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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166425/anatomy-of-the-sphenopalatine-artery-and-its-implications-for-transnasal-neurosurgery
#1
M Eordogh, A Grimm, I Gawish, L Patonay, R Reisch, H R Briner, G Baksa
BACKGROUND: The knowledge of sinonasal vasculature is inevitable in transnasal neurosurgery. We performed an anatomical study on the sphenopalatine artery from the perspective of skull base procedures. METHODOLOGY: To analyse the anatomical landmarks of the sphenopalatine artery, arterial skull corrosion casts (26 head halves) underwent endoscopic transnasal phantom surgery. Furthermore, we performed microsurgical dissection on formaldehyde-fixated cadavers with arterial perfusion (14 head halves) as well as studied Cone Beam CT-scans of anonymised patients and cadavers (115 head sides)...
November 22, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164819/decellularized-bovine-cotyledons-may-serve-as-biological-scaffolds-with-preserved-vascular-arrangement
#2
Rodrigo da Silva Nunes Barreto, Patricia Romagnolli, Andrea Maria Mess, Maria Angelica Miglino
Technically produced scaffolds are common to establish transplantable tissues for Regenerative Medicine, but also biological ones that are closer to the natural condition become of interest. Placentas are promising, because they represented available, complete organs with rich extracellular matrix (ECM) and well developed vasculature that easily could build anastomoses to a host´s organ. Only placentas from larger animal models such as the bovine meet the dimensions large enough for most organs, but are not adequately described yet...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164803/preclinical-evaluation-and-optimization-of-a-cell-therapy-using-human-cord-blood-derived-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-for-ischemic-retinopathies
#3
Emma Reid, Jasenka Guduric-Fuchs, Christina L O'Neill, Lynsey-Dawn Allen, Sarah E J Chambers, Alan W Stitt, Reinhold J Medina
Cell therapy using endothelial progenitors holds promise for vascular repair in ischemic retinopathies. Using a well-defined subpopulation of human cord blood-derived endothelial progenitors known as endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), we have evaluated essential requirements for further development of this cell therapy targeting the ischemic retina, including dose response, delivery route, and toxicity. First, to evaluate therapeutic efficacy relating to cell dose, ECFCs were injected into the vitreous of mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy...
November 22, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163521/cd4-and-perivascular-foxp3-t-cells-in-glioma-correlate-with-angiogenesis-and-tumor-progression
#4
Luyan Mu, Changlin Yang, Qiang Gao, Yu Long, Haitao Ge, Gabriel DeLeon, Linchun Jin, Yifan Emily Chang, Elias J Sayour, Jingjing Ji, Jie Jiang, Paul S Kubilis, Jiping Qi, Yunhe Gu, Jiabin Wang, Yuwen Song, Duane A Mitchell, Zhiguo Lin, Jianping Huang
Background: Angiogenesis and immune cell infiltration are key features of gliomas and their manipulation of the microenvironment, but their prognostic significance remains indeterminate. We evaluate the interconnection between tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) and tumor blood-vasculatures in the context of glioma progression. Methods: Paired tumor tissues of 44 patients from three tumor-recurrent groups: diffuse astrocytomas (DA) recurred as DA, DA recurred as glioblastomas (GBM), and GBM recurred as GBM were evaluated by genetic analysis, immunohistochemistry for tumor blood vessel density, TIL subsets, and clinical outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163479/discriminating-between-interstitial-and-circulating-leukocytes-in-tissues-of-the-murine-oral-mucosa-avoiding-nasal-associated-lymphoid-tissue-contamination
#5
Peter D Bittner-Eddy, Lori A Fischer, Andy A Tu, Daniel A Allman, Massimo Costalonga
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory response to a microbial biofilm that destroys bone and soft tissues supporting the teeth. Murine models of periodontitis based on Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) colonization have shown that extravasation of leukocytes into oral tissue is critical to driving alveolar bone destruction. Identifying interstitial leukocytes is key to understanding the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis. Here, we describe a robust flow cytometry assay based on intravenous FITC-conjugated anti-mouse CD45 mAb that distinguishes interstitial leukocytes in the oral mucosa of mice from those circulating within the vasculature or in post-dissection contaminating blood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163205/localization-and-interaction-between-kinin-b1-receptor-and-nadph-oxidase-in-the-vascular-system-of-diabetic-rats
#6
Youssef Haddad, Réjean Couture
Kinin B1 receptor (B1R) enhanced superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) production in the vasculature of diabetic rats. This study investigates the induction and distribution of B1R in diabetic blood vessels and addresses the hypothesis that B1R is co-localized with NADPH oxidase (NOX1 and NOX2) and produces its activation via protein kinase C (PKC). Diabetes was induced in rats with streptozotocin (STZ 65 mg.kg(-1), i.p.). Two weeks later, the production of [Formula: see text] was measured in aorta rings in response to the B1R agonist (Sar[D-Phe(8)]-des-Arg(9)-BK, 20 μM) by the method of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162746/vascular-dysfunction-in-the-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-is-dependent-on-constrictor-prostanoid-activity-and-y-chromosome-lineage
#7
Shanzana I Khan, Karen L Andrews, Ann-Maree Jefferis, Garry L Jennings, Amanda K Sampson, Jaye P F Chin-Dusting
Vascular dysfunction is a hallmark of hypertension and the strongest risk factor to-date for coronary artery disease. As Y chromosome lineage has emerged as one of the strongest genetic predictors of cardiovascular disease risk to-date, we investigated if Y chromosome lineage modulated this important facet in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) using consomic strains. Here we show that vascular dysfunction in the SHRSP is attributable to differential cyclo-oxygenase (COX) activity with NO levels playing a less significant role...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162554/sustained-administration-of-corticosterone-at-stress-like-levels-after-stroke-suppressed-glial-reactivity-at-sites-of-thalamic-secondary-neurodegeneration
#8
Katarzyna Zalewska, Giovanni Pietrogrande, Lin Kooi Ong, Mahmoud Abdolhoseini, Murielle Kluge, Sarah J Johnson, Frederick R Walker, Michael Nilsson
Secondary neurodegeneration (SND) is an insidious and progressive condition involving the death of neurons in regions of the brain that were connected to but undamaged by the initial stroke. Our group have published compelling evidence that exposure to psychological stress can significantly exacerbate the severity SND, a finding that has considerable clinical implications given that stroke-survivors often report experiencing high and unremitting levels of psychological stress. It may be possible to use one or more targeted pharmacological approaches to limit the negative effects of stress on the recovery process but in order to move forward with this approach the most critical stress signals have to be identified...
November 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160735/up-regulation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-expression-is-accompanied-with-vascular-repair-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Arjang Salehi, Amandine Jullienne, Mohsen Baghchechi, Mary Hamer, Mark Walsworth, Virginia Donovan, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, William J Pearce, Andre Obenaus
Recent data suggest that repairing the cerebral vasculature after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may help to improve functional recovery. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway promotes blood vessel formation during vascular development, but its role in vascular repair after TBI remains elusive. In this study, we examined how the cerebral vasculature responds to TBI and the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vascular repair. We induced a moderate controlled cortical impact in adult mice and performed vessel painting to visualize the vascular alterations in the brain...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160225/phosphatidylserine-targeted-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-for-photothermal-ablation-of-bladder-cancer
#10
Needa A Virani, Carole Davis, Patrick McKernan, Paul Hauser, Robert E Hurst, Joel Slaton, Ricardo P Silvy, Daniel E Resasco, Roger G Harrison
Bladder cancer has a 60-70% recurrence rate most likely due to residual tumour left behind after a transurethral resection (TUR). Failure to completely resect the cancer can lead to recurrence and progression into higher grade tumours with metastatic potential. We present here a novel therapy to treat superficial tumours with the potential to decrease recurrence. The therapy is a heat-based approach in which bladder tumour specific single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are delivered intravesically at a very low dose (0...
November 21, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158813/vascularized-tissue-engineered-model-for-studying-drug-resistance-in-neuroblastoma
#11
A Villasante, K Sakaguchi, J Kim, N K Cheung, M Nakayama, H Parsa, T Okano, T Shimizu, G Vunjak-Novakovic
Neuroblastoma is a vascularized pediatric tumor derived from neural crest stem cells that displays vasculogenic mimicry and can express a number of stemness markers, such as SOX2 and NANOG. Tumor relapse is the major cause of succumbing to this disease, and properties attributed to cancer stem-like cells (CSLC), such as drug-resistance and cell plasticity, seem to be the key mechanisms. However, the lack of controllable models that recapitulate the features of human neuroblastoma limits our understanding of the process and impedes the development of new therapies...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158223/tgf-%C3%AE-induces-oncofetal-fibronectin-which-in-turn-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#12
Elisa Ventura, Michael Weller, Will Macnair, Katja Eschbach, Christian Beisel, Cinzia Cordazzo, Manfred Claassen, Luciano Zardi, Isabel Burghardt
Gene splicing profiles are frequently altered in cancer, and the splice variants of fibronectin (FN) containing the extra-domains A (EDA) and B (EDB) referred to as EDA+FN and EDB+FN are highly up-regulated in tumor vasculature. TGF-β signaling has been attributed a pivotal role in glioblastoma, with TGF-β promoting angiogenesis and vessel remodeling. By immunohistochemical staining, we observed that the oncofetal FN isoforms EDA+FN and EDB+FN are expressed in glioblastoma vasculature. Ex vivo single cell gene expression profiling of patients' tumors using the markers CD31 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) respectively confirmed the predominant expression of FN, EDA+FN, and EDB+FN in the vascular compartment of glioblastoma...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158084/distinct-expression-patterns-of-flk1-and-flt1-in-the-coronary-vascular-system-during-development-and-after-myocardial-infarction
#13
Shota Kurotsu, Rina Osakabe, Mari Isomi, Fumiya Tamura, Taketaro Sadahiro, Naoto Muraoka, Hidenori Kojima, Sho Haginiwa, Hidenori Tani, Kaori Nara, Yoshiaki Kubota, Masatsugu Ema, Keiichi Fukuda, Takeshi Suzuki, Masaki Ieda
The coronary vascular system is critical for myocardial growth and cardiomyocyte survival. However, the molecular mechanism regulating coronary angiogenesis remains elusive. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulates angiogenesis by binding to the specific receptors Flk1 and Flt1, which results in different functions. Despite the importance of Flk1 and Flt1, their expression in the coronary vasculature remains largely unknown due to the lack of appropriate antibodies for immunostaining. Here, we analyzed multiple reporter mice including Flk1-GFP BAC transgenic (Tg), Flk1-LacZ knock-in, Flt1-DsRed BAC Tg, and Flk1-GFP/Flt1-DsRed double Tg animals to determine expression patterns in mouse hearts during cardiac growth and after myocardial infarction (MI)...
November 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157424/endoscopic-vitrectomy-for-microcornea-posterior-megalolenticonus-persistent-fetal-vasculature-coloboma-syndrome
#14
Theodore Bowe, Safa Rahmani, Yoshihiro Yonekawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157263/ldl-receptor-blockade-reduces-mortality-in-a-mouse-model-of-ischaemic-stroke-without-improving-tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-induced-brain-haemorrhage-towards-pre-clinical-simulation-of-symptomatic-ich
#15
Be'eri Niego, Brad R S Broughton, Heidi Ho, Christopher G Sobey, Robert L Medcalf
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) following tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration is the most feared and lethal complication of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke, creating a significant obstacle for a broader uptake of this beneficial treatment. rt-PA also undermines cerebral vasculature stability in a multimodal process which involves engagement with LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1), potentially underlying the development of sICH...
November 21, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157192/neonatal-and-juvenile-ocular-development-in-sprague-dawley-rats-a-histomorphological-and-immunohistochemical-study
#16
Vanessa Vrolyk, Julius Haruna, Marie-Odile Benoit-Biancamano
As in many altricial species, rats are born with fused eyelids and markedly underdeveloped eyes. While the normal histology of the eyes of mature rats is known, the histomorphological changes occurring during postnatal eye development in this species remain incompletely characterized. This study was conducted to describe the postnatal development of ocular structures in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats during the first month of age using histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Both eyes were collected from 51 SD rats at 13 time points between postnatal day (PND)1 and PND30...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157095/endothelial-autophagic-flux-hampers-atherosclerotic-lesion-development
#17
Marouane Kheloufi, Anne-Clemence Vion, Adel Hammoutene, Johanne Poisson, Juliette Lasselin, Cecile Devue, Isabelle Pic, Nicolas Dupont, Johanna Busse, Konstantin Stark, Julie Lafaurie-Janvore, Abdul I Barakat, Xavier Loyer, Michele Souyri, Benoit Viollet, Pierre Julia, Alain Tedgui, Patrice Codogno, Chantal M Boulanger, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou
Blood flowing in arteries generates shear forces at the surface of the vascular endothelium that control its anti-atherogenic properties. However, due to the architecture of the vascular tree, these shear forces are heterogeneous and atherosclerotic plaques develop preferentially in areas where shear is low or disturbed. Here we review our recent study showing that elevated shear forces stimulate endothelial autophagic flux and that inactivating the endothelial macroautophagy/autophagy pathway promotes a pro-inflammatory, pro-senescent and pro-apoptotic cell phenotype despite the presence of atheroprotective shear forces...
November 20, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156834/oncolytic-reovirus-inhibits-angiogenesis-through-induction-of-cxcl10-ip-10-and-abrogation-of-hif-activity-in-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#18
Jennifer S Carew, Claudia M Espitia, Weiguo Zhao, Monica M Mita, Alain C Mita, Steffan T Nawrocki
The tumor-selective viral replication capacity and pro-apoptotic effects of oncolytic reovirus have been reported to be dependent on the presence of an activated RAS pathway in several solid tumor types. However, the mechanisms of selective anticancer efficacy of the reovirus-based formulation for cancer therapy (Reolysin, pelareorep) have not been rigorously studied in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Here we report that Reolysin triggered a striking induction of the anti-angiogenic chemokine interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10)/CXCL10 (CXC chemokine ligand 10) in both wild type and RAS mutant STS cells...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156060/three-cases-of-associated-persistent-fetal-vasculature-and-ocular-coloboma-posterior-segment-dysgenesis
#19
Sudarshan Khokhar, Brijesh Takkar, Ganesh Pillay, Pradeep Venkatesh
The authors discuss the association of persistent fetal vasculature and ocular coloboma in three children. They explore the possibility of a cause-effect relationship between these disorders, and link them together as a broader posterior dysgenesis. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e77-e80.].
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155753/using-retinal-imaging-to-study-dementia
#20
Victor T T Chan, Tiffany H K Tso, Fangyao Tang, Clement Tham, Vincent Mok, Christopher Chen, Tien Y Wong, Carol Y Cheung
The retina offers a unique "window" to study pathophysiological processes of dementia in the brain, as it is an extension of the central nervous system (CNS) and shares prominent similarities with the brain in terms of embryological origin, anatomical features and physiological properties.  The vascular and neuronal structure in the retina can now be visualized easily and non-invasively using retinal imaging techniques, including fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT), and quantified semi-automatically using computer-assisted analysis programs...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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