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Malaria drug resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427418/immunity-as-a-predictor-of-anti-malarial-treatment-failure-a-systematic-review
#1
Katherine O'Flaherty, Julia Maguire, Julie A Simpson, Freya J I Fowkes
BACKGROUND: Naturally acquired immunity can reduce parasitaemia and potentially influence anti-malarial treatment outcomes; however, evidence for this in the current literature provides conflicted results. The available evidence was synthesized to determine and quantify the association between host immunity and anti-malarial treatment failure. METHODS: Four databases were searched to identify studies investigating malaria antibody levels in patients receiving anti-malarial treatment for symptomatic malaria with treatment failure recorded according to the World Health Organization classification...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427409/efficacies-of-dha-ppq-and-as-sp-in-patients-with-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-an-area-of-an-unstable-seasonal-transmission-in-sudan
#2
Abdelrahim O Mohamed, Muzamil M Abdel Hamid, Omer S Mohamed, Nuha S Elkando, Abdelmaroof Suliman, Mariam A Adam, Fahad Awad Ali Elnour, Elfatih M Malik
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), together with other control measures, have reduced the burden of falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan countries, including Sudan. Sudan adopted ACT in 2004 with a remarkable reduction in mortality due to falciparum malaria. However, emergence of resistance to the first-line treatment artesunate and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS/SP) has created new challenges to the control of malaria in Sudan. A search for an alternative drug of choice for treating uncomplicated malaria has become inevitable...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420422/high-resolution-melting-a-useful-field-deployable-method-to-measure-dhfr-and-dhps-drug-resistance-in-both-highly-and-lowly-endemic-plasmodium-populations
#3
Yaye Dié Ndiaye, Cyrille K Diédhiou, Amy K Bei, Baba Dieye, Aminata Mbaye, Nasserdine Papa Mze, Rachel F Daniels, Ibrahima M Ndiaye, Awa B Déme, Amy Gaye, Mouhamad Sy, Tolla Ndiaye, Aida S Badiane, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Zul Premji, Dyann F Wirth, Souleymane Mboup, Donald Krogstad, Sarah K Volkman, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: Emergence and spread of drug resistance to every anti-malarial used to date, creates an urgent need for development of sensitive, specific and field-deployable molecular tools for detection and surveillance of validated drug resistance markers. Such tools would allow early detection of mutations in resistance loci. The aim of this study was to compare common population signatures and drug resistance marker frequencies between two populations with different levels of malaria endemicity and history of anti-malarial drug use: Tanzania and Sénégal...
April 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420403/molecular-surveillance-of-plasmodium-falciparum-drug-resistance-in-the-republic-of-congo-four-and-nine-years-after-the-introduction-of-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy
#4
Felix Koukouikila-Koussounda, Sankarganesh Jeyaraj, Christian N Nguetse, Charles Nchotebah Nkonganyi, Kossiwa Clarisse Kokou, Mandingha K Etoka-Beka, Francine Ntoumi, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarial drugs hinders efforts on malaria elimination and eradication. Following the global spread of chloroquine-resistant parasites, the Republic of Congo adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2006 as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. To assess the impacts after implementation of ACT, a molecular surveillance for anti-malarial drug resistance was conducted in Congo 4 and 9 years after the introduction of ACT. METHODS: Blood samples of 431 febrile children aged 1-10 years were utilized from two previous studies conducted in 2010 (N = 311) and 2015 (N = 120)...
April 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420389/assessment-of-copy-number-variation-in-genes-related-to-drug-resistance-in-plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-the-brazilian-amazon-and-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#5
Gabriel Luíz Costa, Lara Cotta Amaral, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes, Luzia Helena Carvalho, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Taís Nóbrega de Sousa
BACKGROUND: Parasite resistance to anti-malarials represents a great obstacle for malaria elimination. The majority of studies have investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and drug resistance; however, it is becoming clear that the copy number variation (CNV) is also associated with this parasite phenotype. To provide a baseline for molecular surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance in the Brazilian Amazon, the present study characterized the genetic profile of both markers in the most common genes associated with drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax isolates...
April 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408175/an-oncofetal-glycosaminoglycan-modification-provides-therapeutic-access-to-cisplatin-resistant-bladder-cancer
#6
Roland Seiler, Htoo Zarni Oo, Davide Tortora, Thomas M Clausen, Chris K Wang, Gunjan Kumar, Marina Ayres Pereira, Maj S Ørum-Madsen, Mette Ø Agerbæk, Tobias Gustavsson, Mie A Nordmaj, Jamie R Rich, Nada Lallous, Ladan Fazli, Sherry S Lee, James Douglas, Tilman Todenhöfer, Shaghayegh Esfandnia, Dulguun Battsogt, John S Babcook, Nader Al-Nakouzi, Simon J Crabb, Igor Moskalev, Bernhard Kiss, Elai Davicioni, George N Thalmann, Paul S Rennie, Peter C Black, Ali Salanti, Mads Daugaard
BACKGROUND: Although cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) improves survival of unselected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), only a minority responds to therapy and chemoresistance remains a major challenge in this disease setting. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (ofCS) glycosaminoglycan chains in cisplatin-resistant MIBC and to evaluate these as targets for second-line therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An ofCS-binding recombinant VAR2CSA protein derived from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (rVAR2) was used as an in situ, in vitro, and in vivo ofCS-targeting reagent in cisplatin-resistant MIBC...
April 10, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407772/the-end-of-a-dogma-the-safety-of-doxycycline-use-in-young-children-for-malaria-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Tiphaine Gaillard, Sébastien Briolant, Marylin Madamet, Bruno Pradines
Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails...
April 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400771/signaling-strategies-of-malaria-parasite-for-its-survival-proliferation-and-infection-during-erythrocytic-stage
#8
REVIEW
Rani Soni, Drista Sharma, Praveen Rai, Bhaskar Sharma, Tarun K Bhatt
Irrespective of various efforts, malaria persist the most debilitating effect in terms of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the existing drugs are also vulnerable to the emergence of drug resistance. To explore the potential targets for designing the most effective antimalarial therapies, it is required to focus on the facts of biochemical mechanism underlying the process of parasite survival and disease pathogenesis. This review is intended to bring out the existing knowledge about the functions and components of the major signaling pathways such as kinase signaling, calcium signaling, and cyclic nucleotide-based signaling, serving the various aspects of the parasitic asexual stage and highlighted the Toll-like receptors, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling, and molecular events in cytoadhesion, which elicit the host immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400526/plasmodium-falciparum-k13-mutations-differentially-impact-ozonide-susceptibility-and-parasite-fitness-in-vitro
#9
Judith Straimer, Nina F Gnädig, Barbara H Stokes, Michelle Ehrenberger, Audrey A Crane, David A Fidock
The emergence and spread in Southeast Asia of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin (ART) derivatives, the cornerstone of first-line artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), underscore the urgent need to identify suitable replacement drugs. Discovery and development efforts have identified a series of ozonides with attractive chemical and pharmacological properties that are being touted as suitable replacements. Partial resistance to ART, defined as delayed parasite clearance in malaria patients treated with an ART derivative or an ACT, has been associated with mutations in the P...
April 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388902/therapeutic-efficacy-and-artemisinin-resistance-in-northern-myanmar-evidence-from-in-vivo-and-molecular-marker-studies
#10
Moe Kyaw Myint, Charlotte Rasmussen, Aung Thi, Dorina Bustos, Pascal Ringwald, Khin Lin
BACKGROUND: In Myanmar, three types of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are recommended as first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria: artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-mefloquine (AS + MQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Resistance to both artemisinins and ACT partner drugs has been reported from the Greater Mekong Sub-region, and regular efficacy monitoring of the recommended ACT is conducted in Myanmar. This paper reports on results from studies to monitor the efficacy of the three forms of ACT in sentinel sites in northern Myanmar, and investigations of mutations in the Kelch13 (k13) propeller domain...
April 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381273/characterization-of-plasmodium-falciparum-genes-associated-with-drug-resistance-in-hodh-elgharbi-a-malaria-hotspot-near-malian-mauritanian-border
#11
Mohamed Salem Ould Ahmedou Salem, Khadijetou Mint Lekweiry, Houssem Bouchiba, Aurelie Pascual, Bruno Pradines, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Sébastien Briolant, Leonardo K Basco, Hervé Bogreau
BACKGROUND: A malaria hotspot in the southeastern region of Mauritania, near the Malian border, may hamper malaria control strategies. The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms associated with drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates and establish baseline data. METHODS: The study was conducted in two malaria-endemic areas in Hodh Elgharbi, situated in the Malian-Mauritanian border area. Blood samples were collected from symptomatic patients...
April 5, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376874/genetic-polymorphisms-in-plasmodium-falciparum-chloroquine-resistance-genes-pfcrt-and-pfmdr1-in-north-sulawesi-indonesia
#12
Patrick Reteng, Visia Vrisca, Inka Sukarno, Ilham Habib Djarkoni, Jane Angela Kalangi, George Eduardo Jacobs, Lucky Ronald Runtuwene, Yuki Eshita, Ryuichiro Maeda, Yutaka Suzuki, Arthur Elia Mongan, Sarah Maria Warouw, Junya Yamagishi, Josef Tuda
BACKGROUND: Malaria still poses one of the major threats to human health. Development of effective antimalarial drugs has decreased this threat; however, the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, a cause of Malaria, is disconcerting. The antimalarial drug chloroquine has been effectively used, but resistant parasites have spread worldwide. Interestingly, the withdrawal of the drug reportedly leads to an increased population of susceptible parasites in some cases. We examined the prevalence of genomic polymorphisms in a malaria parasite P...
April 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376349/genetic-diversity-of-next-generation-antimalarial-targets-a-baseline-for-drug-resistance-surveillance-programmes
#13
Ana Rita Gomes, Matt Ravenhall, Ernest Diez Benavente, Arthur Talman, Colin Sutherland, Cally Roper, Taane G Clark, Susana Campino
Drug resistance is a recurrent problem in the fight against malaria. Genetic and epidemiological surveillance of antimalarial resistant parasite alleles is crucial to guide drug therapies and clinical management. New antimalarial compounds are currently at various stages of clinical trials and regulatory evaluation. Using ∼2000 Plasmodium falciparum genome sequences, we investigated the genetic diversity of eleven gene-targets of promising antimalarial compounds and assessed their potential efficiency across malaria endemic regions...
March 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373036/efficacy-and-safety-of-artemether-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-falciparum-malaria-at-sentinel-sites-in-mozambique-2015
#14
Crizolgo Salvador, Bernardete Rafael, Francisco Matsinhe, Baltazar Candrinho, Rosália Muthemba, Eva De Carvalho, Eva Naueia, Jahit Sacarlal, Josephine Namboze, Armindo Tiago, Marian Warsame, Sónia Enosse
The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs continues to challenge malaria control. We assessed the therapeutic efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL), the first-line treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, in children under five years of age in Mozambique. We conducted a prospective one-arm study to evaluate the clinical and parasitological efficacy of AL over 28days at four sentinel sites, using the WHO protocol for assessing the efficacy of antimalarial treatment...
April 1, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366726/cancer-combination-therapies-with-artemisinin-type-drugs
#15
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth
Artemisia annua L. is a Chinese medicinal plant, which is used throughout Asia and Africa as tea or press juice to treat malaria. The bioactivity of its chemical constituent, artemisinin is, however, much broader. We and others found that artemisinin and its derivatives also exert profound activity against tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Should artemisinin-type drugs be applied routinely in clinical oncology in the future, then it should probably be as part of combination therapy regimens rather than as monotherapy...
March 31, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360437/introducing-new-antimalarial-analogues-of-chloroquine-and-amodiaquine-a-narrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Arezoo Rafiee Parhizgar, Azar Tahghighi
Antimalarial drugs with the 4-aminoquinoline scaffold such as the important drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and amodiaquine (AQ), have been used to prevent and treat malaria for many years. The importance of these drugs is related to their simple usage, high efficacy, affordability, and cost-effectiveness of their synthesis. In recent years, with the spread of parasite resistance to CQ and cross-resistance to its other analogues have decreased their consumption in many geographical areas. On the other hand, AQ is an effective antimalarial drug which its usage has been restricted due to hepatic and hematological toxicities...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357581/malaria-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Srikanta Basu, Puneet Kaur Sahi
India is endemic for malaria with unstable transmission inhibiting the development of immunity and predisposing all age groups to the disease. Children under five are the greatest sufferers with maximum mortality. P. falciparum and P. vivax cause majority of cases. Fever is the cardinal symptom, though no set of signs and symptoms reliably distinguishes malaria from other causes of fever. In all suspected cases parasitological diagnosis should be confirmed before starting the treatment. Microscopy of blood smears is the gold standard for diagnosis...
March 30, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357359/chemical-proteomics-approach-reveals-the-direct-targets-and-the-heme-dependent-activation-mechanism-of-artemisinin-in-plasmodium-falciparum-using-an-artemisinin-based-activity-probe
#18
COMMENT
Jigang Wang, Qingsong Lin
Artemisinin and its analogues are currently the most effective anti-malarial drugs. The activation of artemisinin requires the cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge in the presence of iron sources. Once activated, artemisinins attack macromolecules through alkylation and propagate a series of damages, leading to parasite death. Even though several parasite proteins have been reported as artemisinin targets, the exact mechanism of action (MOA) of artemisinin is still controversial and its high potency and specificity against the malaria parasite could not be fully accounted for...
April 5, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357319/phylogenetic-profiles-of-all-membrane-transport-proteins
#19
January Weiner, Taco W A Kooij
In order to combat the on-going malaria epidemic, discovery of new drug targets remains vital. Proteins that are essential to survival and specific to malaria parasites are key candidates. To survive within host cells, the parasites need to acquire nutrients and dispose of waste products across multiple membranes. Additionally, like all eukaryotes, they must redistribute ions and organic molecules between their various internal membrane bound compartments. Membrane transport proteins mediate all of these processes and are considered important mediators of drug resistance as well as drug targets in their own right...
August 30, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356231/malaria-overdiagnosis-and-subsequent-overconsumption-of-antimalarial-drugs-in-angola-consequences-and-effects-on-human-health
#20
Sylvie Manguin, Vincent Foumane, Patrick Besnard, Filomeno Fortes, Pierre Carnevale
Microscopic blood smear examinations done in health centers of Angola demonstrated a large overdiagnosis of malaria cases with an average rate of errors as high as 85%. Overall 83% of patients who received Coartem(®) had an inappropriate treatment. Overestimated malaria diagnosis was noticed even when specific symptoms were part of the clinical observation, antimalarial treatments being subsequently given. Then, malaria overdiagnosis has three main consequences, (i) the lack of data reliability is of great concern, impeding epidemiological records and evaluation of the actual influence of operations as scheduled by the National Malaria Control Programme; (ii) the large misuse of antimalarial drug can increase the selective pressure for resistant strain and can make a false consideration of drug resistant P...
March 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
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