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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791756/interactions-between-insulin-and-diet-on-striatal-dopamine-uptake-kinetics-in-rodent-brain-slices
#1
Jyoti C Patel, Melissa A Stouffer, Maria Mancini, Charles Nicholson, Kenneth D Carr, Margaret E Rice
Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of striatal insulin receptors amplifies axonal dopamine release in brain slices, and regulates food preference in vivo. The effect of insulin on dopamine release is indirect, and requires striatal cholinergic interneurons that express insulin receptors. However, insulin also increases dopamine uptake by promoting dopamine transporter (DAT) surface expression, which counteracts enhanced dopamine release...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790009/a-new-model-of-the-spinal-locomotor-networks-of-a-salamander-and-its-properties
#2
Qiang Liu, Huizhen Yang, Jinxue Zhang, Jingzhuo Wang
A salamander is an ideal animal for studying the spinal locomotor network mechanism of vertebrates from an evolutionary perspective since it represents the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial animal. However, little is known about the spinal locomotor network of a salamander. A spinal locomotor network model is a useful tool for exploring the working mechanism of the spinal networks of salamanders. A new spinal locomotor network model for a salamander is built for a three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical model of the salamander using a novel locomotion-controlled neural network model...
May 22, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789927/cellular-components-and-circuitry-of-the-presubiculum-and-its-functional-role-in-the-head-direction-system
#3
REVIEW
Jean Simonnet, Desdemona Fricker
Orientation in space is a fundamental cognitive process relying on brain-wide neuronal circuits. Many neurons in the presubiculum in the parahippocampal region encode head direction and each head direction cell selectively discharges when the animal faces a specific direction. Here, we attempt to link the current knowledge of afferent and efferent connectivity of the presubiculum to the processing of the head direction signal. We describe the cytoarchitecture of the presubicular six-layered cortex and the morphological and electrophysiological intrinsic properties of principal neurons and interneurons...
May 22, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789381/wt1-expressing-interneurons-regulate-left-right-alternation-during-mammalian-locomotor-activity
#4
Farhia Haque, Vladimir Rancic, Wei Zhang, Robin Clugston, Klaus Ballanyi, Simon Gosgnach
The basic pattern of activity underlying stepping in mammals is generated by a neural network located in the caudal spinal cord. Within this network the specific circuitry coordinating left-right alternation has been shown to involve several groups of molecularly-defined interneurons. Here we characterize a population of spinal neurons that express the Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1) gene and investigate their role during locomotor activity in mice of both sexes. We demonstrate that WT1-expressing cells are located in the ventromedial region of the spinal cord of mice and are also present in the human spinal cord...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789374/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-spontaneously-active-bursty-gabaergic-interneuron-in-the-mouse-striatum
#5
Maxime Assous, Thomas W Faust, Robert Assini, Fulva Shah, Yacouba Sidibe, James M Tepper
The recent availability of different transgenic mouse lines coupled with other modern molecular techniques has led to the discovery of an unexpectedly large cellular diversity and synaptic specificity in striatal interneuronal circuitry. Prior research has described three spontaneously active interneuron types in mouse striatal slices; the cholinergic interneuron, the neuropeptide Y-low threshold spike interneuron, and the tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons (THINs). Using transgenic Htr3a-Cre mice we now characterize a fourth population of spontaneously active striatal GABAergic interneurons termed spontaneously active bursty interneurons (SABI) because of their unique burst-firing pattern in cell-attached recordings...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788232/chronic-stress-exposure-reduces-parvalbumin-expression-in-the-rat-hippocampus-through-an-imbalance-of-redox-mechanisms-restorative-effect-of-the-antipsychotic-lurasidone
#6
Andrea C Rossetti, Maria Serena Paladini, Martina Colombo, Piotr Gruca, Magdalena Lason-Tyburkiewicz, Katarzyna Tota-Glowczyk, Mariusz Papp, Marco A Riva, Raffaella Molteni
Background: Psychiatric disorders are associated with altered function of inhibitory neurotransmission within the limbic system, which may be due to the vulnerability of selective neuronal subtypes to challenging environmental conditions, such as stress. In this context, parvalbumin (PVB) positive GABAergic interneurons, which are critically involved in processing complex cognitive tasks, are particularly vulnerable to stress exposure, an effect that may be the consequence of dysregulated redox mechanisms...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786081/distinct-learning-induced-changes-in-stimulus-selectivity-and-interactions-of-gabaergic-interneuron-classes-in-visual-cortex
#7
Adil G Khan, Jasper Poort, Angus Chadwick, Antonin Blot, Maneesh Sahani, Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel, Sonja B Hofer
How learning enhances neural representations for behaviorally relevant stimuli via activity changes of cortical cell types remains unclear. We simultaneously imaged responses of pyramidal cells (PYR) along with parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibitory interneurons in primary visual cortex while mice learned to discriminate visual patterns. Learning increased selectivity for task-relevant stimuli of PYR, PV and SOM subsets but not VIP cells. Strikingly, PV neurons became as selective as PYR cells, and their functional interactions reorganized, leading to the emergence of stimulus-selective PYR-PV ensembles...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785013/genetic-identification-of-brain-cell-types-underlying-schizophrenia
#8
Nathan G Skene, Julien Bryois, Trygve E Bakken, Gerome Breen, James J Crowley, Héléna A Gaspar, Paola Giusti-Rodriguez, Rebecca D Hodge, Jeremy A Miller, Ana B Muñoz-Manchado, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, Antonio F Pardiñas, Jesper Ryge, James T R Walters, Sten Linnarsson, Ed S Lein, Patrick F Sullivan, Jens Hjerling-Leffler
With few exceptions, the marked advances in knowledge about the genetic basis of schizophrenia have not converged on findings that can be confidently used for precise experimental modeling. By applying knowledge of the cellular taxonomy of the brain from single-cell RNA sequencing, we evaluated whether the genomic loci implicated in schizophrenia map onto specific brain cell types. We found that the common-variant genomic results consistently mapped to pyramidal cells, medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and certain interneurons, but far less consistently to embryonic, progenitor or glial cells...
May 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784588/brain-stimulation-patterns-emulating-endogenous-thalamocortical-input-to-parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-reduce-nociception-in-mice
#9
Yeowool Huh, Dahee Jung, Taeyoon Seo, Sukkyu Sun, Su Hyun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Sooyoung Chung, Chong-Hyun Kim, Youngwoo Kwon, Marom Bikson, Yong-An Chung, Jeansok J Kim, Jeiwon Cho
BACKGROUND: The bursting pattern of thalamocortical (TC) pathway dampens nociception. Whether brain stimulation mimicking endogenous patterns can engage similar sensory gating processes in the cortex and reduce nociceptive behaviors remains uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of cortical parvalbumin expressing (PV) interneurons within the TC circuit in gating nociception and their selective response to TC burst patterns. We then tested if transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) patterned on endogenous nociceptive TC bursting modulate nociceptive behaviors...
May 18, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782955/loss-of-calretinin-and-parvalbumin-positive-interneurones-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-of-aged-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#10
Fatima Zallo, Emanuela Gardenal, Alexei Verkhratsky, José Julio Rodríguez
Neuronal degeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), is linked to impaired calcium homeostasis and to changes in calcium-binding proteins (CBPs). The AD-related modification of neuronal CBPs remains controversial. Here we analyzed the presence and expression of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the hippocampal CA1 neurones of 18 months old 3xTg-AD mice compared to non-Tg animals. We found a layer specific decrease in number of interneurones expressing CR and PV (by 33.7% and 52%, respectively)...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782883/a-new-outlook-on-cholinergic-interneurons-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#11
REVIEW
Melissa M Conti, Nicole Chambers, Christopher Bishop
Traditionally, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) striatal systems were considered antagonistic and imbalances or aberrant signaling between these neurotransmitter systems could be detrimental to basal ganglia activity and pursuant motor function, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Herein, we discuss the involvement of cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in striatally-mediated movement in a healthy, parkinsonian, and dyskinetic state. ChIs integrate numerous neurotransmitter signals using intrinsic glutamate, serotonin, and DA receptors and convey the appropriate transmission onto nearby muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors to produce movement...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781223/delayed-injury-of-hippocampal-interneurons-after-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-and-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-a-murine-model
#12
Raul Chavez-Valdez, Paul Emerson, Janasha Goffigan-Holmes, Alfredo Kirkwood, Lee J Martin, Frances J Northington
Delayed hippocampal injury and memory impairments follow neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) despite the use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Death of hippocampal pyramidal cells occurs acutely after HI, but characterization of delayed cell death and injury of interneurons (INs) is unknown. We hypothesize that injury of INs after HI is: i) asynchronous to that of pyramidal cells, ii) independent of injury severity, and iii) unresponsive to TH. HI was induced in C57BL6 mice at p10 with unilateral right carotid ligation and 45 min of hypoxia (FiO2 =0...
May 21, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780881/nucleus-accumbens-microcircuit-underlying-d2-msn-driven-increase-in-motivation
#13
Carina Soares-Cunha, Bárbara Coimbra, Ana Verónica Domingues, Nivaldo Vasconcelos, Nuno Sousa, Ana João Rodrigues
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a central role in reinforcement and motivation. Around 95% of the NAc neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs), divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) or dopamine receptor D2 (D2R). Optogenetic activation of D2-MSNs increased motivation, whereas inhibition of these neurons produced the opposite effect. Yet, it is still unclear how activation of D2-MSNs affects other local neurons/interneurons or input terminals and how this contributes for motivation enhancement...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776999/stumbling-corrective-reaction-elicited-by-mechanical-and-electrical-stimulation-of-the-saphenous-nerve-in-walking-mice
#14
William Paganini Mayer, Turgay Akay
The ability to walk around in a natural environment requires the capacity to cope with unexpected obstacles that may disrupt locomotion. One such mechanism is called the stumbling corrective reaction (SCR) that enables animals to step over obstacles that would otherwise disturb the progression of swing movement. Here we use in vivo motion analysis and physiological recording techniques to describe the SCR in mice. We show that SCR can be elicited consistently in mice during locomotion by inserting an obstacle along the path of leg movement during swing phase...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774782/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-ethanol-intoxication-in-tbi-is-associated-with-the-suppression-of-erbb-signaling-in-pv-positive-interneurons
#15
Akila Chandrasekar, Florian Olde Heuvel, Martin Wepler, Rida Rehman, Annette Palmer, Alberto Catanese, Birgit Linkus, Albert Ludolph, Tobias Boeckers, Markus Huber-Lang, Peter Radermacher, Francesco Roselli
Ethanol intoxication (EI) is a frequent comorbidity of TBI, but the impact of EI on TBI pathogenic cascades and prognosis is unclear: although clinical evidence suggests that EI may have neuroprotective effects, experimental support is, to date, inconclusive. We aimed at elucidating the impact of EI on TBI-associated neurological deficits, signaling pathways and pathogenic cascades, in order to identify new modifiers of TBI pathophysiology. We have shown that ethanol administration (5g/Kg) before trauma enhances behavioral recovery in a weight-drop TBI model; neuronal survival in the injured somatosensory cortex was enhanced by EI...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774449/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-chaperone-grp78-following-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#16
Xuyan Jin, Dong Kyu Kim, Tae-Ryong Riew, Hong Lim Kim, Mun-Yong Lee
The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a chaperone protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in the injured central nervous system. Our aim was to examine the expression profiles and subcellular distributions of GRP78 and its association with the neuroglial reaction in the rat striatum after transient, focal cerebral ischemia. In sham-operated rats, constitutive, specific immunoreactivity for GRP78 was almost exclusively localized to the rough ER of striatal neurons, with none in the resting, ramified microglia or astrocytes...
May 17, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772246/preterm-birth-disrupts-cerebellar-development-by-affecting-granule-cell-proliferation-program-and-bergmann-glia
#17
Igor Y Iskusnykh, Randal K Buddington, Victor V Chizhikov
Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771919/firing-rate-based-network-modeling-of-the-dlgn-circuit-effects-of-cortical-feedback-on-spatiotemporal-response-properties-of-relay-cells
#18
Milad Hobbi Mobarhan, Geir Halnes, Pablo Martínez-Cañada, Torkel Hafting, Marianne Fyhn, Gaute T Einevoll
Visually evoked signals in the retina pass through the dorsal geniculate nucleus (dLGN) on the way to the visual cortex. This is however not a simple feedforward flow of information: there is a significant feedback from cortical cells back to both relay cells and interneurons in the dLGN. Despite four decades of experimental and theoretical studies, the functional role of this feedback is still debated. Here we use a firing-rate model, the extended difference-of-Gaussians (eDOG) model, to explore cortical feedback effects on visual responses of dLGN relay cells...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771284/non-cell-autonomous-otx2-homeoprotein-regulates-visual-cortex-plasticity-through-gadd45b-g
#19
Jessica Apulei, Namsuk Kim, Damien Testa, Jérôme Ribot, David Morizet, Clémence Bernard, Laurent Jourdren, Corinne Blugeon, Ariel A Di Nardo, Alain Prochiantz
The non-cell autonomous transfer of OTX2 homeoprotein transcription factor into juvenile mouse cerebral cortex regulates parvalbumin interneuron maturation and critical period timing. By analyzing gene expression in primary visual cortex of wild-type and Otx2+/GFP mice at plastic and nonplastic ages, we identified several putative genes implicated in Otx2-dependent visual cortex plasticity for ocular dominance. Cortical OTX2 infusion in juvenile mice induced Gadd45b/g expression through direct regulation of transcription...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766029/seizure-suppressant-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-encapsulated-bdnf-producing-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Chiara Falcicchia, Giovanna Paolone, Dwaine F Emerich, Francesca Lovisari, William J Bell, Tracie Fradet, Lars U Wahlberg, Michele Simonato
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may represent a therapeutic for chronic epilepsy, but evaluating its potential is complicated by difficulties in its delivery to the brain. Here, we describe the effects on epileptic seizures of encapsulated cell biodelivery (ECB) devices filled with genetically modified human cells engineered to release BDNF. These devices, implanted into the hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats, highly decreased the frequency of spontaneous seizures by more than 80%. These benefits were associated with improved cognitive performance, as epileptic rats treated with BDNF performed significantly better on a novel object recognition test...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
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