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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590590/modulation-of-deg-enacs-by-amphiphiles-suggests-sensitivity-to-membrane-alterations
#1
Axel Schmidt, Rick J Alsop, Rahul Rimal, Pia Lenzig, Sylvia Joussen, Natalie N Gervasi, Adree Khondker, Stefan Gründer, Maikel C Rheinstädter, Dominik Wiemuth
The bile acid-sensitive ion channel is activated by amphiphilic substances such as bile acids or artificial detergents via membrane alterations; however, the mechanism of membrane sensitivity of the bile acid-sensitive ion channel is not known. It has also not been systematically investigated whether other members of the degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel (DEG/ENaC) gene family are affected by amphiphilic compounds. Here, we show that DEG/ENaCs ASIC1a, ASIC3, ENaC, and the purinergic receptor P2X2 are modulated by a large number of different, structurally unrelated amphiphilic substances, namely the detergents N-lauroylsarcosine, Triton X-100, and β-octylglucoside; the fenamate flufenamic acid; the antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine; the natural phenol resveratrol; the chili pepper compound capsaicin; the loop diuretic furosemide; and the antiarrythmic agent verapamil...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589117/the-degenerin-region-of-the-human-bile-acid-sensitive-ion-channel-basic-is-involved-in-channel-inhibition-by-calcium-and-activation-by-bile-acids
#2
Alexandr V Ilyaskin, Sonja A Kirsch, Rainer A Böckmann, Heinrich Sticht, Christoph Korbmacher, Silke Haerteis, Alexei Diakov
The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. It is activated by bile acids and inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ . The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects. The modulation of BASIC function by extracellular Ca2+ and tauro-deoxycholic acid (t-DCA) was studied in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing human BASIC using the two-electrode voltage-clamp and outside-out patch-clamp techniques. Substitution of aspartate D444 to alanine or cysteine in the degenerin region of BASIC, a region known to be critically involved in channel gating, resulted in a substantial reduction of BASIC Ca2+ sensitivity...
March 27, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582446/molecular-genetic-studies-in-a-case-series-of-isolated-hypoaldosteronism-due-to-biosynthesis-defects-or-aldosterone-resistance
#3
Ihsan Turan, L Damla Kotan, Mehmet Tastan, Fatih Gurbuz, A Kemal Topaloglu, Bilgin Yuksel
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hypoaldosteronism is associated with either insufficient aldosterone production or aldosterone resistance (pseudohypoaldosteronism). Patients with aldosterone defects typically present with similar symptoms and findings, which include failure to thrive, vomiting, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis. Accurate diagnosis of these clinical conditions, therefore, can be challenging. Molecular genetic analyses can help to greatly clarify this complexity. The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with aldosterone defects due to biosynthesis defects or aldosterone resistance...
March 27, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580888/characterization-of-mouse-chorda-tympani-responses-evoked-by-stimulation-of-anterior-or-posterior-fungiform-taste-papillae
#4
Stuart A McCaughey
Different gustatory papilla types vary in their locations on the tongue. Distinctions have often made between types, but variation within fungiform papillae has seldom been explored. Here, regional differences in fungiform papillae were investigated by flowing solutions selectively over either an anterior fungiform (AF, tongue tip) or a posterior fungiform (PF, middle third) region as taste-evoked activity was measured in the chorda tympani nerve of C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Significantly larger responses were evoked by NaCl applied to the AF than PF region, and the ENaC blocker amiloride reduced the NaCl response size only for the former...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580127/epithelial-sodium-channel-blockade-and-new-%C3%AE-enac-polymorphisms-among-normotensive-and-hypertensive-adult-nigerians
#5
Simiat O Elias, Olusoga A Sofola, Smith I Jaja
We sought to determine the effect of amiloride on blood pressure (BP) and the presence of polymorphisms of the β-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) among normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) Nigerians. Healthy volunteers-47 NT and 53 age-matched HT were recruited after giving informed consent. Subjects were salt-loaded with 200 mmol of NaCl daily for 5 days. Following a week washout period, salt-loading was repeated in addition to the administration of 5 mg amiloride daily for five days. Blood pressure, plasma and urine electrolytes were measured at baseline, after salt-loading and after salt-loading plus amiloride...
March 26, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576549/incorporation-of-the-delta-subunit-into-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac-generates-protease-resistant-enacs-in-xenopus-laevis
#6
Lukas Wichmann, Kirsty Sophia Vowinkel, Alexander Perniss, Ivan Manzini, Mike Althaus
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a critical regulator of vertebrate electrolyte homeostasis. ENaC is the only constitutively open ion channel in the degenerin/ENaC protein family, and its expression, membrane abundance, and open probability therefore are tightly controlled. The canonical ENaC is composed of three subunits (α, β and γ), but a fourth δ-subunit may replace α and form atypical δβγ-ENaCs. Using Xenopus laevis as a model, here we found that mRNAs of the α- and δ-subunits are differentially expressed in different tissues and that δ-ENaC predominantly is present in the urogenital tract...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574718/compromised-regulation-of-the-collecting-duct-enac-activity-in-mice-lacking-at-1a-receptor
#7
Mykola Mamenko, Oleg Zaika, Viktor Tomilin, V Behrana Jensen, Oleh Pochynyuk
ENaC-mediated sodium reabsorption in the collecting duct (CD) is a critical determinant of urinary sodium excretion. Existing evidence suggest direct stimulatory actions of Angiotensin II (Ang II) on ENaC in the CD, independently of the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling. Deletion of the major renal AT1 receptor isoform, AT1a R, decreases blood pressure and reduces ENaC abundance despite elevated aldosterone levels. The mechanism of this insufficient compensation is not known. Here, we used patch clamp electrophysiology in freshly isolated split-opened CDs to investigate how AT1a R dysfunction compromises functional ENaC activity and its regulation by dietary salt intake...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547542/transepithelial-fluid-and-salt-re-absorption-regulated-by-cgk2-signals
#8
REVIEW
Jianjun Chang, Yan Ding, Zhiyu Zhou, Hong-Guang Nie, Hong-Long Ji
Transepithelial fluid and salt re-absorption in epithelial tissues play an important role in fluid and salt homeostasis. In absorptive epithelium, fluid and salt flux is controlled by machinery mainly composed of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE), aquaporin, and sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase). Dysregulation of fluid and salt transport across epithelium contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as pulmonary edema and cystic fibrosis...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534496/liddle-syndrome-review-of-the-literature-and-description-of-a-new-case
#9
REVIEW
Martina Tetti, Silvia Monticone, Jacopo Burrello, Patrizia Matarazzo, Franco Veglio, Barbara Pasini, Xavier Jeunemaitre, Paolo Mulatero
Liddle syndrome is an inherited form of low-renin hypertension, transmitted with an autosomal dominant pattern. The molecular basis of Liddle syndrome resides in germline mutations of the SCNN1A , SCNN1B and SCNN1G genes, encoding the α, β, and γ-subunits of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC), respectively. To date, 31 different causative mutations have been reported in 72 families from four continents. The majority of the substitutions cause an increased expression of the channel at the distal nephron apical membrane, with subsequent enhanced renal sodium reabsorption...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526865/oxymatrine-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-activating-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-and-suppressing-the-jnk-signaling-pathway
#10
Bingji Jin, Hong Jin
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway have been reported to be associated with the progression of acute lung injury (ALI). Oxymatrine (OMT) alone or combined with other drugs can ameliorate paraquat- or oleic acid-induced lung injury. However, the effect of OMT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether OMT can attenuate LPS-induced ALI through regulation of the ENaC and MAPK pathway using an ALI mouse model...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513651/gating-mechanisms-of-acid-sensing-ion-channels
#11
Nate Yoder, Craig Yoshioka, Eric Gouaux
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric, proton-gated and sodium-selective members of the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) superfamily of ion channels and are expressed throughout vertebrate central and peripheral nervous systems. Gating of ASICs occurs on a millisecond time scale and the mechanism involves three conformational states: high pH resting, low pH open and low pH desensitized. Existing X-ray structures of ASIC1a describe the conformations of the open and desensitized states, but the structure of the high pH resting state and detailed mechanisms of the activation and desensitization of the channel have remained elusive...
March 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510178/metformin-increases-urinary-sodium-excretion-by-reducing-phosphorylation-of-the-sodium-chloride-cotransporter
#12
Hiroko Hashimoto, Naohiro Nomura, Wakana Shoda, Kiyoshi Isobe, Hiroaki Kikuchi, Kouhei Yamamoto, Takuya Fujimaru, Fumiaki Ando, Takayasu Mori, Tomokazu Okado, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida, Eisei Sohara
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that is widely used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have reported that treatment with metformin not only improved blood glucose levels but also reduced blood pressure. However, it remains unclear how metformin reduces blood pressure. We hypothesized that metformin affects sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. METHODS: Urinary sodium excretion and expression of renal sodium transporters were examined in 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice with acute and chronic treatment of metformin...
March 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500467/a-mathematical-model-of-the-phosphoinositide-pathway
#13
Daniel V Olivença, Inna Uliyakina, Luis L Fonseca, Margarida D Amaral, Eberhard O Voit, Francisco R Pinto
Phosphoinositides are signalling lipids that constitute a complex network regulating many cellular processes. We propose a computational model that accounts for all species of phosphoinositides in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. The model replicates the steady-state of the pathway and most known dynamic phenomena. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates model robustness to alterations in the parameters. Model analysis suggest that the greatest contributor to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P2 ) production is a flux representing the direct transformation of PI into PI(4,5)P2 , also responsible for the maintenance of this pool when phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) is decreased...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489063/plasma-kallikrein-activates-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac-in-vitro-but-is-not-essential-for-volume-retention-in-nephrotic-mice
#14
Silke Haerteis, Anja Schork, Thomas Dörffel, Bernhard N Bohnert, Regina Nacken, Matthias Wörn, Mengyun Xiao, Daniel Essigke, Andrea Janessa, Alvin H Schmaier, Edward P Feener, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Marko Bertog, Christoph Korbmacher, Ferruh Artunc
AIM: Recent work has demonstrated that activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by aberrantly filtered serine proteases causes sodium retention in nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to elucidate a potential role of plasma kallikrein (PKLK) as a candidate serine protease in this context. METHODS: We analyzed PKLK in the urine of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, n=171) and investigated its ability to activate human ENaC expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
February 28, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463641/ultrasound-elicits-behavioral-responses-through-mechanical-effects-on-neurons-and-ion-channels-in-a-simple-nervous-system
#15
Jan Kubanek, Poojan Shukla, Alakananda Das, Stephen A Baccus, Miriam B Goodman
Focused ultrasound has been shown to stimulate excitable cells, but the biophysical mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. To provide additional insight, we devised a behavioralgenetic assay applied to the well-characterized nervous system of C. elegans nematodes. We found that pulsed ultrasound elicits robust reversal behavior in wild-type animals in a pressure-, duration-, and pulse protocol- dependent manner. Responses were preserved in mutants unable to sense thermal fluctuations and absent in mutants lacking neurons required for mechanosensation...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453757/localization-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac-and-cftr-in-the-germinal-epithelium-of-the-testis-sertoli-cells-and-spermatozoa
#16
Sachin Sharma, Aaron Hanukoglu, Israel Hanukoglu
Spermatogenesis starts within the seminiferous tubules of the testis by mitotic division of spermatogonia that produces spermatocytes. Meiotic division of these spermatocytes produces haploid spermatids that differentiate into spermatozoa. In this study, we examined the expression of ENaC and CFTR (a Cl - channel) in rat testicular sections using confocal microscopic immunofluorescence. The structural integrity of the seminiferous tubule sections was verified by precise phalloidin staining of the actin fibers located abundantly at both basal and adluminal tight junctions...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439494/listeriolysin-o-causes-enac-dysfunction-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Guang Yang, Helena Pillich, Richard White, Istvan Czikora, Isabelle Pochic, Qiang Yue, Martina Hudel, Boris Gorshkov, Alexander Verin, Supriya Sridhar, Carlos M Isales, Douglas C Eaton, Jürg Hamacher, Trinad Chakraborty, Rudolf Lucas
Pulmonary permeability edema is characterized by reduced alveolar Na⁺ uptake capacity and capillary barrier dysfunction and is a potentially lethal complication of listeriosis. Apical Na⁺ uptake is mainly mediated by the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and initiates alveolar liquid clearance. Here we examine how listeriolysin O (LLO), the pore-forming toxin of Listeria monocytogenes , impairs the expression and activity of ENaC. To that purpose, we studied how sub-lytic concentrations of LLO affect negative and positive regulators of ENaC expression in the H441 airway epithelial cell line...
February 11, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432726/co-expression-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-and-protein-gene-product-9-5-surrounding-the-lumen-of-human-schlemm-s-canal
#18
Pingting Ji, Liwen Chen, Jieling Gong, Yuxiang Yuan, Mu Li, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
Previous studies of aqueous humor outflow have focused primarily on resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM), and little is known about the function of Schlemm's canal (SC). Here, we aimed to investigate whether SC is innervated by the peripheral nervous system. Ten eye specimens from eight donors were processed for histological analysis. CD31 was used to identify SC, after which we used protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker to detect nerve fibers around SC. We then characterized the nerves by double staining for PGP9...
February 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425099/conserved-cysteines-in-the-finger-domain-of-the-epithelial-na-channel-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-subunits-are-proximal-to-the-dynamic-finger-thumb-domain-interface
#19
Brandon M Blobner, Xue-Ping Wang, Ossama B Kashlan
The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/Degenerin family of ion channels. In the structure of a related family member, the 'thumb' domain's base interacts with the pore, and its tip interacts with the divergent 'finger' domain. Between the base and tip, the thumb domain is characterized by a conserved 5-rung disulfide ladder holding together two anti-parallel helices. The ENaC α and γ subunits' finger domains harbor autoinhibitory tracts that can be proteolytically liberated to activate the channel, and also host an ENaC-specific pair of cysteines...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416622/mntbap-therapy-attenuates-the-downregulation-of-sodium-transporters-in-obstructive-kidney-disease
#20
Mi Liu, Yangyang Zhu, Ying Sun, Zhaoying Wen, Songming Huang, Guixia Ding, Aihua Zhang, Zhanjun Jia, Yue Zhang
Ureteral obstruction is associated with reduced expressions of renal sodium transporters, which contributes to impaired urinary concentrating capacity. In this study, we employed a synthetic mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) mimic MnTBAP to investigate the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in modulating the sodium transporters in obstructive kidney disease. Following unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) for 7 days, a global reduction of sodium transporters including NHE3, NCC, NKCC2, and ENaCα was observed as determined by qRT-PCR, Western Blotting or immunohistochemistry...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
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