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Malaria surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933559/-contribution-of-nested-pcr-in-the-diagnosis-of-imported-malaria-in-southern-algeria
#1
L Bouiba, B Gassen, M Gasmi, D Hammadi, Z Harrat
The nested PCR was used to estimate its inputs in malaria diagnosis and in the performance of the microscope operators involved in the surveillance of malaria in remote areas of South Algeria. For the period 2010 to 2015, 112 patients (93 febrile and 19 asymptomatic) coming from sub-Saharan Africa were tested for malaria in the hospital of Tamanrasset. One part of the blood taken from fingertip was used for blood smears and the second part was absorbed in filter paper for molecular diagnosis. Overall, the infection was detected by nested PCR in 63 samples versus 53 by direct examination...
December 8, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932794/last-parasite-standing
#2
Gavin G Rutledge, Thomas D Otto
This month's Genome Watch describes how whole-genome sequencing used for surveillance purposes has enabled the identification of new drug resistance markers in the malaria parasite.
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931229/a-national-health-facility-survey-of-malaria-infection-among-febrile-patients-in-kenya-2014
#3
Sophie Githinji, Abdisalan M Noor, Josephine Malinga, Peter M Macharia, Rebecca Kiptui, Ahmeddin Omar, Kiambo Njagi, Ejersa Waqo, Robert W Snow
BACKGROUND: The use of malaria infection prevalence among febrile patients at clinics has a potential to be a valuable epidemiological surveillance tool. However, routine data are incomplete and not all fevers are tested. This study was designed to screen all fevers for malaria infection in Kenya to explore the epidemiology of fever test positivity rates. METHODS: Random sampling was used within five malaria epidemiological zones of Kenya (i.e., high lake endemic, moderate coast endemic, highland epidemic, seasonal low transmission and low risk zones)...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925018/time-trends-and-changes-in-the-distribution-of-malaria-cases-in-the-brazilian-amazon-region-2004-2013
#4
Isac da Sf Lima, Oscar Mm Lapouble, Elisabeth C Duarte
Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API) was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time...
December 1, 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905974/dynamic-denominators-the-impact-of-seasonally-varying-population-numbers-on-disease-incidence-estimates
#5
Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Victor A Alegana, Alessandro Sorichetta, Catherine Linard, Christoper Lourenço, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Bonita Graupe, Tomas J Bird, Carla Pezzulo, Amy Wesolowski, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: Reliable health metrics are crucial for accurately assessing disease burden and planning interventions. Many health indicators are measured through passive surveillance systems and are reliant on accurate estimates of denominators to transform case counts into incidence measures. These denominator estimates generally come from national censuses and use large area growth rates to estimate annual changes. Typically, they do not account for any seasonal fluctuations and thus assume a static denominator population...
October 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902755/the-utility-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-as-a-tool-in-enhanced-surveillance-for-malaria-elimination-in-vanuatu
#6
Wesley Donald, Cielo Pasay, Jean-Olivier Guintran, Harry Iata, Karen Anderson, Johnny Nausien, Karryn J Gresty, Norman C Waters, Lasse S Vestergaard, George Taleo, Qin Cheng
BACKGROUND: As part of efforts to eliminate malaria, Vanuatu has piloted the implementation of enhanced malaria surveillance and response strategies since 2011. This involves passive case detection (PCD) in health facilities, proactive case detection (Pro-ACD) and reactive case detection (Re-ACD) in communities using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). While RDTs improve case management, their utility for detection of malaria infections in ACDs in this setting is unclear. METHODS: The utility of malaria RDTs as diagnostic tools was evaluated in PCD, in five rounds of Pro-ACDs and five rounds of Re-ACDs conducted in Tafea and Torba Provinces between 2011 and 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899111/plasmodium-malariae-in-the-colombian-amazon-region-you-don-t-diagnose-what-you-don-t-suspect
#7
Carlos Hernando Niño, Juan Ricardo Cubides, Paola Andrea Camargo-Ayala, Carlos Arturo Rodríguez-Celis, Teódulo Quiñones, Moisés Tomás Cortés-Castillo, Lizeth Sánchez-Suárez, Ricardo Sánchez, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium spp. are the aetiological agent of this disease. The parasite is mainly diagnosed by microscope-based techniques. However, these have limited sensitivity. Many asymptomatic infections are sub-microscopic and can only be detected by molecular methods. This study was aimed at comparing nested PCR results to those obtained by microscope for diagnosing malaria and to present epidemiological data regarding malaria in Colombia's Amazon department...
November 29, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895911/under-five-mortality-among-displaced-populations-in-meheba-refugee-camp-zambia-2008-2014
#8
Nachela Malisenti Chelwa, Rosemary Ndonyo Likwa, Jeremiah Banda
BACKGROUND: Under-five mortality, which is the probability of a child dying before their fifth birthday, is of concern in Zambia as infant and child mortality rates are important social indicators. Displaced population in camps provide a basis for under-five mortality surveillance because detailed registration databases have been developed. Additionally, health data routinely collected on mortality allowed for a review of mortality trends and identification of correlating factors to under-five mortality...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894320/successful-malaria-elimination-in-the-ecuador-peru-border-region-epidemiology-and-lessons-learned
#9
Lyndsay K Krisher, Jesse Krisher, Mariano Ambuludi, Ana Arichabala, Efrain Beltrán-Ayala, Patricia Navarrete, Tania Ordoñez, Mark E Polhemus, Fernando Quintana, Rosemary Rochford, Mercy Silva, Juan Bazo, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents...
November 28, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890364/epidemiological-status-of-malaria-in-iran-2011-2014
#10
Faezeh Norouzinejad, Fatemeh Ghaffari, Ahmad Raeisi, Abbas Norouzinejad
OBJECTIVES: To aim to determine the status and epidemiological aspects of malaria in Iran in favour of gaining a better understanding of the national control of malaria. METHODS: This epidemiological study examined the status of malaria from 2011 to 2014 in Iran. Data were collected from the Ministry of Health's protocol for controlling and eliminating malaria, which is currently in use. This malaria information reporting system is automated in all Iranian provinces and cities, and all information is submitted online to the center for communicable disease control in the Ministry of Health...
November 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887652/limitations-of-malaria-reactive-case-detection-in-an-area-of-low-and-unstable-transmission-on-the-myanmar-thailand-border
#11
Daniel M Parker, Jordi Landier, Lorenz von Seidlein, Arjen Dondorp, Lisa White, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Richard J Maude, François H Nosten
BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection is an approach that has been proposed as a tool for malaria elimination in low-transmission settings. It is an intuitively justified approach based on the concept of space-time clustering of malaria cases. When an index malaria clinical case is detected, it triggers reactive screening and treatment in the index house and neighbouring houses. However, the efficacy of this approach at varying screening radii and malaria prevalence remains ill defined...
November 25, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880764/malaria-elimination-campaigns-in-the-lake-kariba-region-of-zambia-a-spatial-dynamical-model
#12
Milen Nikolov, Caitlin A Bever, Alexander Upfill-Brown, Busiku Hamainza, John M Miller, Philip A Eckhoff, Edward A Wenger, Jaline Gerardin
As more regions approach malaria elimination, understanding how different interventions interact to reduce transmission becomes critical. The Lake Kariba area of Southern Province, Zambia, is part of a multi-country elimination effort and presents a particular challenge as it is an interconnected region of variable transmission intensities. In 2012-13, six rounds of mass test-and-treat drug campaigns were carried out in the Lake Kariba region. A spatial dynamical model of malaria transmission in the Lake Kariba area, with transmission and climate modeled at the village scale, was calibrated to the 2012-13 prevalence survey data, with case management rates, insecticide-treated net usage, and drug campaign coverage informed by surveillance...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879463/a-tale-of-two-flaviviruses-a-seroepidemiological-study-of-dengue-virus-and-west-nile-virus-transmission-in-the-ouest-and-sud-est-departments-of-haiti
#13
Thomas A Weppelmann, Alexandra Burne, Michael E von Fricken, Maha A Elbadry, Madsen Beau De Rochars, Jacques Boncy, Bernard A Okech
Though plans to eliminate malaria from the island of Hispaniola have recently received much attention, arbovirus surveillance continues to be largely neglected in Haiti. To support surveillance efforts and encourage vector-control strategies, a cross-sectional study of dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) transmission was conducted using standard seroepidemiological methods. Blood samples (N = 673) were collected from 278 males and 395 females from three locations in the Ouest and Sud-Est Departments of Haiti...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879461/unstable-malaria-transmission-in-the-southern-peruvian-amazon-and-its-association-with-gold-mining-madre-de-dios-2001-2012
#14
Juan F Sanchez, Andres M Carnero, Esteban Rivera, Luis A Rosales, G Christian Baldeviano, Jorge L Asencios, Kimberly A Edgel, Joseph M Vinetz, Andres G Lescano
The reemergence of malaria in Madre de Dios, in the southern Peruvian Amazon basin, in the last decade was accompanied by ecological, political, and socioeconomic changes related to the proliferation of illegal gold mining. We conducted a secondary analysis of passive malaria surveillance data reported by the health networks in Madre de Dios between 2001 and 2012. We calculated the number of cases of malaria by year, geographic location, intensity of illegal mining activities, and proximity of health facilities to the Peru-Brazil Interoceanic Highway...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876041/time-series-analysis-of-malaria-in-afghanistan-using-arima-models-to-predict-future-trends-in-incidence
#15
Mohammad Y Anwar, Joseph A Lewnard, Sunil Parikh, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains endemic in Afghanistan. National control and prevention strategies would be greatly enhanced through a better ability to forecast future trends in disease incidence. It is, therefore, of interest to develop a predictive tool for malaria patterns based on the current passive and affordable surveillance system in this resource-limited region. METHODS: This study employs data from Ministry of Public Health monthly reports from January 2005 to September 2015...
November 22, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875528/effectiveness-of-seasonal-malaria-chemoprevention-in-children-under-ten-years-of-age-in-senegal-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial
#16
Badara Cissé, El Hadj Ba, Cheikh Sokhna, Jean Louis NDiaye, Jules F Gomis, Yankhoba Dial, Catherine Pitt, Mouhamed NDiaye, Matthew Cairns, Ernest Faye, Magatte NDiaye, Aminata Lo, Roger Tine, Sylvain Faye, Babacar Faye, Ousmane Sy, Lansana Konate, Ekoue Kouevijdin, Clare Flach, Ousmane Faye, Jean-Francois Trape, Colin Sutherland, Fatou Ba Fall, Pape M Thior, Oumar K Faye, Brian Greenwood, Oumar Gaye, Paul Milligan
BACKGROUND: Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus amodiaquine (AQ), given each month during the transmission season, is recommended for children living in areas of the Sahel where malaria transmission is highly seasonal. The recommendation for SMC is currently limited to children under five years of age, but, in many areas of seasonal transmission, the burden in older children may justify extending this age limit. This study was done to determine the effectiveness of SMC in Senegalese children up to ten years of age...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871303/geographically-weighted-regression-of-knowledge-and-behaviour-determinants-to-anti-malarial-recommending-and-dispensing-practice-among-medicine-retailers-in-western-kenya-capacitating-targeted-interventions
#17
Andria Rusk, Linda Highfield, J Michael Wilkerson, Melissa Harrell, Andrew Obala, Benjamin Amick
BACKGROUND: Most patients with malaria seek treatment first in retail drug shops. Myriad studies have examined retailer behaviours and characteristics to understand the determinants to these behaviours. Geospatial methods are helpful in discovering if geographic location plays a role in the relationship between determinants and outcomes. This study aimed to discover if spatial autocorrelation exists in the relationship between determinants and retailer behaviours, and to provide specific geographic locations and target behaviours for tailoring future interventions...
November 21, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861675/evaluation-of-the-completeness-and-timeliness-of-malaria-reporting-in-the-brazilian-amazon-2003-2012
#18
Rui Moreira Braz, Pedro Luiz Tauil, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the completeness and timeliness of malaria case reporting, diagnosis and treatment in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: this is a descriptive study using data from 23 fields of notification forms recorded on the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (Sivep-Malaria) between 2003 and 2012. RESULTS: data completeness was good in 86.0% of fields (≥90.0% filled in); there was timely recording of 40.6% of notifications at the Municipal Health Departments (0-7 days following notification) and 75...
January 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842542/asymptomatic-only-at-first-sight-malaria-infection-among-schoolchildren-in-highland-rwanda
#19
Kevin C Sifft, Dominik Geus, Caritas Mukampunga, Jean Claude Mugisha, Felix Habarugira, Kira Fraundorfer, Claude Bayingana, Jules Ndoli, Irenee Umulisa, Corine Karema, George von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Toni Aebischer, Peter Martus, Augustin Sendegeya, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Frank P Mockenhaupt
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium infection and malaria in school children are increasingly recognized as a relevant public health problem, but data on actual prevalence and health consequences are insufficient. The present study from highland southern Rwanda aimed at estimating infection prevalence among children attending school, at identifying associated factors and at assessing the clinical consequences of these infections. METHODS: In a survey including 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda, 1089 children aged 6-10 years were clinically and anthropometrically examined, malaria parasites were diagnosed by microscopy and PCR, haemoglobin concentrations were measured, and socio-economic and behavioural parameters as well as medical histories were obtained...
November 14, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837017/differing-rates-of-antibody-acquisition-to-merozoite-antigens-in-malaria-implications-for-immunity-and-surveillance
#20
Fiona J McCallum, Kristina M Persson, Freya J I Fowkes, Linda Reiling, Cleopatra K Mugyenyi, Jack S Richards, Julie A Simpson, Thomas N Williams, Paul R Gilson, Anthony N Hodder, Paul R Sanders, Robin F Anders, David L Narum, Chetan Chitnis, Brendan S Crabb, Kevin Marsh, James G Beeson
Antibodies play a key role in acquired human immunity to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria and target merozoites to reduce or prevent blood-stage replication and the development of disease. Merozoites present a complex array of antigens to the immune system, and currently, there is only a partial understanding of the targets of protective antibodies and how responses to different antigens are acquired and boosted. We hypothesized that there would be differences in the rate of acquisition of antibodies to different antigens and how well they are boosted by infection, which impacts the acquisition of immunity...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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