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Rada M Savic, Prasanna Jagannathan, Richard Kajubi, Liusheng Huang, Nan Zhang, Moses Were, Abel Kakuru, Mary K Muhindo, Norah Mwebaza, Erika Wallender, Tamara D Clark, Bishop Opira, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Francesca T Aweeka
Background: Dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine is highly efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). Determining associations between piperaquine exposure, malaria risk, and adverse birth outcomes informs optimal dosing strategies. Methods: HIV-uninfected pregnant women were enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of IPTp at 12-20 weeks gestation and randomized to: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine every 8 weeks (n=106), dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 8 weeks (n=94), or dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 4 weeks (n=100) during pregnancy...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Dharmesh Bhalodiya, Chaturbhuj Rathore, Varun Gupta, Sanjay Prakash, Kamal Pathak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Neurology India
L A Thompson, Y Ikenaka, Y B Yohannes, T Ichise, G Ito, N Bortey-Sam, J J van Vuren, V Wepener, N J Smit, W S Darwish, S M M Nakayama, H Mizukawa, M Ishizuka
Many countries with incidence of malaria, including those surrounding Maputo Bay, use dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) to reduce mosquitoes. This study is the first to estimate the human health risk associated with consumption of marine fish from Maputo Bay contaminated with DDTs. The median for ∑DDTs was 3.8 ng/g ww (maximum 280.9 ng/g ww). The overall hazard ratio for samples was 1.5 at the 75th percentile concentration and 28.2 at the 95th percentile. These calculations show increased potential cancer risks due to contamination by DDTs, data which will help policy makers perform a risk-benefit analysis of DDT use in malaria control programs in the region...
March 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Beatriz Galatas, Helena Martí-Soler, Lidia Nhamussua, Pau Cisteró, Pedro Aide, Francisco Saute, Clara Menéndez, N Regina Rabinovich, Pedro L Alonso, Quique Bassat, Alfredo Mayor
Background: Afebrile Plasmodium falciparum infections usually remain undetected and untreated in the community and could potentially contribute to sustaining local malaria transmission in areas aiming for malaria elimination. Methods: Thirty-two men with afebrile P. falciparum infections detected with rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) were followed for 28 days. Kaplan-Meier estimates were computed to estimate probability of parasite positivity and of reducing parasitaemia by half of its initial level by day 28...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Christine Ludwin Wanjala, Eliningaya J Kweka
Background: Malaria vector control efforts have taken malaria related cases down to appreciable number per annum after large scale of intervention tools. Insecticides-based tools remain the major control option for malaria vectors in Kenya and, therefore, the potential of such programs to be compromised by the reported insecticide resistance is of major concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in different agro ecosystems from western Kenya...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Valeria Messina, Mauro Valtieri, Mercedes Rubio, Mario Falchi, Francesca Mancini, Alfredo Mayor, Pietro Alano, Francesco Silvestrini
The gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum , responsible for the transmission of this malaria parasite from humans to mosquitoes, accumulate and mature preferentially in the human bone marrow. In the 10 day long sexual development of P. falciparum , the immature gametocytes reach and localize in the extravascular compartment of this organ, in contact with several bone marrow stroma cell types, prior to traversing the endothelial lining and re-entering in circulation at maturity. To investigate the host parasite interplay underlying this still obscure process, we developed an in vitro tridimensional co-culture system in a Matrigel scaffold with P...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Soyoung Park, Ah-Young Oh, Jung-Hyun Cho, Min-Ho Yoon, Tae-Guen Woo, Somi Kang, Ho-Young Lee, Yunjin Jung, Bum-Joon Park
Quinacrine (QNC), anti-protozoan drug commonly used against Malaria and Giardiasis, has been recently tried for rheumatics and prion diseases via drug repositioning. In addition, several reports suggest anti-tumor effects of QNC through suppression of NF-κB and activation of p53. This study, demonstrates the anti-cancer effect of QNC via a novel pathway through the elimination of check point kinase 1/2 (Chk1/2) under p53 inactivated conditions. Inhibition of p53, by PFT-α or siRNA, promotes QNC-induced apoptosis in normal fibroblast and p53-intact cancer cells...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
A Kane Dia, O Kalsom Guèye, E Amadou Niang, S Mocote Diédhiou, M Demba Sy, Abdoulaye Konaté, Badara Samb, Abdoulaye Diop, Lassana Konaté, Ousmane Faye
BACKGROUND: Urban malaria is an increasing concern in most of the sub-Saharan Africa countries. In Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, the malaria epidemiology has been complicated by recurrent flooding since 2005. The main vector control measure for malaria prevention in Dakar is the community use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. However, the increase of insecticide resistance reported in this area needs to be better understood for suitable resistance management. This study reports the situation of insecticide resistance and underlying mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis populations from Dakar and its suburbs...
March 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Mamadou Alpha Diallo, Khadim Diongue, Mame Cheikh Seck, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Ibrahima Diallo, Younouss Diedhiou, Tolla Ndiaye, Yaye Die Ndiaye, Aida Sadikh Badiane, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malaria diagnosis relies on microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In Senegal, national malaria control program (NMCP) regularly conducts supervisory visits in health services where malaria microscopy is performed. In this study, expert microscopists assessed the performance of laboratory technicians in malaria microscopy. METHODS: The present external quality assessment (EQA) was conducted in three different areas of malaria transmission...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Elizabeth A Winzeler
Phenotypic screening methods have had a profound impact on antimalarial drug development, but assays that predict which compounds might provide a radical cure have remained elusive. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Gural et al. (2018) report hypnozoite culturing and systems to study these elusive, yet deadly, parasites.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Liwen Feng, Don Antoine Lanfranchi, Leandro Cotos, Elena Cesar-Rodo, Katharina Ehrhardt, Alice-Anne Goetz, Herbert Zimmermann, François Fenaille, Stephanie A Blandin, Elisabeth Davioud-Charvet
Malaria is a tropical parasitic disease threatening populations in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Resistance to antimalarial drugs has spread all over the world in the past 50 years, thus new drugs are urgently needed. Plasmodione (benzylmenadione series) has been identified as a potent antimalarial early lead drug, acting through a redox bioactivation on asexual and young sexual blood stages. To investigate its metabolism, a series of plasmodione-based tools, including a fully13 C-labelled lead drug and putative metabolites, have been designed and synthesized for drug metabolism investigation...
March 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Zaira Hellen Villa, Marta Moreno, Carlos Tong-Rios, Stephan Meister, Gregory M LaMonte, Brice Campo, Joseph M Vinetz, Elizabeth A Winzeler
To develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria elimination, it will be necessary to discover biological interventions, including small molecules that act against Plasmodium vivax exoerythrocytic forms. However, a robust in vitro culture system for P. vivax is still lacking. Thus, to study exoerythrocytic forms, researchers must have simultaneous access to fresh, temperature-controlled patient blood samples, as well as an anopheline mosquito colony. In addition, researchers must rely on native mosquito species to avoid introducing a potentially dangerous invasive species into a malaria-endemic region...
March 15, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Adélaïde Compaoré, Sabine Gies, Bernard Brabin, Halidou Tinto, Loretta Brabin
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency remains a prevalent adolescent health problem in low income countries. Iron supplementation is recommended but improvement of iron status requires good adherence. OBJECTIVES: We explored factors affecting adolescent adherence to weekly iron and/or folic acid supplements in a setting of low secondary school attendance. METHODS: Taped in-depth interviews were conducted with participants in a randomised, controlled, periconceptional iron supplementation trial for young nulliparous women living in a rural, malaria endemic region of Burkina Faso...
March 14, 2018: Reproductive Health
Sai Majji, Wathsala Wijayalath, Soumya Shashikumar, Teodor D Brumeanu, Sofia Casares
BACKGROUND: Human-immune-system humanized mouse models can bridge the gap between humans and conventional mice for testing human vaccines. The HLA-expressing humanized DRAGA (HLA-A2.HLA-DR4.Rag1KO.IL2RγcKO.NOD) mice reconstitute a functional human-immune-system and sustain the complete life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum. Herein, the DRAGA mice were investigated for immune responses following immunization with live P. falciparum sporozoites under chloroquine chemoprophylaxis (CPS-CQ), an immunization approach that showed in human trials to confer pre-erythrocytic immunity...
March 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Filomena E C de Alencar, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Crispim Cerutti Junior, Lícia Natal Fernandes, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Blima Fux, Helder Ricas Rezende, Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro Duarte, Antonio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Angelica Espinosa Miranda
BACKGROUND: The hypotheses put forward to explain the malaria transmission cycle in extra-Amazonian Brazil, an area of very low malaria incidence, are based on either a zoonotic scenario involving simian malaria, or a scenario in which asymptomatic carriers play an important role. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of asymptomatic infection by detecting Plasmodium spp. DNA and its role in residual malaria transmission in a non-Amazonian region of Brazil. METHODS: Upon the report of the first malaria case in 2010 in the Atlantic Forest region of the state of Espírito Santo, inhabitants within a 2 km radius were invited to participate in a follow-up study...
March 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Md Atique Ahmed, Muh Fauzi, Eun-Taek Han
BACKGROUND: Human infections due to the monkey malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is on the rise in most Southeast Asian countries specifically Malaysia. The C-terminal 19 kDa domain of PvMSP1P is a potential vaccine candidate, however, no study has been conducted in the orthologous gene of P. knowlesi. This study investigates level of polymorphisms, haplotypes and natural selection of full-length pkmsp1p in clinical samples from Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 36 full-length pkmsp1p sequences along with the reference H-strain and 40 C-terminal pkmsp1p sequences from clinical isolates of Malaysia were downloaded from published genomes...
March 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Gigliola Zanghì, Shruthi S Vembar, Sebastian Baumgarten, Shuai Ding, Julien Guizetti, Jessica M Bryant, Denise Mattei, Anja T R Jensen, Laurent Rénia, Yun Shan Goh, Robert Sauerwein, Cornelus C Hermsen, Jean-François Franetich, Mallaury Bordessoulles, Olivier Silvie, Valérie Soulard, Olivier Scatton, Patty Chen, Salah Mecheri, Dominique Mazier, Artur Scherf
Heterochromatin plays a central role in the process of immune evasion, pathogenesis, and transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during blood stage infection. Here, we use ChIP sequencing to demonstrate that sporozoites from mosquito salivary glands expand heterochromatin at subtelomeric regions to silence blood-stage-specific genes. Our data also revealed that heterochromatin enrichment is predictive of the transcription status of clonally variant genes members that mediate cytoadhesion in blood stage parasites...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Katherine Plewes, Hugh W F Kingston, Aniruddha Ghose, Thanaporn Wattanakul, Md Mahtab Uddin Hassan, Md Shafiul Haider, Prodip K Dutta, Md Akhterul Islam, Shamsul Alam, Selim Md Jahangir, A S M Zahed, Md Abdus Sattar, M A Hassan Chowdhury, M Trent Herdman, Stije J Leopold, Haruhiko Ishioka, Kim A Piera, Prakaykaew Charunwatthana, Kamolrat Silamut, Tsin W Yeo, Sue J Lee, Mavuto Mukaka, Richard J Maude, Gareth D H Turner, Md Abul Faiz, Joel Tarning, John A Oates, Nicholas M Anstey, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P J Day, Md Amir Hossain, L Jackson Roberts, Arjen M Dondorp
Background: Acute kidney injury independently predicts mortality in falciparum malaria. It is not known whether acetaminophen's capacity to inhibit plasma hemoglobin-mediated oxidation is renoprotective in severe malaria. Methods: A phase 2, open-label, randomized controlled trial at two hospitals in Bangladesh was conducted to assess effects on renal function, safety, pharmacokinetic properties and pharmacodynamic effects of acetaminophen. Febrile patients ( >12 years) with severe and moderately severe falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to receive acetaminophen (1g 6-hourly for 72 hours) or no acetaminophen, as an adjunct to intravenous artesunate...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Yanouk Epelboin, Sarah C Chaney, Amandine Guidez, Nausicaa Habchi-Hanriot, Stanislas Talaga, Lanjiao Wang, Isabelle Dusfour
Since the 1940s, French Guiana has implemented vector control to contain or eliminate malaria, yellow fever, and, recently, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Over time, strategies have evolved depending on the location, efficacy of the methods, development of insecticide resistance, and advances in vector control techniques. This review summarises the history of vector control in French Guiana by reporting the records found in the private archives of the Institute Pasteur in French Guiana and those accessible in libraries worldwide...
March 12, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Frances Rocamora, Lei Zhu, Kek Yee Liong, Arjen Dondorp, Olivo Miotto, Sachel Mok, Zbynek Bozdech
Due to their remarkable parasitocidal activity, artemisinins represent the key components of first-line therapies against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the decline in efficacy of artemisinin-based drugs jeopardizes global efforts to control and ultimately eradicate the disease. To better understand the resistance phenotype, artemisinin-resistant parasite lines were derived from two clones of the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum using a selection regimen that mimics how parasites interact with the drug within patients...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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