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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805814/cerebellar-granule-cell-replenishment-postinjury-by-adaptive-reprogramming-of-nestin-progenitors
#1
Alexandre Wojcinski, Andrew K Lawton, N Sumru Bayin, Zhimin Lao, Daniel N Stephen, Alexandra L Joyner
Regeneration of several organs involves adaptive reprogramming of progenitors, but the intrinsic capacity of the developing brain to replenish lost cells remains largely unknown. Here we found that the developing cerebellum has unappreciated progenitor plasticity, since it undergoes near full growth and functional recovery following acute depletion of granule cells, the most plentiful neuron population in the brain. We demonstrate that following postnatal ablation of granule cell progenitors, Nestin-expressing progenitors, specified during mid-embryogenesis to produce astroglia and interneurons, switch their fate and generate granule neurons in mice...
August 14, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803873/neural-circuitry-that-evokes-escape-behavior-upon-activation-of-nociceptive-sensory-neurons-in-drosophila-larvae
#2
Jiro Yoshino, Rei K Morikawa, Eri Hasegawa, Kazuo Emoto
Noxious stimuli trigger a stereotyped escape response in animals. In Drosophila larvae, class IV dendrite arborization (C4 da) sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system are responsible for perception of multiple nociceptive modalities, including noxious heat and harsh mechanical stimulation, through distinct receptors [1-9]. Silencing or ablation of C4 da neurons largely eliminates larval responses to noxious stimuli [10-12], whereas optogenetic activation of C4 da neurons is sufficient to provoke corkscrew-like rolling behavior similar to what is observed when larvae receive noxious stimuli, such as high temperature or harsh mechanical stimulation [10-12]...
August 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802836/neocortical-prodynorphin-expression-is-transiently-increased-with-learning-implications-for-time-and-learning-dependent-neocortical-kappa-opioid-receptor-activation
#3
Ryan Loh, Sean Collins, Roberto Galvez
There are several lines of evidence that indicate a prominent role for the opioid system in the acquisition and consolidation of learned associations. Specifically, kappa opioid receptor (KOR) modulation has been demonstrated to alter various behavioral tasks including whisker trace eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). WTEB is an associative conditioning paradigm in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; Whisker stimulation) is paired following a short stimulus free trace interval with a salient unconditioned stimulus that elicits a blink response (US; Eye shock)...
August 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802192/soft-diet-feeding-impairs-neural-transmission-between-mitral-cells-and-interneurons-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#4
Tomohiro Noguchi, Chizuru Utsugi, Makoto Kashiwayanagi
(Objective) The subventricular zone in mice generates a lot of neuroblasts even during adulthood. These neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb and differentiate into inhibitory interneurons such as granule cells and periglomerular cells. Olfactory sensory neurons receive information from various odorants and transmit it to the olfactory bulb. Our previous study showed that soft-diet feeding impairs neurogenesis in the subventricular zone, in turn leading to the reduction of odor-induced behaviors and Fos-immunoreactivities, the latter of which are markers of neural activity, at the olfactory bulb after exposure to odors...
July 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798683/enhanced-gamma-activity-and-cross-frequency-interaction-of-resting-state-electroencephalographic-oscillations-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Jing Wang, Yuxing Fang, Xiao Wang, Huichao Yang, Xin Yu, Huali Wang
Cognitive impairment, functional decline and behavioral symptoms that characterize Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with perturbations of the neuronal network. The typical electroencephalographic (EEG) features in AD patients are increased delta or theta rhythm and decreased alpha or beta rhythm activities. However, considering the role of cross-frequency couplings in cognition, the alternation of cross-frequency couplings in AD patients is still obscure. This study aims to explore the interaction dynamics between different EEG oscillations in AD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798343/isoflurane-produces-antidepressant-effects-and-induces-trkb-signaling-in-rodents
#6
Hanna Antila, Maria Ryazantseva, Dina Popova, Pia Sipilä, Ramon Guirado, Samuel Kohtala, Ipek Yalcin, Jesse Lindholm, Liisa Vesa, Vinicius Sato, Joshua Cordeira, Henri Autio, Mikhail Kislin, Maribel Rios, Sâmia Joca, Plinio Casarotto, Leonard Khiroug, Sari Lauri, Tomi Taira, Eero Castrén, Tomi Rantamäki
A brief burst-suppressing isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to rapidly alleviate symptoms of depression in a subset of patients, but the neurobiological basis of these observations remains obscure. We show that a single isoflurane anesthesia produces antidepressant-like behavioural effects in the learned helplessness paradigm and regulates molecular events implicated in the mechanism of action of rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine: activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor TrkB, facilitation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798324/calcium-imaging-revealed-no-modulatory-effect-on-odor-evoked-responses-of-the-drosophila-antennal-lobe-by-two-populations-of-inhibitory-local-interneurons
#7
Martin F Strube-Bloss, Veit Grabe, Bill S Hansson, Silke Sachse
Although we have considerable knowledge about how odors are represented in the antennal lobe (AL), the insects' analogue to the olfactory bulb, we still do not fully understand how the different neurons in the AL network contribute to the olfactory code. In Drosophila melanogaster we can selectively manipulate specific neuronal populations to elucidate their function in odor processing. Here we silenced the synaptic transmission of two distinct subpopulations of multiglomerular GABAergic local interneurons (LN1 and LN2) using shibire (shi (ts) ) and analyzed their impact on odor-induced glomerular activity at the AL input and output level...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797601/effect-of-acute-and-subchronic-stress-on-electrical-activity-of-basolateral-amygdala-neurons-in-conditioned-place-preference-paradigm-an-electrophysiological-study
#8
Zahra Fatahi, Mohammad Ismail Zibaii, Abbas Haghparast
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays a critical role in the neural circuitry of stress and mediates the effects of stress on memory related processes. Moreover, this area has an important role in drug-seeking and relapse of approach behavior to drug-associated cues. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of acute and subchronic stress in saline- and/or morphine-treated rats in conditioned place preference paradigm on the neural activity in the BLA. Male Wistar rats were divided into two saline- and morphine-treated supergroups...
August 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795438/a-specific-gabaergic-synapse-onto-oligodendrocyte-precursors-does-not-regulate-cortical-oligodendrogenesis
#9
Maddalena Balia, Najate Benamer, María Cecilia Angulo
In the brain, neurons establish bona fide synapses onto oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), but the function of these neuron-glia synapses remains unresolved. A leading hypothesis suggests that these synapses regulate OPC proliferation and differentiation. However, a causal link between synaptic activity and OPC cellular dynamics is still missing. In the developing somatosensory cortex, OPCs receive a major type of synapse from GABAergic interneurons that is mediated by postsynaptic γ2-containing GABAA receptors...
August 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794450/serial-processing-of-kinematic-signals-by-cerebellar-circuitry-during-voluntary-whisking
#10
Susu Chen, George J Augustine, Paul Chadderton
Purkinje cells (PCs) in Crus 1 represent whisker movement via linear changes in firing rate, but the circuit mechanisms underlying this coding scheme are unknown. Here we examine the role of upstream inputs to PCs-excitatory granule cells (GCs) and inhibitory molecular layer interneurons-in processing of whisking signals. Patch clamp recordings in GCs reveal that movement is accompanied by changes in mossy fibre input rate that drive membrane potential depolarisation and high-frequency bursting activity at preferred whisker angles...
August 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794441/tgf%C3%AE-signaling-is-associated-with-changes-in-inflammatory-gene-expression-and-perineuronal-net-degradation-around-inhibitory-neurons-following-various-neurological-insults
#11
Soo Young Kim, Vladimir V Senatorov, Christapher S Morrissey, Kristina Lippmann, Oscar Vazquez, Dan Z Milikovsky, Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, David A Prince, Albert J Becker, Uwe Heinemann, Alon Friedman, Daniela Kaufer
Brain damage due to stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI), both leading causes of serious long-term disability, often leads to the development of epilepsy. Patients who develop post-injury epilepsy tend to have poor functional outcomes. Emerging evidence highlights a potential role for blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in the development of post-injury epilepsy. However, common mechanisms underlying the pathological hyperexcitability are largely unknown. Here, we show that comparative transcriptome analyses predict remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) as a common response to different types of injuries...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793251/extended-interneuronal-network-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#12
Gergely G Szabo, Xi Du, Mikko Oijala, Csaba Varga, Jack M Parent, Ivan Soltesz
Local interneurons control principal cells within individual brain areas, but anecdotal observations indicate that interneuronal axons sometimes extend beyond strict anatomical boundaries. Here, we use the case of the dentate gyrus (DG) to show that boundary-crossing interneurons with cell bodies in CA3 and CA1 constitute a numerically significant and diverse population that relays patterns of activity generated within the CA regions back to granule cells. These results reveal the existence of a sophisticated retrograde GABAergic circuit that fundamentally extends the canonical interneuronal network...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791334/normal-striatal-vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-expression-in-tourette-syndrome
#13
Roger L Albin, Christine Minderovic, Robert A Koeppe
Considerable prior work suggests basal ganglia dysfunction in Tourette syndrome (TS). Analysis of a small number of postmortem specimens suggests deficits of some striatal interneuron populations, including striatal cholinergic interneurons. To assess the integrity of striatal cholinergic interneurons in TS, we used [(18)F]FEOBV positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify striatal vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression, a measure of cholinergic terminal density, in human TS and control subjects...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790898/differences-between-dorsal-and-ventral-striatum-in-the-sensitivity-of-tonically-active-neurons-to-rewarding-events
#14
Kevin Marche, Anne-Caroline Martel, Paul Apicella
Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs), represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum), but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789587/light-on-a-sensory-interface-linking-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-to-motor-circuits-in-vertebrates
#15
Lydia Djenoune, Claire Wyart
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is circulating around the entire central nervous system (CNS). The main function of the CSF has been thought to insure the global homeostasis of the CNS. Recent evidence indicates that the CSF also dynamically conveys signals modulating the development and the activity of the nervous system. The later observation implies that cues from the CSF could act on neurons in the brain and the spinal cord via bordering receptor cells. Candidate neurons to enable such modulation are the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons (CSF-cNs) that are located precisely at the interface between the CSF and neuronal circuits...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781169/satb1-regulates-contactin-5-to-pattern-dendrites-of-a-mammalian-retinal-ganglion-cell
#16
Yi-Rong Peng, Nicholas M Tran, Arjun Krishnaswamy, Dimitar Kostadinov, Emily M Martersteck, Joshua R Sanes
The size and shape of dendritic arbors are prime determinants of neuronal connectivity and function. We asked how ON-OFF direction-selective ganglion cells (ooDSGCs) in mouse retina acquire their bistratified dendrites, in which responses to light onset and light offset are segregated to distinct strata. We found that the transcriptional regulator Satb1 is selectively expressed by ooDSGCs. In Satb1 mutant mice, ooDSGC dendrites lack ON arbors, and the cells selectively lose ON responses. Satb1 regulates expression of a homophilic adhesion molecule, Contactin 5 (Cntn5)...
August 2, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780368/atlanto-occipital-catheterization-of-young-rats-for-long-term-drug-delivery-into-the-lumbar-subarachnoid-space-combined-with-in-vivo-testing-and-electrophysiology-in-situ
#17
Olga Kopach, Volodymyr Krotov, Nana Voitenko
BACKGROUND: Catheterization has been widely used in neuroscience and pain research for local drug delivery. Though different modifications were developed, the use of young animals for spinal catheterization remains limited because of a little success rate. A reliable technique is needed to catheterize young animals aimed for in vivo testing combined with spinal cord electrophysiology, often limited by animal age, to facilitate pain research. NEW METHODS: We describe intrathecal catheterization of young rats (3-week-old) through atlanto-occipical approach for long-lasting drug delivery into the lumbar subarachnoid space...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775269/hipp-neurons-in-the-dentate-gyrus-mediate-the-cholinergic-modulation-of-background-context-memory-salience
#18
Syed Ahsan Raza, Anne Albrecht, Gürsel Çalışkan, Bettina Müller, Yunus Emre Demiray, Susann Ludewig, Susanne Meis, Nicolai Faber, Roland Hartig, Burkhart Schraven, Volkmar Lessmann, Herbert Schwegler, Oliver Stork
Cholinergic neuromodulation in the hippocampus controls the salience of background context memory acquired in the presence of elemental stimuli predicting an aversive reinforcement. With pharmacogenetic inhibition we here demonstrate that hilar perforant path-associated (HIPP) cells of the dentate gyrus mediate the devaluation of background context memory during Pavlovian fear conditioning. The salience adjustment is sensitive to reduction of hilar neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression via dominant negative CREB expression in HIPP cells and to acute blockage of NPY-Y1 receptors in the dentate gyrus during conditioning...
August 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774782/does-layer-4-in-the-barrel-cortex-function-as-a-balanced-circuit-when-responding-to-whisker-movements
#19
Tommer Argaman, David Golomb
Neurons in one barrel in layer 4 (L4) in the mouse vibrissa somatosensory cortex are innervated mostly by neurons from the VPM nucleus and by other neurons within the same barrel. During quiet wakefulness or whisking in air, thalamic inputs vary slowly in time, and excitatory neurons rarely fire. A barrel in L4 contains a modest amount of neurons; the synaptic conductances are not very strong and connections are not sparse. Are the dynamical properties of the L4 circuit similar to those expected from fluctuation-dominated, balanced networks observed for large, strongly-coupled and sparse cortical circuits? To resolve this question, we analyze a network of 150 inhibitory parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons innervated by the VPM thalamus with random connectivity, without or with 1600 low-firing excitatory neurons...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771182/new-targets-for-schizophrenia-treatment-beyond-the-dopamine-hypothesis
#20
REVIEW
Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai
Schizophrenia has been primarily associated with dopamine dysfunction, and treatments have been developed that target the dopamine pathway in the central nervous system. However, accumulating evidence has shown that the core pathophysiology of schizophrenia might involve dysfunction in dopaminergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling, which may lead to aberrant functioning of interneurons that manifest as cognitive, behavioral, and social dysfunction through altered functioning of a broad range of macro- and microcircuits...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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