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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791601/resting-spontaneous-baroreflex-sensitivity-and-cardiac-autonomic-control-in-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users
#1
Marcelo R Dos Santos, Ana L C Sayegh, Rafael Armani, Valéria Costa-Hong, Francis R de Souza, Edgar Toschi-Dias, Luiz A Bortolotto, Mauricio Yonamine, Carlos E Negrão, Maria-Janieire N N Alves
OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, we evaluate pulse wave velocity to ascertain the arterial stiffness of large vessels...
May 21, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787583/gender-associated-muscle-tendon-adaptations-to-resistance-training
#2
Gerard McMahon, Christopher I Morse, Keith Winwood, Adrian Burden, Gladys L Onambélé
PURPOSE: To compare the relative changes in muscle-tendon complex (MTC) properties following high load resistance training (RT) in young males and females, and determine any link with circulating TGFβ-1 and IGF-I levels. METHODS: Twenty-eight participants were assigned to a training group and subdivided by sex (T males [TM] aged 20±1 year, n = 8, T females [TF] aged 19±3 year, n = 8), whilst age-matched 6 males and 6 females were assigned to control groups (ConM/F)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780158/evaluation-of-the-factors-affecting-concerns-and-expectations-of-patients-undergoing-total-knee-arthroplasty-in-china
#3
Yang Li, Hong Cai, Hua Tian, Ke Zhang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to assess the level of concern and expectations of patients and their families of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), peri-operative procedures, postoperative rehabilitation, and outcome in a Chinese population. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study recruited 133 patients with osteoarthritis, scheduled to undergo primary elective TKA. Before surgery, the surgeon completed the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) Knee Score questionnaire on pain, function, range of motion (ROM), and muscle strength...
May 21, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777250/prevalence-of-temporomandibular-disorders-in-patients-with-hashimoto-thyroiditis
#4
Alina Grozdinska, Elisabeth Hofmann, Matthias Schmid, Ursula Hirschfelder
OBJECTIVES: Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), also known as Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), is a degenerative inflammatory disease with high prevalence among women and has been associated with fibromyalgia and widespread chronic pain. The goal was to determine the frequency of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients with HT. METHODS: In all, 119 women (age 19-60 years) were divided into a study (52 women diagnosed with HT) and a control (67 healthy individuals, of which 15 were excluded) group...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769823/relationship-between-achilles-tendon-stiffness-and-ground-contact-time-during-drop-jumps
#5
Mohamed Abdelsattar, Andreas Konrad, Markus Tilp
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Achilles tendon stiffness and ground contact time (GCT) during drop jumps. The property of "springiness" and a short GCT during the movement is required in several types of sports. Therefore, a stiff tendon might be advantageous due to the quick force transmission from the muscle to the bone. Hence, a secondary aim was to relate Achilles tendon stiffness with squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) performance, respectively...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763373/oral-glucose-challenge-impairs-skeletal-muscle-microvascular-blood-flow-in-healthy-people
#6
Ryan D Russell, Donghua Hu, Timothy Greenaway, James E Sharman, Stephen Rattigan, Stephen M Richards, Michelle A Keske
Skeletal muscle microvascular (capillary) blood flow increases in the post-prandial state or during insulin infusion due to dilation of pre-capillary arterioles to augment glucose disposal. This effect occurs independent of changes in large artery function. However, acute hyperglycemia impairs vascular function, causes insulin to vasoconstrict pre-capillary arterioles, and causes muscle insulin resistance in vivo. We hypothesize that acute hyperglycemia impairs post-prandial muscle microvascular perfusion, without disrupting normal large artery hemodynamics, in healthy humans...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761409/the-roles-of-matrix-stiffness-and-%C3%A3-catenin-signaling-in-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-aortic-valve-endothelial-cells
#7
Aileen Zhong, Zahra Mirzaei, Craig A Simmons
Valve stiffening is a hallmark of aortic valve stenosis caused by excess extracellular matrix accumulation by myofibroblasts. We aimed to elucidate whether matrix stiffness regulates endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of adult valvular endothelial cells (VECs) to myofibroblasts as a mechanism to further promote valve fibrosis. In addition, we specifically examined the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the development of myofibroblasts during EndMT, as Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in EndMT during heart development, is reactivated in valve disease, and is required for mechanically-regulated myofibrogenesis of valve interstitial cells...
May 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761054/is-high-intensity-interval-cycling-feasible-and-more-beneficial-than-continuous-cycling-for-knee-osteoarthritic-patients-results-of-a-randomised-control-feasibility-trial
#8
Justin W Keogh, Josephine Grigg, Christopher J Vertullo
Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients often suffer joint pain and stiffness, which contributes to negative changes in body composition, strength, physical performance (function), physical activity and health-related quality of life. To reduce these symptoms and side effects of knee OA, moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) cycling is often recommended. While resistance training is considered the optimal form of training to improve sarcopenic outcomes, it imposes higher joint loads and requires supervision, either initially or continuously by trained exercise professionals...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760552/patients-receiving-chiropractic-care-in-a-neurorehabilitation-hospital-a-descriptive-study
#9
Robert D Vining, Stacie A Salsbury, W Carl Cooley, Donna Gosselin, Lance Corber, Christine M Goertz
Objectives: Individuals rehabilitating from complex neurological injury require a multidisciplinary approach, which typically does not include chiropractic care. This study describes inpatients receiving multidisciplinary rehabilitation including chiropractic care for brain injury, spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, and other complex neurological conditions. Design: Chiropractic services were integrated into Crotched Mountain Specialty Hospital (CMSH) through this project...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753912/biomimetic-soft-fibrous-hydrogels-for-contractile-and-pharmacologically-responsive-smooth-muscle
#10
Yonghui Ding, Xin Xu, Sadhana Sharma, Michael Floren, Kurt Stenmark, Stephanie J Bryant, Corey P Neu, Wei Tan
The ability to assess changes in smooth muscle contractility and pharmacological responsiveness in normal or pathological-relevant vascular tissue environments is critical to enable vascular drug discovery. However, major challenges remain in both capturing the complexity of in vivo vascular remodeling and evaluating cell contractility in complex, tissue-like environments. Herein, we developed a biomimetic fibrous hydrogel with tunable structure, stiffness, and composition to resemble the native vascular tissue environment...
May 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752239/development-of-an-ankle-foot-orthosis-that-provides-support-for-flaccid-paretic-plantarflexor-and-dorsiflexor-muscles
#11
Dymphy van der Wilk, Roy Reints, Klaas Postema, Tom Gort, Jaap Harlaar, Juha Markus Hijmans, Gijsbertus Jacob Verkerke
ADJUST, a novel ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) that we have developed, allows the ankle a normal range of motion (ROM) while providing support for flaccid ankle-muscle paresis. It consists of two leaf-spring hinges that independently control plantarflexion and dorsiflexion stiffness. To evaluate whether ADJUST meets the minimum mechanical requirements, we quantified its ankle ROM and stiffness. To evaluate whether it meets the minimum ankle kinematic and kinetic goals for normal gait, a patient with both plantarflexor and dorsiflexor paralysis used it, and his own AFO, to walk...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750366/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-maternal-choline-supplementation-in-heavy-drinking-pregnant-women-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#12
Sandra W Jacobson, R Colin Carter, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Marjanne Senekal, Nadine M Lindinger, Neil C Dodge, Steven H Zeisel, Christopher P Duggan, Joseph L Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Choline, an essential nutrient, serves as a methyl-group donor for DNA methylation and is a constituent of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a precursor to major components of cell membranes. Findings from animal studies suggest that choline supplementation during pregnancy may mitigate adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and neurocognitive function. We conducted a randomized, double-blind exploratory trial to examine feasibility and acceptability of a choline supplementation intervention during pregnancy...
May 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743072/usefulness-of-circuit-training-at-home-for-improving-bone-mass-and-muscle-mass-while-losing-fat-mass-in-undergraduate-female-students
#13
Yoko Takahata
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not circuit training at home affects the calcaneus quantitative ultrasound status as well as other indices of body composition among undergraduate female students. METHODS: Forty-one adolescents were recruited (18.5 ± 0.6 years old). The stiffness index of the calcaneus, broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneus, speed of sound of the calcaneus, and body frame index. This was a three-month intervention study, so the measurements were conducted at baseline, 2 months later, and 3 months later while the subjects underwent circuit training at home...
May 9, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739314/association-between-skeletal-muscle-mass-to-visceral-fat-area-ratio-and-arterial-stiffness-in-chinese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Jing Xu, Xiaoyan Pan, Haili Liang, Yi Lin, Yilian Hong, Qiya Si, Feixia Shen, Xuejiang Gu
BACKGROUND: The skeletal muscle mass-to-visceral fat area ratio (SVR) has been linked to arterial stiffness in non-diabetic adults. We examined the association between the SVR and arterial stiffness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (252 men and 171 women) aged 40-75 years were enrolled and divided into three groups according to SVR tertiles. Arterial stiffness was measured as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), with baPWV> 1800 mm/s defined as high...
May 8, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732595/noninvasive-measurement-of-sciatic-nerve-stiffness-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-related-leg-pain-using-shear-wave-elastography
#15
Tiago Neto, Sandro R Freitas, Ricardo J Andrade, João R Vaz, Bruno Mendes, Telmo Firmino, Paula M Bruno, Antoine Nordez, Raúl Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether sciatic nerve stiffness is altered in people with chronic low back-related leg pain by using shear wave elastography. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the sciatic nerve shear wave velocity (ie, an index of stiffness) was measured in both legs of 16 participants (8 with unilateral low back-related leg pain and 8 healthy controls). Sciatic stiffness was measured during a passive ankle dorsiflexion motion performed at 2°/s in an isokinetic dynamometer...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730804/model-based-analysis-of-fatigued-human-knee-extensors-effects-of-isometrically-induced-fatigue-on-hill-type-model-parameters-and-ballistic-contractions
#16
Harald Penasso, Sigrid Thaller
This study investigated the effect of isometrically induced fatigue on Hill-type muscle model parameters and related task-dependent effects. Parameter identification methods were used to extract fatigue-related parameter trends from isometric and ballistic dynamic maximum voluntary knee extensions. Nine subjects, who completed ten fatiguing sets, each consisting of nine 3 s isometric maximum voluntary contractions with 3 s rest plus two ballistic contractions with different loads, were analyzed. Only at the isometric task, the identified optimized model parameter values of muscle activation rate and maximum force generating capacity of the contractile element decreased from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] Hz and from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] N, respectively...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730683/effects-of-passive-muscle-stiffness-measured-by-shear-wave-elastography-muscle-thickness-and-body-mass-index-on-athletic-performance-in-adolescent-female-basketball-players
#17
Orkun Akkoc, Emine Caliskan, Zuhal Bayramoglu
AIMS: Athletic performance in basketball comprises the contributions of anaerobic and aerobic performance. The aim was to investigate the effects of passive muscle stiffness, using shear wave elastography (SWE), as well as muscle thickness, and body mass index (BMI), on both aerobic and anaerobic performances in adolescent female basketball players.Material and methods: Anaerobic and aerobic (VO2max) performance was assessed using the vertical jump and shuttle run tests, respectively, in 24 volunteer adolescent female basketball players...
May 2, 2018: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724005/cholesterol-efflux-does-it-contribute-to-aortic-stiffening
#18
REVIEW
Shutan Liao, Craig S McLachlan
Aortic stiffness during cardiac contraction is defined by the rigidity of the aorta and the elastic resistance to deformation. Recent studies suggest that aortic stiffness may be associated with changes in cholesterol efflux in endothelial cells. This alteration in cholesterol efflux may directly affect endothelial function, extracellular matrix composition, and vascular smooth muscle cell function and behavior. These pathological changes favor an aortic stiffness phenotype. Among all of the proteins participating in the cholesterol efflux process, ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) appears to be the main contributor to arterial stiffness changes in terms of structural and cellular function...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723911/specialized-properties-of-the-triceps-surae-muscle-tendon-unit-in-professional-ballet-dancers
#19
M M Moltubakk, M M Magulas, F O Villars, O R Seynnes, J Bojsen-Møller
This study compared professional ballet dancers (n=10) to non-stretching controls (n=10) with the purpose of comparing muscle and tendon morphology, mechanical, neural and functional properties of the triceps surae and their role for ankle joint flexibility. Torque-angle and torque-velocity data were obtained during passive and active conditions by use of isokinetic dynamometry, while tissue morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by ultrasonography. Dancers displayed longer gastrocnemius medialis fascicles (55 ± 5 vs 47 ± 6 mm) and a longer (207 ± 33 vs 167 ± 10 mm) and more compliant (230 ± 87 vs 364 ± 106 N·mm-1 ) Achilles tendon compared to controls...
May 3, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723229/effects-of-an-acute-bout-of-dynamic-stretching-on-biomechanical-properties-of-the-gastrocnemius-muscle-determined-by-shear-wave-elastography
#20
George M Pamboris, Marika Noorkoiv, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Hulya Gokalp, Robert Marzilger, Amir A Mohagheghi
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of dynamic stretching (DS) exercise on passive ankle range of motion (RoM), resting localized muscle stiffness, as measured by shear wave speed (SWS) of medial gastrocnemius muscle, fascicle strain, and thickness. METHODS/RESULTS: Twenty-three participants performed a DS protocol. Before and after stretching, SWS was measured in the belly of the resting medial gastrocnemius muscle (MGM) using shear wave elastography...
2018: PloS One
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