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Malaria surveillance

Jing Xia, Xibao Huang, Lingcong Sun, Hong Zhu, Wen Lin, Xiaorong Dong, Dongni Wu, Juan Qiu, Li Zheng, Mumin Cao, Si Liu, Huaxun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hubei Province, China, has been operating a malaria elimination programme. This study aimed at investigating the epidemiologic characteristics of malaria in Hubei Province (2005-2016) to plan resource allocation for malaria elimination. METHODS: Data on all malaria cases from 2005 to 2016 in all counties of Hubei Province were extracted from a web-based reporting system. The numbers of indigenous and imported cases during the disease control (2005-2010) and elimination (2011-2016) stages, as well as their spatiotemporal distribution, were compared...
February 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Eldin Talundzic, Shashidhar Ravishankar, Julia Kelly, Dhruviben Patel, Mateusz Plucinski, Sarah Schmedes, Dragan Ljolje, Brooke Clemons, Susan Madison-Antenucci, Paul M Arguin, Naomi Lucchi, Fredrik Vannberg, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar
The recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies provide a new and effective way of tracking malaria drug resistant parasites. To take advantage of this technology an end-to-end Illumina targeted amplicon deep sequencing (TADS) and bioinformatics pipeline for molecular surveillance of drug resistance in P. falciparum, called<u>Ma</u>laria<u>R</u>esistance<u>S</u>urveillance (MaRS), was developed. TADS relies on PCR enriching genomic regions, specifically target genes of interest, prior to deep sequencing...
February 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Christian Nsanzabana, Djibrine Djalle, Philippe J Guérin, Didier Ménard, Iveth J González
To limit the spread and impact of anti-malarial drug resistance and react accordingly, surveillance systems able to detect and track in real-time its emergence and spread need to be strengthened or in some places established. Currently, surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance is done by any of three approaches: (1) in vivo studies to assess the efficacy of drugs in patients; (2) in vitro/ex vivo studies to evaluate parasite susceptibility to the drugs; and/or (3) molecular assays to detect validated gene mutations and/or gene copy number changes that are associated with drug resistance...
February 8, 2018: Malaria Journal
Masatsugu Kimura, Isao Teramoto, Chim W Chan, Zulkarnain Md Idris, James Kongere, Wataru Kagaya, Fumihiko Kawamoto, Ryoko Asada, Rie Isozumi, Akira Kaneko
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnosis of malaria using acridine orange (AO) staining and a light microscope with a halogen lamp and interference filter was deployed in some malaria-endemic countries. However, it has not been widely adopted because: (1) the lamp was weak as an excitation light and the set-up did not work well under unstable power supply; and, (2) the staining of samples was frequently inconsistent. METHODS: The halogen lamp was replaced by a low-cost, blue light-emitting diode (LED) lamp...
February 7, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jackie Cook, Dianna Hergott, Wonder Phiri, Matilde Riloha Rivas, John Bradley, Luis Segura, Guillermo Garcia, Chris Schwabe, Immo Kleinschmidt
BACKGROUND: Whilst there have been substantial reductions in malaria transmission over the past decade, in many countries in West and Central Africa the malaria burden remains high. Monitoring and evaluation of malaria transmission trends and intervention strategies are key elements for malaria control programmes. This study uses a time series of annual malaria indicator surveys to track the progress of malaria control in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, over a 13 year period of intensive interventions...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Shereen Katrak, Patience Nayebare, John Rek, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Philip J Rosenthal, Bryan Greenhouse
BACKGROUND: Submicroscopic malaria parasitaemia is common in both high- and low-endemicity settings, but its clinical consequences are unclear. METHODS: A cohort of 364 children (0.5-10 years of age) and 106 adults was followed from 2011 to 2016 in Tororo District, Uganda using passive surveillance for malaria episodes and active surveillance for parasitaemia. Participants presented every 90 days for routine visits (n = 9075); a subset was followed every 30 days...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Christiane Prosser, Wieland Meyer, John Ellis, Rogan Lee
Molecular surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance markers has become an important part of resistance detection and containment. In the current climate of multidrug resistance, including resistance to the global front-line drug artemisinin, there is a consensus to upscale molecular surveillance. The most salient limitation to current surveillance efforts is that skill and infrastructure requirements preclude many regions. This includes sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for most of the global malaria disease burden...
January 23, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
David Weetman, Basile Kamgang, Athanase Badolo, Catherine L Moyes, Freya M Shearer, Mamadou Coulibaly, João Pinto, Louis Lambrechts, Philip J McCall
The Zika crisis drew attention to the long-overlooked problem of arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes in Africa. Yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika are poorly controlled in Africa and often go unrecognized. However, to combat these diseases, both in Africa and worldwide, it is crucial that this situation changes. Here, we review available data on the distribution of each disease in Africa, their Aedes vectors, transmission potential, and challenges and opportunities for Aedes control. Data on disease and vector ranges are sparse, and consequently maps of risk are uncertain...
January 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Theerayot Kobasa, Eldin Talundzic, Rungniran Sug-Aram, Patcharida Boondat, Ira F Goldman, Naomi W Lucchi, Pratin Dharmarak, David Sintasath, Mark Fukuda, Toni Whistler, John MacArthur, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Preecha Prempree, Nipon Chinanonwait
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the most effective and widely used treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria and is a cornerstone for malaria control and prevention globally. Resistance to artemisinin derivatives has been confirmed in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), which manifest as slow parasite clearance in patients and reduced ring-stage susceptibility to artemisinins in survival assays. The Pf kelch 13 gene mutations associated with artemisinin resistant parasites are now wide-spread in the GMS...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Gabriel W Rangel, Martha A Clark, Usheer Kanjee, Caeul Lim, Kathryn Shaw-Saliba, Maria José Menezes, Anjali Mascarenhas, Laura Chery, Edwin Gomes, Pradipsinh K Rathod, Marcelo U Ferreira, Manoj T Duraisingh
Plasmodium vivax chloroquine resistance has been documented in nearly every region endemic for this malaria-causing parasite. Unfortunately, P. vivax resistance surveillance and drug discovery is challenging due to low parasitemias of patient isolates, and poor parasite survival through ex vivo maturation, that reduce the sensitivity and scalability of current P. vivax antimalarial assays. Using cryopreserved patient isolates from Brazil and fresh patient isolates from India, we established a robust enrichment method for P...
January 29, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Takahiro Saito, Aoi Kikuchi, Akira Kaneko, Rie Isozumi, Isao Teramoto, Masatsugu Kimura, Noriyasu Hirasawa, Masahiro Hiratsuka
Malaria is caused by five species of Plasmodium in humans. Microscopy is currently used for pathogen detection, requiring considerable training and technical expertise as the parasites are often difficult to differentiate morphologically. Rapid diagnostic tests are as reliable as microscopy and offer faster diagnoses but possess lower detection limits and are incapable of distinguishing among the parasitic species. To improve global health efforts towards malaria control, a rapid, sensitive, species-specific, and economically viable diagnostic method is needed...
January 25, 2018: Parasitology International
Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Emuejevuoke Umukoro, Eugenia Lo, Becky Fung, Pedro Tomás-Domingo, Guofa Zhou, Daibin Zhong, Amruta Dixit, Harrysone Atieli, Andrew Githeko, Anne Vardo-Zalik, Guiyun Yan
Antimalarial drug resistance has threatened global malaria control since chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum emerged in Asia in the 1950s. Understanding the impacts of changing antimalarial drug policy on resistance is critical for resistance management. Plasmodium falciparum isolates were collected from 2003 to 2015 in western Kenya and analyzed for genetic markers associated with resistance to CQ (Pfcrt), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (Pfdhfr/Pfdhps), and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) (PfKelch13/Pfmdr1) antimalarials...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Alison Paolo Bareng, Fe Esperanza Espino, Wanna Chaijaroenkul, Kesara Na-Bangchang
The emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium vivax poses problems for malaria control and elimination in some parts of the world, especially in developing countries where individuals are routinely exposed to the infection. The aim of this study was to determine the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) genes associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) drug resistance among P. vivax isolates collected in Palawan, Philippines. Genetic polymorphisms of pvdhps and pvdhfr were analysed by nested PCR...
January 17, 2018: Acta Tropica
Shiny Joy, Benudhar Mukhi, Susanta K Ghosh, Rajeshwara N Achur, D Channe Gowda, Namita Surolia
BACKGROUND: Malaria is highly prevalent in many parts of India and is mostly caused by the parasite species Plasmodium vivax followed by Plasmodium falciparum. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first-line treatment for blood stage P. vivax parasites, but cases of drug resistance to CQ have been reported from India. One of the surveillance strategies which is used to monitor CQ drug resistance, is the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the associated gene markers. Susceptibility to CQ can also be determined by copy number assessment of multidrug resistant gene (mdr-1)...
January 19, 2018: Malaria Journal
Lauren Levitz, Mark Janko, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Kyaw L Thwai, Joris L Likwela, Antoinette K Tshefu, Michael Emch, Steven R Meshnick
BACKGROUND: Understanding the contribution of community-level long-lasting, insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage to malaria control is critical to planning and assessing intervention campaigns. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which has one of the highest burdens of malaria cases and deaths and has dramatically scaled up LLIN ownership in recent years thus it is an ideal setting to evaluate the effect of individual versus community-level use to prevent malaria among children under the age of 5...
January 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
Nyaguara O Amek, Annemieke Van Eijk, Kim A Lindblade, Mary Hamel, Nabie Bayoh, John Gimnig, Kayla F Laserson, Laurence Slutsker, Thomas Smith, Penelope Vounatsou
BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission reduction is a goal of many malaria control programmes. Little is known of how much mortality can be reduced by specific reductions in transmission. Verbal autopsy (VA) is widely used for estimating malaria specific mortality rates, but does not reliably distinguish malaria from other febrile illnesses. Overall malaria attributable mortality includes both direct and indirect deaths. It is unclear what proportion of the deaths averted by reducing malaria transmission are classified as malaria in VA...
January 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
Sabine Vygen-Bonnet, Klaus Stark
BACKGROUND: German surveillance data showed a sharp rise of malaria cases in 2014 and 2015 due to the increased arrival of refugees from malaria endemic countries. A time series analysis of data from 2001 to 2016 was performed in order to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Germany in general and of the recent increase in particular. RESULTS: In total, 11,678 malaria cases were notified between 2001 and 2016 (range 526-1063 cases/year). Newly arriving refugees averaged 10 cases/year (1...
January 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Abebe Animut, Bernt Lindtjørn
Malaria is the leading public health problem in Ethiopia where over 75% of the land surface is at risk with varying intensities depending on altitude and season. Although the mortality because of malaria infection has declined much during the last 15-20 years, some researchers worry that this success story may not be sustainable. Past notable achievements in the reduction of malaria disease burden could be reversed in the future. To interrupt, or even to eliminate malaria transmission in Ethiopia, there is a need to implement a wide range of interventions that include insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, improved control of residual malaria transmission, and improved diagnostics, enhanced surveillance, and methods to deal with the emergence of resistance both to drugs and to insecticides...
January 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Amy K Bei, Makhtar Niang, Awa B Deme, Rachel F Daniels, Fatoumata D Sarr, Cheikh Sokhna, Cheikh Talla, Joseph Faye, Nafissatou Diagne, Souleymane Doucoure, Souleymane Mboup, Dyann F Wirth, Adama Tall, Daouda Ndiaye, Daniel L Hartl, Sarah K Volkman, Aissatou Toure-Balde
Dramatic changes in transmission intensity can impact Plasmodium population diversity. Using samples from 2 distant time-points in the Dielmo/Ndiop longitudinal cohorts from Senegal, we applied a molecular barcode tool to detect changes in parasite genotypes and complexity of infection that corresponded to changes in transmission intensity. We observed a striking statistically significant difference in genetic diversity between the 2 parasite populations. Furthermore, we identified a genotype in Dielmo and Ndiop previously observed in Thiès, potentially implicating imported malaria...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Martha Betson, Sarah Clifford, Michelle Stanton, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
As part of a longitudinal cohort investigation of intestinal schistosomiasis and malaria in Ugandan children and their mothers on the shorelines of Lakes Victoria and Albert, we documented risk factors and morbidity associated with nonfalciparum Plasmodium infections and the longitudinal dynamics of Plasmodium species in children. Host age, household location, and Plasmodium falciparum infection were strongly associated with nonfalciparum Plasmodium infections, and Plasmodium malariae infection was associated with splenomegaly...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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