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Informant discrepancies

Paul H Lee, Andy C Y Tse
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the quality of reporting of information essential for replication of the calculation as well as the accuracy of the sample size calculation. We examine the current quality of reporting of the sample size calculation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed and to examine the variation in reporting across study design, study characteristics, and journal impact factor. We also reviewed the targeted sample size reported in trial registries...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Julia Quitmann, Anja Rohenkohl, Rachel Sommer, Monika Bullinger, Neuza Silva
BACKGROUND: In the context of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) assessment in pediatric short stature, the present study aimed to examine the levels of agreement/disagreement between parents' and children's reports of generic and condition-specific HrQoL, and to identify socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables associated with the extent and direction of parent-child discrepancies. METHODS: This study was part of the retest phase of the QoLISSY project, which was a multicenter study conducted simultaneously in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and UK...
October 21, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
(no author information available yet)
Dementia prevalence estimates vary among population-based studies, depending on the definitions of dementia, methodologies and data sources and types of costs they use. A common approach is needed to avoid confusion and increase public and stakeholder confidence in the estimates. Since 1994, five major studies have yielded widely differing estimates of dementia prevalence and monetary costs of dementia in Canada. These studies variously estimated the prevalence of dementia for the year 2011 as low as 340 170 and as high as 747 000...
October 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Andiara Schwingel, Angela R Wiley, Margarita Teran-Garcia, Jennifer McCaffrey, Patricia Gálvez, Marcela Vizcarra
Promotoras are identified as a unique group of community health workers adept at reducing health disparities. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand perceptions of the term promotora, broadly used in research but not well documented in everyday Latina vocabulary. Six focus groups to better understand perceptions of the term promotora were conducted with 36 Latina women living in three nonmetropolitan areas in Illinois. Results suggest that Latina participants in the study do not understand the meaning of "promotora" in the same way as it is used in the literature...
October 18, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
Yan Ma, Shuo Zhang, Jing Li, Jianyi Li, Ye Kang, Weidong Ren
OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic performances of strain elastography (SE) and shear-wave elastography (SWE) for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: This prospective study recruited 71 eligible patients from June 2014 to May 2016. All patients provided written informed consent. Tumour stiffness was assessed by the SE strain ratio (R), SWE maximum elasticity (Emax) and SWE mean elasticity (Emean). Ultrasonic elastography (UE) assessments were performed at each NACT cycle (t1 - t6)...
October 17, 2016: European Radiology
Jordan Elliott-King, Sarah Shaw, Stephan Bandelow, Rajal Devshi, Shelina Kassam, Eef Hogervorst
INTRODUCTION: Currently, there is no consensus on dementia diagnostics in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are three types of assessments available: direct cognitive tests, test batteries, and informant reports. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in four databases yielding 9840 records. Relevant studies were identified and selected using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and then coded and classified according to assessment type...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Bianca Hemmingsen, David Peick Sonne, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shaojie Chen, Ying Dong, Marcio Galindo Kiuchi, Jiazhi Wang, Ruotian Li, Zhiyu Ling, Tingquan Zhou, Zhenglong Wang, Martin Martinek, Helmut Pürerfellner, Shaowen Liu, Mitchell W Krucoff
Importance: The timing and selection of patients with Kawasaki disease for corticosteroid use to prevent coronary artery complications remain controversial. Objective: To evaluate the effect of corticosteroid therapy in KD. Data Sources: Databases of Medline, The Cochrane Library, and the website until July 2015. We used the key words ["Kawasaki disease"] and ["steroid" OR "corticosteroid"] to retrieve potentially relevant studies in the databases of Medline, the Cochrane Library, and the Clinicaltrials...
October 17, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Leslie L Davis, Thomas P McCoy, Barbara Riegel, Sharon McKinley, Lynn V Doering, Kathleen Dracup, Debra K Moser
BACKGROUND: Past research has shown discrepancies between the time of symptom onset for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as documented in the medical record (MR) and patients' recall of the time assessed through subject interviews done later by researchers. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine if there were differences between the time of symptom onset documented in the MR and subject interview taking into consideration sex, age group, and recall period for patients admitted to the emergency department for symptoms suggestive of ACS...
November 2016: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
Matthew Calamia, John P K Bernstein
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms are common in patients assessed by neuropsychologists, and these symptoms can have an effect on cognitive functioning. Discrepancies between patient- and informant-reported depressive symptoms have been found in some diagnostic groups, raising concerns as to the value of assessing depressive symptoms via self-report alone. This study aimed to examine the relationship between these discrepancies and cognitive functioning in a heterogeneous outpatient neuropsychological sample...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Nicholas S Sigona, Jeffrey M Steele, Christopher D Miller
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of a pharmacist-driven beta-lactam allergy interview on antimicrobial therapy. SETTING: Tertiary care academic medical center. PRACTICE SETTING: Clarification of beta-lactam allergy may expand treatment options for patients and potentially improve outcomes, reduce toxicity, and reduce costs. PRACTICE INNOVATION: At our institution, a pilot service using a pharmacy resident and infectious diseases clinical pharmacist was implemented to clarify beta-lactam allergy information and, where appropriate, recommend a change to the patient's antibiotic therapy...
October 8, 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Isabella Bertani, Cara E Steger, Daniel R Obenour, Gary L Fahnenstiel, Thomas B Bridgeman, Thomas H Johengen, Michael J Sayers, Robert A Shuchman, Donald Scavia
Cyanobacteria blooms are a major environmental issue worldwide. Our understanding of the biophysical processes driving cyanobacterial proliferation and the ability to develop predictive models that inform resource managers and policy makers rely upon the accurate characterization of bloom dynamics. Models quantifying relationships between bloom severity and environmental drivers are often calibrated to an individual set of bloom observations, and few studies have assessed whether differences among observing platforms could lead to contrasting results in terms of relevant bloom predictors and their estimated influence on bloom severity...
October 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Peter Latta, Zenon Starčuk, Marco L H Gruwel, Michael H Weber, Boguslaw Tomanek
MR images are affected by system delays and gradient field imperfections which induce discrepancies between prescribed and actual k-space trajectories. This could be even more critical for non-Cartesian data acquisitions where even a small deviation from the assumed k-space trajectory results in severe image degradation and artifacts. Knowledge of the actual k-space trajectories is therefore crucial and can be incorporated in the reconstruction of high quality non-Cartesian images. A novel MR method for the calibration of actual gradient waveforms was developed using a combination of phase encoding increments and subsequent detection of the exact time point at which the corresponding trajectory is crossing the k-space origin...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Mayuko Furuta, Masaki Ueno, Akihiro Fujimoto, Shinya Hayami, Satoru Yasukawa, Fumiyoshi Kojima, Koji Arihiro, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Christopher P Wardell, Yuichi Shiraishi, Hiroko Tanaka, Kaoru Nakano, Kazuhiro Maejima, Aya Sasaki-Oku, Naoki Tokunaga, Keith A Boroevich, Tetsuo Abe, Hiroshi Aikata, Hideki Ohdan, Kunihito Goto, Michiaki Kubo, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Satoru Miyano, Kazuaki Chayama, Hiroki Yamaue, Hidewaki Nakagawa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver cancer has a high risk of multi-centric (MC) occurrence due to a strong carcinogenic background in the liver, in addition to a high risk of intrahepatic metastasis (IM). There are large characteristic differences between IM and MC with regards to their development and clinical outcome, but discriminating between IM and MC is usually non-trivial with respect to clinical or pathological aspects. METHODS: In this study, we performed whole-genome and RNA sequencing analyses of 49 liver nodules and two extra-hepatic metastatic tumors from 23 patients to investigate for any potential to discriminate between IM and MC at the molecular level...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Wsam A Ghandourh
Advanced cancer patients commonly have misunderstandings about the intentions of treatment and their overall prognosis. Several studies have shown that large numbers of patients receiving palliative radiation or chemotherapy hold unrealistic hopes of their cancer being cured by such therapies, which can affect their ability to make well-informed decisions about treatment options. This review aimed to explore this discrepancy between patients' and physicians' expectations by investigating three primary issues: (1) the factors associated with patients developing unrealistic expectations; (2) the implications of having unrealistic hopes and the effects of raising patients' awareness about prognosis; and (3) patients' and caregivers' perspective on disclosure and their preferences for communication styles...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Edwin Wouters, Frederik le Roux Booysen, Caroline Masquillier
Reviews of impact evaluations of community-based health workers and peer support groups highlight the considerable variability in the effectiveness of such support in improving antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes. Evidence indicates that community-based support interventions targeting patients known to be at risk will probably display better results than generic interventions aimed at the entire population of people living with HIV. It is however difficult to identify these at-risk populations, rendering knowledge on the characteristics of patients groups who are in need of community-based support a clear research priority...
2016: PloS One
David Smith, High Cheek, Brenda Denson, Christopher M Pruitt
OBJECTIVE: Intranasal (IN) midazolam is a commonly prescribed medication for pediatric sedation and anxiolysis. One of its most frequently-encountered adverse effects is discomfort with administration. While it has been proposed that premedicating with lidocaine reduces this undesirable consequence, this combination has not been thoroughly researched. The objective of our study was to assess whether topical lidocaine lessens the discomfort associated with IN midazolam administration. METHODS: This was a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial performed in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department...
October 14, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Ellen Brady, Julia Segar, Caroline Sanders
BACKGROUND: The ethics of research into online communities is a long-debated issue, with many researchers arguing that open-access discussion groups are publically accessible data and do not require informed consent from participants for their use for research purposes. However, it has been suggested that there is a discrepancy between the perceived and actual privacy of user-generated online content by community members. OBJECTIVE: There has been very little research regarding how privacy is experienced and enacted online...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Roque da Silva Araújo, Edna Apparecida Moura Arcuri, Victor Cauê Lopes
Objective: to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. Methods: cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. Results: half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity...
October 10, 2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Stefanie Z Demetriades, Nathan Walter
This study explores whether self-affirmation has the capacity not merely to reduce the perceived threat associated with health-related information but also to facilitate interpersonal discussion and affect health information-seeking behavior. The context for the study is the ongoing California drought, which serves as suitable context to examine the intersection of self-affirmation and information-seeking behavior because it involves a threatening message (the destructive consequences of the drought) and highlights discrepancies between actual (water waste) and prosocial (water conservation) behavior...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Health Communication
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