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muscle stiffness

Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Christopher McCrum, Pamela Leow, Gaspar Epro, Matthias König, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
Tendons transfer forces produced by muscle to the skeletal system and can therefore have a large influence on movement effectiveness and safety. Tendons are mechanosensitive, meaning that they adapt their material, morphological and hence their mechanical properties in response to mechanical loading. Therefore, unloading due to immobilization or inactivity could lead to changes in tendon mechanical properties. Additionally, ageing may influence tendon biomechanical properties directly, as a result of biological changes in the tendon, and indirectly, due to reduced muscle strength and physical activity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
JongEun Yim, Jerrold Petrofsky, Haneul Lee
Ankle and foot injuries are common among athletes and physically active individuals. The most common residual disability, ankle sprain, is characterized by instability along with postural sway. If the supporting structures around a joint become lax, posture stability and balance are also affected. Previous studies have examined muscle stiffness and elasticity and postural sway separately; however, the relationship between these factors is yet unknown. It is well known that the levels of sex hormones, especially estrogen, change in women over the phase of the menstrual cycle...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Regina Wing Shan Sit, Keith Kwok Wai Chan, Benjamin Hon Kei Yip, Daisy Dexing Zhang, Kenneth Dean Reeves, Ying Ho Chan, Vincent Chi Ho Chung, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong
INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common, disabling and costly medical condition. The patellofemoral joint is a critical source of pain in individuals with KOA, and coexistence of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) and tibiofemoral osteoarthritis (TFOA) is sometimes observed. The identification of subgroups with PFOA and customised interventions to correct underlying pathomechanics is beneficial for individuals with KOA. This study aims to evaluate whether a clinic-based patella mobilisation therapy (PMT) leads to significant improvement in pain, physical function and quality of life of individuals with KOA...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Lorenzo Vannozzi, Immihan Ceren Yasa, Hakan Ceylan, Arianna Menciassi, Leonardo Ricotti, Metin Sitti
Programming materials with tunable physical and chemical interactions among its components pave the way of generating 3D functional active microsystems with various potential applications in tissue engineering, drug delivery, and soft robotics. Here, the development of a recapitulated fascicle-like implantable muscle construct by programmed self-folding of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels is reported. The system comprises two stacked layers, each with differential swelling degrees, stiffnesses, and thicknesses in 2D, which folds into a 3D tube together...
March 14, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
So Young Lee, Eun Young Han, Bo Ryun Kim, Sang Hee Im
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a motorized aquatic treadmill exercise program improve the isometric strength of the knee muscles, cardiorespiratory fitness, arterial stiffness, motor function, balance, functional outcomes and quality of life in subacute stroke patients. DESIGN: Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to 4-week training sessions of either aquatic therapy(n=19) or land-based aerobic exercise(n=18). Isometric strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Justin Ralph Abbatemarco, Mary Alissa Willis, Robert G Wilson, Sean J Nagel, Andre G Machado, Francois A Bethoux
OBJECTIVES: Stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is associated with axial rigidity superimposed on sustained muscle spasms. These symptoms commonly interfere with the performance of activities of daily living including ambulation. This retrospective case series evaluates the outcomes of screening tests and chronic infusion of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) in patients diagnosed with SPS treated in our spasticity clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were identified from an institutional review board-approved clinical registry of ITB therapy...
March 13, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
William E Hughes, Nicholas T Kruse, Darren P Casey
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We examined whether the mechanical contribution to contraction-induced rapid onset vasodilatation (ROV) differed with age, and whether ROV is associated with peripheral artery stiffness. Furthermore, we examined how manipulation of perfusion pressure modulates ROV in young and older adults. What is the main finding and its importance? The mechanical contribution to ROV is similar in young and older adults. Conversely, peripheral arterial stiffness is not associated with ROV...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Devin B Phillips, Craig D Steinback, Sophie É Collins, Desi P Fuhr, Tracey L Bryan, Eric Y L Wong, Vincent Tedjasaputra, Mohit Bhutani, Michael K Stickland
COPD patients have increased central arterial stiffness and muscle sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA), both of which contribute to cardiovascular (CV) dysfunction and increased CV risk. Previous work suggests that COPD patients have elevated carotid chemoreceptor (CC) activity/sensitivity, which may contribute to the elevated MSNA and arterial stiffness. Accordingly, the effect of CC inhibition on central arterial stiffness, MSNA and CV function at rest in COPD patients was examined in a randomized placebo-controlled study...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Edward P Washabaugh, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Robotic-resisted treadmill walking is a form of task-specific training that has been used to improve gait function in individuals with neurological injury, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsy. Traditionally, these devices use active elements (e.g., motors or actuators) to provide resistance during walking, making them bulky, expensive, and less suitable for overground or in-home rehabilitation. We recently developed a low-cost, wearable robotic brace that generates resistive torques across the knee joint using a simple magnetic brake...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Zhuming Yin, Liqiang Liu, Bingjian Xue, Jincai Fan, Wenlin Chen, Zheng Liu
INTRODUCTION: Prosthesis-assisted penile reconstruction has been performed extensively to restore a cosmetically acceptable phallus. However, a large number of patients will undergo revision surgery for various prosthesis-related complications. AIM: To develop a 1-stage prosthesis-free dynamic cavernosa reconstruction method using bilateral innervated gracilis muscles and to investigate the feasibility and reliability of the surgical design. METHODS: 10 fresh cadavers were dissected to assess the availability of bilateral gracilis muscles for functional cavernosa rebuilding...
March 7, 2018: Sexual Medicine
Masaki Mogi, Katsuhiko Kohara, Yasuharu Tabara, Kana Tsukuda, Michiya Igase, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Our previous report indicated that sarcopenia is associated with arterial stiffness and cardiovascular death. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease and its activation may be correlated with sarcopenia according to basic research. However, few clinical studies have assessed the correlation between skeletal muscle loss and RAS component concentrations in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the excretion of angiotensinogen (AGT) and aldosterone (Ald) in 24-h urine samples and clinical and sarcopenic indices...
March 9, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Akiomi Yoshihisa, Yusuke Kimishima, Takatoyo Kiko, Yu Sato, Shunsuke Watanabe, Yuki Kanno, Satoshi Abe, Makiko Miyata, Takamasa Sato, Satoshi Suzuki, Masayoshi Oikawa, Atsushi Kobayashi, Takayoshi Yamaki, Hiroyuki Kunii, Kazuhiko Nakazato, Takafumi Ishida, Yasuchika Takeishi
Titin is associated with myocardial stiffness and hypertrophy, and mutations in its gene have been identified in cardiac myopathies such as dilated cardiomyopathy (DC). It has recently been reported that in damaged muscle, the N-terminal fragment of titin (Titin-N) is cleaved by calpain-3, and urinary Titin-N (U-TN) could be a marker of sarcomere damage. We aimed to investigate the impact of U-TN on prognosis of DC. We measured urinary levels of Titin-N/creatinine ratio (U-TN/Cr; pmol/mg/dl) in 102 patients with DC, and followed up all the patients (mean 1,167 days)...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
E I Yakupova, I M Vikhlyantsev, M Y Lobanov, O V Galzitskaya, A G Bobylev
This review considers data on structural and functional features of titin, on the role of this protein in determination of mechanical properties of sarcomeres, and on specific features of regulation of the stiffness and elasticity of its molecules, amyloid aggregation of this protein in vitro, and possibilities of formation of intramolecular amyloid structure in vivo. Molecular mechanisms are described of protection of titin against aggregation in muscle cells. Based on the data analysis, it is supposed that titin and the formed by it elastic filaments have features of amyloid...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Lindsay T McDonald, Michael R Zile, Yuhua Zhang, An O Van Laer, Catalin F Baicu, Robert E Stroud, Jeffrey A Jones, Amanda C LaRue, Amy D Bradshaw
Myocardial fibrosis and the resultant increases in LV stiffness represent pivotal consequences of chronic pressure-overload (PO) that impact both functional capacity and the rates of morbid and mortal events. However, the time course and cellular mechanisms that underlie PO-induced fibrosis have not been completely defined. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein shown to be required for insoluble collagen deposition and increased myocardial stiffness in response to murine PO...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
S Bersini, M Gilardi, M Mora, S Krol, C Arrigoni, C Candrian, S Zanotti, M Moretti
Muscle fibrosis represents the end stage consequence of different diseases, among which muscular dystrophies, leading to severe impairment of muscle functions. Muscle fibrosis involves the production of several growth factors, cytokines and proteolytic enzymes and is strictly associated to inflammatory processes. Moreover, fibrosis causes profound changes in tissue properties, including increased stiffness and density, lower pH and oxygenation. Up to now, there is no therapeutic approach able to counteract the fibrotic process and treatments directed against muscle pathologies are severely impaired by the harsh conditions of the fibrotic environment...
March 5, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Andrew L Durham, Mei Y Speer, Marta Scatena, Cecilia M Giachelli, Catherine M Shanahan
Vascular calcification is associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Calcification has been determined to be an active process driven in part by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) transdifferentiation within the vascular wall. Historically, VSMC phenotype switching has been viewed as binary, with the cells able to adopt a physiological contractile phenotype or an alternate 'synthetic' phenotype in response to injury. More recent work, including lineage tracing has however revealed that VSMCs are able to adopt a number of phenotypes, including calcific (osteogenic, chondrocytic, and osteoclastic), adipogenic, and macrophagic phenotypes...
March 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Patrick Lacolley, Veronique Regnault, Alberto P Avolio
Arterial aging engages a plethora of key signalling pathways that act in concert to induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic changes leading to vascular degeneration and extracellular matrix degradation responsible for alterations of the mechanical properties of the vascular wall. This review highlights proof-of-concept examples of components of the extracellular matrix, VSMC receptors which connect extracellular and intracellular structures, and signalling pathways regulating changes in mechanotransduction and vascular homeostasis in aging...
March 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
David R Bell, J Troy Blackburn, Marc F Norcross, Kristin S Ondrak, Jeffery D Hudson, A C Hackney, Darin A Padua
In the original publication the name of the fourth reviewer was incorrectly published.
March 6, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Chee-Chee H Stucky, Kate D Cromwell, Rachel K Voss, Yi-Ju Chiang, Karin Woodman, Jeffrey E Lee, Janice N Cormier
Background: Many surgeons experience work-related pain and musculoskeletal symptoms; however, comprehensive reporting of surgeon ailments is lacking in the literature. We sought to evaluate surgeons' work-related symptoms, possible causes of these symptoms, and to report outcomes associated with those symptoms. Materials and methods: Five major medical indices were queried for articles published between 1980 and 2014. Included articles evaluated musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic outcomes in surgeons...
March 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
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