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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931134/risk-activities-and-pre-travel-health-seeking-practices-of-notified-cases-of-imported-infectious-diseases-in-australia
#1
Prakash Paudel, C Raina, Nicholas Zwar, Holly Seale, Heather Worth, Mohamud Sheikh, Anita E Heywood
Background: Travellers are at risk of acquiring infectious diseases during travel, with risks differing by destination, travel and traveller characteristics. A pre-travel health consultation may minimize this risk. However, uptake of pre-travel health advice remains low. We investigated pre-travel health preparations and disease-specific risk behaviours among notified cases of selected travel-associated infectious diseases imported into Australia. Methods: Prospective enhanced surveillance of notified cases of typhoid, paratyphoid, measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, malaria and chikungunya was conducted in two Australian states between February 2013 and January 2014...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925418/mhealth-application-areas-and-technology-combinations-a-comparison-of-literature-from-high-and-low-middle-income-countries
#2
Haitham Abaza, Michael Marschollek
BACKGROUND: With the continuous and enormous spread of mobile technologies, mHealth has evolved as a new subfield of eHealth. While eHealth is broadly focused on information and communication technologies, mHealth seeks to explore more into mobile devices and wireless communication. Since mobile phone penetration has exceeded other infrastructure in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), mHealth is seen as a promising component to provide pervasive and patient-centered care. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our research work for this paper is to examine the mHealth literature to identify application areas, target diseases, and mHealth service and technology types that are most appropriate for LMICs...
August 8, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923897/controlled-human-malaria-infection-applications-advances-and-challenges
#3
Danielle I Stanisic, James S McCarthy, Michael F Good
Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or direct injection of sporozoites or parasitised erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of anti-malarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early phase proof-of-concept clinical studies thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in malaria-endemic areas...
September 18, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916755/protein-o-fucosylation-in-plasmodium-falciparum-ensures-efficient-infection-of-mosquito-and-vertebrate-hosts
#4
Sash Lopaticki, Annie S P Yang, Alan John, Nichollas E Scott, James P Lingford, Matthew T O'Neill, Sara M Erickson, Nicole C McKenzie, Charlie Jennison, Lachlan W Whitehead, Donna N Douglas, Norman M Kneteman, Ethan D Goddard-Borger, Justin A Boddey
O-glycosylation of the Plasmodium sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP was recently identified, but the role of this modification in the parasite life cycle and its relevance to vaccine design remain unclear. Here, we identify the Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase (POFUT2) responsible for O-glycosylating CSP and TRAP. Genetic disruption of POFUT2 in Plasmodium falciparum results in ookinetes that are attenuated for colonizing the mosquito midgut, an essential step in malaria transmission. Some POFUT2-deficient parasites mature into salivary gland sporozoites although they are impaired for gliding motility, cell traversal, hepatocyte invasion, and production of exoerythrocytic forms in humanized chimeric liver mice...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915813/the-relationship-between-burden-of-childhood-disease-and-foreign-aid-for-child-health
#5
J Clay Bavinger, Paul Wise, Eran Bendavid
BACKGROUND: We sought to examine the relationship between child specific health aid (CHA) and burden of disease. Based on existing evidence, we hypothesized that foreign aid for child health would not be proportional to burden of disease. METHODS: In order to examine CHA and burden of disease, we obtained estimates of these parameters from established sources. Estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in children (0-5 years) were obtained from the World Health Organization for 2000 and 2012...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912592/accurate-immune-repertoire-sequencing-reveals-malaria-infection-driven-antibody-lineage-diversification-in-young-children
#6
Ben S Wendel, Chenfeng He, Mingjuan Qu, Di Wu, Stefany M Hernandez, Ke-Yue Ma, Eugene W Liu, Jun Xiao, Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce, Pengyu Ren, Keke Chen, Ning Jiang
Accurately measuring antibody repertoire sequence composition in a small amount of blood is challenging yet important for understanding repertoire responses to infection and vaccination. We develop molecular identifier clustering-based immune repertoire sequencing (MIDCIRS) and use it to study age-related antibody repertoire development and diversification before and during acute malaria in infants (< 12 months old) and toddlers (12-47 months old) with 4-8 ml of blood. Here, we show this accurate and high-coverage repertoire-sequencing method can use as few as 1000 naive B cells...
September 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906438/acetylcholinesterase-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-schistosomes-and-other-parasitic-helminths
#7
REVIEW
Hong You, Chang Liu, Xiaofeng Du, Donald P McManus
Schistosomiasis, which is caused by helminth trematode blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious health and economic problem in tropical areas, and the second most prevalent parasitic disease after malaria. Currently, there is no effective vaccine available and treatment is entirely dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), raising a significant potential public health threat due to the emergence of PZQ drug resistance. It is thus urgent and necessary to explore novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis...
September 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903777/modest-heterologous-protection-after-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoite-immunization-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Jona Walk, Isaie J Reuling, Marije C Behet, Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Wouter Graumans, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Thorsten Janssen, Karina Teelen, Johannes H W de Wilt, Quirijn de Mast, André J van der Ven, Ernest Diez Benavente, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark, Martijn A Huynen, Cornelus C Hermsen, Else M Bijker, Anja Scholzen, Robert W Sauerwein
BACKGROUND: A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 39 healthy participants of NF54-CPS immunization by bites of 45 NF54-infected (n = 24 volunteers) or uninfected mosquitoes (placebo; n = 15 volunteers) against a controlled human malaria infection with the homologous NF54 or the genetically distinct NF135...
September 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901005/delivery-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#9
REVIEW
Agustín Ciapponi, Simon Lewin, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Elizabeth Paulsen, Gabriel Rada, Charles S Wiysonge, Gabriel Bastías, Lilian Dudley, Signe Flottorp, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Claire Glenton, Charles I Okwundu, Blanca Peñaloza, Fatima Suleman, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: Delivery arrangements include changes in who receives care and when, who provides care, the working conditions of those who provide care, coordination of care amongst different providers, where care is provided, the use of information and communication technology to deliver care, and quality and safety systems. How services are delivered can have impacts on the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of health systems. This broad overview of the findings of systematic reviews can help policymakers and other stakeholders identify strategies for addressing problems and improve the delivery of services...
September 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895659/implementation-strategies-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#10
REVIEW
Tomas Pantoja, Newton Opiyo, Simon Lewin, Elizabeth Paulsen, Agustín Ciapponi, Charles S Wiysonge, Cristian A Herrera, Gabriel Rada, Blanca Peñaloza, Lilian Dudley, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Sebastian Garcia Marti, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: A key function of health systems is implementing interventions to improve health, but coverage of essential health interventions remains low in low-income countries. Implementing interventions can be challenging, particularly if it entails complex changes in clinical routines; in collaborative patterns among different healthcare providers and disciplines; in the behaviour of providers, patients or other stakeholders; or in the organisation of care. Decision-makers may use a range of strategies to implement health interventions, and these choices should be based on evidence of the strategies' effectiveness...
September 12, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893687/genetic-analysis-of-id1-dbl2x-predicts-its-validity-as-a-vaccine-candidate-in-colombia-and-supports-at-least-two-independently-introduced-plasmodium-falciparum-populations-in-the-region
#11
J Rajwani, C M Klinger, E Arango, M I Arroyo, A Sabbagh, A Maestre, J B Dacks, S Gnidehou, S K Yanow
Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) poses a threat to both the mother and fetus, increasing the risk of severe maternal anemia, fetal growth restriction and low birth weight infants. Two vaccines are currently in development to protect women from Plasmodium falciparum in pregnancy. Both vaccine constructs target the ID1-DBL2Xb domain of VAR2CSA, a protein expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) that mediates parasite sequestration in the placenta. Although development of an effective vaccine may be hampered by ID1-DBL2Xb polymorphisms expressed by field isolates, a recent study showed that genetic variation of this domain in South American parasite populations is much lower than in other geographical locations...
September 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888925/follicular-helper-t-cells-are-essential-for-the-elimination-of-plasmodium-infection
#12
Damián Pérez-Mazliah, Minh Phuong Nguyen, Caroline Hosking, Sarah McLaughlin, Matthew D Lewis, Irene Tumwine, Prisca Levy, Jean Langhorne
CD4(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells have been shown to be critical for the activation of germinal center (GC) B-cell responses. Similar to other infections, Plasmodium infection activates both GC as well as non-GC B cell responses. Here, we sought to explore whether Tfh cells and GC B cells are required to eliminate a Plasmodium infection. A CD4 T cell-targeted deletion of the gene that encodes Bcl6, the master transcription factor for the Tfh program, resulted in complete disruption of the Tfh response to Plasmodium chabaudi in C57BL/6 mice and consequent disruption of GC responses and IgG responses and the inability to eliminate the otherwise self-resolving chronic P...
September 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887001/major-findings-and-recent-advances-in-virus-like-particle-vlp-based-vaccines
#13
REVIEW
Mona O Mohsen, Lisha Zha, Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Martin F Bachmann
Virus-like particles (VLPs) have made giant strides in the field of vaccinology over the last three decades. VLPs constitute versatile tools in vaccine development due to their favourable immunological characteristics such as their size, repetitive surface geometry, ability to induce both innate and adaptive immune responses as well as being safe templates with favourable economics. Several VLP-based vaccines are commercially available including vaccines against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) such as Cervarix(®), Gardasil(®) & Gardasil9(®) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) including the 3rd generation Sci-B-Vac™...
September 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885461/vaccinations-and-malaria-chemoprophylaxis-of-adolescents-traveling-from-greece-to-international-destinations-a-nine-year-prospective-study
#14
Helena C Maltezou, Androula Pavli, Kalliopi Theodoridou, Panos Katerelos, Athina Spilioti, Anastasia Tedoma, Ioanna Lymperi, Maria Theodoridou
BACKGROUND: There are few publications focusing on vaccination and malaria chemoprophylaxis in adolescent travelers. We assessed pre-travel vaccinations and malaria chemoprophylaxis of adolescents 12-18 old traveling from Greece to international destinations. METHODS: We prospectively studied 239 adolescents 12-18 years old during 2008-2016. A standard questionnaire was used to collect data. RESULTS: Adolescents sought pre-travel services at a mean of 24...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883981/immunization-of-mice-with-soluble-lysate-of-interferon-gamma-expressing-plasmodium-berghei-anka%C3%A2-induces-high-ifn-%C3%AE-production
#15
Ebenezer Taylor, Faith Onditi, Naomi Maina, Hastings Ozwara
BACKGROUND: Efforts in search of lasting malaria vaccine have led to the development of transgenic rodent malaria parasites. As a result, wild type Plasmodium berghei ANKA (WTPbA) has recently been transformed to express mouse interferon gamma (mIFN-γ). The immunomodulatory effect of this transgenic parasite on WTPbA infection has been demonstrated. However, the protective immune responses after repeated immunization with soluble lysate of this parasite has not been investigated. METHODS: Soluble lysate of transgenic PbA (TPbA) was prepared and concentration of IFN-γ in lysate determined by ELISA...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883973/vectored-immunoprophylaxis-an-emerging-adjunct-to-traditional-vaccination
#16
REVIEW
John W Sanders, Todd A Ponzio
The successful development of effective vaccines has been elusive for many of the world's most important infectious diseases. Additionally, much of the population, such as the aged or immunocompromised, are unable to mount an effective immunologic response for existing vaccines. Vectored Immunoprophylaxis (VIP) is a novel approach designed to address these challenges. Rather than utilizing an antigen to trigger a response from the host's immune system as is normally done with traditional vaccines, VIP genetically engineers the production of tailored antibodies from non-hematopoietic cells, bypassing the humoral immune system...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878775/rts-s-as01e-malaria-vaccine-induces-memory-and-polyfunctional-t-cell-responses-in-a-pediatric-african-phase-iii-trial
#17
Gemma Moncunill, Stephen C De Rosa, Aintzane Ayestaran, Augusto J Nhabomba, Maximillian Mpina, Kristen W Cohen, Chenjerai Jairoce, Tobias Rutishauser, Joseph J Campo, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Héctor Sanz, Núria Díez-Padrisa, Nana Aba Williams, Daryl Morris, John J Aponte, Clarissa Valim, Claudia Daubenberger, Carlota Dobaño, M Juliana McElrath
Comprehensive assessment of cellular responses to the RTS,S/AS01E vaccine is needed to understand potential correlates and ultimately mechanisms of protection against malaria disease. Cellular responses recognizing the RTS,S/AS01E-containing circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were assessed before and 1 month after primary vaccination by intracellular cytokine staining and 16-color flow cytometry in 105 RTS,S/AS01-vaccinated and 74 rabies-vaccinated participants (controls) in a pediatric phase III trial in Africa...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877929/merozoite-surface-protein-1-from-p-falciparum-is-a-major-target-of-opsonizing-antibodies-in-individuals-with-acquired-immunity-against-malaria
#18
Anja Jäschke, Boubacar Coulibaly, Edmond J Remarque, Hermann Bujard, Christian Epp
Naturally acquired immunity against malaria is largely mediated by serum antibodies controlling levels of blood stage parasites. A limited understanding of the antigenic targets and functional mechanisms of protective antibodies has hampered so far the development of efficient malaria vaccines. Besides directly inhibiting growth of Plasmodium parasites, antibodies can opsonize merozoites and recruit immune effector cells such as monocytes or neutrophils. Antibodies against the vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) are acquired during natural infection and have been associated with protection against malaria in several epidemiological studies...
September 6, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877692/the-use-of-a-p-falciparum-specific-coiled-coil-domain-to-construct-a-self-assembling-protein-nanoparticle-vaccine-to-prevent-malaria
#19
Christopher P Karch, Tais A P F Doll, Sara M Paulillo, Issa Nebie, David E Lanar, Giampietro Corradin, Peter Burkhard
BACKGROUND: The parasitic disease malaria remains a major global public health concern and no truly effective vaccine exists. One approach to the development of a malaria vaccine is to target the asexual blood stage that results in clinical symptoms. Most attempts have failed. New antigens such as P27A and P27 have emerged as potential new vaccine candidates. Multiple studies have demonstrated that antigens are more immunogenic and are better correlated with protection when presented on particulate delivery systems...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875466/native-mass-spectrometry-ion-mobility-and-collision-induced-unfolding-categorize-malaria-antigen-antibody-binding
#20
Yining Huang, Nichole D Salinas, Edwin Chen, Niraj H Tolia, Michael L Gross
Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) is a promising vaccine candidate for P. vivax malaria. Recently, we reported the epitopes on PvDBP region II (PvDBP-II) for three inhibitory monoclonal antibodies (2D10, 2H2, and 2C6). In this communication, we describe the combination of native mass spectrometry and ion mobility (IM) with collision induced unfolding (CIU) to study the conformation and stabilities of three malarial antigen-antibody complexes. These complexes, when collisionally activated, undergo conformational changes that depend on the location of the epitope...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
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