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Ignacio Trucillo Silva, Hari Kishan R Abbaraju, Lynne P Fallis, Hongjun Liu, Michael Lee, Kanwarpal S Dhugga
Intracellular factors differentially affected enzyme activities of N assimilation in the roots of maize testcrosses where alanine aminotransferase and glutamate synthase were the main enzymes regulating the levels of glutamate. N is a key macronutrient for plant growth and development. Breeding maize with improved efficiency in N use could help reduce environmental contamination as well as increase profitability for the farmers. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of traits related to N metabolism in the root tissue was undertaken in a maize testcross mapping population grown in hydroponic cultures...
March 14, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Andreas Carstensen, Andrei Herdean, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Anurag Sharma, Cornelia Spetea, Mathias Pribil, Søren Husted
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency disrupts the photosynthetic machinery and the electron transport chain through a series of sequential events in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Phosphorus deficiency reduces the orthophosphate (Pi) concentration in the chloroplast stroma to levels that inhibit ATP synthase activity...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Lucas J C van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard Gm Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Kaihui Liu, Xiaowei Ding, Xiaofei Tang, Jianjun Wang, Wenjun Li, Qingyun Yan, Zhenghua Liu
Understanding the effects of environmental factors on microbial communities is critical for microbial ecology, but it remains challenging. In this study, we examined the diversity (alpha diversity) and community compositions (beta diversity) of prokaryotes and fungi in hypersaline sediments and salinized soils from northern China. Environmental variables were highly correlated, but they differed significantly between the sediments and saline soils. The compositions of prokaryotic and fungal communities in the hypersaline sediments were different from those in adjacent saline-alkaline soils, indicating a habitat-specific microbial distribution pattern...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carly Griffiths, Lisa Harnack, Mark A Pereira
OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of nutrient intake calculations from leading nutrition tracking applications (apps). DESIGN: Nutrient intake estimates from thirty 24 h dietary recalls collected using Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) were compared with intake calculations from these recalls entered by the researcher into five free nutrition tracking apps. Apps were selected from the Apple App Store based on consumer popularity from the list of free 'Health and Fitness' apps classified as a nutrition tracking apps...
March 14, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Shan-Xuan Lim, Jia-Ying Toh, Linde van Lee, Wee-Meng Han, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Kok-Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Keith M Godfrey, Yap-Seng Chong, Mary Foong-Fong Chong
Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother-offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Paola Mattei, Alessandro Gnesini, Cristina Gonnelli, Chiara Marraccini, Grazia Masciandaro, Cristina Macci, Serena Doni, Renato Iannelli, Stefano Lucchetti, Francesco P Nicese, Giancarlo Renella
Sediments dredged by an industrial port, slightly contaminated by heavy metals and petroleoum hydrocarbons, were phytoremediated and used as peat-free growing media for the red robin photinia (Photinia x fraseri L.). Plants were grown on sediment only (S), sediment mixed with composted pruning residues (S + PR), sediment fertilized with controlled release fertilizers (S + F) and peat-based growing media as control (C). Plant elongation and dry weight, leaf contents of chlorophyll, malondialdehyde (MDA), macronutrients and heavy metals were determined at the end of one growing season...
February 27, 2018: Chemosphere
Edoardo Capuano, Teresa Oliviero, Vincenzo Fogliano, Nicoletta Pellegrini
The energy content of food is calculated on the basis of general factors for fat, protein, and carbohydrates. These general factors were derived by W.O. Atwater in the late 19th century, while additional factors for dietary fiber, polyols, and organic acids were introduced more recently. These factors are applied indiscriminately to all types of foods, yet the same nutrient may be digested to different extents to generate energy, depending on the characteristics of the food matrix, the processing methods applied to foods, and the meal composition...
February 26, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Laura Morlacchi, Paola Roggero, Maria Lorella Giannì, Beatrice Bracco, Debora Porri, Enrico Battiato, Camilla Menis, Nadia Liotto, Domenica Mallardi, Fabio Mosca
Background: Nutritional management of preterm infants aims to approximate the tissue growth and body composition of a fetus of the same postmenstrual age. The adequacy of the quality of protein supply can influence the rate and the relative quality of weight gain. Objective: We investigated the protein balance according to feeding regimen and the association between human milk feeding and fat-free mass content at the term-corrected age in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Elise M Faber, Paulien M van Kampen, Agnes Clement-de Boers, Euphemia Cam Houdijk, Daniëlle Cm van der Kaay
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the order of intake of carbohydrates, protein, and fat on postprandial glucose levels in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our hypothesis was that postprandial glucose levels would be lower when fat and protein are consumed prior to carbohydrates, compared to a meal where all macronutrients are combined. METHODS: A randomized, open-label, within-subject crossover study was conducted. Twenty patients aged 7 to 17 years diagnosed with T1D for >1 year consumed 2 isocaloric meals (with similar composition) in random order...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Martine C Morrison, Robert Kleemann, Arianne van Koppen, Roeland Hanemaaijer, Lars Verschuren
Introduction: It is generally accepted that metabolic inflammation in the liver is an important driver of disease progression in NASH and associated matrix remodeling/fibrosis. However, the exact molecular inflammatory mechanisms are poorly defined in human studies. Investigation of key pathogenic mechanisms requires the use of pre-clinical models, for instance for time-resolved studies. Such models must reflect molecular disease processes of importance in patients. Herein we characterized inflammation in NASH patients on the molecular level by transcriptomics and investigated whether key human disease pathways can be recapitulated experimentally in Ldlr-/- ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Louise J C J den Biggelaar, Simone J P M Eussen, Simone J S Sep, Andrea Mari, Ele Ferrannini, Marleen M van Greevenbroek, Carla J van der Kallen, Casper G Schalkwijk, Ilja C W Arts, Coen D A Stehouwer, Pieter C Dagnelie
PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by both impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin resistance. In the etiology of T2DM, BCF basically determines whether a person with a certain degree of insulin resistance develops T2DM, as β-cells are able to compensatorily increase insulin secretion. The effects of dietary intake on BCF are largely unknown. Our study aim was to investigate whether dietary macronutrient intake predicts BCF. METHODS: Prospective data (median follow-up 7 years) of 303 individuals recruited from the CODAM study population (aged 40-70 years, 39% women) were analyzed...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Shengxin Liu, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Sabita S Soedamah-Muthu, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Ivonne Sluijs
PURPOSE: The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients. METHODS: 37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort were included in this study...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Emma Sainsbury, Nathalie V Kizirian, Stephanie R Partridge, Timothy Gill, Stephen Colagiuri, Alice A Gibson
Nutrition therapy is considered a key component of diabetes management, yet evidence around the ideal macronutrient composition of the diet remains inconclusive. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets (≤ 45% of total energy) compared to high carbohydrate diets (> 45% of total energy) on glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus. Six databases were searched for articles published between January 1980 and August 2016. Primary outcome was between-group difference in HbA1c change...
March 6, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
D M S B Dissanayaka, William C Plaxton, Hans Lambers, Meike Siebers, Buddhi Marambe, Jun Wasaki
Orthophosphate (H2 PO4 - , Pi) is an essential macronutrient integral to energy metabolism as well as a component of membrane lipids, nucleic acids, including ribosomal RNA, and therefore essential for protein synthesis. The Pi concentration in the solution of most soils worldwide is usually far too low for maximum growth of crops, including rice. This has prompted the massive use of inefficient, polluting, and non-renewable phosphorus (P) fertilizers in agriculture. We need alternative and more sustainable approaches urgently to decrease complete dependence on Pi fertilizers in agriculture...
March 8, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Landon Wood, Karen Roelofs, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Darleen A Sandoval
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is currently our most effective strategy at weight loss, yet the mechanisms for its success remain unknown. Low exercise capacity, in humans and rodents, predicts poor metabolic outcome. The objective of this manuscript was to determine if bariatric surgery could restore metabolic perturbations in rats with low intrinsic exercise capacity. METHODS: We performed vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) or sham surgery in high fat-fed rats selectively bred for low running capacity...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Paulus G M Jochems, Johan Garssen, Antonius M van Keulen, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Prescilla V Jeurink
With the global population rising, the need for sustainable and resource-efficiently produced proteins with nutritional and health promoting qualities has become urgent. Proteins are important macronutrients and are involved in most, if not all, biological processes in the human body. This review discusses these absorption mechanisms in the small intestine. To study intestinal transport and predict bioavailability, cell lines are widely applied as screening models and often concern Caco-2, HT-29, HT-29/MTX and T84 cells...
March 7, 2018: Nutrients
Maria Cuartero, Gaston A Crespo, Thomas Cherubini, Nadezda Pankratova, Fabio Confalonieri, Francesco Massa, Mary-Lou Tercier-Waeber, Melina Abdou, Joerg Schaefer, Eric Bakker
A new submersible probe for the in situ detection of nitrate, nitrite and chloride in seawater is presented. Inline coupling of a desalination unit, an acidification unit and a sensing flow cell containing all-solid-state membrane electrodes allows for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite after removal of the key interfering ions in seawater, chloride and hydroxide. Thus, the electrodes exhibited attractive analytical performances for the potentiometric detection of nitrate and nitrite in desalinated and acidified seawater: fast response time (t95<12 s), excellent stability (long-term drifts of < 0...
March 8, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Leticia Goni, Dianjianyi Sun, Yoriko Heianza, Tiange Wang, Tao Huang, J Alfredo Martínez, Xiaoyun Shang, George A Bray, Steven R Smith, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
PURPOSE: A common variant of the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) gene has been related to increased signaling of melatonin, a hormone previously associated with body fatness mainly through effects on energy metabolism. We examined whether the MTNR1B variant affects changes of body fatness and composition in response to a dietary weight loss intervention. METHODS: The MTNR1B rs10830963 variant was genotyped for 722 overweight and obese individuals, who were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient composition...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Sara Ahmed, Dhanveer Singh, Shereen Khattab, Jessica Babineau, Dinesh Kumbhare
Background: There is an increasing trend in the consumption of poor-quality diets worldwide, contributing to the increase of non-communicable diseases. Diet directly influences physiological composition and subsequently physical health. Studies have shown that dietary macronutrient and energy content can influence the proportion of intramuscular fat (IMF), which mediates various metabolic and endocrine dysfunction. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify evidence in the literature assessing the association between different dietary interventions on the proportion of IMF in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
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