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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339054/the-dynamics-of-vector-borne-relapsing-diseases
#1
Cody Palmer, Erin Landguth, Emily Stone, Tammi Johnson
In this paper, we describe the dynamics of a vector-borne relapsing disease, such as tick-borne relapsing fever, using the methods of compartmental models. After some motivation and model description we provide a proof of a conjectured general form of the reproductive ratio R0, which is the average number of new infections produced by a single infected individual. A disease free equilibrium undergoes a bifurcation at R0=1 and we show that for an arbitrary number of relapses it is a transcritical bifurcation with a single branch of endemic equilibria that is locally asymptotically stable for R0 sufficiently close to 1...
January 12, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337258/adding-injury-to-infection-the-relationship-between-injury-status-and-genetic-diversity-of-theileria-infecting-plains-zebra-equus-quagga
#2
Edward M King'ori, Vincent Obanda, Ephantus M Ndambiri, Steven M Runo, Patrick I Chiyo
Asymptomatic tick-borne infections are a common feature in wild herbivores. In human-dominated habitats, snare injuries to wild herbivores are common and are likely to co-occur with enzootic infections. The influence of injury on pattern, course and outcome of enzootic infection in wild herbivores is unknown. We identified Theileria species infecting zebra and assessed the relationship between host injury-status and parasitaemia, parasite diversity and selection regimes. We also determined host leucocyte differential as this can reveal mechanisms by which injuries influence infections...
January 11, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337197/brain-perfusion-alterations-in-tick-borne-encephalitis-preliminary-report
#3
Zuzanna Tyrakowska-Dadełło, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Dariusz Janusek, Anna Moniuszko-Malinowska, Joanna Zajkowska, Sławomir Pancewicz
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are nonspecific and pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to their formation remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate brain perfusion in TBE patients using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion imaging. METHODS: MRI scans were performed in 12 patients in the acute phase, 3-5days after TBE diagnosis, with conventional MR images and DSC-MRI perfusion studies. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) parametric maps were created...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336689/a-molecular-survey-of-tick-borne-pathogens-from-ticks-collected-in-central-queensland-australia
#4
Melissa Judith Chalada, John Stenos, Gemma Vincent, Dayana Barker, Richard Stewart Bradbury
Central Queensland (CQ) is a large and isolated, low population density, remote tropical region of Australia with a varied environment. The region has a diverse fauna and several species of ticks that feed upon that fauna. This study examined 518 individual ticks: 177 Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick), 123 Haemaphysalis bancrofti (wallaby tick), 102 Rhipicephalus australis (Australian cattle tick), 47 Amblyomma triguttatum (ornate kangaroo tick), 57 Ixodes holocyclus (paralysis tick), 9 Bothriocroton tachyglossi (CQ short-beaked echidna tick), and 3 Ornithodoros capensis (seabird soft tick)...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333799/tick-borne-relapsing-fever-with-severe-jarisch-herxheimer-reaction
#5
Yael Koton, Naiel Bisharat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330092/a-novel-double-antigen-sandwich-elisa-for-the-species-independent-detection-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-specific-antibodies
#6
Miriam A Sas, Loic Comtet, Fabien Donnet, Marc Mertens, Zati Vatansever, Noel Tordo, Philippe Pourquier, Martin H Groschup
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease in humans caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV). The detection of anti-CCHFV antibodies in animals is used to reveal infection risk areas. Therefore a simple, quick and reliable multispecies assay for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies is needed. This work presents the development and validation of a novel CCHF double-antigen ELISA for the detection of anti-CCHFV nucleoprotein antibodies. The test requires 30 μl of serum, and results are obtained within 90 min...
January 9, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329935/tick-borne-pathogen-detection-what-s-new
#7
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Gilbert Greub
Ticks and the pathogens they transmit constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. Traditionally, tick-borne pathogen detection has been carried out using PCR-based methods that rely in known sequences for specific primers design. This approach matches with the view of a 'single-pathogen' epidemiology. Recent results, however, have stressed the importance of coinfections in pathogen ecology and evolution with impact in pathogen transmission and disease severity. New approaches, including high-throughput technologies, were then used to detect multiple pathogens, but they all need a priori information on the pathogens to search...
January 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329785/a-relapsing-fever-group-borrelia-sp-is-widely-distributed-among-wild-deer-in-japan
#8
Yumi Kumagai, Kozue Sato, Kyle R Taylor, Aya Zamoto-Niikura, Koichi Imaoka, Shigeru Morikawa, Makoto Ohnishi, Hiroki Kawabata
A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. was detected from the blood of wild deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan. The Borrelia sp. was distributed nationwide among deer with an overall prevalence of 26% in blood samples. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in fawns (48.4%) compared to adult deer (23.6%). Sequencing analysis reveals that this Borrelia sp. belongs to the hard tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, and that it forms a single lineage based on sequences of the flagellin and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase genes...
December 28, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329629/estimates-of-repeatability-and-correlations-of-hemoparasites-infection-levels-for-cattle-reared-in-endemic-areas-for-rhipicephalus-microplus
#9
Rodrigo Giglioti, Henrique Nunes de Oliveira, Talita Barban Bilhassi, Amanda Izeli Portilho, Cintia Hiromi Okino, Cintia Righetti Marcondes, Marcia Cristina de Sena Oliveira
Rhipicephalus microplus is a vector of cattle tick fever, a disease caused by the protozoans Babesia bovisand B. bigemina, and also anaplasmosis, produced by the Rickettsiales Anaplasma marginale. These tick-borne pathogens cause considerable losses to Brazilian livestock breeders and represent an obstacle to the expanded use of taurine breeds due to their higher sensitivity to ticks and hemoparasites compared to zebu breeds. Differences in the susceptibility to hemoparasites were also verified within breeds, suggesting that may be possible to select a most resistant phenotype...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322674/exposure-to-west-nile-virus-and-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-in-dogs-in-spain
#10
I García-Bocanegra, E Jurado-Tarifa, D Cano-Terriza, R Martínez, J E Pérez-Marín, S Lecollinet
In the past decade, the spread of emerging zoonotic flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) has been reported in many regions worldwide, representing a threat to both human and animal health. A serosurvey was carried out to assess exposure and risk factors associated with antigenically related flaviviruses, particularly West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), in dogs in Spain. Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 39 of 815 dogs (4.8%; 95% CI: 3.3-6...
January 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321318/viperin-restricts-zika-virus-and-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-replication-by-targeting-ns3-for-proteasomal-degradation
#11
Christakis Panayiotou, Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Kirstin Vonderstein, Jenny Pasto, Karin Edlund, Arunkumar S Upadhyay, Anna K Överby
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that constitute a major global health problem, with millions of human infections annually. Their pathogenesis ranges from mild illness to severe manifestations such as hemorrhagic fever and fatal encephalitis. Type I interferons (IFNs) are induced in response to viral infection, and stimulate the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including that encoding viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible), which shows antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses including several flaviviruses...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317885/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-theileria-equi-infection-in-equines-from-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-province-pakistan
#12
Muhammad Jamal Khan Afridi, Abdul Hafeez Mian, Muhammad Saqib, Ghazanfar Abbas, Javid Ali, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor, Awais Ur Rahman Sial, Imaad Rasheed, Muhammad Hammad Hussain
Background: Theileria equi is a tick borne protozoan parasite which causes piroplasmosis among equines worldwide. The present study was aimed to determine seroprevalence of T. equi in donkeys, horses, and mules from two equine populated districts (Peshawar and Charsadda) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. Methods: A total of 393 equine (195 horses, 194 donkeys and 4 mules) serum samples were collected from five and four randomly selected localities in Charsadda (n = 193) and Peshawar (n = 200), respectively...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313244/meningoencephaloradiculitis-following-infection-with-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Stephanie Du Four, Rembert Mertens, Wietse Wiels, Jacques De Keyser, Veronique Bissay, Anja Flamez
Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus that is endemic to Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and large parts of Asia. The tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transmitted through the saliva of infected ticks and infected goat milk. In the vast majority of cases, an infection with TBEV has a subclinical course. However, in some cases, it leads to neurological symptoms due to meningitis, meningoencephalitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, or meningoencephaloradiculitis...
January 8, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310722/habitat-properties-are-key-drivers-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-s-l-prevalence-in-ixodes-ricinus-populations-of-deciduous-forest-fragments
#14
Steffen Ehrmann, Sanne C Ruyts, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Jürgen Bauhus, Jörg Brunet, Sara A O Cousins, Marc Deconchat, Guillaume Decocq, Pieter De Frenne, Pallieter De Smedt, Martin Diekmann, Emilie Gallet-Moron, Stefanie Gärtner, Karin Hansen, Annette Kolb, Jonathan Lenoir, Jessica Lindgren, Tobias Naaf, Taavi Paal, Marcus Panning, Maren Prinz, Alicia Valdés, Kris Verheyen, Monika Wulf, Jaan Liira
BACKGROUND: The tick Ixodes ricinus has considerable impact on the health of humans and other terrestrial animals because it transmits several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) such as B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis (LB). Small forest patches of agricultural landscapes provide many ecosystem services and also the disservice of LB risk. Biotic interactions and environmental filtering shape tick host communities distinctively between specific regions of Europe, which makes evaluating the dilution effect hypothesis and its influence across various scales challenging...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310697/epidemiology-genetic-variants-and-clinical-course-of-natural-infections-with-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-in-a-dairy-cattle-herd
#15
Cornelia Silaghi, Marion Nieder, Carola Sauter-Louis, Gabriela Knubben-Schweizer, Kurt Pfister, Martin Pfeffer
BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular, tick-transmitted bacterium that causes granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and several mammalian species including domestic ruminants where it is called tick-borne fever (TBF). Different genetic variants exist but their impact with regard to putative differences in host associations and pathogenicity are not yet completely understood. METHODS: Natural infections with A. phagocytophilum in a dairy cattle herd in Germany were investigated over one pasture season by using serology, haematology, blood chemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309667/morphometric-analysis-of-chemoreception-organ-in-male-and-female-ticks-acari-ixodidae
#16
Tanya Josek, Brian F Allan, Marianne Alleyne
The Haller's organ plays a crucial role in a tick's ability to detect hosts. Even though this sensory organ is vital to tick survival, the morphology of this organ is not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize variation in the morphological components of the Haller's organ of three medically important tick species using quantitative methods. The Haller's organs of Ixodes scapularis Say (Ixodida: Ixodidae) (black-legged tick), Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) (lone star tick), and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) (American dog tick) were morphologically analyzed using environmental scanning electron microscopy and geometric morphometrics, and the results were statistically interpreted using canonical variate analysis...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307783/prevalence-risk-factors-and-genetic-diversity-of-veterinary-important-tick-borne-pathogens-in-cattle-from-rhipicephalus-microplus-invaded-and-non-invaded-areas-of-benin
#17
Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Gilbert Luc Aplogan, Hirotaka Katahira, Yang Gao, Huanping Guo, Artemis Efstratiou, Charoonluk Jirapattharasate, Guanbo Wang, Mingming Liu, Aaron Edmond Ringo, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Hiroshi Suzuki, Xuenan Xuan
Babesiosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, and heartwater are tick-borne diseases (TBD) that threaten livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa including Benin. This country has been faced with an invasion of Rhipicephalus microplus, a major vector for babesiosis, theileriosis, and anaplasmosis over the last decade. Yet, data on TBD and the impact of the invasive ticks are lacking, making risk level evaluation and disease control arduous. In this study, epidemiological features of Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Theileria spp...
December 28, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304171/mcp-1-kc-like-and-il-8-as-critical-mediators-of-pathogenesis-caused-by-babesia-canis
#18
Asier Galán, Iva Mayer, Renata Barić Rafaj, Krešo Bendelja, Velimir Sušić, José Joaquín Cerón, Vladimir Mrljak
Canine babesiosis caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite Babesia canis is a tick-borne disease characterized by a host response that involves both cellular and humoral immunity. This study focuses on the secretion of cytokines Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), Keratinocyte Chemotactic-like (KC-like), Interleukins (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18 and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) in babesiosis caused by Babesia canis upon treatment with Imizol®. We assessed time dependent changes in cytokine levels and tested whether these changes correlate with pathogenesis of the disease...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300779/exosomes-serve-as-novel-modes-of-tick-borne-flavivirus-transmission-from-arthropod-to-human-cells-and-facilitates-dissemination-of-viral-rna-and-proteins-to-the-vertebrate-neuronal-cells
#19
Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Biswas Neupane, Fengwei Bai, Michael B Sherman, Kyung H Choi, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana
Molecular determinants and mechanisms of arthropod-borne flavivirus transmission to the vertebrate host are poorly understood. In this study, we show for the first time that a cell line from medically important arthropods, such as ticks, secretes extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes that mediate transmission of flavivirus RNA and proteins to the human cells. Our study shows that tick-borne Langat virus (LGTV), a model pathogen closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), profusely uses arthropod exosomes for transmission of viral RNA and proteins to the human- skin keratinocytes and blood endothelial cells...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299270/investigating-the-effects-of-age-related-spatial-structuring-on-the-transmission-of-a-tick-borne-virus-in-a-colonially-breeding-host
#20
Klara M Wanelik, Sarah J Burthe, Mike P Harris, Miles A Nunn, H Charles J Godfray, Ben C Sheldon, Angela R McLean, Sarah Wanless
Higher pathogen and parasite transmission is considered a universal cost of colonial breeding due to the physical proximity of colony members. However, this has rarely been tested in natural colonies, which are structured entities, whose members interact with a subset of individuals and differ in their infection histories. We use a population of common guillemots, Uria aalge, infected by a tick-borne virus, Great Island virus, to explore how age-related spatial structuring can influence the infection costs borne by different members of a breeding colony...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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