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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776367/malaria-determining-risk-factors-at-the-household-level-in-two-rural-villages-of-mainland-equatorial-guinea
#1
Mónica Guerra, Bruno de Sousa, Nicolas Ndong-Mabale, Pedro Berzosa, Ana Paula Arez
BACKGROUND: After the introduction of an artemisinin-based combination therapy, the reduction of prevalence of malaria infections has shown a remarkable progress during the last decade. However due to the lack of a consistent malaria control programme and socioeconomic inequalities, Plasmodium infection is still one of the major cause of disease in Equatorial Guinea, namely in the rural communities. This study explored the associated risk factors of malaria transmission at the microeconomic level (households) in two rural villages of mainland Equatorial Guinea...
May 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769072/provider-and-patient-perceptions-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-use-in-nigeria-a-cross-sectional-evaluation
#2
Olugbenga A Mokuolu, Olufemi O Ajumobi, Godwin N Ntadom, Olanrewaju T Adedoyin, Alero A Roberts, Chimere O Agomo, Kate U Edozieh, Henrietta U Okafor, Robinson D Wammanda, Friday A Odey, Ibrahim K Maikore, Olatayo O Abikoye, Adekunle D Alabi, Chiomah Amajoh, Bala M Audu
BACKGROUND: Nigeria commenced a phased programmatic deployment of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at the primary health care (PHC) facility levels since 2011. Despite various efforts, the national testing rate for malaria is still very low. The uptake of RDT has been variable. This study was undertaken to determine the provider and patient perceptions to RDT use at the PHC level in Nigeria with their implications for improving uptake and compliance. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 120 randomly selected PHCs across six states, across the six-geopolitical zones of Nigeria in January 2013...
May 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764451/phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterization-of-thai-isolates-of-plasmodium-falciparum-after-an-artemisinin-resistance-containment-project
#3
Thunyapit Thita, Pimrat Jadsri, Jarupatr Thamkhantho, Toon Ruang-Areerate, Nantana Suwandittakul, Naruemon Sitthichot, Kittiya Mahotorn, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Mathirut Mungthin
BACKGROUND: In Thailand, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria since 1995. Unfortunately, artemisinin resistance has been reported from Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries since 2003. Malarone® , a combination of atovaquone-proguanil (ATQ-PG), has been used to cease artemisinin pressure in some areas along Thai-Cambodia border, as part of an artemisinin resistance containment project since 2009. This study aimed to determine genotypes and phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from the Thai-Cambodia border after the artemisinin resistance containment project compared with those collected before...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764419/pyronaridine-artesunate-and-artemether-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-kenyan-children-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#4
Johanna M Roth, Patrick Sawa, Nicodemus Makio, George Omweri, Victor Osoti, Selpha Okach, Felix Choy, Henk D F H Schallig, Pètra Mens
BACKGROUND: Pyronaridine-artesunate is a novel artemisinin-based combination therapy. The efficacy and safety of pyronaridine-artesunate were compared with artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children. METHODS: This phase III open-label randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in Western Kenya. Children aged 6 months to ≤ 12 years with a bodyweight > 5 kg and microscopically confirmed P...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757989/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-antiplasmodial-activity-of-2-2-2-trifluoroethoxychalcones-and-2-fluoroethoxy-chalcones-against-plasmodium-falciparum-in-culture
#5
Kavita Devi, Vinoth Rajendran, T M Rangarajan, Rishi Pal Singh, Prahlad C Ghosh, Manjula Singh
A new class of compounds comprising two series of chalcones with 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy group and 2-fluoroethoxy groups were synthesized and screened for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7) using the [³H] hypoxanthine incorporation inhibition assay. Chalcones with 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy groups substituted on the p - and m -positions of the 1-phenyl ring showed weak antiplasmodial activity, while compounds substituted on the o -position of the 1-phenyl ring displayed enhanced antiplasmodial activity, thus indicating that 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy groups on the 1-phenyl ring of chalcones show position-dependent antiplasmodial activity...
May 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756273/expanding-the-sar-of-non-toxic-antiplasmodial-indolyl-3-ethanone-ethers-and-thioethers
#6
Mayibongwe J Lunga, Ruramai L Chisango, Carli Weyers, Michelle Isaacs, Dale Taylor, Adrienne L Edkins, Setshaba D Khanye, Heinrich C Hoppe, Clinton Veale
Despite major strides in reducing Plasmodium falciparum infections, this parasite still accounts for roughly half a million annual deaths. This problem is compounded by reduced efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Therefore, the development and optimisation of novel antimalarial chemotypes is critical. In this study, we describe our strategic approach to optimise a class of previously reported antimalarials, resulting in the discovery compounds 13 and 14 whose activity was equipotent to chloroquine against the P...
May 13, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756212/optimization-of-artemisinin-extraction-from-artemisia-annua-l-with-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-ethanol-using-response-surface-methodology
#7
Ozan Nazim Ciftci, Jessica Cahyadi, Selma E Guigard, Marleny D A Saldaña
Malaria is a high priority life-threatening public health concern in developing countries, and therefore there is a growing interest to obtain artemisinin for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy products. In this study, artemisinin was extracted from the Artemisia annua L. plant using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) modified with ethanol. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate and optimize the extraction conditions of pressure (9...
May 13, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748832/optimization-and-evaluation-of-lipid-emulsions-for-intravenous-co-delivery-of-artemether-and-lumefantrine-in-severe-malaria-treatment
#8
Yinxian Yang, Hailing Gao, Shuang Zhou, Xiao Kuang, Zhenjie Wang, Hongzhuo Liu, Jin Sun
Parenteral therapy for severe and complicated malaria is necessary, but currently available parenteral antimalarials have their own drawbacks. As for recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy, antimalarial artemether and lumefantrine are limited in parenteral delivery due to their poor water solubility. Herein, the aim of this study was to develop the lipid-based emulsions for intravenous co-delivery of artemether and lumefantrine. The lipid emulsion was prepared by high-speed shear and high-pressure homogenization, and the formulations were optimized mainly by monitoring particle size distribution under autoclaved conditions...
May 10, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747718/what-has-traditional-chinese-medicine-delivered-for-modern-medicine
#9
Jigang Wang, Yin-Kwan Wong, Fulong Liao
The field of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) represents a vast and largely untapped resource for modern medicine. Exemplified by the success of the antimalarial artemisinin, the recent years have seen a rapid increase in the understanding and application of TCM-derived herbs and formulations for evidence-based therapy. In this review, we summarise and discuss the developmental history, clinical background and molecular basis of an action for several representative TCM-derived medicines, including artemisinin, arsenic trioxide, berberine and Salvia miltiorrhiza or Danshen...
May 11, 2018: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746932/prevention-of-carcinogenesis-and-metastasis-by-artemisinin-type-drugs
#10
Mohammed L Abba, Nitin Patil, Jörg Hendrik Leupold, Mohamed E M Saeed, Thomas Efferth, Heike Allgayer
Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood, qinhao) is an ancient Chinese herbal remedy for pyrexia. Nowadays, artemisinin (qinghaosu) and its derivatives belong to the standard therapies against malaria worldwide, and its discovery has led to the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to Youyou Tu in 2015. While most attention has been paid to the treatment of malaria, there is increasing evidence that Artemisinin-type drugs bear a considerable potential to treat and prevent cancer. Rather than reporting on therapy of cancer, this review gives a comprehensive and timely overview on the chemopreventive effects of artemisinin and its derivatives against carcinogenesis and metastasis formation, following the multistage model of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, progression)...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743062/-we-don-t-want-our-clothes-to-smell-smoke-changing-malaria-control-practices-and-opportunities-for-integrated-community-based-management-in-baringo-kenya
#11
Jacinter A Amadi, Daniel O Olago, George O Ong'amo, Silas O Oriaso, Isaac K Nyamongo, Benson B A Estambale
BACKGROUND: The decline in global malaria cases is attributed to intensified utilization of primary vector control interventions and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). These strategies are inadequate in many rural areas, thus adopting locally appropriate integrated malaria control strategies is imperative in these heterogeneous settings. This study aimed at investigating trends and local knowledge on malaria and to develop a framework for malaria control for communities in Baringo, Kenya...
May 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741150/comparison-of-the-pharmacokinetics-and-ex-vivo-antimalarial-activities-of-artesunate-amodiaquine-and-artemisinin-piperaquine-in-healthy-volunteers-for-preselection-malaria-therapy
#12
Nguyen Ngoc Quang, Marina Chavchich, Chu Xuan Anh, Geoffrey W Birrell, Karin van Breda, Thomas Travers, Kerryn Rowcliffe, Michael D Edstein
The pharmacokinetics (PK) and ex vivo activity (pharmacodynamics [PD]) of two artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) (artemisinin-piperaquine [ARN-PPQ] [Artequick® ] and artesunate-amodiaquine [ARS-AQ] [Coarsucam™ ]) in healthy Vietnamese volunteers were compared following 3-day courses of the ACTs for the preselection of the drugs for falciparum malaria therapy. For PK analysis, serial plasma samples were collected from two separate groups of 22 volunteers after ACT administration. Of these volunteers, ex vivo activity was assessed in plasma samples from seven volunteers who received both ACTs...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740482/dihydroartemisinin-sensitizes-lewis-lung-carcinoma-cells-to-carboplatin-therapy-via-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activation
#13
Bicheng Zhang, Zhimin Zhang, Jun Wang, Bo Yang, Yong Zhao, Zhiguo Rao, Jianfei Gao
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua , is an effective novel antimalarial agent. Studies have suggested that it also exhibits anticancer effects when administered alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect of DHA combined with carboplatin (CBP) on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. MTT and clonogenic assays demonstrated that the proliferation activity of LLC cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by DHA combined with CBP...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738772/dihydroartemisinin-potentiates-antitumor-activity-of-5-fluorouracil-against-a-resistant-colorectal-cancer-cell-line
#14
Zhihan Yao, Adheesh Bhandari, Yinghao Wang, Yiyuan Pan, Fan Yang, Rongfa Chen, Erjie Xia, Ouchen Wang
Although the combination of chemotherapy and surgical resection has effectively increased the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients in recent decades, acquired drug resistance is still a problem that leads to treatment failure. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin, has recently been reported to show anticancer effects against numerous types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. This study showed that DHA exerted a strong anticancer effect against several colorectal cancer cell lines...
May 5, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731711/artemisinin-prevents-glutamate-induced-neuronal-cell-death-via-akt-pathway-activation
#15
Shao-Peng Lin, Wenjun Li, Ali Winters, Ran Liu, Shao-Hua Yang
Artemisinin is an anti-malarial drug that has been in use for almost half century. Recently, novel biological effects of artemisinin on cancer, inflammation-related disorders and cardiovascular disease were reported. However, neuroprotective actions of artemisinin against glutamate-induced oxidative stress have not been investigated. In the current study, we determined the effect of artemisinin against oxidative insult in HT-22 mouse hippocampal cell line. We found that pretreatment of artemisinin declined reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, attenuated the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by glutamate and rescued HT-22 cells from glutamate-induced cell death...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727708/artemisinin-and-its-derivatives-in-treating-helminthic-infections-beyond-schistosomiasis
#16
REVIEW
Nelson Siukei Lam, Xinxin Long, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
The World Health Organization estimated that more than 1.5 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths globally, and foodborne trematodiases in humans cause ∼2 million life-years lost to disability and death worldwide every year. Investment in prevention, treatment, and awareness of helminth infections and discovery of new, safe, effective, and affordable anti-helminth drugs are urgently needed. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives have been widely used to treat malaria and other protozoan infections; they also possess activities against helminths...
May 1, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724925/uncovering-the-essential-genes-of-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum-by-saturation-mutagenesis
#17
Min Zhang, Chengqi Wang, Thomas D Otto, Jenna Oberstaller, Xiangyun Liao, Swamy R Adapa, Kenneth Udenze, Iraad F Bronner, Deborah Casandra, Matthew Mayho, Jacqueline Brown, Suzanne Li, Justin Swanson, Julian C Rayner, Rays H Y Jiang, John H Adams
Severe malaria is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Despite decades of research, the distinct biology of these parasites has made it challenging to establish high-throughput genetic approaches to identify and prioritize therapeutic targets. Using transposon mutagenesis of P. falciparum in an approach that exploited its AT-rich genome, we generated more than 38,000 mutants, saturating the genome and defining mutability and fitness costs for over 87% of genes. Of 5399 genes, our study defined 2680 genes as essential for optimal growth of asexual blood stages in vitro...
May 4, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723442/the-antimalarial-activity-of-artemisinin-is-not-stereospecific
#18
Athanassios Giannis, Johannes Krieger, Toni Smeilus, Marcel Kaiser, Ean-Jeong Seo, Thomas Efferth
Here, we describe an efficient and diversity oriented entry to both (-)-artemisinin (1) and to its natural antipode (+)-artemisinin starting from commercially and readily available S-(+)- and R-(-)-citronellene respectively. Subsequently, we have answered a still open question, i.e. specificity of artemisinins action. Using a drug sensitive Plasmodium falc. NF54 strain we showed that the antimalarial activity of artemisinin is not stereospecific. Our straightforward and biomimetic approach to this natural endoperoxide allows synthesis of artemisinin derivatives not accessible applying current methods and may help to address the problem of emerging resistance of Plasmodium falciparum towards artemisinin...
May 3, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723168/malaria-surveillance-united-states-2015
#19
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin, Kathrine R Tan
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 4, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720163/caregivers-compliance-with-referral-advice-evidence-from-two-studies-introducing-mrdts-into-community-case-management-of-malaria-in-uganda
#20
Sham Lal, Richard Ndyomugenyi, Lucy Paintain, Neal D Alexander, Kristian S Hansen, Pascal Magnussen, Daniel Chandramohan, Siân E Clarke
BACKGROUND: Several malaria endemic countries have implemented community health worker (CHW) programmes to increase access to populations underserved by health care. There is considerable evidence on CHW adherence to case management guidelines, however, there is limited evidence on the compliance to referral advice and the outcomes of children under-5 referred by CHWs. This analysis examined whether caregivers complied with CHWs referral advice. METHODS: Data from two cluster (village) randomised trials, one in a moderate-to-high malaria transmission setting, another in a low-transmission setting conducted between January 2010-July 2011 were analysed...
May 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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