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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922426/a-dna-vaccine-for-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-protects-against-disease-and-death-in-two-lethal-mouse-models
#1
Aura R Garrison, Charles J Shoemaker, Joseph W Golden, Collin J Fitzpatrick, John J Suschak, Michelle J Richards, Catherine V Badger, Carolyn M Six, Jacqueline D Martin, Drew Hannaman, Marko Zivcec, Eric Bergeron, Jeffrey W Koehler, Connie S Schmaljohn
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus capable of causing a severe hemorrhagic fever disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines to prevent CCHFV-associated disease. We developed a DNA vaccine expressing the M-segment glycoprotein precursor gene of CCHFV and assessed its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in two lethal mouse models of disease: type I interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice; and a novel transiently immune suppressed (IS) mouse model. Vaccination of mice by muscle electroporation of the M-segment DNA vaccine elicited strong antigen-specific humoral immune responses with neutralizing titers after three vaccinations in both IFNAR-/- and IS mouse models...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919548/reconsidering-the-classification-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-within-the-siberian-subtype-gives-new-insights-into-its-evolutionary-history
#2
S Y Kovalev, T A Mukhacheva
Tick-borne encephalitis is widespread in Eurasia and transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Classification of its causative agent, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), includes three subtypes, namely Far-Eastern, European, and Siberian (TBEV-Sib), as well as a group of 886-84-like strains with uncertain taxonomic status. TBEV-Sib is subdivided into three phylogenetic lineages: Baltic, Asian, and South-Siberian. A reason to reconsider TBEV-Sib classification was the analysis of 186 nucleotide sequences of an E gene fragment submitted to GenBank during the last two years...
September 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919405/exploration-of-stable-isotope-analysis-for-tick-host-identification
#3
Kathleen LoGiudice, Kathryn Kurchena, Katherine Christopher, Natasha Scott
Due to the problem of tick-borne diseases, there is a need to better understand the importance of different host species in maintaining enzootic disease cycles. We explored the utility of stable isotope analysis to identify the larval hosts of questing ixodid ticks. In laboratory experiments, we used Ixodes scapularis and two host species that are important in the Lyme disease system in eastern North America. First, we tested how effectively a short-term dietary tracer ((13)C in corn) was reflected in molted ticks...
September 7, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917305/genetic-variability-of-cloned-cytauxzoon-felis-ribosomal-rna-its1-and-its2-genomic-regions-from-domestic-cats-with-varied-clinical-outcomes-from-five-states
#4
Dana A Pollard, Mason V Reichard, Leah A Cohn, Andrea M James, Patricia J Holman
Cytauxzoon felis is a tick-borne hemoparasite that causes cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats in the United States. Historically, feline cytauxzoonosis was reported to be nearly always fatal. However, increasing evidence of cats surviving acute infection and/or harboring a chronic, subclinical infection has suggested the existence of different C. felis strains that may vary in pathogenicity. In this study, the intraspecific variation of the C. felis first and second ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, ITS2) regions was assessed for any clinical outcome or geographic associations...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917304/prevalence-of-ticks-and-tick-borne-pathogens-babesia-and-borrelia-species-in-ticks-infesting-cats-of-great-britain
#5
Saran Davies, Swaid Abdullah, Chris Helps, Séverine Tasker, Hannah Newbury, Richard Wall
In a study of tick and tick-borne pathogen prevalence, between May and October 2016, 278 veterinary practices in Great Britain examined 1855 cats. Six-hundred and one cats were found to have attached ticks. The most frequently recorded tick species was Ixodes ricinus (57.1%), followed by Ixodes hexagonus (41.4%) and Ixodes trianguliceps (1.5%). Male cats, 4-6 years of age living in rural areas were most likely to be carrying a tick; hair length and tick treatment history had no significant association with attachment...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915259/a-novel-mechanism-of-antibody-mediated-enhancement-of-flavivirus-infection
#6
Denise Haslwanter, Dieter Blaas, Franz X Heinz, Karin Stiasny
Antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection is a well-described phenomenon that is based on the cellular uptake of infectious virus-antibody complexes following their interaction with Fcγ receptors expressed on myeloid cells. Here we describe a novel mechanism of antibody-mediated enhancement of infection by a flavivirus (tick-borne encephalitis virus) in transformed and primary human cells, which is independent of the presence of Fcγ receptors. Using chemical cross-linking and immunoassays, we demonstrate that the monoclonal antibody (mab) A5, recognizing an epitope at the interface of the dimeric envelope protein E, causes dimer dissociation and leads to the exposure of the fusion loop (FL)...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912318/chromosome-and-large-linear-plasmid-sequences-of-a-borrelia-miyamotoi-strain-isolated-from-ixodes-pacificus-ticks-from-california
#7
Luke C Kingry, Adam Replogle, Marc Dolan, Christopher Sexton, Kerry A Padgett, Martin E Schriefer
Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever group spirochete, is an emerging tick-borne pathogen. It has been identified in ixodid ticks across the Northern Hemisphere, including the West Coast of the United States. We describe the chromosome and large linear plasmid sequence of a B. miyamotoi isolate cultured from a California field-collected Ixodes pacificus tick.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905230/molecular-detection-of-anaplasma-platys-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-and-wolbachia-sp-but-not-ehrlichia-canis-in-croatian-dogs
#8
Doroteja Huber, Irena Reil, Sanja Duvnjak, Daria Jurković, Damir Lukačević, Miroslav Pilat, Ana Beck, Željko Mihaljević, Lea Vojta, Adam Polkinghorne, Relja Beck
The bacteria Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne agents that cause canine vector-borne disease. The prevalence of these pathogens in South Eastern Europe is unknown with the exception of an isolated case of A. platys detected in a dog imported into Germany from Croatia. To gain a better insight into their presence and prevalence, PCR-based screening for these bacterial pathogens was performed on domesticated dogs from different regions of Croatia. Blood samples from 1080 apparently healthy dogs from coastal and continental parts of Croatia as well as tissue samples collected from 63 deceased dogs with a history of anaemia and thrombocytopenia were collected for molecular screening by an Anaplasmataceae-specific 16S rRNA conventional PCR...
September 14, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904853/lyme-disease-and-youtubetm-a-cross-sectional-study-of-video-contents
#9
Corey H Basch, Lindsay A Mullican, Kwanza D Boone, Jingjing Yin, Alyssa Berdnik, Marina E Eremeeva, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
OBJECTIVES: Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease. People seek health information on Lyme disease from YouTube(TM) videos. In this study, we investigated if the contents of Lyme disease-related YouTube(TM) videos varied by their sources. METHODS: Most viewed English YouTube(TM) videos (n = 100) were identified and manually coded for contents and sources. RESULTS: Within the sample, 40 videos were consumer-generated, 31 were internet-based news, 16 were professional, and 13 were TV news...
August 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902259/clinical-and-hematological-evaluation-of-rangelia-vitalii-naturally-infected-dogs-in-southeastern-brazil
#10
Tatiana Didonet Lemos, Helena Keiko Toma, Renata Quintela Assad, Adrianna Vieira da Silva, Rafael Gomes Bartolomeu Corrêa, Nádia Regina Pereira Almosny
Rangelia vitalii, a tick-borne piroplasm that infects dogs, has been recently molecularly characterized in Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Studies on molecular characterization of these piroplasms in different Brazilian regions are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and hematological changes in dogs caused by R. vitalii in the mountainous region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Blood samples from 36 dogs were evaluated for piroplasms and hematological disorders using light microscopy and molecular analysis...
August 24, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894041/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-of-the-cd209-il-10-il-28-and-ccr5-d32-genes-with-the-human-predisposition-to-developing-tick-borne-encephalitis
#11
Piotr Czupryna, Miłosz Parczewski, Sambor Grygorczuk, Sławomir Pancewicz, Joanna Zajkowska, Justyna Dunaj, Maciej Kondrusik, Katarzyna Krawczuk, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska
<b>Introduction: </b>It is known that in the pathogenesis of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) various molecules play a significant role. The most prominent factors include IL-10, IL-28B, CD-209 and CCR5. It is reasonable to search for genetic predispositions to the development of various clinical forms of TBE related to the genetic variation of IL-10, IL-28B, CD-209 and CCR5. In this study we aimed to search for the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the CD209, IL-10, IL-28 and 32 base pair deletion in CCR5 coding region (Δ 32) with the human predisposition to development of various clinical presentations of TBE...
January 4, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890111/tick-borne-pathogens-and-their-reservoir-hosts-in-northern-italy
#12
Ivana Baráková, Markéta Derdáková, Diana Selyemová, Michal Chvostáč, Eva Špitalská, Fausta Rosso, Margherita Collini, Roberto Rosà, Valentina Tagliapietra, Matteo Girardi, Claudio Ramponi, Heidi C Hauffe, Annapaola Rizzoli
The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes spp. ticks removed from wildlife, domestic animals and humans in the Province of Trento (northern Italy) in order to better understand their ecology and provide public health professionals with an updated list of pathogens which should be considered during their diagnostic procedures after a tick bite. During 2011-2012, 848 feeding ticks at all life stages (adults, nymphs and larvae) from various hosts (wild ungulates, birds and rodents; domestic sheep, dogs and humans) were collected...
September 1, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888642/spatio-temporal-variations-and-genetic-diversity-of-anaplasma-spp-in-cattle-from-the-north-of-tunisia
#13
Hanène Belkahia, Mourad Ben Said, Narjesse El Mabrouk, Mariem Saidani, Chayma Cherni, Mariem Ben Hassen, Ali Bouattour, Lilia Messadi
In cattle, anaplasmosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale, A. phagocytophilum, and A. bovis. To date, no information concerning the seasonal dynamics of single and/or mixed infections by different Anaplasma species in bovines are available in Tunisia. In this work, a total of 1035 blood bovine samples were collected in spring (n=367), summer (n=248), autumn (n=244) and winter (n=176) from five different governorates belonging to three bioclimatic zones from the North of Tunisia...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888641/a-molecular-survey-of-small-ruminant-hemotropic-mycoplasmosis-in-turkey-including-first-laboratory-confirmed-clinical-cases-caused-by-mycoplasma-ovis
#14
Munir Aktas, Sezayi Ozubek
Hemotropic mycoplasmas are emerging zoonotic pathogens that cause mild to severe hemolytic anemia. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from six sheep exhibiting clinical symptoms typical of hemolytic anemia. Coccoid and ring-shaped M. ovis were found on the surface of erythrocytes of infected sheep. Parasitemia ranged from 0.7% to 3.7% in individual smears. Clinical cases caused by Mycoplasma ovis were evaluated, and prevalence, based on DNA screening for the 16S rRNA gene of hemoplasmas in apparently healthy sheep (n=328) and goats (n=272) from the same area, was 11...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887186/to-test-or-not-to-test-laboratory-support-for-the-diagnosis-of-lyme-borreliosis
#15
REVIEW
Ram B Dessau, Alje P van Dam, Volker Fingerle, Jeremy Gray, Joppe Hovius, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld, Benoit Jaulhac, Olaf Kahl, Wolfgang Kristoferitsch, Per-Eric Lindgren, Mateusz Markowicz, Sally Mavin, Katharina Ornstein, Tobias Rupprecht, Gerold Stanek, Franc Strle
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a tick-borne infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The most frequent clinical manifestations are erythema migrans and Lyme neuroborreliosis. Currently, a large volume of diagnostic testing for Lyme borreliosis is reported, whereas the incidence of clinically relevant disease manifestations is low. This indicates overuse of diagnostic testing for LB with implications for patient care and cost effective health management. AIM: The recommendations provided in this review are intended to support both the clinical diagnosis and initiatives for a more rational use of laboratory testing in patients with clinically suspected Lyme borreliosis...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884668/borrelia-lanei-sp-nov-extends-the-diversity-of-borrelia-species-in-california
#16
Gabriele Margos, Natalia Fedorova, Joyce E Kleinjan, Christine Hartberger, Tom G Schwan, Andreas Sing, Volker Fingerle
The diversity of Borrelia species discovered in California appears to be particularly high. A divergent group of Borrelia strains collected from Ixodes ticks in California was described by Postic and co-workers and designated 'genomospecies 2' (Postic D, Garnier M, Baranton G. Int J Med Microbiol 2007;297:263-271; Postic D, Ras NM, Lane RS, Hendson M, Baranton G. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:3497-3504). We performed multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using eight housekeeping loci (clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB and uvrA) on 12 strains of this Borreliagenospecies to confirm that these strains form a distinct group within the Borreliaburgdorferi s...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882852/human-seroprevalence-of-borrelia-miyamotoi-in-manitoba-canada-in-2011-2014-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Kamran Kadkhoda, Cecilia Dumouchel, Janna Brancato, Ainsley Gretchen, Peter J Krause
BACKGROUND: Hard tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia miyamotoi has been reported in Russia, the Netherlands, Germany, Japan and the northeastern and upper midwestern United States. We sought to investigate the presence of B. miyamotoi infection in humans in Manitoba, Canada. METHODS: Two hundred fifty sera collected from residents of Manitoba with suspected Lyme disease between 2011 and 2014 were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi antibody using a C6 peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by Western blot...
September 6, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882513/enhanced-detection-of-rickettsia-species-in-ixodes-pacificus-using-highly-sensitive-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-coupled-with-tyramide-signal-amplification
#18
Ghazaleh Bagheri, Jeremy D Lehner, Jianmin Zhong
Ixodes pacificus is a host of many bacteria including Rickettsia species phylotypes G021 and G022. As part of the overall goal of understanding interactions of phylotypes with their tick host, this study focused on molecular detection of rickettsiae in ovarian and midgut tissue of I. pacificus by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), PCR, and ultrastructural analysis. Of three embedding media (Technovit 8100, Unicryl, and paraffin) tested for generating thin sections, tissues embedded in paraffin resulted in the visualization of bacteria with low autofluorescence in FISH...
August 9, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879619/borrelia-miyamotoi-other-vector-borne-agents-in-cat-blood-and-ticks-in-eastern-maryland
#19
Avery B Shannon, Renee Rucinsky, Holly D Gaff, R Jory Brinkerhoff
We collected blood and tick samples in eastern Maryland to quantify vector-borne pathogen exposure and infection in healthy cats and to assess occupational disease risk to veterinary professionals and others who regularly interact with household pets. Thirty-six percent of healthy cats parasitized by ticks at time of examination (9/25) were exposed to, and 14% of bloods (7/49) tested PCR-positive for, at least one vector-borne pathogen including several bloods and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi, a recently recognized tick-borne zoonotic bacterium...
September 6, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878055/interacting-effects-of-wildlife-loss-and-climate-on-ticks-and-tick-borne-disease
#20
Georgia Titcomb, Brian F Allan, Tyler Ainsworth, Lauren Henson, Tyler Hedlund, Robert M Pringle, Todd M Palmer, Laban Njoroge, Michael G Campana, Robert C Fleischer, John Naisikie Mantas, Hillary S Young
Both large-wildlife loss and climatic changes can independently influence the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic disease. Given growing evidence that wildlife loss often has stronger community-level effects in low-productivity areas, we hypothesized that these perturbations would have interactive effects on disease risk. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring tick abundance and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp.) within long-term, size-selective, large-herbivore exclosures replicated across a precipitation gradient in East Africa...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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