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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449313/neurovascular-unit-alteration-in-somatosensory-cortex-and-enhancement-of-thermal-nociception-induced-by-amphetamine-involves-central-at1-receptor-activation
#1
Victoria Belén Occhieppo, Natalia Andrea Marchese, Iara Diamela Rodríguez, Osvaldo Martín Basmadjian, Gustavo Baiardi, Claudia Bregonzio
The use of psychostimulants, such as amphetamine (Amph), is associated with inflammatory processes, involving glia and vasculature alterations. Brain Angiotensin II (Ang II), through AT1 -receptors (AT1 -R), modulates neurotransmission and plays a crucial role in inflammatory responses in brain vasculature and glia. Our aim for the present work was to evaluate the role of AT1 -R in long-term alterations induced by repeated exposure to Amph. Astrocyte reactivity, neuronal survival and brain microvascular network were analyzed at the somatosensory cortex...
April 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448494/integrin-%C3%AE-1-activation-induces-an-anti-melanoma-host-response
#2
Laila Ritsma, Ipsita Dey-Guha, Nilesh Talele, Xavier Sole, Salony, Joeeta Chowdhury, Kenneth N Ross, Sridhar Ramaswamy
TGF-β is a cytokine thought to function as a tumor promoter in advanced malignancies. In this setting, TGF-β increases cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration, and orchestrates complex, pro-tumorigenic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we find that in melanoma, integrin β1-mediated TGF-β activation may also produce tumor suppression via an altered host response. In the A375 human melanoma cell nu/nu xenograft model, we demonstrate that cell surface integrin β1-activation increases TGF-β activity, resulting in stromal activation, neo-angiogenesis and, unexpectedly for this nude mouse model, increase in the number of intra-tumoral CD8+ T lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448484/tissue-engineered-3d-human-lymphatic-microvascular-network-for-in-vitro-studies-of-lymphangiogenesis
#3
Laure Gibot, Todd Galbraith, Jennifer Bourland, Anita Rogic, Mihaela Skobe, François A Auger
This protocol describes a unique in vitro method for the generation of a 3D human lymphatic network within native connective tissue devoid of any exogenous material such as scaffolds or growth factors. In this five-stage protocol, human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) cocultured with dermal fibroblasts spontaneously organize into a stable 3D lymphatic capillary network. Stage 1 involves the isolation of primary fibroblasts and LECs from human skin. Fibroblasts are then cultured to produce connective tissue rich in extracellular matrix (stage 2), onto which LECs are seeded to form a network (stage 3)...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448239/extranodal-marginal-zone-lymphoma-no-longer-just-a-sidekick
#4
Manali K Kamdar, Sonali M Smith
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447349/review-of-vasculature-visualized-on-dermoscopy
#5
REVIEW
Yaei Togawa
Dermoscopy is a useful tool for finding and screening skin tumors, especially skin cancers. It is well known that it is useful to diagnose pigmented tumors, such as melanocytic lesions. In recent years, after the publication of a revised two-step algorithm in 2010, dermoscopy gradually has been used to diagnose non-pigmented or non-melanocytic lesions based on their vascular structures. Some skin lesions have specific vascular structures that aid in diagnosis. In this review, I discuss the various patterns of the vascular structures and their distribution, focusing on their clinical importance and usefulness in daily medical treatment...
May 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447104/bmp-type-ii-receptor-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Mar Orriols, Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto, Peter Ten Dijke
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic disease characterized by a progressive elevation in mean pulmonary arterial pressure. This occurs due to abnormal remodeling of small peripheral lung vasculature resulting in progressive occlusion of the artery lumen that eventually causes right heart failure and death. The most common cause of PAH is inactivating mutations in the gene encoding a bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPRII). Current therapeutic options for PAH are limited and focused mainly on reversal of pulmonary vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular cells...
April 26, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446179/glycam1-negatively-regulates-monocyte-entry-into-the-optic-nerve-head-and-contributes-to-radiation-based-protection-in-glaucoma
#7
Pete A Williams, Catherine E Braine, Nicole E Foxworth, Kelly E Cochran, Simon W M John
BACKGROUND: We previously reported a profound long-term neuroprotection subsequent to a single radiation-therapy in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. This neuroprotection prevents entry of monocyte-like immune cells into the optic nerve head during glaucoma. Gene expression studies in radiation-treated mice implicated Glycam1 in this protection. Glycam1 encodes a proteoglycan ligand for L-selectin and is an excellent candidate to modulate immune cell entry into the eye. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that radiation-induced over-expression of Glycam1 is a key component of the neuroprotection...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445607/fractal-characteristics-of-the-microvascular-network-a-useful-index-to-assess-vascularization-level-of-porous-silk-fibroin-biomaterial
#8
Kuihua Zhan, Lun Bai, Qinqin Wu, Derong Lei, Guangqian Wang
The neovascularization of biomaterials for tissue engineering is not only related to growth of capillaries but also involves appropriate hierarchy distribution of the microvessels. In this study, we proposed hierarchy distribution contrast method which can assess vascular transport capacity, in order to examine the hierarchy distribution of the neovessels during vascularization of the porous silk fibroin biomaterials implanted into rats and its evolution. The results showed that the fractal characteristics appeared toward the end of the vascularization stages, and the structure of the microvascular network after 3 weeks of implantation was similar to the fractal microvascular tree with bifurcation exponent x=3 and fractal dimension D=1...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445524/live-imaging-of-primary-ocular-vasculature-formation-in-zebrafish
#9
Tetsuya Hashiura, Eiji Kimura, Shizuko Fujisawa, Sayuri Oikawa, Shigenori Nonaka, Daijiro Kurosaka, Jiro Hitomi
Ocular vasculature consists of the central retinal and ciliary vascular systems, which are essential to maintaining visual function. Many researchers have attempted to determine their origins and development; however, the detailed, stepwise process of ocular vasculature formation has not been established. In zebrafish, two angioblast clusters, the rostral and midbrain organizing centers, form almost all of the cranial vasculature, including the ocular vasculature, and these are from where the cerebral arterial and venous angioblast clusters, respectively, differentiate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445478/delayed-histochemical-alterations-within-the-neurovascular-unit-due-to-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-and-experimental-treatment-with-neurotrophic-factors
#10
Dominik Michalski, Roman Pitsch, Deepu R Pillai, Bianca Mages, Susanne Aleithe, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Felix Schlachetzki, Wolfgang Härtig
Current stroke therapy is focused on recanalizing strategies, but neuroprotective co-treatments are still lacking. Modern concepts of the ischemia-affected neurovascular unit (NVU) and surrounding penumbra emphasize the complexity during the transition from initial damaging to regenerative processes. While early treatment with neurotrophic factors was shown to result in lesion size reduction and blood-brain barrier (BBB) stabilization, cellular consequences from these treatments are poorly understood. This study explored delayed cellular responses not only to ischemic stroke, but also to an early treatment with neurotrophic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445461/tumour-ischaemia-by-interferon-%C3%AE-resembles-physiological-blood-vessel-regression
#11
Thomas Kammertoens, Christian Friese, Ainhoa Arina, Christian Idel, Dana Briesemeister, Michael Rothe, Andranik Ivanov, Anna Szymborska, Giannino Patone, Severine Kunz, Daniel Sommermeyer, Boris Engels, Matthias Leisegang, Ana Textor, Hans Joerg Fehling, Marcus Fruttiger, Michael Lohoff, Andreas Herrmann, Hua Yu, Ralph Weichselbaum, Wolfgang Uckert, Norbert Hübner, Holger Gerhardt, Dieter Beule, Hans Schreiber, Thomas Blankenstein
The relative contribution of the effector molecules produced by T cells to tumour rejection is unclear, but interferon-γ (IFNγ) is critical in most of the analysed models. Although IFNγ can impede tumour growth by acting directly on cancer cells, it must also act on the tumour stroma for effective rejection of large, established tumours. However, which stroma cells respond to IFNγ and by which mechanism IFNγ contributes to tumour rejection through stromal targeting have remained unknown. Here we use a model of IFNγ induction and an IFNγ-GFP fusion protein in large, vascularized tumours growing in mice that express the IFNγ receptor exclusively in defined cell types...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445360/facial-danger-zones-techniques-to-maximize-safety-during-soft-tissue-filler-injections
#12
Jack F Scheuer, David A Sieber, Ronnie A Pezeshk, Andrew A Gassman, Carey F Campbell, Rod J Rohrich
Given the short recovery and immediate results, facial fillers have become a popular alternative to surgical rejuvenation of the face. Reported complications arising from facial filler injections include erythema, tissue loss, blindness, stroke, and even death. In this article, the authors describe their anatomically based techniques to minimize risk and maximize safety when injecting in the facial danger zones, including the glabella/brow, temporal region, perioral region, nasolabial fold, nose, and infraorbital region...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444290/low-density-lipoproteins-cause-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-1-evidence-from-genetic-epidemiologic-and-clinical-studies-a-consensus-statement-from-the-european-atherosclerosis-society-consensus-panel
#13
Brian A Ference, Henry N Ginsberg, Ian Graham, Kausik K Ray, Chris J Packard, Eric Bruckert, Robert A Hegele, Ronald M Krauss, Frederick J Raal, Heribert Schunkert, Gerald F Watts, Jan Borén, Sergio Fazio, Jay D Horton, Luis Masana, Stephen J Nicholls, Børge G Nordestgaard, Bart van de Sluis, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Lale Tokgözoglu, Ulf Landmesser, Ulrich Laufs, Olov Wiklund, Jane K Stock, M John Chapman, Alberico L Catapano
Aims: To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results: We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from genetic studies, prospective epidemiologic cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials of LDL-lowering therapies. In clinical studies, plasma LDL burden is usually estimated by determination of plasma LDL cholesterol level (LDL-C)...
April 24, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444128/low-dose-ionizing-radiation-induces-therapeutic-neovascularization-in-a-pre-clinical-model-of-hindlimb-ischemia
#14
Augusto Ministro, Paula de Oliveira, Raquel J Nunes, André Dos Santos Rocha, Adriana Correia, Tânia Carvalho, José Rino, Pedro Faísca, Jorg D Becker, J Goyri-O'Neill, Filomena Pina, Esmeralda Poli, Bruno Silva-Santos, Fausto Pinto, Marc Mareel, Karine Serre, Susana Constantino Rosa Santos
We have previously shown that low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) induces angiogenesis but there is no evidence that they induce neovascularization in the setting of peripheral arterial disease. Here, we investigated the use of LDIR as an innovative and non-invasive strategy to stimulate therapeutic neovascularization using a model of experimentally induced hindlimb ischemia (HLI). Methods and results: After surgical induction of unilateral HLI, both hindlimbs of female C57BL/6 mice were sham-irradiated or irradiated with four daily fractions of 0...
April 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443685/lymphatic-changes-in-respiratory-diseases-more-than-just-remodeling-of-the-lung
#15
Benjamin Stump, Ye Cui, Pranav Kidambi, Anthony M Lamattina, Souheil El-Chemaly
Advances in our ability to identify lymphatic endothelial cells and differentiate them from blood endothelial cells have led to important progress in the study of lymphatic biology. Over the past decade, pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that there are changes to the lymphatic vasculature in nearly all lung diseases. Efforts to understand the contribution of lymphatics and their growth factors to disease initiation, progression and resolution have led to seminal findings establishing critical roles for lymphatics in lung biology spanning from the first breath after birth to asthma, tuberculosis, and lung transplantation...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443291/a-review-of-the-development-of-tumor-vasculature-and-its-effects-on-the-tumor-microenvironment
#16
REVIEW
Jake C Forster, Wendy M Harriss-Phillips, Michael Jj Douglass, Eva Bezak
BACKGROUND: The imbalance of angiogenic regulators in tumors drives tumor angiogenesis and causes the vasculature to develop much differently in tumors than in normal tissue. There are several cancer therapy techniques currently being used and developed that target the tumor vasculature for the treatment of solid tumors. This article reviews the aspects of the tumor vasculature that are relevant to most cancer therapies but particularly to vascular targeting techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a review of identified experiments in which tumors were transplanted into animals to study the development of the tumor vasculature with tumor growth...
2017: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442916/expression-and-activity-of-the-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-system-in-canine-primary-brain-tumors
#17
John H Rossmeisl, Kelli Hall-Manning, John L Robertson, Jamie N King, Rafael V Davalos, Waldemar Debinski, Subbiah Elankumaran
BACKGROUND: The expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein family member, and the activity of its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), have been associated with the invasive and metastatic potentials of a variety of human brain tumors through their regulation of extracellular matrix degradation. Domesticated dogs develop naturally occurring brain tumors that share many clinical, phenotypic, molecular, and genetic features with their human counterparts, which has prompted the use of the dogs with spontaneous brain tumors as models to expedite the translation of novel brain tumor therapeutics to humans...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442547/biosynthesis-of-proresolving-lipid-mediators-by-vascular-cells-and-tissues
#18
Anuran Chatterjee, Sevan Komshian, Brian E Sansbury, Bian Wu, Giorgio Mottola, Mian Chen, Matthew Spite, Michael S Conte
Recent evidence suggests that specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) generated from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can modulate the vascular injury response. However, cellular sources for these autacoids within the vessel wall remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether isolated vascular cells and tissues can produce SPMs and assessed expression and subcellular localization of the key SPM biosynthetic enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) in vascular cells. Intact human arteries incubated with DHA ex vivo produced 17-hydroxy DHA (17-HDHA) and D-series resolvins, as assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
April 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442415/retro-inverso-d-peptide-modified-ha-rhb-pdna-core-shell-ternary-nanoparticles-for-the-dual-targeted-delivery-of-short-hairpin-rna-encoding-plasmids
#19
Jijin Gu, Xinyi Chen, Xiaoling Fang, Xianyi Sha
The active targeting of gene carriers is a powerful strategy for improving tumour-specific delivery and therapy. Although numerous L-peptide ligands play significant roles in the active targeting of nanomedicine, retro-inverso D-peptides have been explored as targeting ligands due to their superior stability and bioactivity in vivo. In this study, retro-inverso D-peptide (RIF7)-modified hyaluronic acid (HA)/bioreducible hyperbranched poly(amido amine) (RHB)/plasmid DNA (pDNA) ternary nanoparticles were successfully developed using the layer-by-layer method for the CD44-positive tumour-specific delivery of short hairpin RNA-encoding pDNA through the synergistic reaction of the Anxa1 (tumour vasculature) and CD44 (tumour cell-surface) receptors, which mediated the dual targeting...
April 22, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442394/granin-derived-peptides
#20
REVIEW
Josef Troger, Markus Theurl, Rudolf Kirchmair, Teresa Pasqua, Bruno Tota, Tommaso Angelone, Maria C Cerra, Yvonne Nowosielski, Raphaela Mätzler, Jasmin Troger, Jaur R Gayen, Vance Trudeau, Angelo Corti, Karen B Helle
The granin family comprises altogether 7 different proteins originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system and elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The family is dominated by three uniquely acidic members, namely chromogranin A (CgA), chromogranin B (CgB) and secretogranin II (SgII). Since the late 1980ies it has become evident that these proteins are proteolytically processed, intragranularly and/or extracellularly into a range of biologically active peptides; a number of them with regulatory properties of physiological and/or pathophysiological significance...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
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