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Interneuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528380/the-rat-corticospinal-system-is-functionally-and-anatomically-segregated
#1
Rafael Olivares-Moreno, Yunuen Moreno-Lopez, Luis Concha, Guadalupe Martínez-Lorenzana, Miguel Condés-Lara, Matilde Cordero-Erausquin, Gerardo Rojas-Piloni
The descending corticospinal (CS) projection has been considered a key element for motor control, which results from direct and indirect modulation of spinal cord pre-motor interneurons in the intermediate gray matter of the spinal cord, which, in turn, influences motoneurons in the ventral horn. The CS tract (CST) is also involved in a selective and complex modulation of sensory information in the dorsal horn. However, little is known about the spinal network engaged by the CST and the organization of CS projections that may encode different cortical outputs to the spinal cord...
May 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527575/coup-tf-genes-human-diseases-and-the-development-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-murine-models
#2
Xiong Yang, Su Feng, Ke Tang
COUP-TFI and -TFII are members of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Recent clinical studies reveal that COUP-TFI gene mutations are associated with Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome displaying symptoms of optic atrophy, intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizure, autism spectrum disorders, oromotor dysfunction, thin corpus callosum, or hearing defects, and COUP-TFII gene mutations lead to congenital heart defects and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with developmental delay and mental defects...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526883/openspritzer-an-open-hardware-pressure-ejection-system-for-reliably-delivering-picolitre-volumes
#3
C J Forman, H Tomes, B Mbobo, R J Burman, M Jacobs, T Baden, J V Raimondo
The ability to reliably and precisely deliver picolitre volumes is an important component of biological research. Here we describe a high-performance, low-cost, open hardware pressure ejection system (Openspritzer), which can be constructed from off the shelf components. The device is capable of delivering minute doses of reagents to a wide range of biological and chemical systems. In this work, we characterise the performance of the device and compare it to a popular commercial system using two-photon fluorescence microscopy...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525574/a-schizophrenia-related-deletion-leads-to-kcnq2-dependent-abnormal-dopaminergic-modulation-of-prefrontal-cortical-interneuron-activity
#4
Se Joon Choi, Jun Mukai, Mirna Kvajo, Bin Xu, Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Pothitos M Pitychoutis, Bin Gou, Joseph A Gogos, Hui Zhang
Altered prefrontal cortex function is implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ) pathophysiology and could arise from imbalance between excitation and inhibition (E/I) in local circuits. It remains unclear whether and how such imbalances relate to genetic etiologies. We used a mouse model of the SCZ-predisposing 22q11.2 deletion (Df(16)A+/- mice) to evaluate how this genetic lesion affects the excitability of layer V prefrontal pyramidal neurons and its modulation by dopamine (DA). Df(16)A+/- mice have normal balance between E/I at baseline but are unable to maintain it upon dopaminergic challenge...
May 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522884/profiles-of-periglomerular-cells-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-prokineticin-type-2-receptor-deficient-mice
#5
Atsuko Kubo, Mitsugu Sujino, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Atsuko Fujioka, Toshio Terashima, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi, Mamoru Nagano
Both prokineticin receptor 2 (pkr2) and prokineticin 2 (pk2) gene-deficient mice have hypoplasia of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). This hypoplasia has been attributed to disruption of the glomerulus that is caused by loss of afferent projection from olfactory sensory neurons (OSN), and to the impaired migration of granule cells, a type of interneuron. In the present study, we examined whether migration of the second type of interneuron, periglomerular cells (PGC), is dependent on the pkr2 expression by observing the localization of distinct subpopulations of PGC: calretinin (CR)-, calbindin (CB)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing neurons...
April 27, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513860/cortical-contributions-to-sensory-gating-in-the-ipsilateral-somatosensory-cortex-during-voluntary-activity
#6
Yuming Lei, Monica A Perez
An important principle in the organization of the somatosensory cortex is that it processes afferent information from the contralateral side of the body. The role of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (iS1) in sensory gating in humans remains largely unknown. Using electroencephalographic recordings over the iS1 and electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist we examined somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs; P14/N20, N20/P25, and P25/N33 components) and paired-pulse SSEPs between (interhemispheric inhibition) and within (intracortical inhibition) the iS1 at rest and during tonic index finger voluntary activity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511841/a-method-for-isolating-cortical-interneurons-sharing-the-same-birthdays-for-gene-expression-studies
#7
Hui Xuan Ng, Ean Phing Lee, Brenton L Cavanagh, Joanne M Britto, Seong-Seng Tan
The two neuronal populations in the cortex, pyramidal neurons and interneurons, can be separated based on neurotransmitter identity, however, within this segregation a large degree of diversity exists. Investigations into the molecular diversity of neurons are impeded by the inability to isolate cell populations born at different times for gene expression analysis. Developing interneurons may be distinguished by the expression of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase-67 (GAD67). Neuronal birthdating using nucleoside analogs is an effective means of identifying coetaneous interneurons...
May 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510275/single-cell-transcriptome-profiling-of-developing-chick-retinal-cells
#8
Lauren A Laboissonniere, Gregory M Martin, Jillian J Goetz, Ran Bi, Brock Pope, Kallie Weinand, Laura Ellson, Diane Fru, Miranda Lee, Andrea K Wester, Peng Liu, Jeffrey M Trimarchi
The vertebrate retina is a specialized photosensitive tissue comprised of six neuronal and one glial cell types, each of which develops in prescribed proportions at overlapping timepoints from a common progenitor pool. While each of these cells has a specific function contributing to proper vision in the mature animal, their differential representation in the retina as well as the presence of distinctive cellular subtypes makes identifying the transcriptomic signatures that lead to each retinal cell's fate determination and development challenging...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509666/an-inhibitory-gate-for-state-transition-in-cortex
#9
Stefano Zucca, Giulia D'Urso, Valentina Pasquale, Dania Vecchia, Giuseppe Pica, Serena Bovetti, Claudio Moretti, Stefano Varani, Manuel Molano-Mazón, Michela Chiappalone, Stefano Panzeri, Tommaso Fellin
Large scale transitions between active (up) and silent (down) states during quiet wakefulness or NREM sleep regulate fundamental cortical functions and are known to involve both excitatory and inhibitory cells. However, if and how inhibition regulates these activity transitions is unclear. Using fluorescence-targeted electrophysiological recording and cell-specific optogenetic manipulation in both anesthetized and non-anesthetized mice, we found that two major classes of interneurons, the parvalbumin and the somatostatin positive cells, tightly control both up-to-down and down-to-up state transitions...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508170/viral-vector-based-evaluation-of-regulatory-regions-in-the-neuron-specific-enolase-nse-promoter-in-mouse-cerebellum-in-vivo
#10
Yoichiro Shinohara, Toshinori Ohtani, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai
We investigated the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter in terms of its promoter strength and neuronal specificity in the cerebellum in vivo. The 1.8 kb rat NSE promoter was divided into three regions, A (0.8 kb), B (0.7 kb), and C (0.3 kb), starting from the 5' side. Then, we made various deletion constructs and assessed them by virally expressing GFP under the control of one of the deleted promoters. Removing region A reduced GFP expression to ~6% of that of the original 1.8 kb promoter. Further deletion of region B (presence of region C alone) did not influence the promoter strength, but removing region B from the original 1...
May 15, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507134/dopaminergic-modulation-of-basal-ganglia-output-through-coupled-excitation-inhibition
#11
Agata Budzillo, Alison Duffy, Kimberly E Miller, Adrienne L Fairhall, David J Perkel
Learning and maintenance of skilled movements require exploration of motor space and selection of appropriate actions. Vocal learning and social context-dependent plasticity in songbirds depend on a basal ganglia circuit, which actively generates vocal variability. Dopamine in the basal ganglia reduces trial-to-trial neural variability when the bird engages in courtship song. Here, we present evidence for a unique, tonically active, excitatory interneuron in the songbird basal ganglia that makes strong synaptic connections onto output pallidal neurons, often linked in time with inhibitory events...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507032/%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-influence-hippocampus-dependent-learning-and-memory-in-adolescent-mice
#12
Shahrdad Lotfipour, Celina Mojica, Sakura Nakauchi, Marcela Lipovsek, Sarah Silverstein, Jesse Cushman, James Tirtorahardjo, Andrew Poulos, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Katumi Sumikawa, Michael S Fanselow, Jim Boulter
The absence of α2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in oriens lacunosum moleculare (OLM) GABAergic interneurons ablate the facilitation of nicotine-induced hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation and impair memory. The current study delineated whether genetic mutations of α2* nAChRs (Chrna2(L9'S/L9'S) and Chrna2(KO)) influence hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and CA1 synaptic plasticity. We substituted a serine for a leucine (L9'S) in the α2 subunit (encoded by the Chrna2 gene) to make a hypersensitive nAChR...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506879/a-new-platform-for-long-term-tracking-and-recording-of-neural-activity-and-simultaneous-optogenetic-control-in-freely-behaving-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Yuko Kagawa-Nagamura, Masamichi Ohkura, Xianfeng Fei, Min Chen, Koichi Hashimoto, Junichi Nakai
BACKGROUND: Real-time recording and manipulation of neural activity in freely behaving animals can greatly advance our understanding of how neural circuits regulate behavior. Ca(2+) imaging and optogenetic manipulation with optical probes are key technologies for this purpose. However, integrating the two optical approaches with behavioral analysis has been technically challenging. NEW METHOD: Here, we developed a new imaging system, ICaST (Integrated platform for Ca(2+) imaging, Stimulation, and Tracking), which combines an automatic worm tracking system and a fast-scanning laser confocal microscope, to image neurons of interest in freely behaving C...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505922/re-transplanted-human-stem-cell-derived-interneuron-precursors-mitigate%C3%A2-mouse-bladder-dysfunction-and-central-neuropathic-pain-after%C3%A2-spinal-cord-injury
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504681/fused-cerebral-organoids-model-interactions-between-brain-regions
#15
Joshua A Bagley, Daniel Reumann, Shan Bian, Julie Lévi-Strauss, Juergen A Knoblich
Human brain development involves complex interactions between different regions, including long-distance neuronal migration or formation of major axonal tracts. Different brain regions can be cultured in vitro within 3D cerebral organoids, but the random arrangement of regional identities limits the reliable analysis of complex phenotypes. Here, we describe a coculture method combining brain regions of choice within one organoid tissue. By fusing organoids of dorsal and ventral forebrain identities, we generate a dorsal-ventral axis...
May 10, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502656/temporal-cohorts-of-lineage-related-neurons-perform-analogous-functions-in-distinct-sensorimotor-circuits
#16
Christopher C Wreden, Julia L Meng, Weidong Feng, Wanhao Chi, Zarion D Marshall, Ellie S Heckscher
Neuronal stem cell lineages are the fundamental developmental units of the brain, and neuronal circuits are the fundamental functional units of the brain. Determining lineage-circuitry relationships is essential for deciphering the developmental logic of circuit assembly. While the spatial distribution of lineage-related neurons has been investigated in a few brain regions [1-9], an important, but unaddressed question is whether temporal information that diversifies neuronal progeny within a single lineage also impacts circuit assembly...
May 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501550/type-2-diabetes-alters-hippocampal-gamma-oscillations-a-potential-mechanism-behind-impaired-cognition
#17
Grazyna Lietzau, Vladimer Darsalia, Hiranya Pintana, Claes-Göran Östenson, Thomas Nyström, André Fisahn, Cesare Patrone
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Remarkably, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this are still mostly unknown. Cognition and memory formation are associated with gamma oscillations in hippocampal neuronal networks and fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV+ IN) play a key role in these processes.
April 27, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500933/functional-consequences-of-inhibitory-plasticity-homeostasis-the-excitation-inhibition-balance-and-beyond
#18
REVIEW
Henning Sprekeler
Computational neuroscience has a long-standing tradition of investigating the consequences of excitatory synaptic plasticity. In contrast, the functions of inhibitory plasticity are still largely nebulous, particularly given the bewildering diversity of interneurons in the brain. Here, we review recent computational advances that provide first suggestions for the functional roles of inhibitory plasticity, such as a maintenance of the excitation-inhibition balance, a stabilization of recurrent network dynamics and a decorrelation of sensory responses...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500299/visual-processing-mode-switching-regulated-by-vip-cells
#19
Jung Hoon Lee, Stefan Mihalas
The responses of neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) to visual stimuli depend on behavioral states. Specifically, surround suppression is reduced during locomotion. Although locomotion-induced vasoactive intestinal polypeptide positive (VIP) interneuron depolarization can account for the reduction of surround suppression, the functions of VIP cell depolarization are not fully understood. Here we utilize a firing rate model and a computational model to elucidate the potential functions of VIP cell depolarization during locomotion...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498919/chemicogenetic-restoration-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-to-amygdala-pathway-ameliorates-stress-induced-deficits
#20
Jing Wei, Ping Zhong, Luye Qin, Tao Tan, Zhen Yan
Corticosteroid stress hormones exert a profound impact on cognitive and emotional processes. Understanding the neuronal circuits that are altered by chronic stress is important for counteracting the detrimental effects of stress in a brain region- and cell type-specific manner. Using the chemogenetic tool, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), which enables the remote, noninvasive and long-lasting modulation of cellular activity and signal transduction in discrete neuronal populations in vivo, we sought to identify the specific pathways that play an essential role in stress responses...
May 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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