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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352669/tms-of-primary-motor-cortex-with-a-biphasic-pulse-activates-two-independent-sets-of-excitable-neurones
#1
Martin Sommer, Matteo Ciocca, Raffaella Chieffo, Paul Hammond, Andreas Neef, Walter Paulus, John C Rothwell, Ricci Hannah
BACKGROUND: Biphasic pulses produced by most commercially available TMS machines have a cosine waveform, which makes it difficult to study the interaction between the two phases of stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We used a controllable pulse TMS (cTMS) device delivering quasi-rectangular pulse outputs to investigate whether monophasic are more effective than biphasic pulses. METHODS: Temporally symmetric ("biphasic") or highly asymmetric ("monophasic") charge-balanced biphasic stimuli were used to target the hand area of motor cortex in the anterior-posterior (AP) or posterior-anterior (PA) initial current direction...
January 5, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352468/developmental-plasticity-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-to-brainstem-motoneurons
#2
Lila Buls Wollman, Richard B Levine, Ralph F Fregosi
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) signalling regulates neuronal differentiation and synaptogenesis. Here we test the hypothesis that developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) disrupts the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission to hypoglossal motoneurons (XIIMNs). GABAergic spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC/mIPSC) were recorded from XIIMNs in brainstem slices from control and DNE rat pups of either sex, 1-5 days old, at baseline and following acute stimulation of nAChRs with nicotine...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351168/co-regulation-of-er-stress-and-oxidative-stress-in-neuropathic-pain-and-disinhibition-of-the-spinal-nociceptive-circuitry
#3
Yanhu Ge, Yingfu Jiao, Peiying Li, Zhenghua Xiang, Zhi Li, Long Wang, Wenqian Li, Hao Gao, Jiayun Shao, Daxiang Wen, Weifeng Yu
The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen leads to ER stress, which is related to cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Neuropathic pain may result from spinal dorsal horn (SDH) ER stress. In this study, we examined the cause-effect relationship between ER stress and neuropathic pain using the spinal nerve ligation(SNL) rat model. We showed that ER stress was mutually promotive with oxidative stress during the process. We also tested the hypothesis that spinal sensitization arose from reduced activities of GABA-ergic interneurons and that spinal sensitization was mediated by SDH ER stress...
January 18, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350907/excitatory-and-inhibitory-neuronal-circuits-in-the-spinal-cord-and-their-role-in-the-control-of-motor-neuron-function-and-degeneration
#4
Uri Nimrod Ramírez-Jarquín, Ricardo Tapia
The complex neuronal networks of the spinal cord coordinate a wide variety of motor functions, including walking, running and voluntary and involuntary movements. This is accomplished by different groups of neurons, called center pattern generators, which control left-right alternation and flexor-extensor patterns. These spinal circuits, located in the ventral horns, are formed by several neuronal types, and the specific function of most of them has been identified by means of studies in vivo and in the isolated spinal cord of mice harboring genetically induced ablation of specific neuronal populations...
January 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349576/prep1-deficiency-affects-olfactory-perception-and-feeding-behavior-by-impairing-bdnf-trkb-mediated-neurotrophic-signaling
#5
Serena Ricci, Davide Viggiano, Ilaria Cimmino, Giuseppe Perruolo, Serena Cabaro, Antonietta Liotti, Francesca Fiory, Rosa Spinelli, Angelina Di Carlo, Francesco Beguinot, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Oriente
Prep1 is a homeodomain transcription factor which has an important role in hindbrain development. Prep1 expression is also kept in adult mouse brain and in particular within the olfactory bulbs. Moreover, many Prep1 neurons co-localize with Calbindin-positive periglomerular interneurons in olfactory glomerular layer. However, Prep1 function in this brain region is still unknown. In this study, we show that Prep1 hypomorphic heterozygous (Prep1 i/+ ) mice express low levels of protein and feature a 30% reduction of olfactory bulb area, compared to WT mice...
January 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346766/cell-type-specificity-of-callosally-evoked-excitation-and-feedforward-inhibition-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Paul G Anastasiades, Joseph J Marlin, Adam G Carter
Excitation and inhibition are highly specific in the cortex, with distinct synaptic connections made onto subtypes of projection neurons. The functional consequences of this selective connectivity depend on both synaptic strength and the intrinsic properties of targeted neurons but remain poorly understood. Here, we examine responses to callosal inputs at cortico-cortical (CC) and cortico-thalamic (CT) neurons in layer 5 of mouse prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PFC). We find callosally evoked excitation and feedforward inhibition are much stronger at CT neurons compared to neighboring CC neurons...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346754/input-specific-nmdar-dependent-potentiation-of-dendritic-gabaergic-inhibition
#7
Chiayu Q Chiu, James S Martenson, Maya Yamazaki, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Susumu Tomita, Steven J Tavalin, Michael J Higley
Preservation of a balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition is critical for normal brain function. A number of homeostatic cellular mechanisms have been suggested to play a role in maintaining this balance, including long-term plasticity of GABAergic inhibitory synapses. Many previous studies have demonstrated a coupling of postsynaptic spiking with modification of perisomatic inhibition. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to input-specific long-term potentiation of dendritic inhibition mediated by somatostatin-expressing interneurons...
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346747/sensorimotor-integration-for-decision-making-how-the-worm-steers
#8
Harris S Kaplan, Manuel Zimmer
Animals' movements actively shape their perception and subsequent decision making. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2018) show how C. elegans nematodes steer toward an odorant: a dedicated interneuron class integrates oscillatory olfactory signals, generated by head swings, with corollary discharge motor signals.
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346425/hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-support-recognition-memory-and-modulate-hippocampal-excitability
#9
Andrew Hooper, Patrick M Fuller, Jamie Maguire
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling in the hippocampus has been established to be important for mediating the effects of stress on learning and memory. Given our laboratory's recent characterization of a subset of hippocampal CRH neurons as a novel class of GABAergic interneurons, we hypothesized that these local GABAergic hippocampal CRH neurons may influence hippocampal function. Here we applied an array of molecular tools to selectively label and manipulate hippocampal CRH neurons in mice, in order to assess this interneuron population's impact on hippocampus-dependent behaviors and hippocampal network excitability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341361/parvalbumin-interneuron-mediated-feedforward-inhibition-controls-signal-output-in-the-deep-layers-of-the-perirhinal-entorhinal-cortex
#10
Janske G P Willems, Wytse J Wadman, Natalie L M Cappaert
The perirhinal (PER) and lateral entorhinal (LEC) cortex form an anatomical link between the neocortex and the hippocampus. However, neocortical activity is transmitted through the PER and LEC to the hippocampus with a low probability, suggesting the involvement of the inhibitory network. This study explored the role of interneuron mediated inhibition, activated by electrical stimulation in the agranular insular cortex (AiP), in the deep layers of the PER and LEC. Activated synaptic input by AiP stimulation rarely evoked action potentials in the PER-LEC deep layer excitatory principal neurons, most probably because the evoked synaptic response consisted of a small excitatory and large inhibitory conductance...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339324/oscillatory-synchronous-inhibition-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-and-its-primary-dependence-on-nr2a-containing-nmda-receptors
#11
Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Volodymyr I Pidoplichko, Taiza H Figueiredo, Maria F M Braga
Synchronous, rhythmic firing of GABAergic interneurons is a fundamental mechanism underlying the generation of brain oscillations, and evidence suggests that NMDA receptors (NMDARs) play a key role in oscillatory activity by regulating the activity of interneurons. Consistent with this, derangement of brain rhythms in certain neuropsychiatric disorders, notably schizophrenia and autism, is associated with NMDAR hypofunction and loss of inhibitory interneurons. In the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-dysfunction of which is involved in a host of neuropsychiatric diseases-, principal neurons display spontaneous, rhythmic "bursts" of inhibitory activity, which could potentially be involved in the orchestration of oscillations in the BLA network; here, we investigated the role of NMDARs in these inhibitory oscillations...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337120/deriving-dorsal-spinal-sensory-interneurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem%C3%A2-cells
#12
Sandeep Gupta, Daniel Sivalingam, Samantha Hain, Christian Makkar, Enrique Sosa, Amander Clark, Samantha J Butler
Cellular replacement therapies for neurological conditions use human embryonic stem cell (hESC)- or induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons to replace damaged or diseased populations of neurons. For the spinal cord, significant progress has been made generating the in-vitro-derived motor neurons required to restore coordinated movement. However, there is as yet no protocol to generate in-vitro-derived sensory interneurons (INs), which permit perception of the environment. Here, we report on the development of a directed differentiation protocol to derive sensory INs for both hESCs and hiPSCs...
January 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337050/impairments-in-social-novelty-recognition-and-spatial-memory-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-scn1a-in-parvalbumin-expressing-cells
#13
Tetsuya Tatsukawa, Ikuo Ogiwara, Emi Mazaki, Atsushi Shimohata, Kazuhiro Yamakawa
Loss of function mutations in the SCN1A gene, which encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.1, have been described in the majority of Dravet syndrome patients presenting with epileptic seizures, hyperactivity, autistic traits, and cognitive decline. We previously reported predominant Nav1.1 expression in parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) inhibitory neurons in juvenile mouse brain and observed epileptic seizures in mice with selective deletion of Scn1a in PV+ cells mediated by PV-Cre transgene expression (Scn1afl/+/PV-Cre-TG)...
January 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335778/hippocampal-area-ca2-properties-and-contribution-to-hippocampal-function
#14
REVIEW
Vincent Robert, Sadiyah Cassim, Vivien Chevaleyre, Rebecca A Piskorowski
This review focuses on area CA2 of the hippocampus, as recent results have revealed the unique properties and surprising role of this region in encoding social, temporal and contextual aspects of memory. Originally identified and described by Lorente de No, in 1934, this region of the hippocampus has unique intra-and extra-hippocampal connectivity, sending and receiving input to septal and hypothalamic regions. Recent in vivo studies have indicated that CA2 pyramidal neurons encode spatial information during immobility and play an important role in the generation of sharp-wave ripples...
January 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335356/single-bursts-of-individual-granule-cells-functionally-rearrange-feed-forward-inhibition
#15
Máté Neubrandt, Viktor János Oláh, János Brunner, Endre Marosi, Ivan Soltesz, János Szabadics
The sparse single spike activity of dentate gyrus granule cells (DG GCs) is punctuated by occasional brief bursts of 3 to 7 action potentials. It is well-known that such presynaptic bursts in individual mossy fibers (MFs; axons of granule cells) are often able to discharge postsynaptic CA3 pyramidal cells due to powerful short-term facilitation. However, what happens in the CA3 network after the passage of a brief MF burst, before the arrival of the next burst or solitary spike, is not understood. Because MFs innervate significantly more CA3 interneurons than pyramidal cells, we focused on unitary MF responses in identified interneurons in the seconds-long post-burst period, using paired recordings in rat hippocampal slices...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334840/transcallosal-conduction-in-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia
#16
Tayfun Kasikci, Semai Bek, Guray Koc, Mehmet Yucel, Yasar Kutukcu, Zeki Odabasi
OBJECTIVES: Detecting whether a possible disequilibrium between the excitatory and inhibitory interhemispheric interactions in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) exists. METHODS: This study assessed measures of motor threshold, motor evoked potential latency, the cortical silent period, the ipsilateral silent period and the transcallosal conduction time (TCT) in PKD patients. Data were compared between the clinically affected hemisphere (aH) and the fellow hemisphere (fH)...
January 15, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333742/parvalbumin-fast-spiking-interneurons-are-selectively-altered-by-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Joshua Nichols, George Reed Bjorklund, Jason Newbern, Trent Anderson
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Traditionally, ongoing neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity have thought to confer children with an advantage following TBI. However, recent findings indicate that the pediatric brain may be more sensitive to brain injury. Inhibitory interneurons are essential for proper cortical function and implicated in the pathophysiology of TBI, yet few studies have directly examined for TBI induced changes to interneurons themselves...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330326/loss-of-balance-between-striatal-feedforward-inhibition-and-corticostriatal-excitation-leads-to-tremor
#18
Yael Oran, Izhar Bar-Gad
Fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) exert powerful inhibitory control over the striatum and are hypothesized to balance the massive excitatory cortical and thalamic input to this structure. We recorded neuronal activity in the dorsolateral striatum and globus pallidus (GP) concurrently with the detailed movement kinematics of freely behaving female rats prior to and following selective inhibition of FSI activity using IEM-1460 microinjections. The inhibition led to the appearance of episodic rest tremor in the body part that depended on the somatotopic location of the injection within the striatum...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329401/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-non-fast-spiking-gabaergic-interneurons-in-layer-4-microcircuitry-of-rat-barrel-cortex
#19
Vishalini Emmenegger, Guanxiao Qi, Haijun Wang, Dirk Feldmeyer
GABAergic interneurons are notorious for their heterogeneity, despite constituting a small fraction of the neuronal population in the neocortex. Classification of interneurons is crucial for understanding their widespread cortical functions as they provide a complex and dynamic network, balancing excitation and inhibition. Here, we investigated different types of non-fast-spiking (nFS) interneurons in Layer 4 (L4) of rat barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with biocytin-filling. Based on a quantitative analysis on a combination of morphological and electrophysiological parameters, we identified 5 distinct types of L4 nFS interneurons: 1) trans-columnar projecting interneurons,2) locally projecting non-Martinotti-like interneurons, 3) supra-granular projecting Martinotti-like interneurons,4) intra-columnar projecting VIP-like interneurons,and5) locally projecting neurogliaform-like interneurons...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329382/adolescent-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-produces-enduring-changes-in-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#20
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Epidemiological studies recognize cannabis intake as a risk factor for schizophrenia, yet the majority of adolescents who use marijuana do not develop psychosis. Similarly, the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids poses a risk for psychosis. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in susceptible individuals. Method: We have recently developed a novel rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility, the F2 MAM rat, where only a proportion (~40%) of rats display a schizophrenia-like phenotype...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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