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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432786/the-comprehensive-connectome-of-a-neural-substrate-for-on-motion-detection-in-drosophila
#1
Shin-Ya Takemura, Aljoscha Nern, Dmitri B Chklovskii, Louis K Scheffer, Gerald M Rubin, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Analysing computations in neural circuits often uses simplified models because the actual neuronal implementation is not known. For example, a problem in vision, how the eye detects image motion, has long been analysed using Hassenstein-Reichardt (HR) detector or Barlow-Levick (BL) models. These both simulate motion detection well, but the exact neuronal circuits undertaking these tasks remain elusive. We reconstructed a comprehensive connectome of the circuits of Drosophila's motion-sensing T4 cells using a novel EM technique...
April 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430147/suitability-of-strain-gage-sensors-for-integration-into-smart-sport-equipment-a-golf-club-example
#2
Anton Umek, Yuan Zhang, Sašo Tomažič, Anton Kos
Wearable devices and smart sport equipment are being increasingly used in amateur and professional sports. Smart sport equipment employs various sensors for detecting its state and actions. The correct choice of the most appropriate sensor(s) is of paramount importance for efficient and successful operation of sport equipment. When integrated into the sport equipment, ideal sensors are unobstructive, and do not change the functionality of the equipment. The article focuses on experiments for identification and selection of sensors that are suitable for the integration into a golf club with the final goal of their use in real time biofeedback applications...
April 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429800/straight-and-rigid-flagellar-hook-made-by-insertion-of-the-flgg-specific-sequence-into-flge
#3
Koichi D Hiraoka, Yusuke V Morimoto, Yumi Inoue, Takashi Fujii, Tomoko Miyata, Fumiaki Makino, Tohru Minamino, Keiichi Namba
The bacterial flagellar hook connects the helical flagellar filament to the rotary motor at its base. Bending flexibility of the hook allows the helical filaments to form a bundle behind the cell body to produce thrust for bacterial motility. The hook protein FlgE shows considerable sequence and structural similarities to the distal rod protein FlgG; however, the hook is supercoiled and flexible as a universal joint whereas the rod is straight and rigid as a drive shaft. A short FlgG specific sequence (GSS) has been postulated to confer the rigidity on the FlgG rod, and insertion of GSS at the position between Phe-42 and Ala-43 of FlgE actually made the hook straight...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429082/the-effect-of-a-combined-thoracic-and-soft-tissue-trauma-on-blood-flow-and-tissue-formation-in-fracture-healing-in-rats
#4
Lutz Claes, Florian Gebhard, Anita Ignatius, Raimund Lechner, Stefan Baumgärtel, Michael Kraus, Gert D Krischak
INTRODUCTION: Previously, it was found that fracture healing is impaired by blunt chest trauma and an additional soft-tissue trauma. The mechanisms leading to this disturbance are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of thoracic and soft-tissue trauma on blood flow of the injured lower leg and on tissue differentiation and callus formation during fracture healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats received either a mid-shaft fracture of the tibia alone (group A), an additional chest trauma (group B), or additional chest and soft-tissue traumas (group C)...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424498/efficacy-and-safety-of-a-newly-developed-polylactic-acid-microsphere-as-an-injectable-bulking-agent-for-penile-augmentation-18-months-follow-up
#5
D Y Yang, K Ko, S H Lee, D G Moon, J W Kim, W K Lee
Polylactic acid (PLA) fillers are widely used for cosmetic volume augmentation. But, no study has evaluated the use of PLA filler in penile augmentation (PA No. 4). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a newly developed PLA filler for PA during a 18-month follow-up period. A total of 23 healthy adult men were prospectively enrolled between June and November 2012. Penile girth was measured at proximal-, mid- and distal-shaft at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months following injection. Subjects' satisfaction was assessed with visual analogue scale (VAS)...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422876/low-complication-rate-of-elastic-stable-intramedullary-nailing-esin-of-pediatric-forearm-fractures-a-retrospective-study-of-202-cases
#6
Christiane Kruppa, Pamela Bunge, Thomas A Schildhauer, Marcel Dudda
Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) has been established as state of the art treatment for forearm fractures in children, if operative stabilization is required. Their use has been expanded to single bone shaft fractures, and also more complex injuries such as Monteggia fractures or Monteggia-like lesions. A wide range of complications has been reported in the literature, up to 70% in certain investigations. The purpose of this study was to assess the complication rate after ESIN treatment of forearm fractures in children and adolescents in a representative cohort of patients from a level 1 trauma center in Germany...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422009/axon-tension-regulates-fasciculation-defasciculation-through-the-control-of-axon-shaft-zippering
#7
Daniel Šmít, Coralie Fouquet, Frédéric Pincet, Martin Zapotocky, Alain Trembleau
While axon fasciculation plays a key role in the development of neural networks, very little is known about its dynamics and the underlying biophysical mechanisms. In a model system composed of neurons grown ex vivo from explants of embryonic mouse olfactory epithelia, we observed that axons dynamically interact with each other through their shafts, leading to zippering and unzippering behaviour that regulates their fasciculation. We carried out a detailed biophysical analysis of zippering, occurring either spontaneously or induced by micromanipulations...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421316/comparison-of-the-coracoid-and-retroclavicular-approaches-for-ultrasound-guided-infraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block
#8
Nilgun Kavrut Ozturk, Ali Sait Kavakli
PURPOSE: This prospective randomized study compared the coracoid and retroclavicular approaches to ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block (IBPB) in terms of needle tip and shaft visibility and quality of block. We hypothesized that the retroclavicular approach would increase needle tip and shaft visibility and decrease the number of needle passes compared to the coracoid approach. METHODS: A total of 100 adult patients who received IBPB block for upper limb surgery were randomized into two groups: a coracoid approach group (group C) and a retroclavicular approach group (group R)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421239/weight-bearing-recommendations-after-operative-fracture-treatment-fact-or-fiction-gait-results-with-and-feasibility-of-a-dynamic-continuous-pedobarography-insole
#9
Benedikt J Braun, Nils T Veith, Mika Rollmann, Marcel Orth, Tobias Fritz, Steven C Herath, Jörg H Holstein, Tim Pohlemann
PURPOSE: Rehabilitation after lower-extremity fractures is based on the physicians' recommendation for non-, partial-, or full weight-bearing. Clinical studies rely on this assumption, but continuous compliance or objective loading rates are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance to weight-bearing recommendations by introducing a novel, pedobarography system continuously registering postoperative ground forces into ankle, tibial shaft and proximal femur fracture aftercare and test its feasibility for this purpose...
April 19, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420623/externalised-locking-compression-plate-as-an-alternative-to-the-unilateral-external-fixator-a-biomechanical-comparative-study-of-axial-and-torsional-stiffness
#10
B F H Ang, J Y Chen, A K S Yew, S K Chua, S M Chou, S L Chia, J S B Koh, T S Howe
OBJECTIVES: External fixators are the traditional fixation method of choice for contaminated open fractures. However, patient acceptance is low due to the high profile and therefore physical burden of the constructs. An externalised locking compression plate is a low profile alternative. However, the biomechanical differences have not been assessed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the axial and torsional stiffness of the externalised titanium locking compression plate (ET-LCP), the externalised stainless steel locking compression plate (ESS-LCP) and the unilateral external fixator (UEF)...
April 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417681/proximal-femoral-nail-antirotation-versus-dynamic-hip-screw-fixation-for-treatment-of-osteoporotic-type-31-a1-intertrochanteric-femoral-fractures-in-elderly-patients
#11
Xianshang Zeng, Nan Zhang, Dan Zeng, Lili Zhang, Ping Xu, Lei Cao, Weiguang Yu, Ke Zhan, Xinchao Zhang
Objective To evaluate long-term radiographic and functional outcomes between dynamic hip screw (DHS) and proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) fixation for treatment of osteoporotic type 31-A1 intertrochanteric femoral fractures (IFFs) among elderly patients Methods A retrospective comparative study was carried out. Follow-up was performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively and yearly thereafter. The primary outcome was the radiographic outcome, and the secondary outcome was the functional outcome...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417290/unilateral-external-fixator-in-the-treatment-of-humeral-shaft-fractures-results-of-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#12
M Basso, M Formica, L Cavagnaro, M Federici, M Lombardi, F Lanza, L Felli
BACKGROUND: The aim of our work is to evaluate and critically analyze long-term clinical and radiological data of a new unilateral external fixator (MIKAI KIT FEP©-Mikai S.p.A, Genoa, Italy), in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 47 patients affected by humeral fractures that underwent surgery from July 2010 to March 2016 with unilateral external fixator. Demographic characteristics of the patients were recorded, which included age, sex and baseline comorbidities and mechanism of injury...
April 17, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417078/local-excision-for-the-treatment-of-penile-verrucous-carcinoma
#13
Dong In Jo, Sang Kyu Choi, Soon Heum Kim, Cheol Keun Kim, Hong Chung, Hong Sup Kim
Penile verrucous carcinoma is known for its favorable biologic behavior and lack of metastatic potential. For preservation of function, treatment has been focused on partial penectomy. Despite partial penectomy for preservation of minimal functional and aesthetic aspects, patients have experienced psychosexual problems. A 73-year-old man had a cauliflower-like verrucous carcinoma on the penile glans and coronary sulcus diagnosed by using excisional biopsy. He underwent degloving excision to save the penile shaft and glans penis...
July 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414614/intracorporeal-circular-stapled-esophagojejunostomy-using-conventional-purse-string-suture-instrument-after-laparoscopic-total-gastrectomy
#14
Weiguo Liu, Yongfang Guo, Zhigang Qiu, Dongguang Niu, Jianli Zhang
BACKGROUND: An optimal alimentary tract reconstruction technique after laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) remains controversial. The authors developed a new simple technique for intracorporeal esophagojejunal anastomosis that employs a conventional purse-string suture instrument (PSI) and circular stapler. METHODS: From May 2014 to April 2016, 41 consecutive patients with gastric cancer underwent LTG in the author's institution. Intracorporeal esophagojejunal anastomosis using the following method was attempted for all patients...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413121/characterisation-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-terminal-differentiation-in-a-maximally-proliferative-human-epithelial-tissue-lessons-from-the-human-hair-follicle-matrix
#15
Talveen S Purba, Lars Brunken, Michael Peake, Asim Shahmalak, Asuncion Chaves, Enrique Poblet, Ralf Paus
Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2)) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression...
April 2, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409214/-fractures-of-the-upper-limbs-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#16
P P Schmittenbecher
Fractures of the upper limbs are frequent and often need operative treatment in addition to a well-indicated conservative management. This depends on the maturity of the nearest growth plate and the local remodeling potential, which is dependent on age. Following conventional x‑ray imaging an individual prognostic growth analysis leads to the therapeutic decision. Around the elbow and the shaft of the forearm, criteria are stricter than near the shoulder or wrist. Gilchrist or Desault bandages as well as braces are adequate for most subcapital and humeral shaft fractures...
April 13, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408084/semiextended-approach-for-intramedullary-nailing-via-a-patellar-eversion-technique-for-tibial-shaft-fractures-evaluation-of-the-patellofemoral-joint
#17
Tomohiro Yasuda, Shu Obara, Junji Hayashi, Masayuki Arai, Kaoru Sato
Intramedullary nail fixation is a common treatment for tibial-shaft fractures, and it offers a better functional prognosis than other conservative treatments. Currently, the primary approach employed during intramedullary nail insertion is the semiextended position is the suprapatellar approach, which involves a vertical incision of the quadriceps tendon Damage to the patellofemoral joint cartilage has been highlighted as a drawback associated with this approach. To avoid this issue, we perform surgery using the patellar eversion technique and a soft sleeve...
March 25, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406558/mechanical-constraints-on-the-hominin-pelvis-and-the-obstetrical-dilemma
#18
Christopher Ruff
The "obstetrical dilemma" posits that increases in birth canal dimensions during hominin evolution were constrained by mechanical factors associated with bipedal gait. This model has recently been challenged, in part on the basis of experimental data showing little association between pelvic and proximal femoral dimensions and locomotor costs among human experimental subjects. However, complete rejection of the model is premature, for two reasons: (1) it is difficult to extrapolate experimental results to naturalistic conditions and the much more varied body form and possibly locomotor style of early hominins...
May 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404748/components-of-rna-granules-affect-their-localization-and-dynamics-in-neuronal-dendrites
#19
Kazuhiko Mitsumori, Yosuke Takei, Nobutaka Hirokawa
In neurons, RNA transport is important for local protein synthesis. Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are transported along dendrites as large RNA granules. The localization and dynamics of Puralpha and Stau1, major components of RNA transport granules, were investigated in cultured hippocampal neurons. Puralpha-positive granules were localized in both the shafts and spines of dendrites. In contrast, Stau1-positive granules tended to be localized mainly in dendritic shafts. More than 90% of Puralpha-positive granules were positive for Stau1 in immature dendrites, while only half were positive in mature dendrites...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400670/gorham-s-disease-in-humerus-treated-with-autogenous-vascularized-fibular-graft
#20
Jeung Woo Kim, Hong Je Kang, Dong Chul Kim, Chang Hyun Shin
Gorham's disease is a rare disorder of the bone characterized by progressive massive osteolysis. The pathophysiology is unknown, and diagnosis is often difficult. Most cases are often recognized retrospectively. There is no standardized treatment and management for Gorham's disease. We report a case of an 18-year-old male presenting with a pathologic fracture in the humerus shaft diagnosed with Gorham's disease. Patient was treated with autogenous vascularized fibular graft with wide excision and a 10 years followup after first surgery...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
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