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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637318/experience-dependent-regulation-of-cajal-retzius-cell-networks-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#1
Max Anstötz, Sun Kyong Lee, Tamra I Neblett, Gabriele M Rune, Gianmaria Maccaferri
In contrast to their near-disappearance in the adult neocortex, Cajal-Retzius cells have been suggested to persist longer in the hippocampus. A distinctive feature of the mature hippocampus, not maintained by other cortical areas, is its ability to sustain adult neurogenesis. Here, we have investigated whether environmental manipulations affecting hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis have a parallel impact on Cajal-Retzius cells. We used multiple mouse reporter lines to unequivocally identify Cajal-Retzius cells and quantify their densities during postnatal development...
June 16, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629847/evidence-for-m2-muscarinic-receptor-modulation-of-axon-terminals-and-dendrites-in-the-rodent-basolateral-amygdala-an-ultrastructural-and-electrophysiological-analysis
#2
Ana Fajardo-Serrano, Lei Liu, David D Mott, Alexander J McDonald
The basolateral amygdala receives a very dense cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is important for memory consolidation. Although behavioral studies have shown that both M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors are critical for these mnemonic functions, there have been very few neuroanatomical and electrophysiological investigations of the localization and function of different types of muscarinic receptors in the amygdala. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2Rs) in the anterior basolateral nucleus (BLa) of the mouse, including the localization of M2Rs in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive interneurons, using double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628197/vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-vacht-overexpression-induces-major-modifications-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-morphology-and-function
#3
Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Bernard
Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) are pivotal for the regulation of the striatal network. Acetylcholine (ACh) released by CIN is centrally involved in reward behavior as well as locomotor or cognitive functions. Recently, BAC transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2) and displaying almost 50 extra copies of the VAChT gene were used to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627419/arx-polyalanine-expansion-mutations-lead-to-migration-impediment-in-the-rostral-cortex-coupled-with-a-developmental-deficit-of-calbindin-positive-cortical-gabaergic-interneurons
#4
K Lee, K Ireland, M Bleeze, C Shoubridge
The Aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) is indispensable for interneuron development. Patients with ARX polyalanine expansion mutations of the first two tracts (namely PA1 and PA2) suffer from intellectual disability of varying severity, with seizures a frequent comorbidity. The impact of PA1 and PA2 mutations on the brain development is unknown, hindering the search for therapeutic interventions. Here, we characterised the disturbances to cortical interneuron development in mice modelling the two most common ARX polyalanine expansion mutations in human...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625870/pax3-and-pax7-mediated-dbx1-regulation-orchestrates-the-patterning-of-intermediate-spinal-interneurons
#5
Chris Gard, Gloria Gonzalez-Curto, Youcef El-Mokhtar Frarma, Elodie Chollet, Nathalie Duval, Valentine Auzié, Frédéric Auradé, Lisa Vigier, Frédéric Relaix, Alessandra Pierani, Frédéric Causeret, Vanessa Ribes
Transcription factors are key orchestrators of the emergence of neuronal diversity within the developing spinal cord. As such, the two paralogous proteins Pax3 and Pax7 regulate the specification of progenitor cells within the intermediate neural tube, by defining a neat segregation between those fated to form motor circuits and those involved in the integration of sensory inputs. To attain insights into the molecular means by which they control this process, we have performed detailed phenotypic analyses of the intermediate spinal interneurons (IN), namely the dI6, V0D, V0VCG and V1 populations in compound null mutants for Pax3 and Pax7...
June 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625609/oxidative-stress-induced-by-cumene-hydroperoxide-produces-synaptic-depression-and-transient-hyperexcitability-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-neurons
#6
R Pardillo-Diaz, L Carrascal, G Barrionuevo, P Nunez-Abades
Pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex are selectively degenerated in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The mechanisms underlying neuronal death in ALS are not well established. In the absence of useful biomarkers, the early increased neuronal excitability seems to be the unique characteristic of ALS. Lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress has been postulated as one of the possible mechanisms involved in degeneration motor cortex pyramidal neurons. This paper examines the effect of lipid peroxidation on layer V pyramidal neurons induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CH) in brain slices from wild type rats...
June 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624955/presynaptic-inhibition-of-nociceptive-neurotransmission-by-somatosensory-neuron-secreted-suppressors
#7
REVIEW
Kaicheng Li, Bing Cai, Changlin Li, Xu Zhang
Noxious stimuli cause pain by activating cutaneous nociceptors. The Aδ- and C-fibers of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons convey the nociceptive signals to the laminae I-II of spinal cord. In the dorsal horn of spinal cord, the excitatory afferent synaptic transmission is regulated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid and modulators such as opioid peptides released from the spinal interneurons, and by serotonin, norepinepherine and dopamine from the descending inhibitory system. In contrast to the accumulated evidence for these central inhibitors and their neural circuits in the dorsal spinal cord, the knowledge about the endogenous suppressive mechanisms in nociceptive DRG neurons remains very limited...
June 15, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624616/age-related-plasticity-of-the-axon-initial-segment-of-cortical-pyramidal-cells-in-marmoset-monkeys
#8
Nafiseh Atapour, Marcello G P Rosa
Structural plasticity of the axon initial segment (AIS), the site of action potential initiation, is observed as part of the normal early development of the cortex, as well as in association with injury and disease. Here, we show that structural AIS plasticity also occurs with normal aging in adult marmosets. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to reveal the extent of the AIS of layer 2/3A pyramidal cells in 8 neocortical areas. We found that the AIS length varied significantly between areas in young adult (2-3 years old) marmosets, with neurons in frontal area 14C having the longest AIS, and those in the primary visual cortex the shortest...
May 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623664/mechanosensory-neurons-control-the-timing-of-spinal-microcircuit-selection-during-locomotion
#9
Claire Wyart, Steven Knafo, Kevin Fidelin, Andrew Prendergast, Po-En Brian Tseng, Alexandre Parrin, Charles William Dickey, Urs Lucas Böhm, Sophie Nunes FIgueiredo, Olivier Thouvenin, Hugues Pascal-Moussellard
Despite numerous physiological studies about reflexes in the spinal cord, the contribution of mechanosensory feedback to active locomotion and the nature of underlying spinal circuits remains elusive. Here we investigate how mechanosensory feedback shapes active locomotion in a genetic model organism exhibiting simple locomotion-the zebrafish larva. We show that mechanosensory feedback enhances the recruitment of motor pools during active locomotion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inputs from mechanosensory neurons increase locomotor speed by prolonging fast swimming at the expense of slow swimming during stereotyped acoustic escape responses...
June 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621421/roles-of-dscam-in-axonal-decussation-and-fasciculation-of-chick-spinal-interneurons
#10
Oksana Cohen, Lilach Vald, Masahito Yamagata, Joshua R Sanes, Avihu Klar
The ventral midline of the embryonic neural tube, the floor plate, has a profound role in guiding axons during embryonic development. Floor plate-derived guidance cues attract or repel axons, depending on the neuronal subtype and developmental stage. Netrin-1 and its receptor, Deleted in Colon Carcinoma (DCC), are the key constituents of commissurral axons guidance cues toward the floor plate. Recent studies have implicated Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (Dscam) as an additional Netrin-1 receptor. In this study, we examined the role of Dscam in guiding defined spinal dorsal interneuron populations...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620275/genome-wide-target-analyses-of-otx2-homeoprotein-in-postnatal-cortex
#11
Akiko Sakai, Ryuichiro Nakato, Yiwei Ling, Xubin Hou, Norikazu Hara, Tomoya Iijima, Yuchio Yanagawa, Ryozo Kuwano, Shujiro Okuda, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Sayaka Sugiyama
Juvenile brain has a unique time window, or critical period, in which neuronal circuits are remodeled by experience. Mounting evidence indicates the importance of neuronal circuit rewiring in various neurodevelopmental disorders of human cognition. We previously showed that Otx2 homeoprotein, essential for brain formation, is recaptured during postnatal maturation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PV cells) to activate the critical period in mouse visual cortex. Cortical Otx2 is the only interneuron-enriched transcription factor known to regulate the critical period, but its downstream targets remain unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619719/hypothalamic-regulation-of-regionally-distinct-adult-neural-stem-cells-and-neurogenesis
#12
Alex Paul, Zayna Chaker, Fiona Doetsch
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain generate neurons throughout life. NSCs in the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) exhibit a regional identity, and depending on their location, generate distinct olfactory bulb interneuron subtypes. Here we show that the hypothalamus, a brain area regulating physiological states, provides long-range regionalized input to the V-SVZ niche and can regulate specific NSC subpopulations. Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons selectively innervate the anterior ventral V-SVZ and promote the proliferation of Nkx2...
June 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618595/anticipated-synchronization-in-neuronal-circuits-unveiled-by-a-phase-response-curve-analysis
#13
Fernanda S Matias, Pedro V Carelli, Claudio R Mirasso, Mauro Copelli
Anticipated synchronization (AS) is a counterintuitive behavior that has been observed in several systems. When AS occurs in a sender-receiver configuration, the latter can predict the future dynamics of the former for certain parameter values. In particular, in neuroscience AS was proposed to explain the apparent discrepancy between information flow and time lag in the cortical activity recorded in monkeys. Despite its success, a clear understanding of the mechanisms yielding AS in neuronal circuits is still missing...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617659/inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-retina-types-circuitry-and-function
#14
Jeffrey S Diamond
Visual signals in the vertebrate retina are shaped by feedback and feedforward inhibition in two synaptic layers. In one, horizontal cells establish fundamental center-surround receptive-field properties via morphologically and physiologically complex synapses with photoreceptors and bipolar cells. In the other, a panoply of amacrine cells imbue ganglion cell responses with spatiotemporally complex information about the visual world. Here, I review current ideas about horizontal cell signaling, considering the evidence for and against the leading, competing theories...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611151/fate-mapping-neurons-and-glia-derived-from-dbx1-expressing-progenitors-in-mouse-preb%C3%A3-tzinger-complex
#15
Andrew Kottick, Caroline A Martin, Christopher A Del Negro
The brainstem preBötzinger complex (preBötC) generates the inspiratory breathing rhythm, and its core rhythmogenic interneurons are derived from Dbx1-expressing progenitors. To study the neural bases of breathing, tamoxifen-inducible Cre-driver mice and Cre-dependent reporters are used to identify, record, and perturb Dbx1 preBötC neurons. However, the relationship between tamoxifen administration and reporter protein expression in preBötC neurons and glia has not been quantified. To address this problem, we crossed mice that express tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of the Dbx1 gene (Dbx1(Cre)(ERT)(2)) with Cre-dependent fluorescent reporter mice (Rosa26(tdTomato)), administered tamoxifen at different times during development, and analyzed tdTomato expression in the preBötC of their offspring...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608425/three-dimensional-visualization-of-ocellar-interneurons-of-the-orchid-bee-euglossa-imperialis-using-micro-x-ray-computed-tomography
#16
Willi Ribi, Jochen Zeil
We used contrast-optimized micro X-ray Computed Tomography (mCT) to trace the profiles of the full complement of large ocellar L-neurons in the male orchid bee Euglossa imperialis. We find that most L-neurons collect information from either the dorsal or the ventral retinae in both median and lateral ocelli, with only three neurons associated with the median ocellus having dendritic branches in both dorsal and ventral retina. In the median ocellus, we find also L-neurons that either collect information from the left or the right half of the ocellar plexus and two neurons that have a split dendritic tree in both halves...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607047/numbers-of-presynaptic-ca-2-channel-clusters-match-those-of-functionally-defined-vesicular-docking-sites-in-single-central-synapses
#17
Takafumi Miki, Walter A Kaufmann, Gerardo Malagon, Laura Gomez, Katsuhiko Tabuchi, Masahiko Watanabe, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Alain Marty
Many central synapses contain a single presynaptic active zone and a single postsynaptic density. Vesicular release statistics at such "simple synapses" indicate that they contain a small complement of docking sites where vesicles repetitively dock and fuse. In this work, we investigate functional and morphological aspects of docking sites at simple synapses made between cerebellar parallel fibers and molecular layer interneurons. Using immunogold labeling of SDS-treated freeze-fracture replicas, we find that Cav2...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604688/differential-processing-of-thalamic-information-via-distinct-striatal-interneuron-circuits
#18
Maxime Assous, Jaime Kaminer, Fulva Shah, Arpan Garg, Tibor Koós, James M Tepper
Recent discoveries of striatal GABAergic interneurons require a new conceptualization of the organization of intrastriatal circuitry and their cortical and thalamic inputs. We investigated thalamic inputs to the two populations of striatal neuropeptide Y (NPY) interneurons, plateau low threshold spike (PLTS) and NPY-neurogliaform (NGF) cells. Optogenetic activation of parafascicular inputs evokes suprathreshold monosynaptic glutamatergic excitation in NGF interneurons and a disynaptic, nicotinic excitation through cholinergic interneurons...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604171/abnormal-eeg-responses-to-tms-during-the-cortical-silent-period-are-associated-with-hand-function-in-chronic-stroke
#19
Whitney A Gray, Jacqueline A Palmer, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
BACKGROUND: Abnormal brain excitability influences recovery after stroke at which time a prolonged transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced electromyographic silent period is thought to reflect abnormal inhibitory interneuron excitability. Cortical excitability can be probed directly during the silent period using concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) of TMS-evoked responses. OBJECTIVE: The primary study objectives were to characterize TMS-evoked cortical potentials (TEPs) using EEG and to investigate associations with persistent hand and arm motor dysfunction in individuals with chronic stroke...
June 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603497/sigma-1-receptor-plays-a-negative-modulation-on-n-type-calcium-channel
#20
Kang Zhang, Zhe Zhao, Liting Lan, Xiaoli Wei, Liyun Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Haitao Yan, Jianquan Zheng
The sigma-1 receptor is a 223 amino acids molecular chaperone with a single transmembrane domain. It is resident to eukaryotic mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. By chaperone-mediated interactions with ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and cell-signaling molecules, the sigma-1 receptor performs broad physiological and pharmacological functions. Despite sigma-1 receptors have been confirmed to regulate various types of ion channels, the relationship between the sigma-1 receptor and N-type Ca(2+) channel is still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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