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Functional movement disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783067/motor-retraining-more-for-functional-movement-disorders-outcomes-from-a-one-week-multidisciplinary-rehabilitation-program
#1
Alexandra Jacob, Darryl Kaelin, Abbey Roach, Craig Ziegler, Kathrin LaFaver
BACKGROUND: Functional Movement Disorders (FMD) are conditions of abnormal motor control thought to be caused by psychological factors. These disorders are commonly seen in neurological practice and prognosis is often poor. No consensus treatment guidelines have been established, however the role of physical therapy in addition to psychotherapy has increasingly been recognized. This study reports patient outcomes from a multidisciplinary FMD treatment program using motor retraining (MoRe) strategies...
May 18, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782883/a-new-outlook-on-cholinergic-interneurons-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#2
REVIEW
Melissa M Conti, Nicole Chambers, Christopher Bishop
Traditionally, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) striatal systems were considered antagonistic and imbalances or aberrant signaling between these neurotransmitter systems could be detrimental to basal ganglia activity and pursuant motor function, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Herein, we discuss the involvement of cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in striatally-mediated movement in a healthy, parkinsonian, and dyskinetic state. ChIs integrate numerous neurotransmitter signals using intrinsic glutamate, serotonin, and DA receptors and convey the appropriate transmission onto nearby muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors to produce movement...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780303/closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-for-ptsd-addiction-and-disorders-of-affective-facial-interpretation-review-and-discussion-of-potential-biomarkers-and-stimulation-paradigms
#3
REVIEW
Robert W Bina, Jean-Phillipe Langevin
The treatment of psychiatric diseases with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is becoming more of a reality as studies proliferate the indications and targets for therapies. Opinions on the initial failures of DBS trials for some psychiatric diseases point to a certain lack of finesse in using an Open Loop DBS (OLDBS) system in these dynamic, cyclical pathologies. OLDBS delivers monomorphic input into dysfunctional brain circuits with modulation of that input via human interface at discrete time points with no interim modulation or adaptation to the changing circuit dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774963/glucocorticoid-signaling-regulates-cell-invasion-and-migration-in-the-human-first-trimester-trophoblast-cell-line-sw-71
#4
Edwina P Kisanga, Zhonghua Tang, Seth Guller, Shannon Whirledge
PROBLEM: The development of the placenta and its functions are sensitive to infection and stress, which can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Adrenally produced glucocorticoids are the body's primary mediators of the inflammatory and stress response. Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is expressed in all human villous trophoblast tissue, the effect of glucocorticoids on placentation is not well understood. METHOD OF STUDY: Using microarray analysis, we identified the glucocorticoid-regulated transcriptional profile in the immortalized first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line Swan...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767814/inborn-errors-of-coenzyme-a-metabolism-and-neurodegeneration
#5
Ivano Di Meo, Miryam Carecchio, Valeria Tiranti
Two inborn errors of coenzyme A (CoA) metabolism are responsible for distinct forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases having as a common denominator iron accumulation mainly in the inner portion of globus pallidus. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), an autosomal recessive disorder with progressive impairment of movement, vision and cognition, is the most common form of NBIA and is caused by mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2), coding for a mitochondrial enzyme, which phosphorylates vitamin B5 in the first reaction of the CoA biosynthetic pathway...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766677/sleeping-child-neuroendocrine-cell-hyperplasia-of-infancy-and-polysomnography
#6
Deborah R Liptzin, Stephen M M Hawkins, Brandie D Wagner, Robin R Deterding
OBJECTIVES: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a children's interstitial and diffuse lung disease of unknown etiology that presents in infancy with characteristic findings of tachypnea, retractions, crackles, and hypoxemia. At the present, the mainstay of treatment is oxygen supplementation to normalize oxygen saturations and decrease work of breathing. There are characteristic pulmonary function, radiographic, and histologic findings, but polysomnography (PSG) data has not been reported...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763510/trihexyphenidyl-for-dystonia-in-cerebral-palsy
#7
REVIEW
Adrienne R Harvey, Louise B Baker, Dinah Susan Reddihough, Adam Scheinberg, Katrina Williams
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy occurs in up to 2.1 of every 1000 live births and encompasses a range of motor problems and movement disorders. One commonly occurring movement disorder amongst those with cerebral palsy is dystonia: sustained or intermittent involuntary muscle spasms and contractions that cause twisting, repetitive movements and abnormal postures. The involuntary contractions are often very painful and distressing and cause significant limitations to activity and participation...
May 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761117/genomic-analysis-identifies-masqueraders-of-full-term-cerebral-palsy
#8
Yusuke Takezawa, Atsuo Kikuchi, Kazuhiro Haginoya, Tetsuya Niihori, Yurika Numata-Uematsu, Takehiko Inui, Saeko Yamamura-Suzuki, Takuya Miyabayashi, Mai Anzai, Sato Suzuki-Muromoto, Yukimune Okubo, Wakaba Endo, Noriko Togashi, Yasuko Kobayashi, Akira Onuma, Ryo Funayama, Matsuyuki Shirota, Keiko Nakayama, Yoko Aoki, Shigeo Kure
Objective: Cerebral palsy is a common, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that causes movement and postural disabilities. Recent studies have suggested genetic diseases can be misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy. We hypothesized that two simple criteria, that is, full-term births and nonspecific brain MRI findings, are keys to extracting masqueraders among cerebral palsy cases due to the following: (1) preterm infants are susceptible to multiple environmental factors and therefore demonstrate an increased risk of cerebral palsy and (2) brain MRI assessment is essential for excluding environmental causes and other particular disorders...
May 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758257/a-mechanistic-review-on-gnao1-associated-movement-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Huijie Feng, Suad Khalil, Richard R Neubig, Christos Sidiropoulos
Mutations in the GNAO1 gene cause a complex constellation of neurological disorders including epilepsy, developmental delay, and movement disorders. GNAO1 encodes Gαo , the α subunit of Go , a member of the Gi/o family of heterotrimeric G protein signal transducers. Go is the most abundant membrane protein in the mammalian central nervous system and plays major roles in synaptic neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. GNAO1 mutations were first reported in early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 17 (EIEE17) but are also associated with a more common syndrome termed neurodevelopmental disorder with involuntary movements (NEDIM)...
May 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758252/depression-resistant-phenotype-in-mice-overexpressing-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-8-rgs8
#10
Yuki Kobayashi, Risa Takemoto, Shogo Yamato, Tomoya Okada, Michihiko Iijima, Yoshikatsu Uematsu, Shigeyuki Chaki, Yumiko Saito
Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are negative regulators of heterotrimeric G proteins that act by accelerating Gα-mediated GTPase activity to terminate G protein-coupled receptor-associated signaling. RGS8 is expressed in several brain regions involved with movement and mood. To investigate the role of RGS8 in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing brain RGS8 (RGS8tg). RGS8 gene and protein expressions were examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and a significant increase in RGS8 protein was detected in the hippocampal CA1 region compared with wild-type mice (WT)...
May 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757061/exercise-induced-laryngeal-obstruction-in-athletes-contributory-factors-and-treatment-implications
#11
Liv-Jorunn Kolnes, Trine Stensrud
Otherwise healthy adolescent athletes presenting with respiratory symptoms consistent with exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) are frequently encountered in clinical practice. The symptoms are often incorrectly considered to result from exercise-induced asthma, and may be wrongly treated as such. Given the potential implications for health and performance if EILO is left untreated, a more comprehensive understanding of contributory mechanisms is essential in order to create appropriate treatment procedures...
May 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756356/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-individuals-exhibiting-parkinson-s-disease-risk-markers
#12
Marcus Heldmann, Janna Heeren, Christine Klein, Linus Rauch, Johann Hagenah, Thomas F Münte, Meike Kasten, Norbert Brüggemann
BACKGROUND: The concept of prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) involves variable combinations of nonmotor features and subtle motor abnormalities as a result of ongoing neurodegeneration in the brain stem including substantia nigra (SN) and abnormal findings upon transcranial sonography and nuclear imaging. Except for nuclear imaging, the predictive value of risk markers for the conversion to overt PD is low. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether PD risk markers are associated with changes in brain structure and to what extent cognitive changes are risk markers for PD...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753584/a-novel-fluoroscopic-method-for-multidimensional-evaluation-of-swallowing-function
#13
Nobuyuki Arai, Kozo Hanayama, Takaharu Yamazaki, Tetsuya Tomita, Akio Tsubahara, Kazuomi Sugamoto
OBJECTIVE: Dynamic videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) is used to investigate swallowing movements. However, it requires prolonged radiation exposure and mainly provides qualitative information. Herein, we present a multi-dimensional method for analyzing swallowing based on a pulsed, low-dose fluoroscopy technique that uses serial-shot images and evaluates the size, position, and temporal profile of the bolus to obtain a more comprehensive and realistic analysis of swallowing movements...
May 9, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751598/informed-consent-decision-making-in-deep-brain-stimulation
#14
REVIEW
Gabriele Mandarelli, Germana Moretti, Massimo Pasquini, Giuseppe Nicolò, Stefano Ferracuti
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proved useful for several movement disorders (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, dystonia), in which first and/or second line pharmacological treatments were inefficacious. Initial evidence of DBS efficacy exists for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, and impulse control disorders. Ethical concerns have been raised about the use of an invasive surgical approach involving the central nervous system in patients with possible impairment in cognitive functioning and decision-making capacity...
May 11, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749518/effects-of-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-on-ovarian-reserve-in-female-rats-feasibility-analysis-of-a-rat-model-of-premature-ovarian-failure
#15
Xiao-Yan Fu, Hao-Hao Chen, Ning Zhang, Ming-Xing Ding, Ying-Er Qiu, Xiao-Ming Pan, Yuan-Shu Fang, Yi-Ping Lin, Qun Zheng, Wen-Qian Wang
Premature ovarian failure (POF) results from a number of disorders. The POF model is primarily based on chemotherapeutic injury, and hence is not suitable for assessing the effects of chronic stress on ovarian function. Therefore, improved animal models are required to analyze the effects of chronic stress on ovarian reserve. The feasibility of the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) method for establishing a model of POF was examined. The depressive behavior exhibited by rats was evaluated with the open field and sucrose preference tests...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748158/scoping-review-of-dance-for-adults-with-fibromyalgia-what-do-we-know-about-it
#16
REVIEW
Julia Bidonde, Catherine Boden, Soo Kim, Angela J Busch, Suelen M Goes, Emily Knight
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread muscular tenderness, pain, fatigue, and cognitive difficulties. Nonpharmacological treatment options, such as physical activity, are important for people with fibromyalgia. There are strong recommendations to support engagement in physical activity for symptom management among adults with fibromyalgia. Dance is a mode of physical activity that may allow individuals with fibromyalgia to improve their physical function, health, and well-being...
May 10, 2018: JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740392/anti-saccades-in-cerebellar-ataxias-reveal-a-contribution-of-the-cerebellum-in-executive-functions
#17
Elena Pretegiani, Pietro Piu, Francesca Rosini, Pamela Federighi, Valeria Serchi, Gemma Tumminelli, Maria Teresa Dotti, Antonio Federico, Alessandra Rufa
Objective: Increasing evidence suggests a cerebellar contribution to modulate cognitive aspects of motor behavior and executive functions. Supporting findings come from studies on patients with neurodegenerative diseases, in which however, given the extent of the disease, the specific role of the cerebellum, could not be clearly isolated. Anti-saccades are considered a sensitive tool to test executive functions. The anti-saccade underlying neural network, consisting of different cortical areas and their downstream connections including the lateral cerebellum, has been largely clarified...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740388/central-lesions-with-selective-semicircular-canal-involvement-mimicking-bilateral-vestibulopathy
#18
REVIEW
Luke Chen, G Michael Halmagyi
Bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP), which is due to peripheral lesions, may selectively involve certain semicircular canal (SCC). Recent eye movement recordings with search coil and video head impulse test (HIT) have provided insight in central lesions that can cause bilateral and selective SCC deficit mimicking BVP. Since neurological signs or ocular motor deficits maybe subtle or absent, it is critical to recognize central lesions correctly since there is prognostic and treatment implication. Acute floccular lesions cause bilateral horizontal SCC (HC) impairment while leaving vertical SCC function unaffected...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740353/distinct-associations-of-motor-domains-in-relatives-of-schizophrenia-patients-different-pathways-to-motor-abnormalities-in-schizophrenia
#19
Lea Schäppi, Katharina Stegmayer, Petra V Viher, Sebastian Walther
Introduction: Aberrant motor function is an integral part of schizophrenia. In fact, abnormalities are frequently found in patients, in populations at risk, and in unaffected relatives. Motor abnormalities are suspected to be relevant for the clinical outcome and could probably predict the conversion from at-risk individuals to schizophrenia. Furthermore, motor function has been argued as endophenotype of the disorder. Yet, which particular motor domain may classify as a potential endophenotype is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737565/pain-processing-in-functional-and-idiopathic-dystonia-an-exploratory-study
#20
Francesca Morgante, Angela Matinella, Elisa Andrenelli, Lucia Ricciardi, Cosimo Allegra, Carmen Terranova, Paolo Girlanda, Michele Tinazzi
BACKGROUND: Pain is often experienced by patients with functional dystonia and idiopathic cervical dystonia and is likely to be determined by different neural mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: In this exploratory study, we tested the sensory-discriminative and cognitive-emotional component of pain in patients with functional and idiopathic dystonia. METHODS: Ten patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia, 12 patients with functional dystonia, and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent psychophysical testing of tactile and pain thresholds and pain tolerance...
May 8, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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