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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743094/a-personalized-medicine-approach-to-the-design-of-dry-powder-inhalers-selecting-the-optimal-amount-of-bypass
#1
Thomas Kopsch, Darragh Murnane, Digby Symons
In dry powder inhalers (DPIs) the patient's inhalation manoeuvre strongly influences the release of drug. Drug release from a DPI may also be influenced by the size of any air bypass incorporated in the device. If the amount of bypass is high less air flows through the entrainment geometry and the release rate is lower. In this study we propose to reduce the intra- and inter-patient variations of drug release by controlling the amount of air bypass in a DPI. A fast computational method is proposed that can predict how much bypass is needed for a specified drug delivery rate for a particular patient...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743091/performance-comparison-of-two-herbal-and-industrial-medicines-using-nanoparticles-with-a-starch-cellulose-shell-and-alginate-core-for-drug-delivery-in-vitro-studies
#2
Akbar Esmaeili, Sahar Behzadi
In this study, the performance of two kinds of industrial and herbal drugs encapsulated in nanoparticles with a shell of starch and cellulose and an alginate core were examined as a new technique for nanoparticle drug delivery. The test method involved creating a suspension of starch and alginate, which was then dried, mixed with cellulose, and heated to form core-shell nanoparticles. The industrial drug calcitonin and an extract of the herb Amaranthus retroflexcus L. were added separately and in combination to the nanoparticles, and the performance of each configuration was evaluated...
July 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743090/nir-and-uv-responsive-degradable-hyaluronic-acid-nanogels-for-cd44-targeted-and-remotely-triggered-intracellular-doxorubicin-delivery
#3
Chunfeng Hang, Yan Zou, Yinan Zhong, Zhiyuan Zhong, Fenghua Meng
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an endogenous polysaccharide that shows intrinsic targetability to CD44+ cancer cells. Here, we developed NIR and UV-responsive degradable nanogels from hyaluronic acid-g-7-N,N-diethylamino-4-hydroxymethylcoumarin (HA-CM) for CD44 targeted and remotely controlled intracellular doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. Nanometer-sized HA-CM nanogels could readily load DOX, and both NIR and UV irradiation could significantly enhance DOX release from the nanogels, resulting from light-triggered cleavage of urethane bonds that connect CM to HA...
July 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743089/understanding-the-interaction-of-concanavalin-a-with-mannosyl-glycoliposomes-a-surface-plasmon-resonance-and-fluorescence-study
#4
Catalina Sandoval-Altamirano, Susana A Sanchez, Nancy F Ferreyra, German Gunther
The specificity of carbohydrate-protein interaction is a key factor in many biological processes and it is the foundation of technologies using glycoliposomes in drug delivery. The incorporation of glycolipids in vesicles is expected to increase their specificity toward particular targets such as lectins; however, the degree of exposure of the carbohydrate moiety at the liposome surface is a crucial parameter to be considered in the interaction. Herein we report the synthesis of mannose derivatives with one or two hydrophobic chains of different length, designed with the purpose of modifying the degree of exposure of the mannose when they were incorporated into liposomes...
July 18, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742731/endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-portal-venous-access-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#5
Rajat Garg, Tarun Rustagi
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has evolved from a purely diagnostic to an interventional modality offering minimally invasive alternatives to surgical and radiologic interventions. This has led to a rapidly growing interest in EUS-guided vascular interventions. EUS-guided portal venous access is an emerging technique which opens a new arena for interventional vascular EUS. Portal vein can be accessed under EUS guidance with high precision and low risk of complications thus expanding its application for both benign and malignant conditions...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742418/health-risk-behavior-among-justice-involved-male-and-female-youth-exploratory-multi-group-latent-class-analysis
#6
Richard Dembo, Jessica Faber, Jennifer Cristiano, Ralph J DiClemente, Julie M Krupa, Asha Terminello, Jennifer Wareham
BACKGROUND: Youth involved in the juvenile justice system experience a disproportionate prevalence of serious mental health issues, substance abuse, and are at an increased risk of engaging in risky sexual practices. Gender differences exist, with girls at a markedly greater risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease. OBJECTIVES: The present study seeks to determine if there are subgroups of male and female youth who differ in their health risk behavior. If so, do any male or female subgroups at different levels of health risk differ in regard to their sociodemographic and psychological factors, and finally, what are intervention/service delivery implications of these differences...
July 25, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742327/amphiphilic-peptide-nanorods-based-on-oligo-phenylalanine-as-a-biocompatible-drug-carrier
#7
Su Jeong Song, Seulgi Lee, Kyoung-Seok Ryu, Joon Sig Choi
Peptide nanostructure has been widely explored for drug delivery systems in recent studies. Peptides possess comparatively lower cytotoxicity and are more efficient than polymeric carriers. Here, we propose a peptide nanorod system, composed of an amphiphilic oligo-peptide RH3F8 (Arg-His3-Phe8) as a drug delivery carrier. Arginine is an essential amino acid in typical cell penetration peptides, and histidine induces endo/lysosomal escape because of its proton sponge effect. Phenylalanine is introduced to provide rich hydrophobicity for stable self-assembly and drug encapsulation...
July 25, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742140/short-16-mer-locked-nucleic-acid-splice-switching-oligonucleotides-restore-dystrophin-production-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-myotubes
#8
Vanessa Borges Pires, Ricardo Simões, Kamel Mamchaoui, Célia Carvalho, Maria Carmo-Fonseca
Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides (SSOs) offer great potential for RNA-targeting therapies, and two SSO drugs have been recently approved for treating Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). Despite promising results, new developments are still needed for more efficient chemistries and delivery systems. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a chemically modified nucleic acid that presents several attractive properties, such as high melting temperature when bound to RNA, potent biological activity, high stability and low toxicity in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741924/ultrasound-responsive-polymeric-micelles-for-sonoporation-assisted-site-specific-therapeutic-action
#9
Pengying Wu, Yali Jia, Fei Qu, Yue Sun, Pan Wang, Kun Zhang, Chuanshan Xu, Quanhong Liu, Xiaobing Wang
Targeting drug delivery remains a challenge in various disease treatment including cancer. The local drug deposit could be greatly enhanced by some external stimuli-responsive systems. Here we develop pluronic P123/F127 polymeric micelles (M) encapsulating curcumin (Cur) that are permeabilized directly by focused ultrasound, in which ultrasound triggers drug release. Tumor preferential accumulation and site-specific sonochemotherapy were then evaluated. Cur-loaded P123/F127 mixed micelles (Cur-M) exhibited longer circulating time and increased cellular uptake compared to free Cur...
July 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741634/mitochondria-targeting-near-infrared-light-triggered-thermosensitive-liposomes-for-localized-photothermal-and-photodynamic-ablation-of-tumors-combined-with-chemotherapy
#10
Caixia Yue, Yuming Yang, Jie Song, Gabriel Alfranca, Chunlei Zhang, Qian Zhang, Ting Yin, Fei Pan, Jesús M de la Fuente, Daxiang Cui
Lonidamine, an anticancer drug that acts on mitochondria, has poor water solubility. Mitochondria are the primary source of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are necessary for photodynamic therapy. Hence, a mitochondria-targeting drug delivery system loaded with Lonidamine and a ROS-produced photosensitizer could improve the bioavailability of Lonidamine and maximize photodynamic therapeutic efficiency. Here we report, for the first time, new IR-780 and Lonidamine encapsulated mitochondria-targeting thermosensitive liposomes (IL-TTSL)...
July 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741458/hybrid-polymeric-magnetic-nanoparticles-in-cancer-treatments
#11
Alexandra Muñoz Bonilla, Pilar Herrasti González
Over the last years, magnetic nanoparticles have received a great attention in cancer therapy and diagnosis. Magnetic drug targeting, is a particularly promising application in this area as the nanoparticles can be directed to the tumor by external magnetic field and concentrated the drug in this tumor tissue. In addition to this magnetic targeting, their inherent magnetic properties provide sensitive contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and can, therefore, be visualized and used for theranostic purposes...
May 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741429/rapid-systemic-delivery-of-zolmitriptan-using-an-adhesive-dermally-applied-microarray
#12
Donald J Kellerman, Mahmoud Ameri, Stewart J Tepper
Adhesive Dermally-Applied Microarray (ADAM) is a device for intracutaneous drug administration consisting of a 3 cm(2) disposable array of drug-coated titanium microprojections on an adhesive backing. It is applied using a low cost, reusable, handheld applicator. Microprojections penetrate the stratum corneum, delivering drug proximal to capillaries with limited likelihood of pain. The pharmacokinetics of zolmitriptan delivery using ADAM was evaluated in 20 healthy volunteers. Median tmax was <20 min, comparable to subcutaneous sumatriptan...
July 25, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741229/inhaled-antimicrobials-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-practical-aspects
#13
Garyphallia Poulakou, Dimitrios K Matthaiou, David P Nicolau, Georgios Siakallis, George Dimopoulos
Positive experience with inhaled antibiotics in pulmonary infections of patients with cystic fibrosis has paved the way for their utilization in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients with lower respiratory tract infections. A successful antibiotic delivery depends upon the size of the generated particle and the elimination of drug impaction in the large airways and the ventilator circuit. Generated droplet size is mainly affected by the type of the nebulizer employed. Currently, jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating mesh nebulizers are marketed; the latter can deliver optimal antibiotic particle size...
July 24, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741139/characterization-of-a-liquid-crystal-system-for-sustained-release-of-a-peptide-bms-686117
#14
Yan Xu, Vivian Li, Jinjiang Li, Duohai Pan, Gerd Langenbucher, Neil Mathias
Liquid crystal lipid-based formulations are an effective approach to prolong pharmacokinetics and reduce burst release of a drug on subcutaneous delivery. The objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of phase structures of a lipid-based liquid crystal delivery system and its associated mechanical properties on the release profile of a peptide. It was hypothesized that release of drug molecules are closely related to the mechanical properties that are controlled by phase structures. Experimentally, the relationship between phase structures of lipid liquid crystal system-soy phosphatidyl choline (SPC) and glycerol dioleate (GDO) in water were characterized by polarized light microscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction...
July 24, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740999/advanced-cardiac-life-support-2016-singapore-guidelines
#15
Chi Keong Ching, Siew Hon Benjamin Leong, Siang Jin Terrance Chua, Swee Han Lim, Kenneth Heng, Sohil Pothiawala, Venkataraman Anantharaman
The main areas of emphasis in the Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines are: early recognition of cardiac arrest and call for help; good-quality chest compressions; early defibrillation when applicable; early administration of drugs; appropriate airway management ensuring normoventilation; and delivery of appropriate post-resuscitation care to enhance survival. Of note, it is important to monitor the quality of the various care procedures. The resuscitation team needs to reduce unnecessary interruptions to chest compressions in order to maintain adequate coronary perfusion pressure during the ACLS drill...
July 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740906/the-development-commercialization-and-clinical-context-of-yttrium-90-radiolabeled-resin-and-glass-microspheres
#16
REVIEW
Mark A Westcott, Douglas M Coldwell, David M Liu, Joseph F Zikria
Selective internal radiation therapy has emerged as a well-accepted therapeutic for primary and metastatic hepatic malignancies. This therapeutic modality requires the combined efforts of multiple medical disciplines to ensure the safe delivery of yttrium-90 ((90)Y)-labeled microspheres. The development of this therapy followed decades of clinical research involving tumor vascularity and microsphere development. Today, it is essential that treating physicians have a thorough understanding of hepatic tumor vascularity and (90)Y microsphere characteristics before undertaking this complex intervention...
October 2016: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740542/vandetanib-eluting-radiopaque-beads-in-vivo-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-toxicity-evaluation-following-swine-liver-embolization
#17
Alban Denys, Peter Czuczman, David Grey, Zainab Bascal, Rhys Whomsley, Hugh Kilpatrick, Andrew L Lewis
PURPOSE: To evaluate the plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics, safety and toxicity following intra-arterial hepatic artery administration of Vandetanib (VTB)-eluting Radiopaque Beads (VERB) in healthy swine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a first phase, healthy swine were treated with hepatic intra-arterial administration of VERB at target dose loading strengths of 36 mg/mL (VERB36), 72 mg/mL (VERB72) and 120 mg/mL (VERB120). Blood and tissue samples were taken and analysed for VTB and metabolites to determine pharmacokinetic parameters for the different dose forms over 30 days...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740387/apatinib-loaded-nanoparticles-suppress-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-and-experimental-corneal-neovascularization
#18
Jung Eun Lee, Koung Li Kim, Danbi Kim, Yeongju Yeo, Hyounkoo Han, Myung Goo Kim, Sun Hwa Kim, Hyuncheol Kim, Ji Hoon Jeong, Wonhee Suh
Pathological angiogenesis is one of the major symptoms of severe ocular diseases, including corneal neovascularization. The blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) action has been recognized as an efficient strategy for treating corneal neovascularization. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether nanoparticle-based delivery of apatinib, a novel and selective inhibitor of VEGF receptor 2, inhibits VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and suppresses experimental corneal neovascularization. Water-insoluble apatinib was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of human serum albumin (HSA)-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740384/tumor-microenvironment-dual-responsive-core-shell-nanoparticles-with-hyaluronic-acid-shield-for-efficient-co-delivery-of-doxorubicin-and-plasmid-dna
#19
Tianqi Wang, Xiaoyue Yu, Leiqiang Han, Tingxian Liu, Yongjun Liu, Na Zhang
As the tumor microenvironment (TME) develops, it is critical to take the alterations of pH value, reduction and various enzymes of the TME into consideration when constructing the desirable co-delivery systems. Herein, TME pH and enzyme dual-responsive core-shell nanoparticles were prepared for the efficient co-delivery of chemotherapy drug and plasmid DNA (pDNA). A novel pH-responsive, positively charged drug loading material, doxorubicin (DOX)-4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HBA)-polyethyleneimine (PEI) conjugate (DOX-HBA-PEI, DHP), was synthesized to fabricate positively charged polyion complex inner core DHP/DNA nanoparticles (DDN)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740381/chitosan-coated-diacerein-nanosuspensions-as-a-platform-for-enhancing-bioavailability-and-lowering-side-effects-preparation-characterization-and-ex-vivo-in-vivo-evaluation
#20
Ahmed N Allam, Sherif I Hamdallah, Ossama Y Abdallah
Nanodrug delivery systems have been widely reviewed for their use in several drug formulations to improve bioavailability, sustain effect, and decrease side effects of many candidate drugs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of chitosan (CS)-coated nanosuspensions to enhance bioavailability and reduce the diarrheal side effect of diacerein (DCN) after oral administration. DCN nanosuspensions (DNS) were prepared by sonoprecipitation technique using different stabilizers at three different concentrations...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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