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manual manipulation

Matthew D Hilchey, Jay Pratt, John Christie
Decades of research using Posner's classic spatial cueing paradigm has uncovered at least two forms of inhibition of return (IOR) in the aftermath of an exogenous, peripheral orienting cue. One prominent dissociation concerns the role of covert and overt orienting in generating IOR effects that relate to perception- and action- oriented processes, respectively. Another prominent dissociation concerns the role of covert and overt orienting in generating IOR effects that depend on object- and space- based representation, respectively...
October 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Alvin Rajkomar, Sneha Lingam, Andrew G Taylor, Michael Blum, John Mongan
The study aimed to determine if computer vision techniques rooted in deep learning can use a small set of radiographs to perform clinically relevant image classification with high fidelity. One thousand eight hundred eighty-five chest radiographs on 909 patients obtained between January 2013 and July 2015 at our institution were retrieved and anonymized. The source images were manually annotated as frontal or lateral and randomly divided into training, validation, and test sets. Training and validation sets were augmented to over 150,000 images using standard image manipulations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Wenchao Gao, Wenyu Liang, Kok Kiong Tan
To treat a worldwide common ear disease (OME), a device allowing fast grommet tube insertion has been designed in our earlier works (Gao et al., 2015 [1] and Liang et al., 2013 [2]). However, the instrument has to be manually placed as close as to the Tympanic Membrane before the insertion procedures. To realize a fully automated surgical process, the instrument shall be automatically manipulated to align to the axial direction of ear canal and proceed to complete the surgery. A vision-based servomechanism is proposed to solve the path planning problem...
October 5, 2016: ISA Transactions
Christian Hauptmann, Alexander Wegener, Hendrik Poppe, Mark Williams, Gerald Popelka, Peter A Tass
BACKGROUND: Sound-based tinnitus intervention stimuli include broad-band noise signals with subjectively adjusted bandwidths used as maskers delivered by commercial devices or hearing aids, environmental sounds broadly described and delivered by both consumer devices and hearing aids, music recordings specifically modified and delivered in a variety of different ways, and other stimuli. Acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation therapy for tinnitus reduction has unique and more stringent requirements compared to all other sound-based tinnitus interventions...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Jocelyn Cox, Christine Davidian, Silvano Mior
INTRODUCTION: Spinal pain in the paediatric population is a significant health issue, with an increasing prevalence as they age. Paediatric patients attend for chiropractor care for spinal pain, yet, there is a paucity of quality evidence to guide the practitioner with respect to appropriate care planning. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was used to describe chiropractic management of paediatric neck pain. Two researchers abstracted data from 50 clinical files that met inclusion criteria from a general practice chiropractic office in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada...
September 2016: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
J J Wong, P Côté, D A Sutton, K Randhawa, H Yu, S Varatharajan, R Goldgrub, M Nordin, D P Gross, H M Shearer, L J Carroll, P J Stern, A Ameis, D Southerst, S Mior, M Stupar, T Varatharajan, A Taylor-Vaisey
: We conducted a systematic review of guidelines on the management of low back pain (LBP) to assess their methodological quality and guide care. We synthesized guidelines on the management of LBP published from 2005 to 2014 following best evidence synthesis principles. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane, DARE, National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database, Index to Chiropractic Literature and grey literature. Independent reviewers critically appraised eligible guidelines using AGREE II criteria...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
A Chaibi, J Š Benth, P J Tuchin, M B Russell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs. METHODS: This was a prospective three-armed, single-blinded, placebo, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 17 months duration including 104 migraineurs with at least one migraine attack per month. The RCT was conducted at Akershus University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Active treatment consisted of CSMT, whereas placebo was a sham push manoeuvre of the lateral edge of the scapula and/or the gluteal region...
October 2, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Alastair J M Key
The human hand is unparalleled amongst primates in its ability to manipulate objects forcefully and dexterously. Previous research has predominantly sought to explain the evolution of these capabilities through an adaptive relationship between more modern human-like anatomical features in the upper limb and increased stone tool production and use proficiency. To date, however, we know little about the influence that other manipulatively demanding behaviors may have had upon the evolution of the human hand. The present study addresses one aspect of this deficiency by examining the recruitment of the distal phalanges during a range of manual transportation (i...
2016: PloS One
David A Gonzalez, Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo
The contribution of binocular vision to the performance of reaching and grasping movements has been examined previously using single reach-to-grasp movements. However, most of our daily activities consist of more complex action sequences, which require precise temporal linking between the gaze behaviour and manual action phases. Many previous studies found a stereotypical hand-eye coordination pattern, such that the eyes move prior to the reach initiation. Moving the eyes to the target object provides information about its features and location, which can facilitate the predictive control of reaching and grasping...
September 26, 2016: Vision Research
Helen Hall, Holger Cramer, Tobias Sundberg, Lesley Ward, Jon Adams, Craig Moore, David Sibbritt, Romy Lauche
BACKGROUND: Low back pain and pelvic girth pain are common in pregnancy and women commonly utilize complementary manual therapies such as massage, spinal manipulation, chiropractic, and osteopathy to manage their symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematically review was to critically appraise and synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual therapies for managing pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain. METHODS: Seven databases were searched from their inception until April 2015 for randomized controlled trials...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Daniel Markel, Ives Levesque, Joe Larkin, Pierre Léger, Issam El Naqa
At present, there exists few openly available methods for evaluation of simultaneous segmentation and registration algorithms. These methods allow for a combination of both techniques to track the tumor in complex settings such as adaptive radiotherapy. We have produced a quality assurance platform for evaluating this specific subset of algorithms using a preserved porcine lung in such that it is multi-modality compatible: positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Abigail Thompson, Declan Murphy, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan, Henrietta Howells, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo
BACKGROUND: Fine motor skill impairments are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly affecting quality of life. Sensory inputs reaching the primary motor cortex (M1) from the somatosensory cortex (S1) are likely involved in fine motor skill and specifically motor learning. However, the role of these connections has not been directly investigated in humans. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the role of the S1-M1 connections in healthy subjects in vivo and whether microstructural alterations are associated with motor impairment in ASD...
July 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Sheldon L Reeves, Kelsey E Fleming, Lin Zhang, Annalisa Scimemi
Grooming is a complex and robust innate behavior, commonly performed by most vertebrate species. In mice, grooming consists of a series of stereotyped patterned strokes, performed along the rostro-caudal axis of the body. The frequency and duration of each grooming episode is sensitive to changes in stress levels, social interactions and pharmacological manipulations, and is therefore used in behavioral studies to gain insights into the function of brain regions that control movement execution and anxiety. Traditional approaches to analyze grooming rely on manually scoring the time of onset and duration of each grooming episode, and are often performed on grooming episodes triggered by stress exposure, which may not be entirely representative of spontaneous grooming in freely-behaving mice...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Katherine E Law, Caitlin G Jenewein, Samantha J Gannon, Shannon M DiMarco, Lakita J Maulson, Shlomi Laufer, Carla M Pugh
BACKGROUND: The study aim was to identify residents' coordination between dominant and nondominant hands while grasping for sutures in a laparoscopic ventral hernia repair procedure simulation. We hypothesize residents will rely on their dominant and nondominant hands unequally while grasping for suture. METHODS: Surgical residents had 15 min to complete the mesh securing and mesh tacking steps of a laparoscopic ventral hernia repair procedure. Procedure videos were coded for manual coordination events during the active suture grasping phase...
September 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Victoria Petri, G Thomas Hayman, Marek Tutaj, Jennifer R Smith, Stan Laulederkind, Shur-Jen Wang, Rajni Nigam, Jeff De Pons, Mary Shimoyama, Melinda R Dwinell
Understanding the pathogenesis of disease is instrumental in delineating its progression mechanisms and for envisioning ways to counteract it. In the process, animal models represent invaluable tools for identifying disease-related loci and their genetic components. Amongst them, the laboratory rat is used extensively in the study of many conditions and disorders. The Rat Genome Database (RGD- has been established to house rat genetic, genomic and phenotypic data. Since its inception, it has continually expanded the depth and breadth of its content...
2016: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Steven Dirven, Jacqueline Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Investigation and surgical manipulation of the larynx, pharynx, and oesophagus suffer from inherent challenges with access to the sites of interest. To reduce trauma and external scarring, visualization and minimally invasive interventions by the transnasal or transoral routes have become more prevalent. This article discusses engineering methods used to understand and overcome the mechanical constraints inside the airway and upper gastrointestinal tract, and examines the role that robotics and engineering are beginning to play in modelling of surgical interventions in this region...
August 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Jin-Huat Low, Chen-Hua Yeow
Soft compliant gripping is essential in delicate surgical manipulation for minimizing the risk of tissue grip damage caused by high stress concentrations at the point of contact. It can be achieved by complementing traditional rigid grippers with soft robotic pneumatic gripper devices. This manuscript describes a rod-based approach that combined both 3D-printing and a modified soft lithography technique to fabricate the soft pneumatic gripper. In brief, the pneumatic featureless mold with chamber component is 3D-printed and the rods were used to create the pneumatic channels that connect to the chamber...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Meng-Tzu Hu, Ar-Tyan Hsu, Fong-Chin Su
OBJECTIVE: Thumb problems are common in some health professionals such as physical therapists. The purpose of this case-control study is to investigate the influence of clinical experience and different mobilization techniques on the kinematics of the thumb. METHODS: Twenty-three participants without exposure to manual techniques (the Novice Group) and fifteen physical therapists with at least 3 years of orthopedic experience (the Experienced Group) participated...
2016: PloS One
Rob A B Oostendorp, Hans Elvers, Emilia Mikolajewska, Nathalie Roussel, Emiel van Trijffel, Han Samwel, Jo Nijs, William Duquet
OBJECTIVES: The term 'cephalalgiaphobia' was introduced in the mid-1980s and defined as fear of migraine (attacks). We hypothesized that a specific subtype of cephalalgiaphobia affects patients with cervicogenic headache (CEH). This study aimed to: (1) define the term 'cervico-cephalalgiaphobia'; (2) develop a set of indicators for phobia relevant to patients with CEH; and (3) apply this set to a practice test in order to estimate the frequency of cervico-cephalalgiaphobia in the Dutch primary care practice of manual physical therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
Lingxiao Zhang, Junfeng Zhao, Yasha Wang, Bing Xie
Knowledge of how diseases progress and transform is crucial for clinical decision making. Frequent pattern mining techniques, such as sequential pattern mining (SPM) algorithms, can automatically extract such knowledge from large collections of electronic medical records (EMR). However, EMR data are usually unorganized and highly noisy. Finding meaningful disease patterns often calls for manual manipulation such as cohort and feature selection on EMR data by medical professionals. In this paper, we propose a topic-model-based SPM approach to find disease progression patterns from diagnostic records...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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