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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945022/-progress-of-gene-editing-technologies-and-prospect-in-traditional-chinese-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Yan-Yan Ma, Jing-Zhe Li, Er-Ning Gao, Dan Qian, Ju-Ying Zhong, Chang-Zhen Liu
Gene editing is a kind of technologies that makes precise modification to the genome. It can be used to knock out/in and replace the specific DNA fragment, and make accurate gene editing on the genome level. The essence of the technique is the DNA sequence change with use of non homologous end link repair and homologous recombination repair, combined with specific DNA target recognition and endonuclease.This technology has wide range of development prospects and high application value in terms of scientific research, agriculture, medical treatment and other fields...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945019/-molecular-mechanism-of-artemisinin-biosynthesis-and-regulation-in-artemisia-annua
#2
REVIEW
He-Xin Tan, Ling Xiao, Zheng Zhou, Lei Zhang, Wan-Sheng Chen
Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the best available treatment, particularly for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Artemisinin, whose main source is Artemisia annua, has large demand and shortsupply every year.Artemisininis synthesized,stored, and secreted by the glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua(AaGSTs).In general, the population and morphology of AaGSTs are often positively correlated with artemisinin content.This review article introduces the molecular mechanism of biosynthesis and regulation of artemisininin A...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944300/proteomic-analysis-of-extracellular-vesicles-from-a-plasmodium-falciparum-kenyan-clinical-isolate-defines-a-core-parasite-secretome
#3
Abdirahman Abdi, Lu Yu, David Goulding, Martin K Rono, Philip Bejon, Jyoti Choudhary, Julian Rayner
BACKGROUND: Many pathogens secrete effector molecules to subvert host immune responses, to acquire nutrients, and/or to prepare host cells for invasion. One of the ways that effector molecules are secreted is through extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes. Recently, the malaria parasite P. falciparum has been shown to produce EVs that can mediate transfer of genetic material between parasites and induce sexual commitment. Characterizing the content of these vesicles may improve our understanding of P...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944299/geographic-genetic-analysis-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasite-populations-from-surveys-of-primary-school-children-in-western-kenya
#4
Irene Omedo, Polycarp Mogeni, Kirk Rockett, Alice Kamau, Christina Hubbart, Anna Jeffreys, Lynette Isabella Ochola-Oyier, Etienne P de Villiers, Caroline W Gitonga, Abdisalan M Noor, Robert W Snow, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Philip Bejon
Background. Malaria control, and finally malaria elimination, requires the identification and targeting of residual foci or hotspots of transmission. However, the level of parasite mixing within and between geographical locations is likely to impact the effectiveness and durability of control interventions and thus should be taken into consideration when developing control programs. Methods. In order to determine the geographic-genetic patterns of Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations at a sub-national level in Kenya, we used the Sequenom platform to genotype 111 genome-wide distributed single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) positions in 2486 isolates collected from children in 95 primary schools in western Kenya...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942829/epidemiological-analysis-of-133-malaria-cases-in-shanxian-county-shandong-province-china
#5
Qi-Qi Shi, Peng Cheng, Chong-Xing Zhang, Xiu-Xia Guo, Li-Juan Liu, Hai-Fang Wang, Jing-Xuan Kou, Xiao-Dan Huang, Huai-Wei Wang, Mao-Qing Gong
OBJECTIVE: To conduct an analysis of the epidemiological changes in malaria that have occurred in Shanxian county from 2002 to 2016. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted and data were collected from web-based reporting system to explore the epidemiological characteristics in Shanxian county from 2002 to 2016. All individual case information was obtained from village malaria servicers organized by the local Shandong Institute of Parasitic Diseases. RESULTS: A total of 133 cases were identified as malaria in Shanxian county during this period, including 124 indigenous cases (93...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942133/bush-mint-hyptis-suaveolens-and-spreading-hogweed-boerhavia-diffusa-medicinal-plant-extracts-differentially-affect-activities-of-cyp1a2-cyp2d6-and-cyp3a4-enzymes
#6
Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Kevin Dzobo, Faustina Adu, Shadreck Chirikure, Ambroise Wonkam, Collet Dandara
ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit and Boerhavia diffusa Linn are medicinal herbal plants commonly found in the tropics and sub-tropics. They are used to treat various conditions among them boils, dyslipidaemia, eczema, malaria, jaundice and gonorrhoea. Thus, the herbal medicinal extracts are now found as part of some commercial herbal formulations. There has not been adequate characterisation of these medicinal herbs on their effects on drug metabolising enzymes...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942108/mechanisms-of-plasmodium-enhanced-attraction-of-mosquito-vectors
#7
REVIEW
Annette O Busula, Niels O Verhulst, Teun Bousema, Willem Takken, Jetske G de Boer
Evidence is accumulating that Plasmodium-infected vertebrates are more attractive to mosquitoes than noninfected hosts, particularly when high levels of gametocytes are present. Changes in host odour have been suggested as a likely target for parasite manipulation because olfactory cues are crucial to mosquitoes in search of a bloodmeal host. This review discusses two routes that may lead to such changes: (i) direct emission of volatile products from malaria parasites, and (ii) changes in skin microbial composition that could lead to changes in the vertebrate odour profile...
September 20, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941620/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-heterologous-prime-boost-immunization-with-viral-vectored-malaria-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-matrix-m%C3%A2
#8
Navin Venkatraman, Nicholas Anagnostou, Carly Bliss, Georgina Bowyer, Danny Wright, Karin Lövgren-Bengtsson, Rachel Roberts, Ian Poulton, Alison Lawrie, Katie Ewer, Adrian V S Hill
The use of viral vectors in heterologous prime-boost regimens to induce potent T cell responses in addition to humoral immunity is a promising vaccination strategy in the fight against malaria. We conducted an open-label, first-in-human, controlled Phase I study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of Matrix-M adjuvanted vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63) prime followed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost eight weeks later, both encoding the malaria ME-TRAP antigenic sequence (a multiple epitope string fused to thrombospondin-related adhesion protein)...
September 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940606/the-roles-of-aamixta1-in-regulating-the-initiation-of-glandular-trichomes-and-cuticle-biosynthesis-in-artemisia-annua
#9
Pu Shi, Xueqing Fu, Qian Shen, Meng Liu, Qifang Pan, Yueli Tang, Weimin Jiang, Zongyou Lv, Tingxiang Yan, Yanan Ma, Minghui Chen, Xiaolong Hao, Pin Liu, Ling Li, Xiaofen Sun, Kexuan Tang
The glandular secretory trichomes (GSTs) on Artemisia annua leaves have the capacity to secrete and store artemisinin, a compound which is the most effective treatment for uncomplicated malaria. An effective strategy to improve artemisinin content is therefore to increase the density of GSTs in A. annua. However, the formation mechanism of GSTs remains poorly understood. To explore the mechanisms of GST initiation in A. annua, we screened myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factor genes from a GST transcriptome database and identified a MIXTA transcription factor, AaMIXTA1, which is expressed predominantly in the basal cells of GST in A...
September 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939886/apicomplexan-actin-polymerization-depends-on-nucleation
#10
Esa-Pekka Kumpula, Isa Pires, Devaki Lasiwa, Henni Piirainen, Ulrich Bergmann, Juha Vahokoski, Inari Kursula
Filamentous actin is critical for apicomplexan motility and host cell invasion. Yet, parasite actin filaments are short and unstable. Their kinetic characterization has been hampered by the lack of robust quantitative methods. Using a modified labeling method, we carried out thorough biochemical characterization of malaria parasite actin. In contrast to the isodesmic polymerization mechanism suggested for Toxoplasma gondii actin, Plasmodium falciparum actin I polymerizes via the classical nucleation-elongation pathway, with kinetics similar to canonical actins...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939502/malaria-prevention-recommendations-for-risk-groups-visiting-sub-saharan-africa-a-survey-of-european-expert-opinion-and-international-recommendations
#11
Mithula Shellvarajah, Christoph Hatz, Patricia Schlagenhauf
INTRODUCTION: Malaria prevention can be complex due to the individual characteristics of the traveller, travel destination, duration of stay and type of travel. Our aim in this study was to document malaria chemoprophylaxis recommendations provided by travel-medicine experts in Europe for specific risk groups of travellers visiting malaria-endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Travel medicine experts in Europe were asked to complete an online questionnaire, a 28-item Survey Monkey survey, on 11 malaria prevention scenarios...
September 19, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939159/marked-variation-in-prevalence-of-malaria-protective-human-genetic-polymorphisms-across-uganda
#12
Andrew Walakira, Stephen Tukwasibwe, Moses Kiggundu, Federica Verra, Patrick Kakeeto, Emmanuel Ruhamyankaka, Chris Drakeley, Grant Dorsey, Moses R Kamya, Samuel L Nsobya, Philip J Rosenthal
A number of human genetic polymorphisms are prevalent in tropical populations and appear to offer protection against symptomatic and/or severe malaria. We compared the prevalence of four polymorphisms, the sickle hemoglobin mutation (β globin E6V), the α-thalassemia 3.7kb deletion, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency caused by the common African variant (G6PD A-), and the CD36 T188G mutation in 1344 individuals residing in districts in eastern (Tororo), south-central (Jinja), and southwestern (Kanungu) Uganda...
September 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939120/synthesis-characterization-and-cellular-localization-of-a-fluorescent-probe-of-the-antimalarial-8-aminoquinoline-primaquine
#13
Adonis McQueen, Lynn D Blake, Ala Azhari, M Trent Kemp, Tommy W McGaha, Niranjan Namelikonda, Randy W Larsen, Roman Manetsch, Dennis E Kyle
Primaquine (PQ) is the only commercially available drug that clears dormant liver stages of malaria and blocks transmission to mosquito vectors. Although an old drug, much remains to be known about the mechanism(s) of action. Herein we develop a fluorescent tagged PQ to discover cellular localization in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Successful synthesis and characterization of a primaquine-coumarin fluorescent probe (PQCP) demonstrated potency equivalent to the parent drug and the probe was not cytotoxic to HepG2 carcinoma cells...
September 14, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939096/changes-in-cause-specific-neonatal-and-1-59-month-child-mortality-in-india-from-2000-to-2015-a-nationally-representative-survey
#14
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Documentation of the demographic and geographical details of changes in cause-specific neonatal (younger than 1 month) and 1-59-month mortality in India can guide further progress in reduction of child mortality. In this study we report the changes in cause-specific child mortality between 2000 and 2015 in India. METHODS: Since 2001, the Registrar General of India has implemented the Million Death Study (MDS) in 1·3 million homes in more than 7000 randomly selected areas of India...
September 19, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938907/integrative-analysis-associates-monocytes-with-insufficient-erythropoiesis-during-acute-plasmodium-cynomolgi-malaria-in-rhesus-macaques
#15
Yan Tang, Chester J Joyner, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Celia L Saney, Stacey A Lapp, Mustafa V Nural, Suman B Pakala, Jeremy D DeBarry, Stephanie Soderberg, Jessica C Kissinger, Tracey J Lamb, Mary R Galinski, Mark P Styczynski
BACKGROUND: Mild to severe anaemia is a common complication of malaria that is caused in part by insufficient erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This study used systems biology to evaluate the transcriptional and alterations in cell populations in the bone marrow during Plasmodium cynomolgi infection of rhesus macaques (a model of Plasmodium vivax malaria) that may affect erythropoiesis. RESULTS: An appropriate erythropoietic response did not occur to compensate for anaemia during acute cynomolgi malaria despite an increase in erythropoietin levels...
September 22, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938906/international-survey-to-identify-diagnostic-needs-to-support-malaria-elimination-guiding-the-development-of-combination-highly-sensitive-rapid-diagnostic-tests
#16
Ana Campillo, Jennifer Daily, Iveth J González
BACKGROUND: In malaria elimination settings, the very low levels of transmission now being attained present challenges that demand new strategies to identify and treat low-density infections in both symptomatic and asymptomatic populations. Accordingly, passive case detection activities need to be supplemented by active case detection (ACD) strategies with more sensitive diagnostic tools. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have provided low- and middle-income countries with unprecedented access to malaria diagnostics...
September 22, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938876/assessment-of-the-effect-of-larval-source-management-and-house-improvement-on-malaria-transmission-when-added-to-standard-malaria-control-strategies-in-southern-malawi-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Robert S McCann, Henk van den Berg, Peter J Diggle, Michèle van Vugt, Dianne J Terlouw, Kamija S Phiri, Aurelio Di Pasquale, Nicolas Maire, Steven Gowelo, Monicah M Mburu, Alinune N Kabaghe, Themba Mzilahowa, Michael G Chipeta, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Due to outdoor and residual transmission and insecticide resistance, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) will be insufficient as stand-alone malaria vector control interventions in many settings as programmes shift toward malaria elimination. Combining additional vector control interventions as part of an integrated strategy would potentially overcome these challenges. Larval source management (LSM) and structural house improvements (HI) are appealing as additional components of an integrated vector management plan because of their long histories of use, evidence on effectiveness in appropriate settings, and unique modes of action compared to LLINs and IRS...
September 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938869/chemosensory-gene-expression-in-olfactory-organs-of-the-anthropophilic-anopheles-coluzzii-and-zoophilic-anopheles-quadriannulatus
#18
G Athrey, L V Cosme, Z Popkin-Hall, S Pathikonda, W Takken, M A Slotman
BACKGROUND: Anopheles (An.) coluzzii, one of Africa's primary malaria vectors, is highly anthropophilic. This human host preference contributes greatly to its ability to transmit malaria. In contrast, the closely related An. quadriannulatus prefers to feed on bovids and is not thought to contribute to malaria transmission. The diverged preference for host odor profiles between these sibling species is likely reflected in chemosensory gene expression levels in the olfactory organs. Therefore, we compared the transcriptomes of the antennae and maxillary palps between An...
September 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937810/historical-biogeography-and-extinction-in-the-hawaiian-honeycreepers
#19
Robert E Ricklefs
Hawaiian honeycreepers, comprising an endemic radiation of passerine birds in the Hawaiian archipelago, have suffered losses of individual island populations and the extinction of many species as a result of colonization of the islands by Polynesians and, more recently, introduced avian pox virus and avian malaria. Here, I test the idea that populations have an intrinsic tendency toward extinction regardless of the cause. The distribution of each species before the arrival of humans in the archipelago was inferred from present distribution, historical records, and fossil remains...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936796/biosurfactants-produced-by-bacillus-subtilis-a1-and-pseudomonas-stutzeri-na3-reduce-longevity-and-fecundity-of-anopheles-stephensi-and-show-high-toxicity-against-young-instars
#20
Punniyakotti Parthipan, Raja Kumaresan Sarankumar, Anitha Jaganathan, Pandian Amuthavalli, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam, Pattanathu K S M Rahman, Kadarkarai Murugan, Akon Higuchi, Giovanni Benelli, Aruliah Rajasekar
Anopheles stephensi acts as vector of Plasmodium parasites, which are responsible for malaria in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. Currently, malaria management is a big challenge due to the presence of insecticide-resistant strains as well as to the development of Plasmodium species highly resistant to major antimalarial drugs. Therefore, the present study focused on biosurfactant produced by two bacteria Bacillus subtilis A1 and Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3, evaluating them for insecticidal applications against malaria mosquitoes...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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