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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231248/intensive-trapping-of-blood-fed-anopheles-darlingi-in-amazonian-peru-reveals-unexpectedly-high-proportions-of-avian-blood-meals
#1
Marta Moreno, Marlon P Saavedra, Sara A Bickersmith, Catharine Prussing, Adrian Michalski, Carlos Tong Rios, Joseph M Vinetz, Jan E Conn
Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia) in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI) ranged from 0.58-0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys), and human/Galliforme mixed-meals...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231242/predicting-ebola-infection-a-malaria-sensitive-triage-score-for-ebola-virus-disease
#2
Mary-Anne Hartley, Alyssa Young, Anh-Minh Tran, Harry Henry Okoni-Williams, Mohamed Suma, Brooke Mancuso, Ahmed Al-Dikhari, Mohamed Faouzi
BACKGROUND: The non-specific symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) pose a major problem to triage and isolation efforts at Ebola Treatment Centres (ETCs). Under the current triage protocol, half the patients allocated to high-risk "probable" wards were EVD(-): a misclassification speculated to predispose nosocomial EVD infection. A better understanding of the statistical relevance of individual triage symptoms is essential in resource-poor settings where rapid, laboratory-confirmed diagnostics are often unavailable...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230801/ethnopharmacology-chemistry-and-biological-properties-of-four-malian-medicinal-plants
#3
REVIEW
Karl Egil Malterud
The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum, Burkea africana, Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. These plants are used by traditional healers against numerous ailments: malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds, sexually transmitted diseases, insect bites and snake bites, etc. The scientific evidence for these uses is, however, limited. From the chemical and pharmacological evidence presented here, it seems possible that the use in traditional medicine of these plants may have a rational basis, although more clinical studies are needed...
February 21, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230749/design-of-drug-delivery-systems-containing-artemisinin-and-its-derivatives
#4
REVIEW
Blessing Atim Aderibigbe
Artemisinin and its derivatives have been reported to be experimentally effective for the treatment of highly aggressive cancers without developing drug resistance, they are useful for the treatment of malaria, other protozoal infections and they exhibit antiviral activity. However, they are limited pharmacologically by their poor bioavailability, short half-life in vivo, poor water solubility and long term usage results in toxicity. They are also expensive for the treatment of malaria when compared to other antimalarials...
February 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229354/genetic-differentiation-of-colombian-populations-of-anopheles-darlingi-root-diptera-culicidae
#5
C Y Rosero, G I Jaramillo, R Gonzalez, H Cardenas
Anopheles darlingi Root is a primary vector of malaria in the neotropic region, a species not just highly anthropophilic but very efficient in transmitting Plasmodium species and considered the most important vector in the Amazon region. The main goal of this study was to determine the genetic structure of the A. darlingi populations using microsatellites (STR) in western and eastern regions of Colombia. DNA extraction was done with the cited protocol of band using the Genomic Prep™ cell and tissue isolation commercial kits...
February 23, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228842/worldwide-malaria-incidence-and-cancer-mortality-are-inversely-associated
#6
Li Qin, Changzhong Chen, Lili Chen, Ran Xue, Ming Ou-Yang, Chengzhi Zhou, Siting Zhao, Zhengxiang He, Yu Xia, Jianxing He, Pinghua Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Xiaoping Chen
BACKGROUND: Investigations on the effects of malaria infection on cancer mortality are limited except for the incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) in African children. Our previous murine lung cancer model study demonstrated that malaria infection significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. This study aims to assess the possible associations between malaria incidence and human cancer mortality. METHODS: We compiled data on worldwide malaria incidence and age-standardized mortality related to 30 types of cancer in 56 countries for the period 1955-2008, and analyzed their longitudinal correlations by a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM), adjusted for a nonlinear year effect and potential confounders such as country's income levels, life expectancies and geographical locations...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228142/change-in-anopheles-richness-and-composition-in-response-to-artificial-flooding-during-the-creation-of-the-jirau-hydroelectric-dam-in-porto-velho-brazil
#7
Moreno S Rodrigures, Elis P Batista, Alexandre A Silva, Fábio M Costa, Verissimo A S Neto, Luiz Herman S Gil
BACKGROUND: Anopheles mosquitoes are the only vectors of human malaria. Anopheles species use standing water as breeding sites. Human activities, like the creation of an artificial lake during the implementation of hydroelectric power plants, lead to changes in environmental characteristics and, therefore, may changes the species richness and composition of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of the present study was to verify whether or not there is an association between the artificial flooding resulting from the construction of the Jirau hydroelectric power plant, and the richness and composition of anophelines...
February 22, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227386/image-classification-of-unlabeled-malaria-parasites-in-red-blood-cells
#8
Zheng Zhang, L L Sharon Ong, Kong Fang, Athul Matthew, Justin Dauwels, Ming Dao, Harry Asada, Zheng Zhang, L L Sharon Ong, Kong Fang, Athul Matthew, Justin Dauwels, Ming Dao, Harry Asada, Justin Dauwels, Zheng Zhang, Kong Fang, Ming Dao, Harry Asada
This paper presents a method to detect unlabeled malaria parasites in red blood cells. The current "gold standard" for malaria diagnosis is microscopic examination of thick blood smear, a time consuming process requiring extensive training. Our goal is to develop an automate process to identify malaria infected red blood cells. Major issues in automated analysis of microscopy images of unstained blood smears include overlapping cells and oddly shaped cells. Our approach creates robust templates to detect infected and uninfected red cells...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226242/p-falciparum-ligand-binding-to-erythrocytes-induce-alterations-in-deformability-essential-for-invasion
#9
Xavier Sisquella, Thomas Nebl, Jennifer K Thompson, Lachlan Whitehead, Brian M Malpede, Nichole D Salinas, Kelly Rogers, Niraj H Tolia, Andrea Fleig, Joseph O'Neill, Wai-Hong Tham, F David Horgen, Alan F Cowman
The most lethal form of malaria in humans is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. These parasites invade erythrocytes, a complex process involving multiple ligand-receptor interactions. The parasite makes initial contact with the erythrocyte followed by dramatic deformations linked to the function of the Erythrocyte binding antigen family and P. falciparum reticulocyte binding-like families. We show EBA-175 mediates substantial changes in deformability of erythrocytes by binding to glycophorin A and activating a phosphorylation cascade that includes erythrocyte cytoskeletal proteins resulting in changes in the viscoelastic properties of the host cell...
February 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223984/plasmodium-vivax-cell-traversal-protein-for-ookinetes-and-sporozoites-naturally-acquired-humoral-immune-response-and-b-cell-epitope-mapping-in-brazilian-amazon-inhabitants
#10
Rodrigo Nunes Rodrigues-da-Silva, Isabela Ferreira Soares, Cesar Lopez-Camacho, João Hermínio Martins da Silva, Daiana de Souza Perce-da-Silva, Antônio Têva, Antônia Maria Ramos Franco, Francimeire Gomes Pinheiro, Lana Bitencourt Chaves, Lilian Rose Pratt-Riccio, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval, Dalma Maria Banic, Josué da Costa Lima-Junior
The cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS), a highly conserved antigen involved in sporozoite motility, plays an important role in the traversal of host cells during the preerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium species. Recently, it has been considered an alternative target when designing novel antimalarial vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum. However, the potential of Plasmodium vivax CelTOS as a vaccine target is yet to be explored. This study evaluated the naturally acquired immune response against a recombinant P...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223498/attenuated-pfspz-vaccine-induces-strain-transcending-t-cells-and-durable-protection-against-heterologous-controlled-human-malaria-infection
#11
Kirsten E Lyke, Andrew S Ishizuka, Andrea A Berry, Sumana Chakravarty, Adam DeZure, Mary E Enama, Eric R James, Peter F Billingsley, Anusha Gunasekera, Anita Manoj, Minglin Li, Adam J Ruben, Tao Li, Abraham G Eappen, Richard E Stafford, Natasha Kc, Tooba Murshedkar, Floreliz H Mendoza, Ingelise J Gordon, Kathryn L Zephir, LaSonji A Holman, Sarah H Plummer, Cynthia S Hendel, Laura Novik, Pamela J M Costner, Jamie G Saunders, Nina M Berkowitz, Barbara J Flynn, Martha C Nason, Lindsay S Garver, Matthew B Laurens, Christopher V Plowe, Thomas L Richie, Barney S Graham, Mario Roederer, B Kim Lee Sim, Julie E Ledgerwood, Stephen L Hoffman, Robert A Seder
A live-attenuated malaria vaccine, Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine (PfSPZ Vaccine), confers sterile protection against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) parasites homologous to the vaccine strain up to 14 mo after final vaccination. No injectable malaria vaccine has demonstrated long-term protection against CHMI using Pf parasites heterologous to the vaccine strain. Here, we conducted an open-label trial with PfSPZ Vaccine at a dose of 9.0 × 10(5) PfSPZ administered i...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222841/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-from-various-age-and-sex-specific-groups-of-owl-monkeys-aotus-nancymaae
#12
Pramod N Nehete, Bharti P Nehete, Sriram Chitta, Lawrence E Williams, Christian R Abee
Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model for human disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222787/an-effective-method-for-the-identification-and-separation-of-anopheles-minimus-the-primary-malaria-vector-in-thailand-and-its-sister-species-anopheles-harrisoni-with-a-comparison-of-their-mating-behaviors
#13
Kritsana Taai, Ralph E Harbach, Kittipat Aupalee, Wichai Srisuka, Thippawan Yasanga, Yasushi Otsuka, Atiporn Saeung
BACKGROUND: Species of the Anopheles minimus complex are considered to be the primary vectors of malaria in South and Southeast Asia. Two species of the complex, Anopheles minimus and Anopheles harrisoni, occur in Thailand. They are sympatric and difficult to accurately distinguish based on morphological characters. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of antennal sensory organs to distinguish these two species. Additionally, we investigated their ability to mate in cages of different sizes, as well as the possible mechanism(s) that evokes stenogamous behavior...
February 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222769/plasticity-of-host-selection-by-malaria-vectors-of-papua-new-guinea
#14
John B Keven, Lisa Reimer, Michelle Katusele, Gussy Koimbu, Rebecca Vinit, Naomi Vincent, Edward Thomsen, David R Foran, Peter A Zimmerman, Edward D Walker
BACKGROUND: Host selection is an important determinant of vectorial capacity because malaria transmission increases when mosquitoes feed more on humans than non-humans. Host selection also affects the outcome of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN). Despite the recent nationwide implementation of LLIN-based malaria control program in Papua New Guinea (PNG), little is known about the host selection of the local Anopheles vectors. This study investigated the host selection of Anopheles vectors in PNG...
February 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222727/developing-global-maps-of-insecticide-resistance-risk-to-improve-vector-control
#15
Michael Coleman, Janet Hemingway, Katherine Ann Gleave, Antoinette Wiebe, Peter W Gething, Catherine L Moyes
BACKGROUND: Significant reductions in malaria transmission have been achieved over the last 15 years with elimination occurring in a small number of countries, however, increasing drug and insecticide resistance threatens these gains. Insecticide resistance has decreased the observed mortality to the most commonly used insecticide class, the pyrethroids, and the number of alternative classes approved for use in public health is limited. Disease prevention and elimination relies on operational control of Anopheles malaria vectors, which requires the deployment of effective insecticides...
February 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222159/the-role-of-spatial-mobility-in-malaria-transmission-in-the-brazilian-amazon-the-case-of-porto-velho-municipality-rond%C3%A3-nia-brazil-2010-2012
#16
Jussara Rafael Angelo, Tony Hiroshi Katsuragawa, Paulo Chagastelles Sabroza, Lino Augusto Sander de Carvalho, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira da Silva, Carlos Afonso Nobre
BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe the role of mobility in malaria transmission by discussing recent changes in population movements in the Brazilian Amazon and developing a flow map of disease transmission in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study presents a descriptive analysis using an ecological approach on regional and local scales. The study location was the municipality of Porto Velho, which is the capital of Rondônia state, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222094/housing-improvements-and-malaria-risk-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multi-country-analysis-of-survey-data
#17
Lucy S Tusting, Christian Bottomley, Harry Gibson, Immo Kleinschmidt, Andrew J Tatem, Steve W Lindsay, Peter W Gething
BACKGROUND: Improvements to housing may contribute to malaria control and elimination by reducing house entry by malaria vectors and thus exposure to biting. We tested the hypothesis that the odds of malaria infection are lower in modern, improved housing compared to traditional housing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed 15 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and 14 Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) conducted in 21 countries in SSA between 2008 and 2015 that measured malaria infection by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT)...
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221136/an-essential-dual-function-complex-mediates-erythrocyte-invasion-and-channel-mediated-nutrient-uptake-in-malaria-parasites
#18
Daisuke Ito, Marc A Schureck, Sanjay A Desai
Malaria parasites evade immune detection by growth and replication within erythrocytes. After erythrocyte invasion, the intracellular pathogen must increase host cell uptake of nutrients from plasma. Here, we report that the parasite-encoded RhopH complex contributes to both invasion and channel-mediated nutrient uptake. As rhoph2 and rhoph3 gene knockouts were not viable in the human P. falciparum pathogen, we used conditional knockdowns to determine that the encoded proteins are essential and to identify their stage-specific functions...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221121/molecular-evidence-of-drug-resistance-in-asymptomatic-malaria-infections-myanmar-2015
#19
Myat Htut Nyunt, Thinzar Shein, Ni Ni Zaw, Soe Soe Han, Fauzi Muh, Seong-Kyun Lee, Jin-Hee Han, Kyaw Zin Thant, Eun-Taek Han, Myat Phone Kyaw
Artemisinin resistance containment in Myanmar was initiated in 2011 after artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported. Molecular evidence suggests that asymptomatic malaria infections harboring drug resistance genes are present among residents of the Myanmar artemisinin resistance containment zone. This evidence supports efforts to eliminate these hidden infections.
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220714/is-maternal-education-a-social-vaccine-for-childhood-malaria-infection-a-cross-sectional-study-from-war-torn-democratic-republic-of-congo
#20
Cary Ma, Kasereka Masumbuko Claude, Zacharie Tsongo Kibendelwa, Hannah Brooks, Xiaonan Zheng, Michael Hawkes
In zones of violent conflict in the tropics, social disruption leads to elevated child mortality, of which malaria is the leading cause. Understanding the social determinants of malaria transmission may be helpful to optimize malaria control efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 2 months to 5 years attending well-child and/or immunization visits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Six hundred and forty-seven children were tested for malaria antigenemia by rapid diagnostic test and the accompanying parent or legal guardian simultaneously completed a survey questionnaire related to demographics, socioeconomic status, maternal education, as well as bednet use and recent febrile illness...
February 21, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
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