereas its deregulation is a hallmark of cancer. Here we demonstrate that embryonic, induced pluripotent and amniotic fluid stem cells share the property to induce the invasion of primary somatic cells of various origins through insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)- or II (IGF-II)-mediated paracrine activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). We propose a model in which downstream of mTORC1 this stem cell-induced invasion is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α)-regulated matrix metalloproteinases...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926112/chronic-kidney-disease-and-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-human-bone-marrow-derived-mscs
#8
REVIEW
Shuanhu Zhou, Julie Glowacki
Vitamin D that is synthesized in the skin or is ingested undergoes sequential steps of metabolic activation via a cascade of cytochrome P450 enzymatic hydroxylations in the liver and kidney to produce 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1α,25(OH)2 D). There are many tissues that are able to synthesize 1α,25(OH)2 D, but the biological significance of extrarenal hydroxylases is unresolved. Human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (marrow stromal cells, hMSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, and their differentiation is stimulated by 1α,25(OH)2 D...
August 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926091/functional-role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
Debora Lo Furno, Giuliana Mannino, Rosario Giuffrida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into not only cells of mesodermal lineages, but also into endodermal and ectodermal derived elements, including neurons and glial cells. For this reason, MSCs have been extensively investigated to develop cell-based therapeutic strategies, especially in pathologies whose pharmacological treatments give poor results, if any. As in the case of irreversible neurological disorders characterized by progressive neuronal death, in which behavioral and cognitive functions of patients inexorably decline as the disease progresses...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924209/hmga1-regulates-the-plasminogen-activation-system-in-the-secretome-of-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Giulia Resmini, Serena Rizzo, Cinzia Franchin, Rossella Zanin, Carlotta Penzo, Silvia Pegoraro, Yari Ciani, Silvano Piazza, Giorgio Arrigoni, Riccardo Sgarra, Guidalberto Manfioletti
Cancer cells secrete proteins that modify the extracellular environment acting as autocrine and paracrine stimulatory factors and have a relevant role in cancer progression. The HMGA1 oncofetal protein has a prominent role in controlling the expression of an articulated set of genes involved in various aspect of cancer cell transformation. However, little is known about its role in influencing the secretome of cancer cells. Performing an iTRAQ LC-MS/MS screening for the identification of secreted proteins, in an inducible model of HMGA1 silencing in breast cancer cells, we found that HMGA1 has a profound impact on cancer cell secretome...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923859/upregulation-of-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-in-colonic-epithelia-reprograms-metabolism-and-promotes-carcinogenesis
#11
Ches'Nique M Phillips, John Zatarain, Michael E Nicholls, Craig Porter, Steve G Widen, Ketan Thanki, Paul Johnson, Muhammad U Jawad, Mary Pat Moyer, James W Randall, Judith L Hellmich, Manjit Maskey, Suimin Qiu, Thomas Wood, Nadiya Druzhyna, Bartosz Szczesny, Katalin Modis, Csaba Szabo, Celia Chao, Mark R Hellmich
The transsulfuration enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and its product hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are aberrantly upregulated in colorectal cancers, where they contribute to tumor growth and progression by both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. However, it is unknown whether the CBS/H2S axis plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Here, we report upregulation of CBS in human biopsies of precancerous adenomatous polyps and show that forced upregulation of CBS in an adenoma-like colonic epithelial cell line is sufficient to induce metabolic and gene expression profiles characteristic of colorectal cancer cells...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919450/seasonal-expression-of-p450c17-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-2-in-the-scented-gland-of-male-muskrats-ondatra-zibethicus
#12
Wentao Han, Wenqian Xie, Yan Zhang, Fengwei Zhang, Haolin Zhang, Yingying Han, Zhengrong Yuan, Qiang Weng
Cytochrome P450 17A1 (P450c17) is the key enzyme required for the production of androgenic sex steroids by converting progestogens to androgens. 5α-reductases are enzymes that convert testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which has a greater affinity for androgen receptors (AR) and stronger action than T. Our previous studies revealed that the scented glands of male muskrats expressed AR during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. To further seek evidence of the activities of androgens in scented glands, the expression patterns of P450c17 and 5α-reductase 2 were investigated in the scented glands of male muskrats during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons...
September 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917653/human-il6-stimulates-bovine-satellite-cell-proliferation-through-a-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3-stat3-dependent-mechanism
#13
A M Brandt, J M Kania, B M Reinholt, S E Johnson
Bovine satellite cell (bSC) myogenesis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur through the orchestrated actions of multiple autocrine and paracrine growth factors. Intimate to the bSC niche is IL6, a dual-purpose cytokine with proinflammatory and mitogenic properties. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of IL6 on proliferation and differentiation of bSC in vitro. Treatment of primary bSC cultures with recombinant bovine IL6 (bIL6) failed to alter myogenesis owing to the absence of intracellular signal transduction...
August 31, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916678/gucy2c-signaling-opposes-the-acute-radiation-induced-gi-syndrome
#14
Peng Li, Evan Wuthrick, Jeff A Rappaport, Crystal Kraft, Jieru E Lin, Glen Marszalowicz, Adam E Snook, Tingting Zhan, Terry M Hyslop, Scott A Waldman
High doses of ionizing radiation induce acute damage to epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, mediating toxicities restricting the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in cancer and morbidity and mortality in nuclear disasters. No approved prophylaxis or therapy exists for these toxicities, in part reflecting an incomplete understanding of mechanisms contributing to the acute radiation-induced GI syndrome (RIGS). Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) and its hormones guanylin and uroguanylin have recently emerged as one paracrine axis defending intestinal mucosal integrity against mutational, chemical, and inflammatory injury...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#15
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913633/the-function-of-endocytosis-in-wnt-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Lucy Brunt, Steffen Scholpp
Wnt growth factors regulate one of the most important signaling networks during development, tissue homeostasis and disease. Despite the biological importance of Wnt signaling, the mechanism of endocytosis during this process is ill described. Wnt molecules can act as paracrine signals, which are secreted from the producing cells and transported through neighboring tissue to activate signaling in target cells. Endocytosis of the ligand is important at several stages of action: One central function of endocytic trafficking in the Wnt pathway occurs in the source cell...
September 14, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912032/androgens-and-androgen-receptor-action-in-skin-and-hair-follicles
#17
REVIEW
Julieta María Ceruti, Gustavo José Leirós, María Eugenia Balañá
Beyond sexual functions, androgens exert their action in skin physiology and pathophysiology. Skin cells are able to synthesize most of active androgens from gonadal or adrenal precursors and the enzymes involved in skin steroidogenesis are implicated both in normal or pathological processes. Even when the role of androgens and androgen receptor (AR) in skin pathologies has been studied for decades, their molecular mechanisms in skin disorders remain largely unknown. Here, we go over recent studies of androgens and AR roles in several skin-related disorders, focusing in the current understanding of its molecular mechanisms in androgenetic alopecia (AGA)...
September 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911166/hormonal-and-growth-regulation-of-epithelial-and-stromal-cells-from-the-normal-and-malignant-endometrium-by-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor
#18
Julien Daubriac, Unnati M Pandya, Kuang-Tzu Huang, Savvas C Pavlides, Patricia Gama, Stephanie V Blank, Pratibha Shukla, Susan E Crawford, Leslie I Gold
We discovered that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF)-null mice have endometrial hyperplasia, the precursor to human type I endometrial cancer (ECA), which is etiologically linked to unopposed estrogen (E2), suggesting that this potent antiangiogenic factor might contribute to dysregulated growth and the development of type I ECA. Treatment of both ECA cell lines and primary ECA cells with recombinant PEDF dose dependently decreased cellular proliferation via an autocrine mechanism by blocking cells in G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901439/long-noncoding-rna%C3%A2-p21-modulates-cellular-senescence-via-the-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-signaling-pathway-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Wenzheng Xia, Lei Zhuang, Xia Deng, Meng Hou
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)‑based therapies have demonstrated efficacy in animal models of cardiovascular diseases. However, MSCs decrease in quantity and quality with age, which reduces their capacity for damage repair. Long noncoding (lnc) RNAs regulate gene transcription and the fate of post‑transcriptional mRNA, affecting a broad range of age‑associated physiological and pathological conditions, including cardiovascular disease and cancer cell senescence. However, the functional role of lncRNAs in stem cell senescence remains largely unknown...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900038/socs1-is-an-inducible-negative-regulator-of-ifn-lambda-induced-gene-expression-in-vivo
#20
Tanja Blumer, Mairene Coto-Llerena, Francois H T Duong, Markus H Heim
Type I (α and β) and type III (λ) interferons (IFNs) are induced upon viral infection through host sensory pathways that activate IFN regulatory factors (IRFs) and nuclear factor κB. Secreted IFNs induce autocrine and paracrine signalling through the JAK-Stat pathway leading to the transcriptional induction of hundreds of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), amongst them sensory pathway components such as cGAS, STING, RIG-I, MDA5 and the transcription factor IRF7 that enhance the induction of IFNαs and IFNλss...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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