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Artemisinin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440881/overexpression-of-a-type-i-isopentenyl-pyrophosphate-isomerase-of-artemisia-annua-in-the-cytosol-leads-to-high-arteannuin-b-production-and-artemisinin-increase
#1
Dongming Ma, Gui Li, Fatima Alejos-Gonzalez, Yue Zhu, Zhen Xue, Aimin Wang, Hui Zhang, Xing Li, Hechun Ye, Hong Wang, Benye Liu, De-Yu Xie
We recently characterized a gene-terpene network that is associated with artemisinin biosynthesis in self-pollinated (SP) Artemisia annua, an effective antimalarial plant. We hypothesize that an alteration of gene expression in the network may improve the production of artemisinin and its precursors. In this study, we cloned an isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPPI) cDNA, AaIPPI1, from Artemisia annua (Aa). The full-length cDNA encodes a type I IPPI containing a plastid transit peptide (PTP) at its amino terminus...
April 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438929/molecular-profile-of-malaria-drug-resistance-markers-of-plasmodium-falciparum-in-suriname
#2
Stella M Chenet, Sheila Akinyi Okoth, Julia Kelley, Naomi Lucchi, Curtis S Huber, Stephen Vreden, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira, John W Barnwell, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Malti R Adhin
In Suriname, an artesunate monotherapy therapeutic efficacy trial was recently conducted to evaluate partial artemisinin resistance emerging in Plasmodium falciparum We genotyped the PfK13 propeller domain of P. falciparum in forty samples as well as other mutations proposed to be associated with artemisinin resistant mutants. We did not find any mutations previously associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia but we found fixed resistance mutations for chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438204/evidence-on-anti-malarial-and-diagnostic-markets-in-cambodia-to-guide-malaria-elimination-strategies-and-policies
#3
Sochea Phok, Dysoley Lek
BACKGROUND: Understanding Cambodia's anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in 2015 is critical for informing and monitoring strategies and policies as Cambodia moves forward with national efforts to eliminate malaria. The aim of this paper is to present timely and key findings on the public and private sector anti-malarial and diagnostic landscape in Cambodia. This evidence can serve as a baseline benchmark for guiding implementation of national strategies as well as other regional initiatives to address malaria elimination activities...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438197/anti-malarial-landscape-in-myanmar-results-from-a-nationally-representative-survey-among-community-health-workers-and-the-private-sector-outlets-in-2015-2016
#4
Si Thu Thein, Hnin Su Su Khin, Aung Thi
BACKGROUND: In 2015/2016, an ACTwatch outlet survey was implemented to assess the anti-malarial and malaria testing landscape in Myanmar across four domains (Eastern, Central, Coastal, Western regions). Indicators provide an important benchmark to guide Myanmar's new National Strategic Plan to eliminate malaria by 2030. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey, which employed stratified cluster-random sampling across four regions in Myanmar. A census of community health workers (CHWs) and private outlets with potential to distribute malaria testing and/or treatment was conducted...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438194/malaria-profiles-and-challenges-in-artemisinin-resistance-containment-in-myanmar
#5
Thet Wai Nwe, Tin Oo, Khin Thet Wai, Shuisen Zhou, Johan van Griensven, Palanivel Chinnakali, Safieh Shah, Aung Thi
BACKGROUND: This study examined evolving malaria profiles from January, 2010 to December, 2014 to evaluate achievements and challenges of implementing measures to prevent and control spread of artemisinin resistance in Myanmar. METHODS: Using National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) data, a cross-sectional descriptive study of 52 townships in artemisinin-resistant containment areas in Myanmar was conducted. Annual program data were analysed, and trends over time are graphically presented...
April 25, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438168/upon-entering-an-age-of-global-ivermectin-based-integrated-mass-drug-administration-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-and-malaria
#6
Frank O Richards
Ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) in humans to reduce malaria vectors is yet another use for this remarkable medicine whose discoverers shared the 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine with the discoverer of artemisinin. The malaria community should join those who have long used ivermectin MDA in an integrated battle to break transmission of three vector-borne parasitic diseases.
April 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438159/prevalence-of-plasmodium-falciparum-and-non-p-falciparum-infections-in-a-highland-district-in-ghana-and-the-influence-of-hiv-and-sickle-cell-disease
#7
Ewurama D A Owusu, Charles A Brown, Martin P Grobusch, Petra Mens
BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, there has been a reported decline in malaria in Ghana and the rest of the world; yet it remains the number one cause of mortality and morbidity. Human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) and sickle cell disease (SCD) share a common geographical space with malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and an interaction between these three conditions has been suggested. This study determined the Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum status of symptomatic and non-symptomatic residents of Mpraeso in the highlands of Kwahu-South district of Ghana based on evidence of current national decline...
April 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438155/the-malaria-testing-and-treatment-landscape-in-the-southern-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-pdr
#8
Saysana Phanalasy
BACKGROUND: In the context of national and regional goals to eliminate malaria by 2030, the Center for Malaria Parasitology and Entomology in the Lao PDR is implementing strategies to ensure all malaria cases are detected and appropriately treated with first-line artemisinin combination therapy, artemether-lumefantrine (AL). Timely and relevant evidence to inform policies and strategies is needed to ensure the most effective and efficient use of resources, and to accelerate progress towards elimination goals...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438145/insights-into-the-availability-and-distribution-of-oral-artemisinin-monotherapy-in-myanmar-evidence-from-a-nationally-representative-outlet-survey
#9
Si Thu Thein, Hnin Su Su Khin, Aung Thi
BACKGROUND: The containment of artemisinin resistance in Myanmar, historically an important probable origin and route of anti-malarial resistance to the India sub-continent and beyond, is crucial to global malaria control and elimination. This paper describes what is currently known about the sale and distribution of oral artemisinin monotherapy (AMT) across Myanmar, where this medicine is commonly found. METHODS: A nationally representative 2015 outlet survey was conducted in the private sector, and among community health workers across four geographical domains...
April 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434397/watching-the-availability-and-use-of-rapid-diagnostic-tests-rdts-and-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy-act
#10
Richard W Steketee, Thomas P Eisele
At the turn of this new century and after much debate, the malaria community reckoned with failing first line therapies and moved to a global recommendation for deployment of an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to treat infections due to Plasmodium falciparum. No one said it was going to be easy. This series in the Malaria Journal reports longitudinal snapshots of how the core pillar of malaria elimination of ensuring universal access to malaria diagnosis and treatment is faring-it is safe to say "not so well"...
April 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427418/immunity-as-a-predictor-of-anti-malarial-treatment-failure-a-systematic-review
#11
Katherine O'Flaherty, Julia Maguire, Julie A Simpson, Freya J I Fowkes
BACKGROUND: Naturally acquired immunity can reduce parasitaemia and potentially influence anti-malarial treatment outcomes; however, evidence for this in the current literature provides conflicted results. The available evidence was synthesized to determine and quantify the association between host immunity and anti-malarial treatment failure. METHODS: Four databases were searched to identify studies investigating malaria antibody levels in patients receiving anti-malarial treatment for symptomatic malaria with treatment failure recorded according to the World Health Organization classification...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427409/efficacies-of-dha-ppq-and-as-sp-in-patients-with-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-an-area-of-an-unstable-seasonal-transmission-in-sudan
#12
Abdelrahim O Mohamed, Muzamil M Abdel Hamid, Omer S Mohamed, Nuha S Elkando, Abdelmaroof Suliman, Mariam A Adam, Fahad Awad Ali Elnour, Elfatih M Malik
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), together with other control measures, have reduced the burden of falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan countries, including Sudan. Sudan adopted ACT in 2004 with a remarkable reduction in mortality due to falciparum malaria. However, emergence of resistance to the first-line treatment artesunate and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (AS/SP) has created new challenges to the control of malaria in Sudan. A search for an alternative drug of choice for treating uncomplicated malaria has become inevitable...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426645/announcement-world-malaria-day-april-25-2017
#13
(no author information available yet)
World Malaria Day is commemorated each year on April 25, the date in 2000 when leaders of 44 African nations met in Abuja, Nigeria, and committed their countries to reducing the number of malaria-related deaths. Approximately 90% of all malaria deaths occur in Africa (1). During the last 15 years, donors have collectively supported the procurement and distribution of billions of insecticide-treated bed nets and courses of artemisinin-based combination therapy globally. These improvements in malaria control are estimated to have saved an estimated 6...
April 21, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420403/molecular-surveillance-of-plasmodium-falciparum-drug-resistance-in-the-republic-of-congo-four-and-nine-years-after-the-introduction-of-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy
#14
Felix Koukouikila-Koussounda, Sankarganesh Jeyaraj, Christian N Nguetse, Charles Nchotebah Nkonganyi, Kossiwa Clarisse Kokou, Mandingha K Etoka-Beka, Francine Ntoumi, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarial drugs hinders efforts on malaria elimination and eradication. Following the global spread of chloroquine-resistant parasites, the Republic of Congo adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2006 as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. To assess the impacts after implementation of ACT, a molecular surveillance for anti-malarial drug resistance was conducted in Congo 4 and 9 years after the introduction of ACT. METHODS: Blood samples of 431 febrile children aged 1-10 years were utilized from two previous studies conducted in 2010 (N = 311) and 2015 (N = 120)...
April 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417346/-role-of-primaquine-in-malaria-control-and-elimination-in-french-speaking-africa
#15
S Briolant, B Pradines, L K Basco
Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is a relatively unknown and underutilized drug in French-speaking African countries. It acts against the liver stage parasites of all human malaria species, asexual blood stages of Plasmodium vivax and, to a lesser degree, Plasmodium falciparum; P. falciparum mature gametocytes, and P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoites. Gastrointestinal disturbances are its most common side effects. The clinical utility of primaquine is limited due to its hematological side effects in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and other contraindications (pregnant woman, breastfeeding woman, infants less than 6 months old)...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414978/investigation-on-the-relationship-between-solubility-of-artemisinin-and-polyvinylpyrroli-done-addition-by-using-daosd-approach
#16
Jin Zhang, Ran Guo, Anqi He, Shifu Weng, Xiuxiang Gao, Yizhuang Xu, Isao Noda, Jinguang Wu
In this work, we investigated the influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the solubility of artemisinin in aqueous solution by using quantitative (1)H NMR. Experimental results demonstrate that about 4 times of incremental increase occurs on the solubility of artemisinin upon introducing PVP. In addition, dipole-dipole interaction between the ester group of artemisinin and the amide group of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), a model compound of PVP, is characterized by two-dimensional (2D) correlation FTIR spectroscopy with the DAOSD (Double Asynchronous Orthogonal Sample Design) approach developed in our previous work...
March 29, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410610/an-intricate-case-of-multidrug-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum-isolate-imported-from-cambodia
#17
Raffaele Dell'Acqua, Claudia Fabrizio, Francesco Di Gennaro, Sergio Lo Caputo, Annalisa Saracino, Michela Menegon, Mariangela L'Episcopia, Carlo Severini, Laura Monno, Francesco Castelli, Gioacchino Angarano
BACKGROUND: Imported cases of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum and treatment failure with artemisinin-based regimens, although rare, have been described also in Western countries and their management is often challenging. This is also due to an inadequate knowledge and implementation of health prevention measures. CASE REPORT: A complex case of imported malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax/P. falciparum isolates in a patient who was not taking chemoprophylaxis while he was travelling in Cambodia is reported in this article...
April 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407772/the-end-of-a-dogma-the-safety-of-doxycycline-use-in-young-children-for-malaria-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Tiphaine Gaillard, Sébastien Briolant, Marylin Madamet, Bruno Pradines
Anti-malarial drug resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has spread from Southeast Asia to Africa. Furthermore, the recent emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in Southeast Asia highlights the need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Doxycycline is recommended for malaria chemoprophylaxis for travel in endemic areas, or in combination with the use of quinine for malaria treatment when ACT is unavailable or when the treatment of severe malaria with artesunate fails...
April 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404524/concise-synthesis-of-artemisinin-from-a-farnesyl-diphosphate-analogue
#19
Xiaoping Tang, Melodi Demiray, Thomas Wirth, Rudolf K Allemann
Artemisinin is one of the most potent anti-malaria drugs and many often-lengthy routes have been developed for its synthesis. Amorphadiene synthase, a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, is able to convert an oxygenated farnesyl diphosphate analogue directly to dihydroartemisinic aldehyde, which can be converted to artemisinin in only four chemical steps, resulting in an efficient synthetic route to the anti-malaria drug.
April 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402391/the-relative-effects-of-artemether-lumefantrine-and-non-artemisinin-antimalarials-on-gametocyte-carriage-and-transmission-of-plasmodium-falciparum-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Matthew M Ippolito, Julia Johnson, Christopher Mullin, Christopher Mallow, Nadia Morgan, Erika Wallender, Tianjing Li, Philip J Rosenthal
Background.: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been widely adopted as first-line agents to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria due to their activity against multidrug resistant parasites. ACTs may also disrupt transmission through a direct antigametocyte effect, but the extent of this effect is uncertain. We assessed the evidence for and estimated the effects of the most widely deployed ACT, artemether-lumefantrine (AL), relative to non-ACTs on gametocyte clearance and transmission interruption...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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