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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353741/simulating-the-effect-of-muscle-weakness-and-contracture-on-neuromuscular-control-of-normal-gait-in-children
#1
Aaron S Fox, Christopher P Carty, Luca Modenese, Lee A Barber, Glen A Lichtwark
Altered neural control of movement and musculoskeletal deficiencies are common in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP), with muscle weakness and contracture commonly experienced. Both neural and musculoskeletal deficiencies are likely to contribute to abnormal gait, such as equinus gait (toe-walking), in children with SCP. However, it is not known whether the musculoskeletal deficiencies prevent normal gait or if neural control could be altered to achieve normal gait. This study examined the effect of simulated muscle weakness and contracture of the major plantarflexor/dorsiflexor muscles on the neuromuscular requirements for achieving normal walking gait in children...
January 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353351/the-multiple-roles-of-titin-in-muscle-contraction-and-force-production
#2
REVIEW
Walter Herzog
Titin is a filamentous protein spanning the half-sarcomere, with spring-like properties in the I-band region. Various structural, signaling, and mechanical functions have been associated with titin, but not all of these are fully elucidated and accepted in the scientific community. Here, I discuss the primary mechanical functions of titin, including its accepted role in passive force production, stabilization of half-sarcomeres and sarcomeres, and its controversial contribution to residual force enhancement, passive force enhancement, energetics, and work production in shortening muscle...
January 20, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339776/the-experience-of-spasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury-perceived-characteristics-and-impact-on-daily-life
#3
William Barry McKay, William Mark Sweatman, Edelle C Field-Fote
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of motor control characteristics attributed to spasticity, such as spasms, stiffness, and clonus on the daily life of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Nationwide, United States. METHODS: Internet-administered questionnaire, the Patient Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM) and items describing characteristics of spasticity including stiffness, spasms, clonus, and pain...
January 16, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338908/relationship-between-neuropathy-proximal-to-the-suprascapular-nerve-and-rotator-cuff-tear-in-a-rodent-model
#4
Yasuhito Sasaki, Nobuyasu Ochiai, Eiko Hashimoto, Yu Sasaki, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Takehiro Kijima, Koji Akimoto, Seiji Ohtori, Kazuhisa Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff tears are believed to coexist with cervical spine lesions. In cases of preexisting neuropathy, such as cervical spine lesions, fatty degeneration has likely already occurred due to the neuropathy. In these cases, rotator cuff tear is thought to occur easily because of preexisting extensive fatty degeneration and degeneration of the tendons due to neuropathy. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of paralysis due to neuropathy proximal to the suprascapular nerve on the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons using a rat model of brachial plexus paralysis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332246/an-historical-perspective-of-the-discovery-of-titin-filaments-part-2
#5
REVIEW
Cristobal G Dos Remedios
In 2017, a Special Issue of Biophysical Reviews was devoted to "Titin and Its Binding Partners. The issue contained a review: "An historical perspective of the discovery of titin filaments" by dos Remedios and Gilmour that was intended to be a history of the discovery of the giant protein titin, previously named connectin. The review took readers back to the earliest discovery of the so-called third filament component of skeletal and cardiac muscle sarcomeres and ended in 1969. Recently, my colleague Shin'ichi Ishiwata gently reminded me of two papers published in 1990 and 1993 that were unwittingly omitted from the original historical perspective...
January 13, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331806/unifying-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-ivt-mrna-expression-discrepancies-in-skeletal-muscle-via-mechanotransduction
#6
Sushma M Bhosle, Kristin H Loomis, Jonathan L Kirschman, Emmeline L Blanchard, Daryll A Vanover, Chiara Zurla, Damien Habrant, Darin Edwards, Patrick Baumhof, Bruno Pitard, Philip J Santangelo
The translational efficiency of an in vitro transcribed (IVT) mRNA was measured upon delivery to primary skeletal muscle cells and to a mouse model system, towards the development of a predictive in vitro assay for the screening and validation of intramuscular mRNA-based vaccines. When IVT mRNA was delivered either naked or complexed with novel aminoglycoside-based delivery vehicles, significant differences in protein expression in vitro and in vivo were observed. We hypothesized that this previously anticipated discrepancy was due to differences in the mechanism of IVT mRNA endosomal entry and release following delivery...
January 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330952/jaw-muscle-fiber-architecture-and-leverage-in-the-hard-object-feeding-sooty-mangabey-are-not-structured-to-facilitate-relatively-large-bite-forces-compared-to-other-papionins
#7
Andrea B Taylor, Claire E Terhune, Maxx Toler, Megan Holmes, Callum F Ross, Christopher J Vinyard
Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object feeders have been of particular interest because of their potential to inform our understanding about the diets of early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328887/macroscopic-rotator-cuff-tendinopathy-and-histopathology-do-not-predict-repair-outcomes-of-rotator-cuff-tears
#8
Paul M Sethi, Chirag D Sheth, Leo Pauzenberger, Mary Beth R McCarthy, Mark P Cote, Emma Soneson, Seth Miller, Augustus D Mazzocca
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have identified factors that may affect the chances of rotator cuff healing after surgery. Intraoperative tendon quality may be used to predict healing and to determine type of repair and/or consideration of augmentation. There are no data that correlate how gross tendon morphology and degree of tendinopathy affect patient outcome or postoperative tendon healing. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purposes of this study were to (1) compare the gross appearance of the tendon edge during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with its histological degree of tendinopathy and (2) determine if gross appearance correlated with postoperative repair integrity...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327169/passive-stiffness-of-monoarticular-lower-leg-muscles-is-influenced-by-knee-joint-angle
#9
Filiz Ateş, Ricardo J Andrade, Sandro R Freitas, François Hug, Lilian Lacourpaille, Raphael Gross, Can A Yucesoy, Antoine Nordez
PURPOSE: While several studies demonstrated the occurrence of intermuscular mechanical interactions, the physiological significance of these interactions remains a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to quantify the localized changes in the shear modulus of the gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), monoarticular dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscles induced by a change in knee angle. METHOD: Participants underwent slow passive ankle rotations at the following two knee positions: knee flexed at 90° and knee fully extended...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322318/total-knee-arthroplasty-with-unexplained-pain-new-insights-from-kinematics
#10
Célia Planckaert, Gabriel Larose, Pierre Ranger, Marc Lacelle, Alexandre Fuentes, Nicola Hagemeister
INTRODUCTION: Up to 20% of total knee arthroplasty patients remain unsatisfied post-surgery, and a large proportion of them report anterior knee pain. This study aims to verify whether patients who experience anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will exhibit kinematic characteristics similar to those associated with patellofemoral syndrome, including in the frontal and transverse planes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using four different assessment methods [radiological, patient-reported outcome, musculoskeletal assessment with functional performance testing, and a 3D kinematic assessment during gait], the clinical and 3D knee kinematic profiles of three groups were compared: a painful and an asymptomatic TKA group and a healthy control group...
January 10, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320446/physical-activity-physical-fitness-body-composition-and-nutrition-are-associated-with-bone-status-in-university-students
#11
Gotzone Hervás, Fátima Ruiz-Litago, Jon Irazusta, Ainhoa Fernández-Atutxa, Ana Belen Fraile-Bermúdez, Idoia Zarrazquin
Understanding the modifiable factors that improve and maximize peak bone mass at an early age is necessary to design more effective intervention programs to prevent osteoporosis. To identify these modifiable factors, we analyzed the relationship of physical activity (PA), physical fitness, body composition, and dietary intake with bone stiffness index (SI), measured by quantitative ultrasonometry in young university students (18-21 years). Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was the strongest predictor of SI (β = 0...
January 10, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316579/-management-of-compensated-liver-cirrhosis-2018-evidence-based-prophylactic-measures
#12
Kathrin Karkmann, Felix Piecha, Anna Caterina Rünzi, Lisa Schulz, Moritz von Wulffen, Daniel Benten, Johannes Kluwe, Henning Wege
In 2015, more than 13 000 people died due to the consequences of liver cirrhosis in Germany. Frequently, relevant liver fibrosis is diagnosed by non-invasive methods (e. g., ultrasound-based measurement of liver stiffness) already in the compensated stage. Following diagnosis of liver fibrosis, a thorough investigation of the underlying chronic liver disease and effective treatment are important to prevent progression to decompensated cirrhosis. Since morbidity and mortality dramatically increase in the decompensated stage (patients may present with jaundice, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding) with an upsurge in 1-year-mortality from 1 - 3...
January 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313862/reversible-generation-of-large-retractive-tensile-forces-in-isometric-chemo-mechanical-actuators-composed-of-nanocomposite-hydrogels-and-aqueous-nacl-solutions
#13
Kazutoshi Haraguchi, Yuji Kimura, Shouichi Shimizu
This article addresses the generation of large mechanical forces in muscle-like isometric actuator systems composed of stimuli-responsive nanocomposite hydrogels (NC gels) and aqueous NaCl solutions. NC gels with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-clay (PNIPA-clay) network structures exhibit high mechanical toughnesses and reversible swelling/deswelling behavior in the absence/presence of NaCl. NC gels constrained to constant lengths in brine generate enhanced contractive forces due to the salt-induced coil-to-globule transitions that are more than ten times larger than those induced thermally...
January 9, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313270/ultrasound-elastography-based-assessment-of-the-elasticity-of-the-supraspinatus-muscle-in-impingement-syndrome-does-elastography-has-any-diagnostic-value
#14
Adnan Demirel, Murat Baykara, Tuba Tülay Koca, Ejder Berk
Ultrasound elastography (UE) is a new ultrasound-based imaging technique that provides information about elasticity and stiffness of tissues. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the diagnostic importance of UE in supraspinatus impingement syndrome. Forty-one subjects, aged 38-70 years, were included in the study. UE was used to determine the elasticity of the supraspinatus muscle. The strain ratio was calculated as the evaluation criteria to measure the elasticity of the muscle. High strain ratio indicated low elasticity...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313089/first-delivery-and-ovariectomy-affect-biomechanical-and-structural-properties-of-the-vagina-in-the-ovine-model
#15
Iva Urbankova, Geertje Callewaert, Silvia Blacher, Dries Deprest, Lucie Hympanova, Andrew Feola, Laurent De Landsheere, Jan Deprest
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Animal models are useful for investigating the genesis of pelvic floor dysfunction and for developing novel therapies for its treatment. There is a need for an alternative large-animal model to the nonhuman primate. Therefore we studied the effects of the first vaginal delivery, ovariectomy and systemic hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) on the biomechanical and structural properties of the ovine vagina. METHODS: We examined the gross anatomical properties of nulliparous, primiparous, ovariectomized multiparous, and ovariectomized hormone-replaced multiparous sheep (six animals per group)...
January 8, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312775/case-report-improvement-of-cardiac-remodeling-with-shock-wave-therapy-of-a-patient-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#16
Yingnan Bai, Xiaoyan Wang, Xin Deng, Hongyi Wu, Abdel Hamid Fathy, Yan Xi, Yunzeng Zou, Jie Cui, Junbo Ge
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) are two major preferred reperfusion strategies to restore the ischemic-related artery patency, but PCI and CABG do not necessarily guarantee the recovery of post-procedure left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and release of symptoms. Moreover, there is no definitive effective way to enhance microcirculations. Theoretically, shock wave therapy (SWT) is an option. We report here a case of patient who received SWT. The patient's medical history was characterized by chest pain for 20 years, having received CABG 13 years ago...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311426/electrophysiological-and-histopathological-findings-of-muscular-disease-suspected-as-myotonic-dystrophy-in-a-shiba-dog
#17
Takanori Shiga, Seiichi Okuno, Kazuyuki Uchida, James K Chambers, Hiroyuki Nakayama
An 8-year-old male Japanese Shiba exhibited muscle wasting and a stiff gait. A low-amplitude myotonic discharge was recorded by needle electromyography (EMG). A histopathological examination on a tru-cut biopsy sample from the muscle revealed myofiber size variations. Internal nuclei and cytoplasmic vacuoles were observed in many fibers. A type 1 fiber predominance and many hybrid type fibers were observed immunohistochemically. On the basis of these EMG and histopathological findings, myotonic dystrophy (DM) was suspected as tentative diagnosis...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309904/regulator-of-calcineurin-1-modulates-vascular-contractility-and-stiffness-through-the-upregulation-of-cox-2-derived-prostanoids
#18
Ana B García-Redondo, Vanesa Esteban, Ana M Briones, Lucía S Díaz Del Campo, María González-Amor, Nerea Méndez-Barbero, Miguel R Campanero, Juan M Redondo, Mercedes Salaices A
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived-prostanoids participate in the altered vascular function and mechanical properties in cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether regulator of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1) participates in vascular contractility and stiffness through the regulation of COX-2. For this, wild type (Rcan1+/+) and Rcan1-deficient (Rcan1-/-) mice untreated or treated with the COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib were used. Vascular function and structure were analysed by myography. COX-2 and phospo-p65 expression were studied by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and TXA2 production by ELISA...
January 5, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304997/cellular-biomechanics-in-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#19
Edward W Li, Olivia C McKee-Muir, Penney M Gilbert
Satellite cells, adult stem cells in skeletal muscle tissue, reside within a mechanically dynamic three-dimensional microenvironment. With each contraction-relaxation cycle, a satellite cell is expected to experience tensile, shear, and compressive stresses, and through cell-extracellular matrix interactions, also gauge the stiffness of the niche. Via mechanoreceptors, cells can sense these biophysical parameters of the niche, which serve to physically induce conformational changes that impact biomolecule activity, and thereby alter downstream signal transduction pathways and ultimately cell fate...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304064/hyperleptinemia-positively-associated-with-central-arterial-stiffness-in-hemodialysis-patients
#20
Chiu-Huang Kuo, Yu-Li Lin, Chung-Jen Lee, Chih-Hsien Wang, Yu-Hsien Lai, Hung-Hsiang Liou, Bang-Gee Hsu
OBJECTIVE: Leptin plays a role in stimulating vascular inflammation, vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy, and augmenting blood pressure, which contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and leads to arterial stiffness. This vascular damage, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), is recognized as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum leptin and arterial stiffness in HD patients...
2018: PloS One
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