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Salma H Azam, Mitchell Smith, Vivek Somasundaram, Chad V Pecot
Angiogenesis is the growth of new vessels from pre-existing vasculature and is an important component of many biological processes, including embryogenesis and development, wound healing, tumor growth and metastasis, and ocular and cardiovascular diseases. Effective in vitro models that recapitulate the biology of angiogenesis are needed to appropriately study this process and identify mechanisms of regulation that can be ultimately targeted for novel therapeutic strategies. The bead angiogenesis assay has been previously demonstrated to recapitulate the multiple stages of endothelial sprouting in vitro...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chao Tian, Wei Zhang, Van Phuc Nguyen, Xueding Wang, Yannis M Paulus
Photoacoustic ocular imaging is an emerging ophthalmic imaging technology that can noninvasively visualize ocular tissue by converting light energy into sound waves and is currently under intensive investigation. However, most reported work to date is focused on the imaging of the posterior segment of the eyes of small animals, such as rats and mice, which poses challenges for clinical human translation due to small eyeball sizes. This manuscript describes a novel photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) dual-modality system for posterior segment imaging of the eyes of larger animals, such as rabbits...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alireza Mojtahedi, Sohail Contractor, Piotr S Kisza
Bullet embolization to the right heart through the vasculature is seen infrequently in cases presenting with penetrating trauma. Patients with unstable hemodynamic status are managed operatively. For a patient with stable hemodynamic parameters, diagnostic evaluation such as computed tomography angiogram, echocardiogram, or angiography could be performed to select the best treatment option. Endovascular treatment is employed infrequently in these cases but can be a viable option for select patients. We present a case of a bullet embolus to the right ventricle treated successfully with endovascular approach and discuss the technical aspects of this approach...
January 1, 2018: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Patrick Oellers, Natalie Wolkow, Frederick A Jakobiec, Ivana K Kim
Purpose: To demonstrate the clinical pathologic correlation in a hemorrhagic choroidal melanoma. Observations: A 52 year old patient presented with a large choroidal mass associated with vitreous and retinal hemorrhage. The eye was enucleated and histopathology demonstrated epithelioid-type MART1 positive tumor cells consistent with choroidal melanoma. The tumor had broken through Bruch's membrane, which led to localized vascular compression with bleeding into the subretinal space, retina and vitreous...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Yusuke Tsuyuguchi, Tomoyuki Nakasa, Masakazu Ishikawa, Yasunari Ikuta, Mikiya Sawa, Masahiro Yoshikawa, Nobuo Adachi
Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technique for ankle joint treatment. However, injury to the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve (IDCN) and the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve (MDCN) is a common complication during anterior portal placement. To prevent injuries, methods such as palpating the nerves topographically and marking the nerves by transilluminating the skin with an arthroscope have been proposed. Easier and more definitive methods of identifying the IDCN and MDCN should result in a reduction of complications...
February 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
Sheikh Mohammad Shavik, Zhenxiang Jiang, Seungik Baek, Lik Chuan Lee
While it has long been recognized that bi-directional interaction between the heart and the vasculature plays a critical role in the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system, a comprehensive study of this interaction has largely been hampered by a lack of modeling framework capable of simultaneously accommodating high-resolution models of the heart and vasculature. Here, we address this issue and present a computational modeling framework that couples finite element (FE) models of the left ventricle (LV) and aorta to elucidate ventricular-arterial coupling in the systemic circulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hu-Lin Christina Wang, Jia-Hao Zhang, Cheng-Hung How
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are rare vascular abnormalities that permit direct communication between the pulmonary artery and vein. During pregnancy, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation carries an increased risk of enlargement and rupture, which could lead to life-threatening hemothorax. This is the first case reporting successful thoracoscopic surgery for a pregnant woman with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation rupture-related hemothorax. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 32-year-old pregnant Asian woman (31 weeks' gestation) whose pulmonary arteriovenous malformation ruptured, leading to right-sided spontaneous tension hemothorax...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Charlotte Elizabeth Trail, Andrew Watson, Alice Martha Schofield
Abdominal pregnancies represent 1.4% of extrauterine pregnancies. A literature search of six cases involving bowel ectopic pregnancies provided anecdotal treatment options. This case involves a woman admitted at 6 weeks gestation with right iliac fossa and shoulder tip pain. An ultrasound scan revealed an empty uterus with free fluid in both adnexa and a 31×21 mm heterogenous mass adjacent to the right ovary. At laparoscopy, an ectopic pregnancy was identified at the hepatic flexure. The patient received two doses of methotrexate and monitored until the beta human chorionic gonadotropin reduced...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Zacharias Kontarakis, Andrea Rossi, Sophie Ramas, Michael T Dellinger, Didier Y R Stainier
Organ homeostasis relies upon cellular and molecular processes that restore tissue structure and function in a timely fashion. Lymphatic vessels help maintain fluid equilibrium by returning interstitial fluid that evades venous uptake back to the circulation. Despite its important role in tissue homeostasis, cancer metastasis, and close developmental origins with the blood vasculature, the number of molecular players known to control lymphatic system development is relatively low. Here we show, using genetic approaches in zebrafish and mice, that the endothelial specific microRNA mir-126, previously implicated in vascular integrity, regulates lymphatic development...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
Daniel Walters, Belal Al Khiami, Ehtisham Mahmud, Mitul Patel
PURPOSE: The optical-coherence tomography guided Ocelot catheter has previously been shown to be a safe and effective tool for crossing peripheral chronic total occlusions. However, the existing literature focuses mostly on the superficial femoral artery, without prior evidence of use within the suprainguinal vasculature. CASE SERIES: We present the first known cases of the Ocelot catheter for revascularization of chronic total occlusions in the iliac vasculature...
February 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
A Boussommier-Calleja, Y Atiyas, K Haase, M Headley, C Lewis, R D Kamm
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Recent developments in cancer immunotherapy have shown exciting therapeutic promise for metastatic patients. While most therapies target T cells, other immune cells, such as monocytes, hold great promise for therapeutic intervention. In our study, we provide primary evidence of direct engagement between human monocytes and tumor cells in a 3D vascularized microfluidic model. We first characterize the novel application of our model to investigate and visualize at high resolution the evolution of monocytes as they migrate from the intravascular to the extravascular micro-environment...
March 5, 2018: Biomaterials
Parkinson Soubam, Shashwat Mishra, Ashish Suri, Renu Dhingra, Sankat Mochan, Sanjeev Lalwani, T S Roy, Ashok K Mahapatra
A surgeon's understanding of the surgical anatomy can be greatly enhanced by the dissection of preserved cadaveric specimens. A reliable and inexpensive biological model for testing and standardization of dye injection concentrations is proposed utilizing the goat's head as a biological model. The first phase was concerned with standardization of the dye by titrating its concentration and injecting various amounts into cerebral vessels of a goat's head until an optimal concentration had been ascertained. In the second phase, this optimum concentration of the dye was injected into four human cadaveric heads following the same technique standardized using the goat's head...
March 2018: Neurology India
Andrew R Christiansen, Rami M Shorti, Cory D Smith, William C Prows, Jay T Bishoff
PURPOSE: Despite the increasing use of advanced 3D imaging techniques and 3D printing, these techniques have not yet been comprehensively compared in a surgical setting. The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of five different advanced imaging modalities during a complex renal surgical procedure. METHODS: A patient with a horseshoe kidney and multiple large, symptomatic stones that had failed Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy treatment was used for this evaluation...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Kondababu Kurakula, Duco S Koenis, Mark A Herzik, Yanyun Liu, John W Craft, Pieter B van Loenen, Mariska Vos, M Khang Tran, Henri H Versteeg, Marie-José T H Goumans, Wolfram Ruf, Carlie J M de Vries, Mehmet Şen
Tissue Factor is a cell-surface glycoprotein expressed in various cells of the vasculature and is the principal regulator of the blood coagulation cascade and hemostasis. Notably, aberrant expression of Tissue Factor is associated with cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Here, we sought to identify factors that regulate Tissue Factor gene expression and activity. Tissue Factor gene expression is regulated by various transcription factors, including activating protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B...
March 15, 2018: Haematologica
Yuh-Charn Lin, Chun-Yu Liu, Reiji Kannagi, Ruey-Bing Yang
OBJECTIVE: SCUBE2 (signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 2), expressed on the endothelial cell surface, functions as a novel coreceptor for VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) and enhances VEGF-induced signaling in adult angiogenesis. However, whether SCUBE2 plays a role in pathological angiogenesis and whether anti-SCUBE2 antibody is an effective strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathological role and targeting therapy of SCUBE2 in tumor vasculature...
March 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
P A Stapleton, C R McBride, J Yi, A B Abukabda, T R Nurkiewicz
Preconceptive health encompasses male and female reproductive capability. In females, this takes into account each of the stages of the estrous cycle. Microvascular reactivity varies throughout the estrous cycle in response to hormonal changes and in preparation for pregnancy. Microvascular alterations in response to engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure have been described within 24-hours of inhalation; however, the impact upon the uterine vasculature at differing estrous stages and at late-stage pregnancy is unclear...
March 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Felista L Tansi, Ronny Rüger, Ansgar M Kollmeier, Markus Rabenhold, Frank Steiniger, Roland E Kontermann, Ulf K Teichgraeber, Alfred Fahr, Ingrid Hilger
BACKGROUND: Endoglin (CD105) is overexpressed on tumor cells and tumor vasculatures, making it a potential target for diagnostic imaging and therapy of different neoplasms. Therefore, studies on nanocarrier systems designed for endoglin-directed diagnostic and drug delivery purposes would expose the feasibility of targeting endoglin with therapeutics. METHODS: Liposomes carrying high concentrations of a near-infrared fluorescent dye in the aqueous interior were prepared by the lipid film hydration and extrusion procedure, then conjugated to single chain antibody fragments either selective for murine endoglin (termed mEnd-IL) or directed towards human endoglin (termed hEnd-IL)...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Kyoung Min Lee, Ho-Kyung Choung, Martha Kim, Sohee Oh, Seok Hwan Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the positional change of central retinal vasculature and vascular trunk to deduce the change in the lamina cribrosa (LC) during axial elongation. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three healthy myopic children (46 eyes). METHODS: Participants had undergone a full ophthalmologic examination and axial length measurement every 6 months for 2 years. Using spectral-domain OCT, circle scans centered around the optic disc in the glaucoma progression analysis mode, which enabled capturing of the same positions throughout the entire study period, and enhanced depth imaging of the deep optic nerve head complex were performed...
March 12, 2018: Ophthalmology
Brett Ronald Cutler, Samira Gholami, Jie Shi Chua, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Pon Velayutham Anandh Babu
BACKGROUND: Glycosaminoglycan (GAG), a major component of the endothelial glycocalyx, is severely perturbed in diabetic vasculature leading to endothelial inflammation and vascular disease in diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that blueberry metabolites (BBM) ameliorate endothelial inflammation in diabetic endothelial cells (ECs) by restoring cell surface GAGs. METHODS: ECs isolated from healthy individuals [human aortic ECs (HAECs)] and diabetic patients (diabetic HAECs) were treated with ±BBM (benzoic acid-4-sulfate, hippuric acid, hydroxyhippuric acid, isovanillic acid-3-sulfate, and vanillic acid-4-sulfate at concentrations known to circulate in human plasma following blueberry consumption) for 3 days, and indices for endothelial inflammation were measured...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Maurizio Battaglia Parodi, Alessandro Arrigo, Robert E MacLaren, Emanuela Aragona, Lisa Toto, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Maria Pia Manitto, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: Choroideremia is a rare degenerative retinal disease that causes incurable blindness. It occurs as a result of the deficiency of the X-linked CHM gene, which encodes the Rab escort protein 1 (REP1). Gene therapy has been developed to treat CHM using adeno-associated viral vectors and is currently undergoing clinical trials. Expression of the CHM gene is ubiquitous throughout the retina, and it is therefore important to identify which retinal layers are affected in the disease process...
March 14, 2018: Retina
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