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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144217/mechanisms-of-naturally-acquired-immunity-to-p-falciparum-and-approaches-to-identify-merozoite-antigen-targets
#1
Julie Healer, Chris Y Chiu, Diana S Hansen
Malaria is one the most serious infectious diseases with over 200 million clinical cases annually. Most cases of the severe disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The blood stage of Plasmodium parasite is entirely responsible for malaria-associated pathology. The population most susceptible to severe malaria are children under the age of 5, with low levels of immunity. It is only after many years of repeated exposure that individuals living in endemic areas develop clinical immunity. This form of protection prevents clinical episodes by substantially reducing parasite burden...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143837/development-of-a-label-free-raman-imaging-technique-for-differentiation-of-malaria-parasite-infected-from-non-infected-tissue
#2
Laura Frame, James Brewer, Rebecca Lee, Karen Faulds, Duncan Graham
During malarial infection, the host uses the spleen to clear the malaria parasites, however, the parasites have evolved the ability to bind to endothelial receptors in blood vessels of tissues to avoid removal, known as sequestration, and this is largely responsible for the symptoms and severity of infection. So a technique which could non-invasively diagnose tissue burden could be utilised as an aid for localised malaria diagnosis within tissue. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free imaging technique and can provide unique and chemically specific Raman 'fingerprint' spectrum of biological samples such as tissue...
November 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143647/modelling-stillbirth-mortality-reduction-with-the-lives-saved-tool
#3
Hannah Blencowe, Victoria B Chou, Joy E Lawn, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: The worldwide burden of stillbirths is large, with an estimated 2.6 million babies stillborn in 2015 including 1.3 million dying during labour. The Every Newborn Action Plan set a stillbirth target of ≤12 per 1000 in all countries by 2030. Planning tools will be essential as countries set policy and plan investment to scale up interventions to meet this target. This paper summarises the approach taken for modelling the impact of scaling-up health interventions on stillbirths in the Lives Saved tool (LiST), and potential future refinements...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143639/linking-household-surveys-and-health-facility-assessments-to-estimate-intervention-coverage-for-the-lives-saved-tool-list
#4
Mufaro Kanyangarara, Victoria B Chou
BACKGROUND: Calls have been made for improved measurement of coverage for maternal, newborn and child health interventions. Recently, methods linking household and health facility surveys have been used to improve estimation of intervention coverage. However, linking methods rely the availability of household and health facility surveys which are temporally matched. Because nationally representative health facility assessments are not yet routinely conducted in many low and middle income countries, estimates of intervention coverage based on linking methods can be produced for only a subset of countries...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143637/impact-of-malaria-interventions-on-child-mortality-in-endemic-african-settings-comparison-and-alignment-between-list-and-spectrum-malaria-model
#5
Eline Korenromp, Matthew Hamilton, Rachel Sanders, Guy Mahiané, Olivier J T Briët, Thomas Smith, William Winfrey, Neff Walker, John Stover
BACKGROUND: In malaria-endemic countries, malaria prevention and treatment are critical for child health. In the context of intervention scale-up and rapid changes in endemicity, projections of intervention impact and optimized program scale-up strategies need to take into account the consequent dynamics of transmission and immunity. METHODS: The new Spectrum-Malaria program planning tool was used to project health impacts of Insecticide-Treated mosquito Nets (ITNs) and effective management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CMU), among other interventions, on malaria infection prevalence, case incidence and mortality in children 0-4 years, 5-14 years of age and adults...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143441/cellular-aging-dynamics-after-acute-malaria-infection-a-12-month-longitudinal-study
#6
Muhammad Asghar, Victor Yman, Manijeh Vafa Homann, Klara Sondén, Ulf Hammar, Dennis Hasselquist, Anna Färnert
Accelerated cellular aging and reduced lifespan have recently been shown in birds chronically infected with malaria parasites. Whether malaria infection also affects cellular aging in humans has not been reported. Here, we assessed the effect of a single acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection on cellular aging dynamics in travelers prospectively followed over one year in Sweden. DNA and RNA were extracted from venous blood collected at the time of admission and repeatedly up to one year. Telomere length was measured using real-time quantitative PCR, while telomerase activity and CDKN2A expression were measured by reverse transcriptase (RT)-qPCR...
November 16, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143406/oncogenic-spiral-by-infectious-pathogens-the-cooperation-of-multiple-factors-in-cancer-development
#7
Jun-Ichirou Yasunaga, Masao Matsuoka
Chronic infection is one of the major causes of cancer, and there are several mechanisms for infection-mediated oncogenesis. Some pathogens encode gene products that behave like oncogenic factors, hijacking cellular pathways to promote the survival and proliferation of infected cells in vivo. Some of these viral oncoproteins trigger a cellular damage defense response leading to senescence; however, other viral factors hinder this suppressive effect, suggesting that cooperation of those viral factors is important for malignant transformation...
November 15, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141763/pilot-study-of-the-addition-of-mass-treatment-for-malaria-to-existing-school-based-programs-to-treat-neglected-tropical-diseases
#8
Lauren M Cohee, Moses Chilombe, Andrew Ngwira, Samuel K Jemu, Don P Mathanga, Miriam K Laufer
Malaria and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), including schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths, threaten the health of school aged in sub-Saharan Africa. Established school-based mass drug administration (MDA) programs are used to control NTDs. Recent clinical trials have shown benefit of mass treatment of malaria in schools. The potential of adding malaria treatment to existing NTD programs has not been thoroughly evaluated. We offered malaria treatment with artemether-lumefantrine during routine NTD MDA and developed peer education programs in two primary schools in southern Malawi...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141762/efficacy-of-artemether-lumefantrine-for-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-cruzeiro-do-sul-brazil-2016
#9
Megumi Itoh, Suiane Negreiros do Valle, Sâmela Farias, Thayna Maria Holanda de Souza, Giselle Maria Rachid Viana, Naomi Lucchi, Stella Chenet, Paola Marchesini, Marinete Póvoa, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) fixed-dose combination to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre State, in the Amazon region of Brazil. Between December 2015 and May 2016, we enrolled 79 patients, 5-79 years old with fever or history of fever in the previous 48 hours and P. falciparum monoinfection confirmed by microscopy. Attempts were made to provide direct observation or phone reminders for all six doses of AL, and patients were followed-up for 28 days...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141760/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-genetic-variants-in-malaria-patients-in-southwestern-ethiopia
#10
Tamar E Carter, Seleshi Kebede Mekonnen, Karen Lopez, Victoria Bonnell, Lambodhar Damodaran, Abraham Aseffa, Daniel A Janies
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked erythrocyte enzyme disorder with relevance to malaria treatment policy. Treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can result in hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient patients. With increased interest in primaquine use, it is important to identify G6PD variants in Ethiopia to inform malaria treatment policy. In the present study, mutations in the G6PD gene are identified in a sample of patients with malaria in Jimma town in southwest Ethiopia. Plasmodium species of infection were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141758/in-vitro-sensitivity-of-pyronaridine-in-thai-isolates-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#11
Kittiya Mahotorn, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Thunyapit Thita, Toon Ruang-Areerate, Naruemon Sittichot, Nantana Suwandittakul, Mathirut Mungthin
Pyronaridine, a Mannich base antimalarial agent with a high activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, has been combined with artesunate as a new artemisinin derivative-based combination therapy (ACT). Pyronaridine-artesunate combination could be one of the choices for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in multidrug-resistant areas including Thailand. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro sensitivity and cross-resistance pattern of pyronaridine in Thai isolates of P...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141757/protein-specific-features-associated-with-variability-in-human-antibody-responses-to-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-antigens
#12
Eugene W Liu, Jeff Skinner, Tuan M Tran, Krishan Kumar, David L Narum, Aarti Jain, Aissata Ongoiba, Boubacar Traore, Philip L Felgner, Peter D Crompton
The magnitude of antibody responses varies across the individual proteins that constitute any given microorganism, both in the context of natural infection and vaccination with attenuated or inactivated pathogens. The protein-specific factors underlying this variability are poorly understood. In 267 individuals exposed to intense seasonal malaria, we examined the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to 861 Plasmodium falciparum proteins and specific features of these proteins, including their subcellular location, relative abundance, degree of polymorphism, and whether they are predicted to have human orthologs...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141739/advancing-global-health-through-development-and-clinical-trials-partnerships-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-assessment-of-safety-tolerability-and-immunogenicity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoites-vaccine-for-malaria-in-healthy-equatoguinean
#13
Ally Olotu, Vicente Urbano, Ali Hamad, Martin Eka, Mwajuma Chemba, Elizabeth Nyakarungu, Jose Raso, Esther Eburi, Dolores O Mandumbi, Dianna Hergott, Carl D Maas, Mitoha O Ayekaba, Diosdado N Milang, Matilde R Rivas, Tobias Schindler, Oscar M Embon, Adam J Ruben, Elizabeth Saverino, Yonas Abebe, Natasha Kc, Eric R James, Tooba Murshedkar, Anita Manoj, Sumana Chakravarty, Minglin Li, Matthew Adams, Chris Schwabe, Luis Segura, Claudia Daubenberger, Marcel Tanner, Thomas L Richie, Peter F Billingsley, B Kim Lee Sim, Salim Abdulla, Stephen L Hoffman
Equatorial Guinea (EG) has implemented a successful malaria control program on Bioko Island. A highly effective vaccine would be an ideal complement to this effort and could lead to halting transmission and eliminating malaria. Sanaria(®)Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) Vaccine is being developed for this purpose. To begin the process of establishing the efficacy of and implementing a PfSPZ Vaccine mass vaccination program in EG, we decided to conduct a series of clinical trials of PfSPZ Vaccine on Bioko Island...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141726/status-of-insecticide-resistance-in-papua-new-guinea-an-update-from-nation-wide-monitoring-of-anopheles-mosquitoes
#14
Gussy Koimbu, Cyrille Czeher, Michelle Katusele, Muker Sakur, Lemen Kilepak, Anthony Tandrapah, Manuel W Hetzel, Justin Pulford, Leanne Robinson, Stephan Karl
Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring is an important component of vector-borne disease control. The last assessment of IR in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was conducted in 2010. Since then, vector populations have been exposed to higher levels of pyrethroids with the continued nation-wide distribution of insecticide-treated nets. Here, we provide an update on phenotypic IR in four highly malaria-endemic areas of PNG. IR against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane was assessed using World Health Organization bioassays...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141722/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-asymptomatic-malaria-bridging-the-gap-between-annual-malaria-resurgences-in-a-sahelian-environment
#15
Drissa Coulibaly, Mark A Travassos, Youssouf Tolo, Matthew B Laurens, Abdoulaye K Kone, Karim Traore, Mody Sissoko, Amadou Niangaly, Issa Diarra, Modibo Daou, Boureima Guindo, Stanislas Rebaudet, Bourema Kouriba, Nadine Dessay, Renaud Piarroux, Christopher V Plowe, Ogobara K Doumbo, Mahamadou A Thera, Jean Gaudart
In areas of seasonal malaria transmission, the incidence rate of malaria infection is presumed to be near zero at the end of the dry season. Asymptomatic individuals may constitute a major parasite reservoir during this time. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the spatio-temporal distribution of clinical malaria and asymptomatic parasitemia over time in a Malian town to highlight these malaria transmission dynamics. For a cohort of 300 rural children followed over 2009-2014, periodicity and phase shift between malaria and rainfall were determined by spectral analysis...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141719/chloroquine-primaquine-versus-chloroquine-alone-to-treat-vivax-malaria-in-afghanistan-an-open-randomized-superiority-trial
#16
Ghulam Rahim Awab, Mallika Imwong, Germana Bancone, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Charles J Woodrow
Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend primaquine (PQ) for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, but this is rarely implemented because of concerns over potential hemolysis in patients who have G6PD deficiency. Between August 2009 and February 2014, we conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine (CQ) alone versus chloroquine plus primaquine (0.25 mg base/kg/day for 14 days) (CQ+PQ) in patients aged 6 months and older with microscopy confirmed P. vivax infection. In the CQ+PQ group, G6PD deficiency was excluded by fluorescent spot testing...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141714/falciparum-malaria-outbreak-in-sabah-linked-to-an-immigrant-rubber-tapper
#17
Saffree Mohammad Jeffree, Kamruddin Ahmed, Nazarudin Safian, Rohaizat Hassan, Omar Mihat, Khamisah Awang Lukman, Shamsul Bahari Shamsudin, Fadzilah Kamaludin
Sabah is a Malaysian state situated in the northern part of Borneo, and it is endemic for malaria. The incidence of malaria is the lowest (0.05/1,000 population) in Penampang districts of Sabah. In June 26, 2012, two Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases were notified to public health department from a village in Penampang. Immediate investigation was initiated to identify the risk factors and to institute control measures. We performed active case finding by asking household members of all houses in the village regarding malaria symptoms and by examining blood smears...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141606/trends-in-bednet-ownership-and-usage-and-the-effect-of-bednets-on-malaria-hospitalization-in-the-kilifi-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-khdss-2008-2015
#18
Alice Kamau, Victoria Nyaga, Evasius Bauni, Benjamin Tsofa, Abdisalan M Noor, Philip Bejon, J Anthony G Scott, Laura L Hammitt
BACKGROUND: Use of bednets reduces malaria morbidity and mortality. In Kilifi, Kenya, there was a mass distribution of free nets to children < 5 years in 2006. In 2009, a new policy was implemented to offer bednets to pregnant women and children < 5 years free of charge. Nets were again distributed to children and adults through national mass campaigns in 2012 and 2015. We aimed to evaluate trends in bednet ownership and usage, and the effect of bednets on the incidence of malaria hospitalization in children < 5 years within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS)...
November 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141337/-epidemiology-of-imported-infectious-diseases-in-china-2013-2016
#19
Y L Wang, X Wang, R Q Ren, L Zhou, W W Tu, D X Ni, Q Li, Z J Feng, Y P Zhang
Objective: To describe the epidemic of imported infectious diseases in China between 2013 and 2016, including the kinds of infectious diseases, affected provinces, source countries and the epidemiological characteristics, and provide scientific information for the prevention and control of imported infectious diseases. Methods: Data of cases of imported infectious diseases in China from 2013 to 2016 were collected from national information reporting system of infectious diseases, Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 18...
November 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141230/sub-minute-phosphoregulation-of-cell-cycle-systems-during-plasmodium-gamete-formation
#20
Brandon M Invergo, Mathieu Brochet, Lu Yu, Jyoti Choudhary, Pedro Beltrao, Oliver Billker
The transmission of malaria parasites to mosquitoes relies on the rapid induction of sexual reproduction upon their ingestion into a blood meal. Haploid female and male gametocytes become activated and emerge from their host cells, and the males enter the cell cycle to produce eight microgametes. The synchronized nature of gametogenesis allowed us to investigate phosphorylation signaling during its first minute in Plasmodium berghei via a high-resolution time course of the phosphoproteome. This revealed an unexpectedly broad response, with proteins related to distinct cell cycle events undergoing simultaneous phosphoregulation...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
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