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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634831/malaria-2017-update-on-the-clinical-literature-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Johanna P Daily
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria is a prevalent disease in travelers to and residents of malaria-endemic regions. Health care workers in both endemic and non-endemic settings should be familiar with the latest evidence for the diagnosis, management and prevention of malaria. This article will discuss the recent malaria epidemiologic and medical literature to review the progress, challenges, and optimal management of malaria. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a marked decrease in malaria-related global morbidity and mortality secondary to malaria control programs over the last few decades...
June 20, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634105/genetic-diversity-in-the-c-terminus-of-merozoite-surface-protein-1-among-plasmodium-knowlesi-isolates-from-selangor-and-sabah-borneo-malaysia
#2
Nan Jiun Yap, Xiang Ting Goh, Anson V Koehler, Timothy William, Tsin Wen Yeo, Indra Vythilingam, Robin B Gasser, Yvonne A L Lim
Plasmodium knowlesi, a malaria parasite of macaques, has emerged as an important parasite of humans. Despite the significance of P. knowlesi malaria in parts of Southeast Asia, very little is known about the genetic variation in this parasite. Our aim here was to explore sequence variation in a molecule called the 42kDa merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), which is found on the surface of blood stages of Plasmodium spp. and plays a key role in erythrocyte invasion. Several studies of P. falciparum have reported that the C-terminus (a 42kDa fragment) of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-142; consisting of MSP-119 and MSP-133) is a potential candidate for a malaria vaccine...
June 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630943/parasites-lacking-the-micronemal-protein-mic2-are-deficient-in-surface-attachment-and-host-cell-egress-but-remain-virulent-in-vivo
#3
Simon Gras, Allison Jackson, Stuart Woods, Gurman Pall, Jamie Whitelaw, Jacqueline M Leung, Gary E Ward, Craig W Roberts, Markus Meissner
Background: Micronemal proteins of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family are believed to play essential roles during gliding motility and host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites, and currently represent major vaccine candidates against Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria. However, recent evidence suggests that they play multiple and different roles than previously assumed. Here, we analyse a null mutant for MIC2, the TRAP homolog in Toxoplasma gondii. Methods: We performed a careful analysis of parasite motility in a 3D-environment, attachment under shear stress conditions, host cell invasion and in vivo virulence...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630474/nanoassembly-routes-stimulate-conflicting-antibody-quantity-and-quality-for-transmission-blocking-malaria-vaccines
#4
Darren B Leneghan, Kazutoyo Miura, Iona J Taylor, Yuanyuan Li, Jing Jin, Karl D Brune, Martin F Bachmann, Mark Howarth, Carole A Long, Sumi Biswas
Vaccine development efforts have recently focused on enabling strong immune responses to poorly immunogenic antigens, via display on multimerisation scaffolds or virus like particles (VLPs). Typically such studies demonstrate improved antibody titer comparing monomeric and nano-arrayed antigen. There are many such studies and scaffold technologies, but minimal side-by-side evaluation of platforms for both the amount and efficacy of antibodies induced. Here we present direct comparison of three leading platforms displaying the promising malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) target Pfs25...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620583/engineering-of-genetically-arrested-parasites-gaps-for-a-precision-malaria-vaccine
#5
REVIEW
Oriana Kreutzfeld, Katja Müller, Kai Matuschewski
Continuous stage conversion and swift changes in the antigenic repertoire in response to acquired immunity are hallmarks of complex eukaryotic pathogens, including Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria. Efficient elimination of Plasmodium liver stages prior to blood infection is one of the most promising malaria vaccine strategies. Here, we describe different genetically arrested parasites (GAPs) that have been engineered in Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii and P. falciparum and compare their vaccine potential...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619415/international-travelers-sociodemographic-health-and-travel-characteristics-an-italian-study
#6
Gianmarco Troiano, Astrid Mercone, Alessandra Bagnoli, Nicola Nante
BACKGROUND: Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619230/innovative-financing-instruments-for-global-health-2002-15-a-systematic-analysis
#7
Rifat Atun, Sachin Silva, Felicia M Knaul
Development assistance for health (DAH), the value of which peaked in 2013 and fell in 2015, is unlikely to rise substantially in the near future, increasing reliance on domestic and innovative financing sources to sustain health programmes in low-income and middle-income countries. We examined innovative financing instruments (IFIs)-financing schemes that generate and mobilise funds-to estimate the quantum of financing mobilised from 2002 to 2015. We identified ten IFIs, which mobilised US$8·9 billion (2·3% of overall DAH) in 2002-15...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619071/new-adenovirus-based-vaccine-vectors-targeting-pfs25-elicit-antibodies-that-inhibit-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission
#8
Kathleen A McGuire, Kazutoyo Miura, Christopher M Wiethoff, Kim C Williamson
BACKGROUND: An effective malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) would be a major advance in the current efforts to eliminate and, ultimately, eradicate malaria. Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum surface protein, Pfs25, are known to block parasite development in the mosquito vector. However, in initial clinical trials the limited immunogenicity of recombinant Pfs25 protein-in-adjuvant vaccines has been a challenge. METHODS: Novel human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors were used in heterologous prime boost vaccination strategies to augment the immune response against Pfs25...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618199/lipid-interactions-modulate-the-structural-and-antigenic-properties-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-the-malaria-antigen-merozoite-surface-protein-2
#9
Sreedam C Das, Rodrigo A V Morales, Jeffrey Seow, Krishnarjuna Bankala, Ravindu Dissanayake, Robin F Anders, Christopher A MacRaild, Raymond S Norton
Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a highly abundant, GPI-anchored antigen on the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. MSP2 induces an immune response in the context of natural infections and vaccine trials, and these responses are associated with protection from parasite infection. Recombinant MSP2 is highly disordered in solution but antigenic analyses suggest that it is more ordered on the merozoite surface. We have shown previously that the interaction of recombinant full-length MSP2 with lipid surfaces induces a conformational change in the conserved N-terminal region of MSP2, which contributes to epitope masking in this region...
June 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617870/a-novel-genetic-technique-in-plasmodium-berghei-allows-liver-stage-analysis-of-genes-required-for-mosquito-stage-development-and-demonstrates-that-de-novo-heme-synthesis-is-essential-for-liver-stage-development-in-the-malaria-parasite
#10
Upeksha L Rathnapala, Christopher D Goodman, Geoffrey I McFadden
The combination of drug resistance, lack of an effective vaccine, and ongoing conflict and poverty means that malaria remains a major global health crisis. Understanding metabolic pathways at all parasite life stages is important in prioritising and targeting novel anti-parasitic compounds. The unusual heme synthesis pathway of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, requires eight enzymes distributed across the mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytoplasm. Deletion of the ferrochelatase (FC) gene, the final enzyme in the pathway, confirms that heme synthesis is not essential in the red blood cell stages of the life cycle but is required to complete oocyst development in mosquitoes...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614791/human-vaccination-against-plasmodium-vivax-duffy-binding-protein-induces-strain-transcending-antibodies
#11
Ruth O Payne, Sarah E Silk, Sean C Elias, Kathryn H Milne, Thomas A Rawlinson, David Llewellyn, A Rushdi Shakri, Jing Jin, Geneviève M Labbé, Nick J Edwards, Ian D Poulton, Rachel Roberts, Ryan Farid, Thomas Jørgensen, Daniel Gw Alanine, Simone C de Cassan, Matthew K Higgins, Thomas D Otto, James S McCarthy, Willem A de Jongh, Alfredo Nicosia, Sarah Moyle, Adrian Vs Hill, Eleanor Berrie, Chetan E Chitnis, Alison M Lawrie, Simon J Draper
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria geographically; however, no effective vaccine exists. Red blood cell invasion by the P. vivax merozoite depends on an interaction between the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) and region II of the parasite's Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP_RII). Naturally acquired binding-inhibitory antibodies against this interaction associate with clinical immunity, but it is unknown whether these responses can be induced by human vaccination...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612631/genetically-attenuated-malaria-parasites-as-vaccines
#12
Ashley M Vaughan, Stefan H I Kappe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610800/human-igg-repertoire-of-malaria-antigen-immunized-human-immune-system-his-mice
#13
Raquel Tayar Nogueira, Vincent Sahi, Jing Huang, Moriya Tsuji
Humanized mouse models present an important tool for preclinical evaluation of new vaccines and therapeutics. Here we show the human variable repertoire of antibody sequences cloned from a previously described human immune system (HIS) mouse model that possesses functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, namely HIS-CD4/B mice. We sequenced variable IgG genes from single memory B-cell and plasma-cell sorted from splenocytes or whole blood lymphocytes of HIS-CD4/B mice that were vaccinated with a human plasmodial antigen, a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (rPfCSP)...
June 10, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605544/functional-analysis-reveals-geographical-variation-in-inhibitory-immune-responses-against-a-polymorphic-malaria-antigen
#14
Amy K Bei, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Jeffrey D Dvorin, Kazutoyo Miura, Ababacar Diouf, Daouda Ndiaye, Zul Premji, Mahamadou Diakite, Souleymane Mboup, Carole A Long, Manoj T Duraisingh
Background: PfRh2b is a P. falciparum invasion ligand that is a potential blood stage vaccine candidate antigen; however, a naturally occurring deletion within an immunogenic domain is present at high frequencies in Africa and has been associated with alternative invasion pathway usage. Standardized tools that provide antigenic specificity in in vitro assays are needed to functionally assess the neutralizing potential of humoral responses against malaria vaccine candidate antigens. Methods: Transgenic parasite lines were generated to express the PfRh2b deletion...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604122/blood-stage-malaria-vaccines-post-genome-strategies-for-the-identification-of-novel-vaccine-candidates
#15
Edward H Ntege, Eizo Takashima, Masayuki Morita, Hikaru Nagaoka, Tomoko Ishino, Takafumi Tsuboi
An efficacious malaria vaccine is necessary to advance the current control measures towards malaria elimination. To-date, only RTS,S/AS01, a leading pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine completed phase 3 trials, but with an efficacy of 28-36% in children, and 18-26% in infants, that waned over time. Blood-stage malaria vaccines protect against disease, and are considered effective targets for the logical design of next generation vaccines to improve the RTS,S field efficacy. Therefore, novel blood-stage vaccine candidate discovery efforts are critical, albeit with several challenges including, high polymorphisms in vaccine antigens, poor understanding of targets of naturally protective immunity, and difficulties in the expression of high AT-rich plasmodial proteins...
June 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600217/limited-genetic-diversity-in-the-global-plasmodium-vivax-cell-traversal-protein-of-ookinetes-and-sporozoites-celtos-sequences-implications-for-pvceltos-based-vaccine-development
#16
Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Fatemeh Torabi, Sedigheh Zakeri, Navid Dinparast Djadid
Cell traversal protein of Ookinetes and Sporozoites (CelTOS) is a new malaria vaccine candidate antigen. Since one of the main challenges in malaria vaccine development is the extensive antigenic diversity of this parasite, local and global gene diversity analysis is of particular importance. Therefore, in this study, the genetic diversity of pvceltos gene was investigated among Iranian P. vivax isolates (n=46) and compared with available worldwide pvceltos sequences. One synonymous (C109A) and three amino acid replacements (V118L, K178T, and G179R) were observed in Iranian pvceltos sequences in compare with Sal-1 sequence leading to five haplotypes including PvCelt-A (GSVKGL, 13%), PvCelt-B (GSLKGL, 50%), PvCelt-C (GSLTGL, 17...
June 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596090/liposomes-containing-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-and-qs-21-serve-as-an-effective-adjuvant-for-soluble-circumsporozoite-protein-malaria-vaccine-fmp013
#17
Christopher J Genito, Zoltan Beck, Timothy W Phares, Fanta Kalle, Keith J Limbach, Maureen E Stefaniak, Noelle B Patterson, Elke S Bergmann-Leitner, Norman C Waters, Gary R Matyas, Carl R Alving, Sheetij Dutta
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum continues to threaten millions of people living in the tropical parts of the world. A vaccine that confers sterile and life-long protection remains elusive despite more than 30years of effort and resources invested in solving this problem. Antibodies to a malaria vaccine candidate circumsporozoite protein (CSP) can block invasion and can protect humans against malaria. We have manufactured the Falciparum Malaria Protein-013 (FMP013) vaccine based on the nearly full-length P...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588994/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-introducing-the-rts-s-malaria-vaccine-relative-to-scaling-up-other-malaria-interventions-in-sub-saharan-africa
#18
Peter Winskill, Patrick Gt Walker, Jamie T Griffin, Azra C Ghani
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of introducing the RTS,S malaria vaccine in sub-Saharan Africa compared with further scale-up of existing interventions. DESIGN: A mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness study. SETTING: Sub-Saharan Africa. PARTICIPANTS: People of all ages. INTERVENTIONS: The analysis considers the introduction and scale-up of the RTS,S malaria vaccine and the scale-up of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC)...
January 2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588574/predicting-rts-s-vaccine-mediated-protection-from-transcriptomes-in-a-malaria-challenge-clinical-trial
#19
Robert A van den Berg, Margherita Coccia, W Ripley Ballou, Kent E Kester, Christian F Ockenhouse, Johan Vekemans, Erik Jongert, Arnaud M Didierlaurent, Robbert G van der Most
The RTS,S candidate malaria vaccine can protect against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI), but how protection is achieved remains unclear. Here, we have analyzed longitudinal peripheral blood transcriptome and immunogenicity data from a clinical efficacy trial in which healthy adults received three RTS,S doses 4 weeks apart followed by CHMI 2 weeks later. Multiway partial least squares discriminant analysis (N-PLS-DA) of transcriptome data identified 110 genes that could be used in predictive models of protection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578824/improving-the-malaria-transmission-blocking-activity-of-a-plasmodium-falciparum-48-45-based-vaccine-antigen-by-spytag-spycatcher-mediated-virus-like-display
#20
Susheel K Singh, Susan Thrane, Christoph M Janitzek, Morten A Nielsen, Thor G Theander, Michael Theisen, Ali Salanti, Adam F Sander
Malaria is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, resulting in almost 0.5 million deaths per year. The Pfs48/45 protein exposed on the P. falciparum sexual stages is one of the most advanced antigen candidates for a transmission-blocking (TB) vaccine in the clinical pipeline. However, it remains essential to identify an optimal vaccine formulation that can facilitate induction of a long-lasting TB anti-Pfs48/45 response. Here we report on the development and evaluation of two Pfs48/45-based virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines generated using the AP205 SpyTag/Catcher VLP system...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
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