Read by QxMD icon Read


Jackson Emanuel, Andrea Marzi, Heinz Feldmann
The Filoviridae are a family of negative-strand RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus are well-known filoviruses which cause life-threatening viral hemorrhagic fever in human and nonhuman primates. In addition to severe pathogenesis, filoviruses also exhibit a propensity for human-to-human transmission by close contact, posing challenges to containment and crisis management. Past outbreaks, in particular the recent West African EBOV epidemic, have been responsible for thousands of deaths and vaulted the filoviruses into public consciousness...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Gary Wong, Wen-Guang Cao, Shi-Hua He, Zi-Rui Zhang, Wen-Jun Zhu, Estella Moffat, Hideki Ebihara, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Xiang-Guo Qiu
The Angolan strain of Marburg virus (MARV/Ang) can cause lethal disease in humans with a case fatality rate of up to 90%, but infection of immunocompetent rodents do not result in any observable symptoms. Our previous work includes the development and characterization of a MARV/Ang variant that can cause lethal disease in mice (MARV/Ang-MA), with the aim of using this tool to screen for promising prophylactic and therapeutic candidates. An intermediate animal model is needed to confirm any findings from mice studies before testing in the gold-standard non-human primate (NHP) model...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Vinayakumar Siragam, Gary Wong, Xiang-Guo Qiu
The family Filoviridae , which includes the genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus , contains some of the most pathogenic viruses in humans and non-human primates (NHPs), causing severe hemorrhagic fevers with high fatality rates. Small animal models against filoviruses using mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, and ferrets have been developed with the goal of screening candidate vaccines and antivirals, before testing in the gold standard NHP models. In this review, we summarize the different animal models used to understand filovirus pathogenesis, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each model with respect to filovirus disease research...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Elisabeth K Nyakatura, Samantha E Zak, Anna Z Wec, Daniel Hofmann, Sergey Shulenin, Russell R Bakken, M Javad Aman, Kartik Chandran, John M Dye, Jonathan R Lai
Filoviruses (family Filoviridae ) include five ebolaviruses and Marburg virus. These pathogens cause a rapidly progressing and severe viral disease with high mortality rates (generally 30%-90%). Outbreaks of filovirus disease are sporadic and, until recently, were limited to less than 500 cases. However, the 2013-2016 epidemic in western Africa, caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), illustrated the potential of filovirus outbreaks to escalate to a much larger scale (over 28,000 suspected cases). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the envelope glycoprotein represent a promising therapeutic platform for managing filovirus infections...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Cristiano Salata, Denis Munegato, Francesco Martelli, Cristina Parolin, Arianna Calistri, Aldo Baritussio, Giorgio Palù
Ebola Virus Disease is one of the most lethal transmissible infections characterized by a high fatality rate. Several research studies have aimed to identify effective antiviral agents. Amiodarone, a drug used for the treatment of arrhythmias, has been shown to inhibit filovirus infection in vitro by acting at the early step of the viral replication cycle. Here we demonstrate that amiodarone reduces virus binding to target cells and slows down the progression of the viral particles along the endocytic pathway...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
Xin Zhang, Qiang Liu, Na Zhang, Qian-Qian Li, Zhan-Dong Liu, Ying-Hong Li, Li-Mei Gao, You-Chun Wang, Hong-Bin Deng, Dan-Qing Song
Preventing filoviruses in the entry stage is an attractive antiviral strategy. Taking aloperine, a Chinese natural herb with an endocyclic skeleton, as the lead, 23 new aloperine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-filovirus activities including ebola virus (EBOV) and marburg virus (MARV) using pseudotyped virus model. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that the introduction of a 12N-dichlorobenzyl group was beneficial for the potency. Compound 2e exhibited the most potent anti-EBOV and anti-MARV effects both in vitro and in vivo...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Emma E Glennon, Olivier Restif, Silke Riesle Sbarbaro, Romain Garnier, Andrew A Cunningham, Richard D Suu-Ire, Richard Osei-Amponsah, James L N Wood, Alison J Peel
Bat-borne viruses carry undeniable risks to the health of human beings and animals, and there is growing recognition of the need for a 'One Health' approach to understand their frequently complex spill-over routes. While domesticated animals can play central roles in major spill-over events of zoonotic bat-borne viruses, for example during the pig-amplified Malaysian Nipah virus outbreak of 1998-1999, the extent of their potential to act as bridging or amplifying species for these viruses has not been characterised systematically...
March 2018: Veterinary Journal
James Logue, Kaylie Tuznik, Dean Follmann, Greg Grandits, Jonathan Marchand, Cavan Reilly, Yeya Dit Sadio Sarro, James Pettitt, Eric J Stavale, Mosoka Fallah, Gene G Olinger, Fatorma K Bolay, Lisa E Hensley
As part of the scientific community's development of medical countermeasures against Ebola virus disease, optimization of standardized assays for product evaluation is paramount. The recent outbreak heightened awareness to the scarcity of available assays and limited information on performance and reproducibility. To evaluate the immunogenicity of vaccines entering Phase I-III trials and to identify survivors, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the Filovirus Animal Non-Clinical Group assay and the Alpha Diagnostics International assay, were evaluated for detection of immunoglobulin G against Ebola virus glycoprotein...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Maximilian Gertler, Sven Loik, Christian Kleine, Alexa Matuschek, Norbert Gresser, Mario di Gennaro, Andreas Fabricius, Thomas Kratz, August Stich, Joost Butenop
BACKGROUND: In September 2014, the German government mandated the German Red Cross (GRC) and the German Armed Forces to support the international efforts to stop the epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West-Africa. The GRC requested specific training from the Medical Mission Institute Wuerzburg (MI). OBJECTIVES: We describe and discuss the development, strategy, results, and evaluation of the program to formulate conclusions and recommendations for similar emergencies...
February 26, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Benoit Callendret, Jort Vellinga, Kerstin Wunderlich, Ariane Rodriguez, Robin Steigerwald, Ulrike Dirmeier, Cedric Cheminay, Ariane Volkmann, Trevor Brasel, Ricardo Carrion, Luis D Giavedoni, Jean L Patterson, Chad E Mire, Thomas W Geisbert, Jay W Hooper, Mo Weijtens, Jutta Hartkoorn-Pasma, Jerome Custers, Maria Grazia Pau, Hanneke Schuitemaker, Roland Zahn
The search for a universal filovirus vaccine that provides protection against multiple filovirus species has been prompted by sporadic but highly lethal outbreaks of Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus infections. A good prophylactic vaccine should be able to provide protection to all known filovirus species and as an upside potentially protect from newly emerging virus strains. We investigated the immunogenicity and protection elicited by multivalent vaccines expressing glycoproteins (GP) from Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and Marburg virus (MARV)...
2018: PloS One
Logan Banadyga, Gary Wong, Xiangguo Qiu
The development of novel therapeutics and vaccines to treat or prevent disease caused by filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, depends on the availability of animal models that faithfully recapitulate clinical hallmarks of disease as it is observed in humans. In particular, small animal models (like mice and guinea pigs) are historically and frequently used for the primary evaluation of antiviral countermeasures, prior to testing in nonhuman primates, which represent the gold-standard filovirus animal model...
February 19, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Arinjay Banerjee, Vikram Misra, Tony Schountz, Michelle L Baker
Bats are natural reservoirs for a variety of emerging viruses that cause significant disease in humans and domestic animals yet rarely cause clinical disease in bats. The co-evolutionary history of bats with viruses has been hypothesized to have shaped the bat-virus relationship, allowing both to exist in equilibrium. Progress in understanding bat-virus interactions and the isolation of bat-borne viruses has been accelerated in recent years by the development of susceptible bat cell lines. Viral sequences similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) have been detected in bats, and filoviruses such as Marburg virus have been isolated from bats, providing definitive evidence for the role of bats as the natural host reservoir...
March 15, 2018: Virus Research
Marie-Paule Kieny
In spite of a complete lack of Research and Development (R&D) preparedness, the 2013-2016 West-Africa Ebola experience demonstrated that it is possible to compress R&D timelines to less than a single year, from a more usual decade or longer. This is mostly to be credited to an unprecedented collaborative effort building on the availability of a small number of candidate diagnostic tests, drugs and vaccines that could be moved rapidly into the clinical phase evaluation. The World Health Organization (WHO) led international consultations and activities - including the organization of a successful Ebola vaccine efficacy trial in Guinea - as a contribution to the unprecedented global efforts to control the Ebola epidemic...
February 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Kristin Post
The unprecedented scale of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014-15 caught the world by surprise. Zaire Ebolavirus had not previously been documented in Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. However, since this strain of filovirus was first identified in 1976, scientists have been studying the disease and its origins. They have identified forest-dwelling animals that carry the virus, and some that die from it, but have yet to isolate how it is transmitted from animals to humans. During the height of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, some public health messages addressed the link among Ebola, wild animals, and humans...
January 2018: Health Security
Praful Nair, Cory Alvey, Xiaoling Jin, Jerome Irianto, Irena Ivanovska, Dennis E Discher
Drug resistance and relapse is common in cancer treatments with chemotherapeutics, and while drug combinations with naturally occurring, differentiation-inducing retinoic acid (RA) are highly successful against one type of liquid tumor, solid tumors present major problems for delivery. Here, inspired by filoviruses that can be microns in length, flexible filomicelles that self-assemble from an amphiphilic block copolymer (PEG-PCL) are shown to effectively deliver RA and paclitaxel (TAX) to several solid tumor models, particularly in liver...
February 16, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Robert W Cross, Chad E Mire, Heinz Feldmann, Thomas W Geisbert
The filoviruses - Ebola virus and Marburg virus - cause lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Filoviruses present a global health threat both as naturally acquired diseases and as potential agents of bioterrorism. In the recent 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus, the most promising therapies for post-exposure use with demonstrated efficacy in the gold-standard NHP models of filovirus disease were unable to show statistically significant protection in patients infected with Ebola virus...
January 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Wenjun Zhu, Zirui Zhang, Shihua He, Gary Wong, Logan Banadyga, Xiangguo Qiu
Filoviruses, such as Marburg and Ebola viruses, cause severe disease in humans with high case fatality rates and are therefore considered biological threat agents. To date, no licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists for their treatment. T-705 (favipiravir) is a pyrazinecarboxamide derivative that has shown broad antiviral activity against a number of viruses and is clinically licenced in Japan to treat influenza. Here we report the efficacy of T-705 against Marburg virus infection in vitro and in vivo. Notably, oral administration of T-705 beginning one or two days post-infection and continuing for eight days resulted in complete survival of mice that had been intraperitoneally infected with mouse-adapted Marburg virus (variant Angola)...
January 21, 2018: Antiviral Research
Zhihui Xie, Wei-Sheng Chen, Yuzhi Yin, Eunice C Chan, Kaoru Terai, Lauren M Long, Timothy G Myers, Arkadiusz Z Dudek, Kirk M Druey
BACKGROUND: Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) is an extremely rare and life-threatening vascular disorder of unknown etiology. SCLS is characterized by abrupt and transient episodes of hypotensive shock and edema due to plasma leakage into peripheral tissues. The disorder has garnered attention recently because its initial presentation resembles more common vascular disorders including systemic anaphylaxis, sepsis, and acute infections with the Ebola/Marburg family of filoviruses...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Vladimir G Dedkov, N'Faly Magassouba, Marina V Safonova, Sergey A Bodnev, Oleg V Pyankov, Jacob Camara, Bakary Sylla, Alexander P Agafonov, Victor V Maleev, German A Shipulin
Filoviruses are important etiological agents of emergent diseases with high mortality rates. Traditionally, filovirus fever diseases have primarily been a burden of African countries; however, global interconnectedness has increased the probability of the worldwide spread of filoviruses. Therefore, national healthcare organizations need tools for managing filovirus risk, including diagnostic kits based on real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), as this is the most suitable method for diagnosing filovirus fever diseases...
January 19, 2018: Health Security
Baptiste Martin, Olivier Reynard, Viktor Volchkov, Etienne Decroly
There are no approved medications for the treatment of Marburg or Ebola virus infection. In two previous articles (Martin et al., 2016, Martin et al., 2017), we reviewed surface glycoprotein and replication proteins structure/function relationship to decipher the molecular mechanisms of filovirus life cycle and identify antiviral strategies. In the present article, we recapitulate knowledge about the viral proteins involved in filovirus assembly and budding. First we describe the structural data available for viral proteins associated with virus assembly and virion egress and then, we integrate the structural features of these proteins in the functional context of the viral replication cycle...
January 2, 2018: Antiviral Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"