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Malaria pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086874/new-developments-in-anti-malarial-target-candidate-and-product-profiles
#1
REVIEW
Jeremy N Burrows, Stephan Duparc, Winston E Gutteridge, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Wiweka Kaszubska, Fiona Macintyre, Sébastien Mazzuri, Jörg J Möhrle, Timothy N C Wells
A decade of discovery and development of new anti-malarial medicines has led to a renewed focus on malaria elimination and eradication. Changes in the way new anti-malarial drugs are discovered and developed have led to a dramatic increase in the number and diversity of new molecules presently in pre-clinical and early clinical development. The twin challenges faced can be summarized by multi-drug resistant malaria from the Greater Mekong Sub-region, and the need to provide simplified medicines. This review lists changes in anti-malarial target candidate and target product profiles over the last 4 years...
January 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057071/parasitic-infections-and-maternal-anaemia-among-expectant-mothers-in-the-dangme-east-district-of-ghana
#2
Samuel Crowther Kofi Tay, Emmanuel Agbeko Nani, Williams Walana
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are of public health concern globally, particular among at risk groups such as pregnant women in developing countries. The presence of these parasites during pregnancy potentiate adverse effects to both the mother and the unborn baby. This study sought to establish the prevalence of some parasitic agents among antenatal attendees in the Dangme East District of Ghana. A cross-sectional prospective study was conduct between April and July, 2012. Venous blood specimens were collected from each participant for haemoglobin estimation and malaria microscopy...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049536/usefulness-of-a-biomarker-to-identify-placental-dysfunction-in-the-context-of-malaria
#3
REVIEW
Alexandra Gueneuc, Philippe Deloron, Gwladys I Bertin
In most tropical areas, pregnant women are at increased risk of malaria, as a consequence of the massive sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the placenta. The placenta plays a key role in embryonic and fetal development as well as in maternal-fetal exchanges, and pregnancy-associated malaria may alter selected placenta functions that lead to stillbirth and low birth weight. Although there are several tools (blood smear examination, RDT, PCR) to diagnose malaria infection during pregnancy, there is currently no test to assess placenta dysfunction in the framework of pregnancy-associated malaria...
January 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049471/reported-bed-net-ownership-and-use-in-social-contacts-is-associated-with-uptake-of-bed-nets-for-malaria-prevention-in-pregnant-women-in-ghana
#4
Kacey C Ernst, Steven Erly, Charity Adusei, Melanie L Bell, David Komla Kessie, Alberta Biritwum-Nyarko, John Ehiri
BACKGROUND: Despite progress made in the last decades, malaria persists as a pressing health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to infection and serious health outcomes for themselves and their unborn child. Risk can be mitigated through appropriate use of control measures such as insecticide-treated bed nets. Although social networks can influence uptake of preventive strategies, the role of social influence on bed net ownership has not been explored...
January 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044045/recrudescence-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-a-primigravida-after-nearly-3-years-of-latency
#5
Ahmed Al Hammadi, Michael Mitchell, George M Abraham, Jennifer P Wang
We present a case of a primigravid woman who presented with Plasmodium falciparum nearly 3 years after she last visited a malaria-endemic region. We review the literature to identify case reports of recrudescent P falciparum malaria during pregnancy, including those with prolonged latency. Reports of recrudescence of P falciparum during pregnancy are limited. Plasmodium falciparum infection can persist for years. Recrudescence can occur with waning of immunity following departure from endemic areas. Pregnancy, particularly the primigravid state, is a risk factor for severe infection...
January 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034892/how-i-treat-anemia-in-pregnancy-iron-cobalamin-and-folate
#6
Maureen M Achebe, Anat Gafter-Gvili
Anemia of pregnancy is considered a global health problem, affecting almost 50% of pregnant women. Anemia is an important risk factor for both fetal and maternal morbidity. The purpose of this article is to discuss diagnosis and management of the most frequent causes of anemia in pregnancy: iron, cobalamin and folate deficiencies. This paper considers three clinical cases. Iron deficiency is the most common cause. The laboratory tests that define iron deficiency, the recognition of developmental delays and cognitive abnormalities in iron-deficient neonates and the literature addressing the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron in pregnancy are reviewed...
December 29, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032463/developmental-toxicity-studies-of-lumefantrine-and-artemether-in-rats-and-rabbits
#7
Robert L Clark, Maureen Youreneff, Anthony M DeLise
The combination of artemether plus lumefantrine is a type of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) recommended by the World Health Organization for uncomplicated falciparum malaria except in the first trimester of pregnancy. The first trimester restriction was based on the marked embryotoxicity in animals (including embryo death and cardiac and skeletal malformations) of artemisinins such as artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, and artemether. Before recommending ACTs for use in the first trimester, the World Health Organization has requested that all information relevant to the assessment of risk of ACTs to the embryo be made available to the public...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part B, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032428/antimalarial-treatment-patterns-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinics-in-south-east-nigeria-and-the-future-implications
#8
Charles Ezenduka, Chizoba Nworgu, Brian Barr Godman, Amos Massele, Charles Esimone
BACKGROUND: Prompt and effective treatment of malaria in pregnancy in accordance with recommended guidelines is essential to help prevent adverse events among pregnant mothers and the foetus. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess current prescribing of antimalarial medicines in pregnancy against policy guidelines in south east Nigeria to provide future guidance. METHODS: A review of prescription records of pregnant women treated for malaria over a 6-month period between August 2013 and January 2014 was carried out to assess the prescribing patterns for both the prevention and treatment of malaria in each trimester and analyzed for conformity to recommended guidelines...
December 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027635/placental-weight-ratio-affects-placental-mrna-expression-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-long-isoform-of-the-leptin-receptor-in-plasmodium-falciparuminfected-pregnant-women
#9
Sukma Oktavianthi, Leily Trianty, Rintis Noviyanti, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Herawati Sudoyo, Safarina G Malik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy is characterised by placental inefficiency caused by infected erythrocyte sequestration. Reduced placental efficiency leads to placental intrauterine adaptation for sustaining fetal growth, which is reflected by changes in the expression of placental genes involved in intrauterine growth regulation. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether the placental weight ratio, an indicator of placental efficiency, affects the placental expression of the components of the insulin-like growth factor axis and leptin signalling pathway in P...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012775/comparison-of-functional-assays-used-in-the-clinical-development-of-a-placental-malaria-vaccine
#10
Caroline Pehrson, Kristine K Heno, Yvonne Adams, Mafalda Resende, Line Mathiesen, Max Soegaard, Willem A de Jongh, Thor G Theander, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with significant morbidity in pregnant women and their offspring. Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) express VAR2CSA that mediates binding to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) in the placenta. Two VAR2CSA-based vaccines for placental malaria are in clinical development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the robustness and comparability of binding inhibition assays used in the clinical development of placental malaria vaccines...
December 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003287/maternal-malaria-and-malnutrition-m3-initiative-a-pooled-birth-cohort-of-13-pregnancy-studies-in-africa-and-the-western-pacific
#11
Holger W Unger, Jordan E Cates, Julie Gutman, Valerie Briand, Nadine Fievet, Innocent Valea, Halidou Tinto, Umberto d'Alessandro, Sarah H Landis, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Kathryn G Dewey, Feiko Ter Kuile, Stephanie Dellicour, Peter Ouma, Laurence Slutsker, Dianne J Terlouw, Simon Kariuki, John Ayisi, Bernard Nahlen, Meghna Desai, Mwayi Madanitsa, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Per Ashorn, Kenneth Maleta, Ivo Mueller, Danielle Stanisic, Christentze Schmiegelow, John Lusingu, Daniel Westreich, Anna Maria van Eijk, Steven Meshnick, Stephen Rogerson
PURPOSE: The Maternal Malaria and Malnutrition (M3) initiative has pooled together 13 studies with the hope of improving understanding of malaria-nutrition interactions during pregnancy and to foster collaboration between nutritionists and malariologists. PARTICIPANTS: Data were pooled on 14 635 singleton, live birth pregnancies from women who had participated in 1 of 13 pregnancy studies. The 13 studies cover 8 countries in Africa and Papua New Guinea in the Western Pacific conducted from 1996 to 2015...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994102/intermittent-preventive-treatment-with-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-more-than-just-an-antimalarial
#12
EDITORIAL
Julie Gutman, Laurence Slutsker
Malaria in pregnancy is associated with increased risk for both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes, notably low birthweight and neonatal mortality.(1) Since 2004, following studies that showed that intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) reduced the risk of these adverse events,(2) the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended IPTp-SP for all areas in Africa with moderate-to-high malaria transmission.(3) IPTp-SP is associated with significant reductions in low birthweight, with a protective efficacy of approximately 26% in an analysis of national survey data from 32 countries...
December 19, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976561/congenital-malaria-importance-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-pregnancy
#13
Selvi Gülaşı, Nureddin Özdener
Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria endemic regions. We report an unusual case of a 23-day-old girl with neonatal Plasmodium vivax malaria, suspected primarily on the basis of positive maternal history that her mother had malaria during her pregnancy and was cured with chloroquine therapy. Infant presented with fever, thrombocytopenia and a significant parasitemia...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973923/prevention-and-control-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-new-threats-new-opportunities
#14
Stephen J Rogerson, Holger W Unger
Over 100 million women and their babies are at risk of malaria in pregnancy each year. Malaria prevention in pregnancy relies on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), and, in Africa, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). Increasing resistance of malaria parasites to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, the only drug endorsed for IPTp, and increasing mosquito resistance to pyrethroids used in LLINs, threaten the efficacy of these proven strategies, while operational challenges restrict their implementation in areas of great need...
December 23, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965185/risk-factors-for-low-birth-weight-in-lubumbashi-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#15
P M Ilunga, O Mukuku, P M Mawaw, A M Mutombo, T K Lubala, M Shongo Ya Pongombo, P Kakudji Luhete, S O Wembonyama, A Mutombo Kabamba, O Luboya Numbi
The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) in the city of Lubumbashi (DR Congo). This case-control study of singleton births took place from July to December 2014 in 3 referral maternity units in Lubumbashi. The mothers' social and demographic characteristics and medical and obstetric history, especially during this pregnancy, as well as the newborns' sex were compared between the case group (< 2500 g) and the control group. The usual statistics and logistic regression were used to analyze the results...
December 12, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956844/helminth-infection-during-pregnancy-insights-from-evolutionary-ecology
#16
REVIEW
Aaron D Blackwell
Helminths are parasitic nematodes and trematodes, grouped together because of morphological similarities and commonalities in the effects infections have on hosts. These include complications such as anemia and biasing of immune responses, which can alter susceptibility for other diseases. For pregnant women, these complications might have implications for pregnancy outcomes or neonatal health. Here, I review studies of helminth infections during pregnancy, and ask the following questions: Do helminths affect maternal health or pregnancy outcomes? Are there consequences of maternal infection for infants? What are the effects of antihelminth treatment during pregnancy? The evidence suggests that the answers to these questions depend on the particular helminth species in question, maternal nutritional status, and the presence or absence of comorbid infection with other species, such as malaria...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941597/maternal-vitamin-d-status-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-in-children-from-rural-western-kenya
#17
Eunice N Toko, Odada P Sumba, Ibrahim I Daud, Sidney Ogolla, Maxwel Majiwa, Jesse T Krisher, Collins Ouma, Arlene E Dent, Rosemary Rochford, Saurabh Mehta
Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and its association with pregnancy outcomes in malaria holoendemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa is poorly defined. We examined this association and any potential interaction with malaria and helminth infections in an ongoing pregnancy cohort study in Kenya. The association of maternal plasma 25(OH)D status with pregnancy outcomes and infant anthropometric measurements at birth was determined in a subset of women (n = 63). Binomial and linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between maternal plasma 25(OH)D and adverse pregnancy outcomes...
December 7, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940685/prenatal-iron-deficiency-neonatal-ferritin-and-infant-cognitive-function
#18
Michael O Mireku, Leslie L Davidson, Michael J Boivin, Romeo Zoumenou, Achille Massougbodji, Michel Cot, Florence Bodeau-Livinec
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of prenatal maternal iron deficiency (ID) on cord blood serum ferritin (CBSF) concentration and infant cognitive and motor development. METHODS: Our prospective cohort study included 636 mother-singleton child pairs from 828 eligible pregnant women who were enrolled during their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Allada, Benin, into a clinical trial comparing the efficacy of mefloquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Venous blood samples of women were assessed for ferritin and hemoglobin concentrations at the first and second ANC visits (occurring at least 1-month apart) and at delivery...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938369/achieving-development-goals-for-hiv-tuberculosis-and-malaria-in-sub-saharan-africa-through-integrated-antenatal-care-barriers-and-challenges
#19
EDITORIAL
Freya J I Fowkes, Bridget L Draper, Margaret Hellard, Mark Stoové
BACKGROUND: The global health community is currently transitioning from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unfortunately, progress towards maternal, newborn and infant health MDGs has lagged significantly behind other key health goals, demanding a renewed global effort in this key health area. The World Health Organization and other institutions heralded integrated antenatal care (ANC) as the best way to address the inter-related health issues of HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in the high risk groups of pregnant women and infants; integrated ANC services also offer a mechanism to address slow progress towards improved maternal health...
December 12, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931229/a-national-health-facility-survey-of-malaria-infection-among-febrile-patients-in-kenya-2014
#20
Sophie Githinji, Abdisalan M Noor, Josephine Malinga, Peter M Macharia, Rebecca Kiptui, Ahmeddin Omar, Kiambo Njagi, Ejersa Waqo, Robert W Snow
BACKGROUND: The use of malaria infection prevalence among febrile patients at clinics has a potential to be a valuable epidemiological surveillance tool. However, routine data are incomplete and not all fevers are tested. This study was designed to screen all fevers for malaria infection in Kenya to explore the epidemiology of fever test positivity rates. METHODS: Random sampling was used within five malaria epidemiological zones of Kenya (i.e., high lake endemic, moderate coast endemic, highland epidemic, seasonal low transmission and low risk zones)...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
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