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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914234/food-gastrointestinal-ph-and-models-of-oral-drug-absorption
#1
REVIEW
Ahmad Y Abuhelwa, Desmond B Williams, Richard N Upton, David J R Foster
This article reviews the major physiological and physicochemical principles of the effect of food and gastrointestinal (GI) pH on the absorption and bioavailability of oral drugs, and the various absorption models that are used to describe/predict oral drug absorption. The rate and extent of oral drug absorption is determined by a complex interaction between a drug's physicochemical properties, GI physiologic factors, and the nature of the formulation administered. GI pH is an important factor that can markedly affect oral drug absorption and bioavailability as it may have significant influence on drug dissolution & solubility, drug release, drug stability, and intestinal permeability...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913933/fatigue-reduction-diet-in-breast-cancer-survivors-a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Suzanna Maria Zick, Justin Colacino, Maria Cornellier, Tohfa Khabir, Katie Surnow, Zora Djuric
PURPOSE: Fatigue is a prevalent and burdensome effect of breast cancer. Fatigue has been linked to chronic inflammation, and diets high in antioxidant nutrients have been associated with lesser prevalence and severity of fatigue. Studies are needed, however, to test if antioxidant-rich diets could improve fatigue. METHODS: Pilot, randomized, trial conducted between January 2014 and April 2015, to investigate if a 3-month diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and omega-3 fatty acid-rich foods, named the fatigue reduction diet (FRD), improved fatigue and sleep compared to an attention control, named the general health curriculum (GHC)...
December 2, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910795/i-did-eat-my-vegetables-agreement-between-parent-and-child-food-intake-diaries
#3
Natalie Rangelov, L Suzanne Suggs, Pedro Marques-Vidal
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of agreement between children and their parents when reporting a child's food consumption. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in which children and parents independently completed 7 d food diaries describing the foods and drinks the child consumed at every meal and snack. The association between child and parent reporting was assessed for nineteen food groups using Kendall's tau-b non-parametric correlations, Spearman's rank correlations, kappa coefficients and Lin's concordance measure of agreement...
December 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907120/structural-and-functional-elucidation-of-yeast-lanosterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-in-complex-with-agrochemical-antifungals
#4
Joel D A Tyndall, Manya Sabherwal, Alia A Sagatova, Mikhail V Keniya, Jacopo Negroni, Rajni K Wilson, Matthew A Woods, Klaus Tietjen, Brian C Monk
Azole antifungals, known as demethylase inhibitors (DMIs), target sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway of fungal pathogens of both plants and humans. DMIs remain the treatment of choice in crop protection against a wide range of fungal phytopathogens that have the potential to reduce crop yields and threaten food security. We used a yeast membrane protein expression system to overexpress recombinant hexahistidine-tagged S. cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase and the Y140F or Y140H mutants of this enzyme as surrogates in order characterize interactions with DMIs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904786/a-targeted-metabolomics-assay-to-measure-eight-purines-in-the-diet-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#5
A J Ardente, T J Garrett, R S Wells, M Walsh, C R Smith, J Colee, R C Hill
Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence...
October 2016: Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903645/upgrading-short-read-animal-genome-assemblies-to-chromosome-level-using-comparative-genomics-and-a-universal-probe-set
#6
Joana Damas, Rebecca O'Connor, Marta Farré, Vasileios Panagiotis E Lenis, Henry J Martell, Anjali Mandawala, Katie Fowler, Sunitha Joseph, Martin T Swain, Darren K Griffin, Denis M Larkin
Most recent initiatives to sequence and assemble new species' genomes de-novo fail to achieve the ultimate endpoint to produce contigs, each representing one whole chromosome. Even the best-assembled genomes (using contemporary technologies) consist of sub-chromosomal sized scaffolds. To circumvent this problem, we developed a novel approach that combines computational algorithms to merge scaffolds into chromosomal fragments, PCR-based scaffold verification and physical mapping to chromosomes. Multi-genome-alignment-guided probe selection led to the development of a set of universal avian BAC clones that permit rapid anchoring of multiple scaffolds to chromosomes on all avian genomes...
November 30, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900461/microbial-food-web-drivers-in-tropical-reservoirs
#7
Carolina Davila Domingues, Lucia Helena Sampaio da Silva, Luciana Machado Rangel, Leonardo de Magalhães, Adriana de Melo Rocha, Lúcia Meirelles Lobão, Rafael Paiva, Fábio Roland, Hugo Sarmento
Element cycling in aquatic systems is driven chiefly by planktonic processes, and the structure of the planktonic food web determines the efficiency of carbon transfer through trophic levels. However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated all planktonic food-web components in tropical regions. The aim of this study was to unravel the top-down controls (metazooplankton community structure), bottom-up controls (resource availability), and hydrologic (water residence time) and physical (temperature) variables that affect different components of the microbial food web (MFW) carbon stock in tropical reservoirs, through structural equation models (SEM)...
November 29, 2016: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900447/controversies-about-sugars-results-from-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-on-obesity-cardiometabolic-disease-and-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Tauseef A Khan, John L Sievenpiper
Fructose-containing sugars are a focus of attention as a public health target for their putative role in obesity and cardiometabolic disease including diabetes. The fructose moiety is singled out to be the primary driver for the harms of sugars due to its unique endocrine signal and pathophysiological role. However, this is only supported by ecological studies, animal models of overfeeding and select human intervention studies with supraphysiological doses or lack of control for energy. The highest level of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled trials has not shown that fructose-containing sugars behave any differently from other forms of digestible carbohydrates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900338/the-bridge-enhanced-anterior-cruciate-ligament-repair-bear-procedure-an-early-feasibility-cohort-study
#9
Martha M Murray, Brett M Flutie, Leslie A Kalish, Kirsten Ecklund, Braden C Fleming, Benedikt L Proffen, Lyle J Micheli
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the safety of the newly developed bridge-enhanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair (BEAR), which involves suture repair of the ligament combined with a bioactive scaffold to bridge the gap between the torn ligament ends. As the intra-articular environment is complex in its response to implanted materials, this study was designed to determine whether there would be a significant rate of adverse reaction to the implanted scaffold. HYPOTHESIS: The primary hypothesis was that the implanted scaffold would not result in a deep joint infection (arthrocentesis with positive culture) or significant inflammation (clinical symptoms justifying arthrocentesis but negative culture)...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899482/transient-receptor-potential-canonical-3-trpc3-channels-are-required-for-hypothalamic-glucose-detection-and-energy-homeostasis
#10
Chloé Chrétien, Claire Fenech, Fabienne Liénard, Sylvie Grall, Charlène Chevalier, Sylvie Chaudy, Xavier Brenachot, Raymond Berges, Katie Louche, Romana Stark, Emmanuelle Nédélec, Amélie Laderrière, Zane B Andrews, Alexandre Benani, Veit Flockerzi, Jean Gascuel, Jana Hartmann, Cédric Moro, Lutz Birnbaumer, Corinne Leloup, Luc Pénicaud, Xavier Fioramonti
The medio-basal hypothalamus (MBH) contains neurons capable of directly detecting metabolic signals such as glucose to control energy homeostasis. Among them, glucose-excited (GE) neurons increase their electrical activity when glucose rises. In view of previous work, we hypothesized that Transient Receptor Potential Canonical type-3 (TRPC3) channels are involved in hypothalamic glucose detection and the control of energy homeostasis.To investigate the role of TRPC3, we used constitutive and conditional TRPC3-deficient mice models...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898819/genotyping-by-sequencing-analysis-for-determining-population-structure-of-finger-millet-germplasm-of-diverse-origins
#11
Anil Kumar, Divya Sharma, Apoorv Tiwari, J P Jaiswal, N K Singh, Salej Sood
Finger millet [ (L.) Gaertn.] is grown mainly by subsistence farmers in arid and semiarid regions of the world. To broaden its genetic base and to boost its production, it is of paramount importance to characterize and genotype the diverse gene pool of this important food and nutritional security crop. However, as a result of nonavailability of the genome sequence of finger millet, the progress could not be made in realizing the molecular basis of unique qualities of the crop. In the present investigation, attempts have been made to characterize the genetically diverse collection of 113 finger millet accessions through whole-genome genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), which resulted in a genome-wide set of 23,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) segregating across the entire collection and several thousand SNPs segregating within every accession...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895388/acetate-alters-expression-of-genes-involved-in-beige-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-obese-kk-ay-mice
#12
Satoko Hanatani, Hiroyuki Motoshima, Yuki Takaki, Shuji Kawasaki, Motoyuki Igata, Takeshi Matsumura, Tatsuya Kondo, Takafumi Senokuchi, Norio Ishii, Junji Kawashima, Daisuke Kukidome, Seiya Shimoda, Takeshi Nishikawa, Eiichi Araki
The induction of beige adipogenesis within white adipose tissue, known as "browning", has received attention as a novel potential anti-obesity strategy. The expression of some characteristic genes including PR domain containing 16 is induced during the browning process. Although acetate has been reported to suppress weight gain in both rodents and humans, its potential effects on beige adipogenesis in white adipose tissue have not been fully characterized. We examined the effects of acetate treatment on 3T3-L1 cells and in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895055/role-of-agents-for-reversing-the-effects-of-target-specific-oral-anticoagulants
#13
REVIEW
Tanya R Riley, Mary L Gauthier-Lewis, Chelsea K Sanchez, Janine S Douglas
PURPOSE: The available clinical data on target-specific oral anticoagulant (TSOAC) reversal agents that are currently in development or have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are reviewed. SUMMARY: The development of TSOACs such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, edoxaban, and apixaban has presented benefits and new challenges. One of the main challenges associated with the use of TSOACs is the lack of suitable agent-specific reversal agents. Several treatment options for the management of life-threatening bleeding events associated with TSOAC use, such as fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrates, and recombinant coagulation factor VIIa, have been used, with inconsistent results...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895049/daily-feeding-and-protein-metabolism-rhythms-in-senegalese-sole-post-larvae
#14
Carmen Navarro-Guillén, Manuel Yúfera, Sofia Engrola
Fish hatcheries must adapt larval feeding protocols to the feeding behavior and metabolism pattern to obtain a more efficient feeds utilization. Fish larvae exhibit daily ingesting rhythms rather than ingesting food continuously throughout the day. The aim of this study was to determine the daily patterns of feed intake, protein digestibility, protein retention and catabolism in Senegalese sole post-larvae (Solea senegalensis; 33 days post-hatching) using (14)C-labelled Artemia protein and incubation in metabolic chambers...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894969/the-types-and-aspects-of-front-of-pack-food-labelling-schemes-preferred-by-adults-and-children
#15
Simone Pettigrew, Zenobia Talati, Caroline Miller, Helen Dixon, Bridget Kelly, Kylie Ball
There is strong interest in front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) as a potential mechanism for improving diets, and therefore health, at the population level. The present study examined Australian consumers' preferences for different types and attributes of FoPLs to provide additional insights into optimal methods of presenting nutrition information on the front of food packets. Much research to date has focused on two main types of FoPLs - those expressing daily intake values for specific nutrients and those utilising 'traffic light' colour coding...
November 25, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894336/curcumin-and-long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-cop-d-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Rohith N Thota, Shamasunder H Acharya, Kylie A Abbott, Manohar L Garg
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle interventions, including increase in physical activity and dietary counselling, have shown the ability to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D) in high-risk state individuals, but the prevalence is still skyrocketing in Australia, in line with global prevalence. Currently, no medicines are approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration in Australia for the management of prediabetes. Therefore, there is a need of developing a safer, biologically efficacious and cost-effective alternative for delaying the transition of individual health state from prediabetes into T2D...
November 29, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893618/early-resuscitation-with-lyophilized-plasma-provides-equal-neuroprotection-compared-with-fresh-frozen-plasma-in-a-large-animal-survival-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#17
Ihab Halaweish, Ted Bambakidis, Vahagn C Nikolian, Patrick Georgoff, Peter Bruhn, Patryk Piascik, Lisa Buckley, Ashok Srinivasan, Baoling Liu, Yongqing Li, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) is highly lethal. In previous models of combined TBI + HS, we showed that early resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) improves neurologic outcomes. Delivering FFP, however, in austere environments is difficult. Lyophilized plasma (LP) is a logistically superior alternative to FFP, but data are limited regarding its efficacy for treatment of TBI. We conducted this study to determine the safety and long-term outcomes of early treatment with LP in a large animal model of TBI + HS...
December 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891759/sociodemographic-correlates-and-family-aggregation-of-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-adults-and-children-from-mesoamerica
#18
Kerry S Flannagan, Erica C Jansen, Laura S Rozek, Katie M Rentschler, Ana Victoria Roman, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Eduardo Villamor
OBJECTIVE: Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative stress and inflammation related to chronic disease risk. We examined the associations of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with sociodemographic and anthropometric variables and estimated LTL family aggregation in Central America, a region with a high burden of chronic disease where LTL has not been studied. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 174 school age children and their parents in the capital cities of Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and the city of Tuxtla-Gutierrez in Mexico...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889314/dietary-patterns-during-adulthood-among-lesbian-bisexual-and-heterosexual-women-in-the-nurses-health-study-ii
#19
Nicole A VanKim, S Bryn Austin, Hee-Jin Jun, Frank B Hu, Heather L Corliss
BACKGROUND: Lesbian and bisexual women are at greater risk of being obese than heterosexual women; however, there is little research on dietary intake among lesbian and bisexual women. OBJECTIVE: This study estimated differences in dietary quality and intake during adulthood comparing heterosexual women to lesbian and bisexual women. DESIGN: Biennial mailed questionnaires were used to collect data from a cohort between 1991 and 2011. Heterosexual-identified women were the reference group...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889142/the-microbiota-of-marketed-processed-edible-insects-as-revealed-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#20
Cristiana Garofalo, Andrea Osimani, Vesna Milanović, Manuela Taccari, Federica Cardinali, Lucia Aquilanti, Paola Riolo, Sara Ruschioni, Nunzio Isidoro, Francesca Clementi
Entomophagy has been linked to nutritional, economic, social and ecological benefits. However, scientific studies on the potential safety risks in eating edible insects need to be carried out for legislators, markets and consumers. In this context, the microbiota of edible insects deserves to be deeply investigated. The aim of this study was to elucidate the microbial species occurring in some processed marketed edible insects, namely powdered small crickets, whole dried small crickets (Acheta domesticus), whole dried locusts (Locusta migratoria), and whole dried mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor), through culture-dependent (classical microbiological analyses) and -independent methods (pyrosequencing)...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
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