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Malaria vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785484/challenges-in-malaria-management-and-a-glimpse-at-some-nanotechnological-approaches
#1
Adrian Najer, Cornelia G Palivan, Hans-Peter Beck, Wolfgang Meier
Malaria is a devastating infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes, affecting millions of people and killing about half a million children each year. Despite tremendous progress in the control and elimination of malaria within the past years, there are still considerable challenges to be solved. To name a few, drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and the difficulty to formulate a potent malaria vaccine need to be addressed with new strategies to achieve the final goal of malaria eradication...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784863/the-gpi-transamidase-complex-subunit-pbgpi16-of-plasmodium-berghei-is-important-for-inducing-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#2
Qingyang Liu, Yan Zhao, Li Zheng, Xiaotong Zhu, Liwang Cui, Yaming Cao
In animal models of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), the glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) and GPI anchors are the major factors that induce nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and proinflammatory responses, which contribute to malaria pathogenesis. GPIs and GPI anchors are transported to the cell surface via a process called GPI transamidation, which involves the GPI transamidase (GPI-T) complex. In this study, we showed that GPI16, one of the GPI-T subunits, is highly conserved among Plasmodium species...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784862/antibodies-to-icam1-binding-pfemp1-dbl%C3%AE-are-biomarkers-of-protective-immunity-to-malaria-in-a-cohort-of-young-children-from-papua-new-guinea
#3
Sofonias K Tessema, Digjaya Utama, Olga Chesnokov, Anthony N Hodder, Clara S Lin, G L Abby Harrison, Jakob S Jespersen, Bent Petersen, Livingstone Tavul, Peter Siba, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Thomas Lavstsen, Diana S Hansen, Andrew V Oleinikov, Ivo Mueller, Alyssa E Barry
Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediates parasite sequestration to the cerebral microvasculature via binding of DBLβ domains to Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) and is associated with severe cerebral malaria. In a cohort of 187 young children from Papua New Guinea (PNG), we examined baseline antibody levels to the ICAM1-binding PfEMP1 domain, DBLβ3PF11_0521 , in comparison to four control antigens including NTS-DBLα and CIDR1 domains from another group A variant and a group B/C variant...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770278/-2tm-proteins-an-antigenically-diverse-superfamily-with-variable-functions-and-export-pathways
#4
Jasweer Kaur, Rachna Hora
Malaria is a disease that affects millions of people annually. An intracellular habitat and lack of protein synthesizing machinery in erythrocytes pose numerous difficulties for survival of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum . The parasite refurbishes the infected red blood cell (iRBC) by synthesis and export of several proteins in an attempt to suffice its metabolic needs and evade the host immune response. Immune evasion is largely mediated by surface display of highly polymorphic protein families known as variable surface antigens...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769448/tlr-adjuvanted-nanoparticle-vaccines-differentially-influence-the-quality-and-longevity-of-responses-to-malaria-antigen-pfs25
#5
Elizabeth A Thompson, Sebastian Ols, Kazutoyo Miura, Kelly Rausch, David L Narum, Mats Spångberg, Michal Juraska, Ulrike Wille-Reece, Amy Weiner, Randall F Howard, Carole A Long, Patrick E Duffy, Lloyd Johnston, Conlin P O'Neil, Karin Loré
Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) are considered an integral element of malaria eradication efforts. Despite promising evaluations of Plasmodium falciparum Pfs25-based TBVs in mice, clinical trials have failed to induce robust and long-lived Ab titers, in part due to the poorly immunogenic nature of Pfs25. Using nonhuman primates, we demonstrate that multiple aspects of Pfs25 immunity were enhanced by antigen encapsulation in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based [(PLGA)-based] synthetic vaccine particles (SVP[Pfs25]) and potent TLR-based adjuvants...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768543/preventing-diseases-in-round-the-world-travelers-a-contemporary-challenge-for-travel-medicine-advice
#6
Karis Maria de Pinho Rodrigues, Beatriz Meurer Moreira
Providing advice for travelers embarking on long-term trips poses a challenge in travel medicine. A long duration of risk exposure is associated with underuse of protective measures and poor adherence to chemoprophylaxis, increasing the chances of acquiring infections. Recently, in our clinic, we observed an increase in the number of travelers undertaking round-the-world trips. These individuals are typically aged around 32 years and quit their jobs to embark on one-to-two-year journeys. Their destinations include countries in two or more continents, invariably Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and mostly involve land travel and visiting rural areas...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765991/immune-response-and-evasion-mechanisms-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites
#7
REVIEW
Esmael Besufikad Belachew
Malaria causes approximately 212 million cases and 429 thousand deaths annually. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the vast majority of deaths (99%) than others. The virulence of P. falciparum is mostly associated with immune response-evading ability. It has different mechanisms to evade both Anopheles mosquito and human host immune responses. Immune-evading mechanisms in mosquito depend mainly on the Pfs47 gene that inhibits Janus kinase-mediated activation. Host complement factor also protects human complement immune attack of extracellular gametes in Anopheles mosquito midgut...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763669/travel-related-health-problems-in-the-immunocompromised-traveller-an-exploratory-study
#8
Mariëlle van Aalst, Marella C E van Ruissen, Roos Verhoeven, Godelieve J de Bree, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised travellers (ICTs) are at increased risk of travel-related health problems. Therefore, they are advised to attend specialised pre-travel clinics for advise on vaccination, malaria chemoprophylaxis and on demand antibiotics. However, studies yield conflicting data regarding travel-related health problems encountered by ICTs; questioning the rationale for certain advises, and particularly the advice of on demand antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate self-reported travel-related health problems, antibiotic use, medical visits and risk behaviours in ICTs and controls...
May 12, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760216/-plasmodium-falciparum-msp3-exists-in-a-complex-on-the-merozoite-surface-and-generates-antibody-response-during-natural-infection
#9
Arunaditya Deshmukh, Bishwanath Kumar Chourasia, Sonali Mehrotra, Ikhlaq Hussain Kana, Gourab Paul, Ashutosh Panda, Inderjeet Kaur, Susheel Kumar Singh, Sumit Rathore, Aparup Das, Priya Gupta, Kalamuddin Md, S K Ghakar, Asif Mohmmed, Michael Theisen, Pawan Malhotra
Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) is an abundantly expressed secreted merozoite surface protein and a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. However, it is unclear how MSP3 is retained on the surface of merozoites without a GPI anchor or a transmembrane domain. In the present study, we identified an MSP3 associated network on the Plasmodium merozoite surface by Immunoprecipitation of Plasmodium merozoite lysate using anti-MSP3N antibodies followed by mass spectrometry analysis. The results suggested the association of MSP3 with other merozoite surface proteins; MSP1, MSP6, MSP7, RAP2 and SERA5...
May 14, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757416/early-changes-in-cd4-t-cell-activation-following-blood-stage-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#10
Chelsea L Edwards, Susanna S Ng, Dillon Corvino, Marcela Montes de Oca, Fabian de Labastida Rivera, Katia Nones, Vanessa Lakis, Nicola Waddell, Fiona H Amante, James S McCarthy, Christian R Engwerda
We examined transcriptional changes in CD4+ T cells during blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum infection in individuals without a history of previous parasite exposure. CD4+ T cell CXCL8 gene (encoding IL-8) transcription was identified as an early biomarker of sub-microscopic P. falciparum infection, with predictive power for parasite growth. Following anti-parasitic drug treatment, a CD4+ T cell regulatory phenotype developed. PD1 expression on CD49b+ CD4+ T (putative type I regulatory (Tr1)) cells after drug treatment negatively correlated with earlier parasite growth...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756531/the-ethics-of-end-of-trial-obligations-in-a-pediatric-malaria-vaccine-trial-the-perspectives-of-stakeholders-from-ghana-and-tanzania
#11
Claire Leonie Ward, David Shaw, Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Osman Sankoh, Marcel Tanner, Bernice Elger
This study explores stakeholder experiences and perspectives on end-of-trial obligations at the close of a phase II/III Pediatric Malaria Vaccine Trial (PMVT) [GSK/PATH-MVI RTS, S) (NCT00866619]. We conducted 52 key informant interviews with major stakeholders of an international multicentre PMVT in Ghana and Tanzania. The responses fell into four main themes: (a) Communicating End-of-Trial, (b) Maintaining Health Care Services, (c) Dissemination of Results, and (d) Post-Trial Access. Interviewee responses shared important practical experiences and insights that complement current thinking in the literature on research ethics guidance: (a) accompany end-of-trial communication with information on personal and family health care responsibilities, (b) establish public health indicators to measure the impact of research on a health care system,...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: JERHRE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755620/human-genomic-loci-important-in-common-infectious-diseases-role-of-high-throughput-sequencing-and-genome-wide-association-studies
#12
REVIEW
Gerald Mboowa, Ivan Sserwadda, Marion Amujal, Norah Namatovu
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria are 3 major global public health threats that undermine development in many resource-poor settings. Recently, the notion that positive selection during epidemics or longer periods of exposure to common infectious diseases may have had a major effect in modifying the constitution of the human genome is being interrogated at a large scale in many populations around the world. This positive selection from infectious diseases increases power to detect associations in genome-wide association studies (GWASs)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752026/safety-of-a-heat-stable-rotavirus-vaccine-among-children-in-niger-data-from-a-phase-3-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Matthew E Coldiron, Ousmane Guindo, Rockyath Makarimi, Issaka Soumana, Amadou Matar Seck, Souna Garba, Emilie Macher, Sheila Isanaka, Rebecca F Grais
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus remains a major cause of diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. The efficacy of RotaSIIL, a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, was shown in an event-driven trial in Niger. We describe the two-year safety follow-up of this trial. METHODS: Follow-up of safety outcomes began upon administration of the first dose of RotaSIIL or placebo. Adverse events were followed until 28 days after the third dose, and serious adverse events were followed until 2 years of age...
May 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751793/uptake-of-three-doses-of-hpv-vaccine-by-primary-school-girls-in-eldoret-kenya-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-a-malaria-endemic-setting
#14
Hillary Mabeya, Sonia Menon, Steven Weyers, Violet Naanyu, Emily Mwaliko, Elijah Kirop, Omenge Orango, Heleen Vermandere, Davy Vanden Broeck
BACKGROUND: All women are potentially at risk of developing cervical cancer at some point in their life, yet it is avoidable cause of death among women in Sub- Saharan Africa with a world incidence of 530,000 every year. It is the 4th commonest cancer affecting women worldwide with over 260,000 deaths reported in 2012. Low resource settings account for over 75% of the global cervical cancer burden. Uptake of HPV vaccination is limited in the developing world. WHO recommended that 2 doses of HPV vaccine could be given to young girls, based on studies in developed countries...
May 11, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751213/from-human-antibody-structure-and-function-towards-the-design-of-a-novel-plasmodium-falciparum-circumsporozoite-protein-malaria-vaccine
#15
REVIEW
Hedda Wardemann, Rajagopal Murugan
Malaria is a life-threatening vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium parasites that infect millions of people in endemic areas every year. The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S targets the immune response against circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum (PfCSP), the most deadly Plasmodium species in humans. PfCSP plays a fundamental role in parasite development as well as the establishment of the infection and is a molecular target of protective antibodies. However, RTS,S shows overall low efficacy and insufficient long-term protection...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743474/a-comprehensive-model-for-assessment-of-liver-stage-therapies-targeting-plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum
#16
Alison Roth, Steven P Maher, Amy J Conway, Ratawan Ubalee, Victor Chaumeau, Chiara Andolina, Stephen A Kaba, Amélie Vantaux, Malina A Bakowski, Richard Thomson Luque, Swamy Rakesh Adapa, Naresh Singh, Samantha J Barnes, Caitlin A Cooper, Mélanie Rouillier, Case W McNamara, Sebastian A Mikolajczak, Noah Sather, Benoît Witkowski, Brice Campo, Stefan H I Kappe, David E Lanar, François Nosten, Silas Davidson, Rays H Y Jiang, Dennis E Kyle, John H Adams
Malaria liver stages represent an ideal therapeutic target with a bottleneck in parasite load and reduced clinical symptoms; however, current in vitro pre-erythrocytic (PE) models for Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum lack the efficiency necessary for rapid identification and effective evaluation of new vaccines and drugs, especially targeting late liver-stage development and hypnozoites. Herein we report the development of a 384-well plate culture system using commercially available materials, including cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes...
May 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742870/unraveling-haplotype-diversity-of-the-apical-membrane-antigen-1-gene-in-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-in-thailand
#17
Lalita Lumkul, Vorthon Sawaswong, Phumin Simpalipan, Morakot Kaewthamasorn, Pongchai Harnyuttanakorn, Sittiporn Pattaradilokrat
Development of an effective vaccine is critically needed for the prevention of malaria. One of the key antigens for malaria vaccines is the apical membrane antigen 1 ( AMA -1) of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , the surface protein for erythrocyte invasion of the parasite. The gene encoding AMA -1 has been sequenced from populations of P. falciparum worldwide, but the haplotype diversity of the gene in P. falciparum populations in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), including Thailand, remains to be characterized...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741629/identification-and-immunological-characterization-of-the-ligand-domain-of-plasmodium-vivax-reticulocyte-binding-protein-1a
#18
Francis B Ntumngia, Richard Thomson-Luque, Sandra Galusic, Gabriel Frato, Sarah Frischmann, David S Peabody, Bryce Chackerian, Marcelo U Ferreira, Christopher L King, John H Adams
Background: Erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites is essential for blood-stage development. Consequently, parasite proteins critically involved in erythrocyte invasion such as the Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte-binding proteins (RBPs) that mediate preferential invasion of reticulocytes are considered potential vaccine targets. Thus, targeting the RBPs could prevent blood-stage infection and disease. The RBPs are large and little is known about their functional domains and whether individuals naturally exposed to P...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733355/cytophilic-antibodies-against-key-plasmodium-falciparum-blood-stage-antigens-contribute-to-protection-against-clinical-malaria-in-a-high-transmission-region-of-eastern-india
#19
Ikhlaq Hussain Kana, Asier Garcia-Senosiain, Susheel K Singh, Régis Wendpayangde Tiendrebeogo, Bishwanath Kumar Chourasia, Pawan Malhotra, Surya K Sharma, Manoj K Das, Subhash Singh, Bright Adu, Michael Theisen
Background: The collection of clinical data from a tribal population in a malaria endemic area of India suggests the occurrence of naturally acquired immunity (NAI) against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods: Quantity and functionality of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against intact merozoites and recombinant proteins were assessed in a 13-month longitudinal cohort study of 121 individuals, 3-60 years of age. Results: Opsonic phagocytosis of merozoites activity was strongly associated (hazard ratio [HR] = 0...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728106/human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-hospitalization-in-young-children-in-italy
#20
Parvanè Kuhdari, Federica Brosio, Cristina Malaventura, Armando Stefanati, Andrea Orsi, Giancarlo Icardi, Giovanni Gabutti
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is ubiquitous and causes respiratory diseases in both children and adults. Worldwide, hRSV pneumonia is the second cause of postnatal infant death after malaria. Given the high impact in terms of morbidity, mortality and costs, especially in the pediatric population, hRSV is recognized as a global health problem and the WHO, in view of the availability of new vaccines, has urged an active surveillance program of virus-related infections...
May 4, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
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