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muscle stiffness

Nantachai Sornkarn, Thrishantha Nanayakkara
When humans are asked to palpate a soft tissue to locate a hard nodule, they regulate the stiffness, speed, and force of the finger during examination. If we understand the relationship between these behavioral variables and haptic information gain (transfer entropy) during manual probing, we can improve the efficacy of soft robotic probes for soft tissue palpation, such as in tumor localization in minimally invasive surgery. Here, we recorded the muscle co-contraction activity of the finger using EMG sensors to address the question as to whether joint stiffness control during manual palpation plays an important role in the haptic information gain...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Miriam Rothdiener, Miriam Hegemann, Tatiana Uynuk-Ool, Brandan Walters, Piruntha Papugy, Phong Nguyen, Valentin Claus, Tanja Seeger, Ulrich Stoeckle, Karen A Boehme, Wilhelm K Aicher, Jan P Stegemann, Melanie L Hart, Bodo Kurz, Gerd Klein, Bernd Rolauffs
Using matrix elasticity and cyclic stretch have been investigated for inducing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation towards the smooth muscle cell (SMC) lineage but not in combination. We hypothesized that combining lineage-specific stiffness with cyclic stretch would result in a significantly increased expression of SMC markers, compared to non-stretched controls. First, we generated dense collagen type I sheets by mechanically compressing collagen hydrogels. Atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoscale stiffness range known to support myogenic differentiation...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
R M Bruno, K D Reesink, L Ghiadoni
AIM: The present paper is a selective review on the methodology and clinical significance of techniques to assess specifically endothelial function, carotid mechanics and renal vascular function, particularly in the light of vascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Endothelial dysfunction appears to be earlier detectable in the microcirculation of patients with altered glucose metabolism, while it attains significance in the macrocirculation at more advanced disease stages...
September 15, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Alexis V Mickelson, Sampath K Gollapudi, Murali Chandra
The present study investigated the functional consequences of the human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation, A28V, in cardiac troponin T (TnT). The A28V mutation is located within the N-terminus of TnT, a region known to be important for full activation of cardiac thin filaments. The functional consequences of the A28V mutation in TnT remain unknown. Given how α- and β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms differently alter the effect of the N-terminus of TnT, we hypothesized that the A28V-induced effects would be differently modulated by α- and β-MHC isoforms...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Matej Voglar, Jeffrey Wamerdam, Idsart Kingma, Nejc Sarabon, Jaap H van Dieën
The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of prolonged, intermittent flexion on trunk neuromuscular control. Furthermore, the potential beneficial effects of passive upper body support during flexion were investigated. Twenty one healthy young volunteers participated during two separate visits in which they performed 1 hour of intermittent 60 seconds flexion and 30 seconds rest cycles. Flexion was set at 80% lumbar flexion and was performed with or without upper body support. Before and after intermittent flexion exposure, lumbar range of motion was measured using inertial measurement units and trunk stability was assessed during perturbations applied in the forward direction with a force controlled actuator...
2016: PloS One
Seong-Won Han, Dae-Yeon Lee, Dong-Sung Choi, Boram Han, Jin-Sun Kim, Hae-Dong Lee
This study aimed to examine whether muscle force and tendon stiffness in a muscle -tendon complex alter synchronously following 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training in older people. Forty older women aged 65 years and older, were randomly assigned into Control (CON, n=15) and WBV training groups (Exposure Time (ET, n=13) and Vibration Intensity (VI, n=12)). For the training groups, 4-week detraining period was subjected following the training period. Throughout the training/detraining period, force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and stiffness of the Achilles tendon were assessed 4 times (0, 4, 8, and 12-week) using a combined system of dynamometer and ultrasonography...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Jeffrey T Ehmsen, Yong Liu, Yue Wang, Nikhil Paladugu, Anna E Johnson, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Sascha du Lac, Mark P Mattson, Ahmet Höke
SLC7A10 (Asc-1) is a sodium-independent amino acid transporter known to facilitate transport of a number of amino acids including glycine, L-serine, L-alanine, and L-cysteine, as well as their D-enantiomers. It has been described as a neuronal transporter with a primary role related to modulation of excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission. We find that SLC7A10 is substantially enriched in a subset of astrocytes of the caudal brain and spinal cord in a distribution corresponding with high densities of glycinergic inhibitory synapses...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thashi Chang, Bethan Lang, Angela Vincent
BACKGROUND: Stiff person syndrome is a highly disabling, progressive autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system characterized by muscle rigidity and spasms. Stiff person syndrome is rare, but is believed to be under diagnosed with only 14 cases been reported among a 1.7 billion population in South Asia. We report the first authenticated case from Sri Lanka. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old Sri Lankan female presented with difficulty in walking and recurrent falls due to progressive muscular rigidity in her lower limbs and trunk with superimposed muscle spasms that occurred in response to unexpected noise, startle or emotional upset...
October 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Chikao Miyazaki, Mao Takahashi, Kazuhiro Shimizu, Tatsuo Chiba, Takenori Morisita, Tomoyuki Yamamoto, Nobuo Sugo, Akira Takahara, Kohji Shirai
OBJECTIVE: Cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI) is reflecting stiffness of the arterial tree from the origin of aorta to the ankles. We observed elevated CAVI in patients who suffered from apoplexy attack. To clarify the role and the mechanism by which arterial stiffness elevated just after apoplexy attack, the effect of enhanced intracranial pressure (ICP) by injecting saline into the cisterna magna of the rabbit on blood pressure, CAVI and cervical blood flow, were studied. Furthermore the role of sympathetic nerve was studied...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yuki Imaizumi, Kazuo Eguchi, Toshiki Kaihara, Kumiko Urano, Rieko Shinagawa, Minoru Araki, Koji Inoue, Koichiro Hokao, Yuka Tsujita, Takuya Furusawa, Ryuichiro Kaku, Kazuomi Kario
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that sarcopenia, an age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is associated with arterial stiffness in patients with diabetes (DM). DESIGN AND METHOD: We studied 65 hypertensives in the Real BP study, an observational study of home BP telemonitoring system. As parameters of sarcopenia, we used locomotive syndrome scale, circumference of the wrist, lower leg, and thigh (10 cm above the patella), grip strength, and 6 minute-walk test...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Pierre Paradis, Tlili Barhoumi, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman Mian, Julio C Fraulob-Aquino, Asia Rehman, Nourredine Idris-Khodja, Ernesto L Schiffrin
OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is involved in cardiovascular disease. Whether MMP2 plays a role in hypertension and vascular damage is unknown. We hypothesized that Mmp2 knockout will prevent angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension and vascular injury. DESIGN AND METHOD: Mmp2 knockout (Mmp2) and wild-type (WT) mice were infused with Ang II (1000 ng/kg/min, SC) for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by telemetry, and mesenteric artery (MA) endothelial function and vascular remodeling by pressurized myography...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Adam P Harvey, Augusto Montezano, Khai C Wong, Katie Y Hood, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Graziela S Ceravolo, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura, Delyth Graham, Rhian M Touyz
OBJECTIVE: In hypertension, the vasculature undergoes alterations that resemble those seen in aging. The involvement of aldosterone and Noxs in the mechanisms underlying age-associated vascular damage is unclear. We postulated that aging-like changes in the vasculature is amplified in hypertension due to increased aldosterone-induced Nox-redox signalling. DESIGN AND METHOD: We assessed vascular aging in arteries from adult WKY (18 weeks), aged WKY (52 weeks) and adult stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Alberto Avolio
Blood vessels function as conduits for distribution of blood throughout the circulatory system. Large arteries, in addition to the essential conduit function, also serve to dampen the effect of pulsatile ventricular ejection that generates pulsatile pressure with each cardiac cycle; that is, they exhibit a 'cushion' function. The conduit function can be compromised by intimal effects that cause obstruction to flow, generally attributed to plaque formation due to intimal changes affected by atherosclerotic processes...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ryan E Stafford, Rafeef Aljuraifani, François Hug, Paul W Hodges
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether increases in stiffness can be detected in the anatomical region associated with the striated urethral sphincter during voluntary activation using shear wave elastography; to identify the location and area of the stiffness increase relative to the point of greatest dorsal displacement of the mid urethra (i.e. striated urethral sphincter); and to determine the relationship between muscle stiffness and contraction intensity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ten healthy men participated...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Sebastian Bohm, Falk Mersmann, Adamantios Arampatzis
BACKGROUND: The present article systematically reviews recent literature on the in vivo adaptation of asymptomatic human tendons following increased chronic mechanical loading, and meta-analyzes the loading conditions, intervention outcomes, as well as methodological aspects. METHODS: The search was performed in the databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus as well as in the reference lists of the eligible articles. A study was included if it conducted (a) a longitudinal exercise intervention (≥8 weeks) on (b) healthy humans (18 to 50 years), (c) investigating the effects on mechanical (i...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Michela De Bellis, Roberta Carbonara, Julien Roussel, Alessandro Farinato, Ada Massari, Sabata Pierno, Marilena Muraglia, Filomena Corbo, Carlo Franchini, Maria Rosaria Carratù, Annamaria De Luca, Diana Conte Camerino, Jean-François Desaphy
Although the sodium channel blocker, mexiletine, is the first choice drug in myotonia, some myotonic patients remain unsatisfied due to contraindications, lack of tolerability, or incomplete response. More therapeutic options are thus needed for myotonic patients, which require clinical trials based on solid preclinical data. In previous structure-activity relationship studies, we identified two newly-synthesized derivatives of tocainide, To040 and To042, with greatly enhanced potency and use-dependent behavior in inhibiting sodium currents in frog skeletal muscle fibers...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Christina Brandenberger, Christian Mühlfeld
Lung aging is associated with structural remodeling, a decline of respiratory function and a higher susceptibility to acute and chronic lung diseases. Individual factors that modulate pulmonary aging include basic genetic configuration, environmental exposure, life-style and biography of systemic diseases. However, the actual aging of the lung takes place in pulmonary resident cells and is closely linked to aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). Therefore, this article reviews the current knowledge about the impact of aging on pulmonary cells and the immune system, without analyzing those factors that may accelerate the aging process in depth...
October 14, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Zeinab A Elkabbany, Nancy S Elbarbary, Eman A Ismail, Nesrine A Mohamed, Dina Ragab, Shereen Abdel Alem, Yasmine M Ezzat, Sarah S Maurice, Noha U Hashem
AIM: To identify the prevalence and effect of hepatopathies of different etiologies among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using transient elastography (TE) and its relation to glycemic control. METHODS: One hundred T1DM patients were studied focusing on liver functions, fasting lipid profile, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hepatitis C virus (HCV), serum immunoglobulins, autoimmune antibodies; anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA), and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody (anti-LKM)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
T Mizuno, Y Umemura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Andrew F Mutter, Alexandra B Cooke, Olivier Saleh, Yessica-Haydee Gomez, Stella S Daskalopoulou
The objective of this systematic review was to provide insight into the controversy that still abounds as to the impact of acute aerobic exercise on immediate changes in arterial stiffness. Electronic databases were searched to identify articles assessing the effects of acute aerobic exercise on parameters of arterial stiffness. Eligible studies included arterial stiffness measurements before and after acute aerobic exercise in healthy human subjects. Forty-three studies were included. The effect of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness was found to be dependent on the anatomical segment assessed, and on the timing of the measurement post-exercise...
October 13, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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