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Interneuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334608/parvalbumin-interneurons-modulate-striatal-output-and-enhance-performance-during-associative-learning
#1
Kwang Lee, Sandra M Holley, Justin L Shobe, Natalie C Chong, Carlos Cepeda, Michael S Levine, Sotiris C Masmanidis
The prevailing view is that striatal parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons primarily function to downregulate medium spiny projection neuron (MSN) activity via monosynaptic inhibitory signaling. Here, by combining in vivo neural recordings and optogenetics, we unexpectedly find that both suppressing and over-activating PV cells attenuates spontaneous MSN activity. To account for this, we find that, in addition to monosynaptic coupling, PV-MSN interactions are mediated by a competing disynaptic inhibitory circuit involving a variety of neuropeptide Y-expressing interneurons...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334402/the-number-of-parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-is-decreased-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-autism
#2
Ezzat Hashemi, Jeanelle Ariza, Haille Rogers, Stephen C Noctor, Verónica Martínez-Cerdeño
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334184/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-induces-structural-and-functional-disconnection-of-local-neocortical-inhibitory-networks-via-parvalbumin-interneuron-diffuse-axonal-injury
#3
Michal Vascak, Xiaotao Jin, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) plays a major role in cortical network dysfunction posited to cause excitatory/inhibitory imbalance after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Current thought holds that white matter (WM) is uniquely vulnerable to DAI. However, clinically diagnosed mTBI is not always associated with WM DAI. This suggests an undetected neocortical pathophysiology, implicating GABAergic interneurons. To evaluate this possibility, we used mild central fluid percussion injury to generate DAI in mice with Cre-driven tdTomato labeling of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons...
March 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334142/layer-specific-organization-of-local-excitatory-and-inhibitory-synaptic-connectivity-in-the-rat-presubiculum
#4
Yangfan Peng, Federico J Barreda Tomás, Constantin Klisch, Imre Vida, Jörg R P Geiger
The presubiculum is part of the parahippocampal spatial navigation system and contains head direction and grid cells upstream of the medial entorhinal cortex. This position within the parahippocampal cortex renders the presubiculum uniquely suited for analyzing the circuit requirements underlying the emergence of spatially tuned neuronal activity. To identify the local circuit properties, we analyzed the topology of synaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons in all layers of the presubiculum by testing 4250 potential synaptic connections using multiple whole-cell recordings of up to 8 cells simultaneously...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333685/a-spatially-resolved-network-spike-in-model-neuronal-cultures-reveals-nucleation-centers-circular-traveling-waves-and-drifting-spiral-waves
#5
A V Paraskevov, D K Zendrikov
We show that in model neuronal cultures, where the probability of interneuronal connection formation decreases exponentially with increasing distance between the neurons, there exists a small number of spatial nucleation centers of a network spike, from where the synchronous spiking activity starts propagating in the network typically in the form of circular traveling waves. The number of nucleation centers and their spatial locations are unique and unchanged for a given realization of neuronal network but are different for different networks...
March 23, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331009/the-modulation-of-two-motor-behaviours-by-persistent-sodium-currents-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#6
Erik Svensson, Hugo Jeffreys, Wen-Chang Li
Persistent sodium currents (INaP) are common in neuronal circuitries and they have been implicated in several diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and epilepsy. However, the role of INaP in the regulation of specific behaviours is still poorly understood. Here we have characterized INaP and investigated its role in the swimming and struggling behaviour of Xenopus tadpoles. INaP was identified in three groups of neurons, namely sensory Rohon-Beard neurons (RB neurons), descending interneurons (dINs), and non-dINs (neurons rhythmically active in swimming)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328155/does-dynorphin-play-a-role-in-the-onset-of-puberty-in-female-sheep
#7
J A Lopez, M N Bedenbaugh, R B McCosh, P W Weems, L J Meadows, B Wisman, L M Coolen, R L Goodman, S M Hileman
Puberty onset involves increased gonadotrophin-release (GnRH) release as a result of decreased sensitivity to oestrogen (E2 )-negative feedback. Because GnRH neurones lack E2 receptor α, this pathway must contain interneurones. One likely candidate is KNDy neurones (kisspeptin, neurokinin B, dynorphin). The overarching hypothesis of the present study was that the prepubertal hiatus in luteinising hormone (LH) release involves reduced kisspeptin and/or heightened dynorphin input. We first tested the specific hypothesis that E2 would reduce kisspeptin-immunopositive cell numbers and increase dynorphin-immunopositive cell numbers...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326935/identifying-functional-populations-among-the-interneurons-in-laminae-i-iii-of-the-spinal-dorsal-horn
#8
Andrew J Todd
The spinal dorsal horn receives input from primary afferent axons, which terminate in a modality-specific fashion in different laminae. The incoming somatosensory information is processed through complex synaptic circuits involving excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, before being transmitted to the brain via projection neurons for conscious perception. The dorsal horn is important, firstly because changes in this region contribute to chronic pain states, and secondly because it contains potential targets for the development of new treatments for pain...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324169/roles-of-centromedian-parafascicular-nuclei-of-thalamus-and-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-dorsal-striatum-in-associative-learning-of-environmental-events
#9
REVIEW
Ko Yamanaka, Yukiko Hori, Takafumi Minamimoto, Hiroshi Yamada, Naoyuki Matsumoto, Kazuki Enomoto, Toshihiko Aosaki, Ann M Graybiel, Minoru Kimura
The thalamus provides a massive input to the striatum, but despite accumulating evidence, the functions of this system remain unclear. It is known, however, that the centromedian (CM) and parafascicular (Pf) nuclei of the thalamus can strongly influence particular striatal neuron subtypes, notably including the cholinergic interneurons of the striatum (CINs), key regulators of striatal function. Here, we highlight the thalamostriatal system through the CM-Pf to striatal CINs. We consider how, by virtue of the direct synaptic connections of the CM and PF, their neural activity contributes to the activity of CINs and striatal projection neurons (SPNs)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323012/extracellular-matrix-alterations-in-the-ketamine-model-of-schizophrenia
#10
Gabriela Matuszko, Sebastiano Curreli, Rahul Kaushik, Axel Becker, Alexander Dityatev
The neural extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in regulation of perisomatic GABAergic inhibition and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cortex. Decreased labeling of perineuronal nets, a form of ECM predominantly associated with parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the brain, has been observed in post-mortem studies of schizophrenia patients, specifically, in brain areas such as prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala. Moreover, glial ECM in the form of dandelion clock-like structures was reported to be altered in schizophrenia patients...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322980/role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-the-anterior-dorsal-lateral-hypothalamic-area-in-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-self-administration
#11
Jordan M Blacktop, Ryan P Todd, Barbara A Sorg
Addiction involves drug-induced neuroplasticity in the circuitry of motivated behavior, which includes the medial forebrain bundle and the lateral hypothalamic area. Emerging at the forefront of neuroplasticity regulation are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that form perineuronal nets (PNNs) around certain neurons, mainly parvalbumin positive (PV(+)), fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs), making them a promising target for the regulation of drug-induced neuroplasticity. Despite the emerging significance of PNNs in drug-induced neuroplasticity and the well-established role of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in reward, reinforcement, and motivation, very little is known about how PNN-expressing neurons control drug-seeking behavior...
March 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322275/oxidative-stress-driven-parvalbumin-interneuron-impairment-as-a-common-mechanism-in-models-of-schizophrenia
#12
P Steullet, J-H Cabungcal, J Coyle, M Didriksen, K Gill, A A Grace, T K Hensch, A-S LaMantia, L Lindemann, T M Maynard, U Meyer, H Morishita, P O'Donnell, M Puhl, M Cuenod, K Q Do
Parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons (PVIs) are crucial for maintaining proper excitatory/inhibitory balance and high-frequency neuronal synchronization. Their activity supports critical developmental trajectories, sensory and cognitive processing, and social behavior. Despite heterogeneity in the etiology across schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder, PVI circuits are altered in these psychiatric disorders. Identifying mechanism(s) underlying PVI deficits is essential to establish treatments targeting in particular cognition...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321286/crispr-cas9-mediated-heterozygous-knockout-of-the-autism-gene-chd8-and-characterization-of-its-transcriptional-networks-in-cerebral-organoids-derived-from-ips-cells
#13
Ping Wang, Ryan Mokhtari, Erika Pedrosa, Michael Kirschenbaum, Can Bayrak, Deyou Zheng, Herbert M Lachman
BACKGROUND: CHD8 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8), which codes for a member of the CHD family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factors, is one of the most commonly mutated genes in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) identified in exome-sequencing studies. Loss of function mutations in the gene have also been found in schizophrenia (SZ) and intellectual disabilities and influence cancer cell proliferation. We previously reported an RNA-seq analysis carried out on neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and monolayer neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that were heterozygous for CHD8 knockout (KO) alleles generated using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317880/antidromic-rectifying-gap-junctions-amplify-chemical-transmission-at-functionally-mixed-electrical-chemical-synapses
#14
Ping Liu, Bojun Chen, Roger Mailler, Zhao-Wen Wang
Neurons communicate through chemical synapses and electrical synapses (gap junctions). Although these two types of synapses often coexist between neurons, little is known about whether they interact, and whether any interactions between them are important to controlling synaptic strength and circuit functions. By studying chemical and electrical synapses between premotor interneurons (AVA) and downstream motor neurons (A-MNs) in the Caenorhabditis elegans escape circuit, we found that disrupting either the chemical or electrical synapses causes defective escape response...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316753/a-resting-eeg-study-of-neocortical-hyperexcitability-and-altered-functional-connectivity-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#15
Jun Wang, Lauren E Ethridge, Matthew W Mosconi, Stormi P White, Devin K Binder, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Matthew J Byerly, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Cortical hyperexcitability due to abnormal fast-spiking inhibitory interneuron function has been documented in fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of the fragile X syndrome which is the most common single gene cause of autism and intellectual disability. METHODS: We collected resting state dense-array electroencephalography data from 21 fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and 21 age-matched healthy participants. RESULTS: FXS patients exhibited greater gamma frequency band power, which was correlated with social and sensory processing difficulties...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315725/vibration-training-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-evidence-for-persistent-segmental-plasticity
#16
Chu-Ling Yen, Colleen L McHenry, Michael A Petrie, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
H-reflex paired-pulse depression is gradually lost within the first year post-SCI, a process believed to reflect reorganization of segmental interneurons after the loss of normal descending (cortical) inhibition. This reorganization co-varies in time with the development of involuntary spasms and spasticity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether long-term vibration training may initiate the return of H-reflex paired-pulse depression in individuals with chronic, complete SCI. Five men with SCI received twice-weekly vibration training (30Hz, 0...
March 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315308/target-specific-alterations-in-the-vip-inhibitory-drive-to-hippocampal-gabaergic-cells-after-status-epilepticus
#17
Linda Suzanne David, Lisa Topolnik
Status epilepticus (SE) is associated with complex reorganization of hippocampal circuits involving a significant loss of specific subtypes of GABAergic interneurons. While adaptive circuit plasticity may increase the chances for recruitment of surviving interneurons, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We studied the alterations in the inhibitory tone received by the hippocampal CA1 oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurons from the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)- and calretinin (CR)-expressing interneurons using the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) model of epilepsy...
March 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304340/neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-psychosis-and-psychosis-risk
#18
REVIEW
Henry Barron, Sina Hafizi, Ana C Andreazza, Romina Mizrahi
Although our understanding of psychotic disorders has advanced substantially in the past few decades, very little has changed in the standard of care for these illnesses since the development of atypical anti-psychotics in the 1990s. Here, we integrate new insights into the pathophysiology with the increasing interest in early detection and prevention. First, we explore the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in a subpopulation of cortical parvalbumin-containing interneurons (PVIs). Postmortem and preclinical data has implicated these neurons in the positive and negative symptoms, as well as the cognitive dysfunction present in schizophrenia...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303333/an-insect-inspired-model-for-visual-binding-i-learning-objects-and-their-characteristics
#19
Brandon D Northcutt, Jonathan P Dyhr, Charles M Higgins
Visual binding is the process of associating the responses of visual interneurons in different visual submodalities all of which are responding to the same object in the visual field. Recently identified neuropils in the insect brain termed optic glomeruli reside just downstream of the optic lobes and have an internal organization that could support visual binding. Working from anatomical similarities between optic and olfactory glomeruli, we have developed a model of visual binding based on common temporal fluctuations among signals of independent visual submodalities...
March 16, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295313/peripheral-and-central-anatomical-organization-of-cutaneous-afferent-subtypes-in-a-rat-nociceptive-intersegmental-spinal-reflex
#20
Hyun Joon Lee, Jason M White, Jumi Chung, Keith E Tansey
Stimulation of rat segmental dorsal cutaneous nerves (DCNs) evokes the nociceptive intersegmental cutaneus trunci muscle (CTM) reflex. The reflex consists of early and late responses, mediated by Aδ and C fibers respectively based on required stimulation strengths, and shows segmental differences in terms of amplitude and duration. We have now investigated whether the peripheral or central anatomy of nociceptive afferent subtypes in different DCNs also vary in a segmental manner. The numbers of different axon subtypes, determined by axon diameter, were analyzed across peripheral DCNs from T6 to L1...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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