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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140289/cats-and-carbohydrates-the-carnivore-fantasy
#1
REVIEW
Adronie Verbrugghe, Myriam Hesta
The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140151/a-comparison-of-the-nutrient-intakes-of-macronutrient-based-dieting-and-strict-dieting-bodybuilders
#2
Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems, Darryn Willoughby
The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive assessment of the nutritional habits of competitive bodybuilders and compare the nutrient intakes of macronutrient-based dieting and strict dieting individuals. Data from 41 subjects (30 males and 11 females) were used in analyses. Participants completed a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and diets were analyzed using a computer system. Males consumed an average of 2577.2 (SD=955.1) kilocalories, with an average fat intake of 83.6 g (SD=41.3), an average carbohydrate intake of 323...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140134/a-nutrition-recovery-station-following-recreational-exercise-improves-fruit-consumption-but-does-not-influence-fluid-recovery
#3
Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Caroline Young, Gregory R Cox, Chris Irwin
Immediate post-exercise access to fruit/fluid via a recovery "station" is a common feature of mass participation sporting events. Yet little evidence exists examining their impact on subsequent dietary intake. The aim of this study was to determine if access to fruit/water/sports drinks within a recovery station significantly alters dietary and fluid intakes in the immediate post-exercise period and influences hydration status the next morning. 127 (79 males) healthy participants (mean±SD, age=22.5±3.5y, body mass (BM)=73±13kg) completed two self-paced morning 10km runs separated by 1 week...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134521/metals-in-diplodus-sargus-cadenati-and-sparisoma-cretense-a-risk-assessment-for-consumers
#4
Aridani Afonso, Ángel J Gutiérrez, Gonzalo Lozano, Dailos González-Weller, Enrique Lozano-Bilbao, Carmen Rubio, José M Caballero, Consuelo Revert, Arturo Hardisson
The increases in urbanization, demography and industrial activity, along with growing human needs which exploit the resources of the planet, have exponentially exacerbated pollution. In particular, the discharge of heavy metals into the marine ecosystem is a problem of global magnitude, as this may damage the diversity of marine species and ecosystems because of their toxicity, long persistence and bioaccumulation. Consequently, it is necessary to carry out an assessment of the risk of human exposure from the consumption of marine species potentially exposed to this type of pollutants...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131514/quantitative-trait-loci-associated-with-soybean-seed-weight-and-composition-under-different-phosphorus-levels
#5
Gokhan Hacisalihoglu, Amy L Burton, Jeffery L Gustin, Selim Eker, Safiye Asikli, Elif Hakli Heybet, Levent Ozturk, Ismail Cakmak, Atilla Yazici, Kent O Burkey, James Orf, A Mark Settles
Seed size and composition are important traits in food crops and can be affected by nutrient availability in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is a non-renewable, essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits soybean (Glycine max) yield and quality. To investigate the associations of seed traits in low- and high-P environments, soybean recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross of cultivars Fiskeby III and Mandarin (Ottawa) were grown under contrasting P availability environments. Traits including individual seed weight, seed number, and intact mature pod weight were significantly affected by soil P levels and showed transgressive segregation among the RILs...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131014/early-nutrition-and-growth-until-the-corrected-age-of-2-years-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#6
Henni Hiltunen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Erika Isolauri, Samuli Rautava
BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm birth is associated with a high risk of extrauterine growth retardation, which has been linked with adverse developmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether nutritional management during the first 7 days of life affects growth patterns until the corrected age of 2 years in extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 78 extremely preterm (<28 weeks' gestation) neonates was conducted...
November 10, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130715/relationship-of-long-term-macronutrients-intake-on-anabolic-catabolic-hormones-in-female-elite-volleyball-players
#7
Juan Mielgo Ayuso, Michael C Zpurdos, Aritz Urdampilleta, Julio Calleja González, Jesús Seco, Alfredo Córdova
INTRODUCTION: Specific macronutrient distribution and training can alter acute and chronic hormone behavior and, subsequently, sport performance. OBJECTIVE: The main aim was to examine relationships between dietary intake and anabolic/catabolic hormone response in elite female volleyball players during a 29-week season. METHODS: Twenty-two elite female volleyballers (26.4 ± 5.6 years; 178 ± 9 cm; 67.1 ± 7.5 kg) had dietary intake (seven-day dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire), blood concentration of anabolic/catabolic hormones concentration, physical performance, and body composition assessed at four time points: a) T1: baseline/pre-testing; b) T2: eleven weeks after T1; c) T3: ten weeks after T2; and d) T4: eight weeks after T3...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130712/-development-of-a-food-composition-database-for-valoration-of-dietary-intake-in-peruvian-amazon
#8
María García Rodríguez, Rafael Moreno Rojas, Manuel Romero Saldaña, Guillermo Molina Recio
AIM: The aim of this study was the development of a specific food composition database of Peruvian Amazonia with which value the dietary intake of the population. METHODOLOGY: An observational surveying study has been performed at which 303 individuals aged 3-83 years were selected. To compiling a register of basic food reminders of 24 hours (R24) and frequency foods consumption questionnaires (FFQ) over a four-year period were collected, and were complemented by the National Household Budget Survey...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129282/using-plant-nutrient-landscapes-to-assess-anthropocene-effects-on-insect-herbivores
#9
REVIEW
Paul A Lenhart
Global climate change will dramatically affect insect herbivores through changes in plant quality. Linking how multiple climate factors affect plant macronutrient content may be the most accurate way to understand the response of insect herbivores. Studies should embrace the complexity of interacting climate factors in natural systems and characterize shifts in multidimensional plant nutrient landscapes. This nutrient landscape simplifies interpretation of climate effects, although selection of appropriate currencies, scale, and interactions with allelochemicals present challenges...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128557/the-effect-of-diet-adiposity-and-weight-loss-on-the-secretion-of-incretin-hormones-in-cats
#10
K E McCool, A J Rudinsky, V J Parker, C O Herbert, C Gilor
Degree of adiposity and dietary macronutrient composition affect incretin hormone secretion in humans and mice, but little is known about their effect in cats. In this study, 7 overweight cats were fed a maintenance diet (MD) for at least 2 wk followed by a reduced calorie diet (RCD), which was lower in fat and higher in carbohydrates and fiber. Cats were fed ad libitum initially, and then, food was restricted to achieve 1%-2% loss of body weight weekly (11 wk). When lean, cats were fed MD for 2 wk. A standardized meal test (SMT) using a third diet was performed after at least 7 d on each diet, before and after weight loss (four SMT's total)...
October 20, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125955/biomonitoring-of-nutrient-and-toxic-element-concentrations-in-the-sarno-river-through-aquatic-plants
#11
Daniela Baldantoni, Alessandro Bellino, Giusy Lofrano, Giovanni Libralato, Luca Pucci, Maurizio Carotenuto
The Sarno River is considered the most polluted river in Europe and one of the ten most polluted rivers in the world. So far, its quality has been usually evaluated by water and sediment analyses of either inorganic or organic pollutants. However, a biomonitoring approach would be of paramount importance in the evaluation of river quality, since it integrates pollutant temporal fluctuations, as in the case of discontinuous inputs from urban, industrial and agricultural activities. To this end, a passive biomonitoring study of the Sarno River was carried out, using two native aquatic plants accumulators of inorganic pollutants...
November 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122389/the-nutritional-geometry-of-liver-disease-including-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#12
REVIEW
Stephen J Simpson, David Raubenheimer, Victoria C Cogger, Laurence Macia, Samantha M Solon-Biet, David G Le Couteur, Jacob George
Nutrition has a profound effect on chronic liver disease, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most observational studies and clinical trials have focussed on the effects of total energy intake, or the intake of individual macronutrients and certain micronutrients, such as vitamin D, on liver disease. Although these studies have shown the importance of nutrition on hepatic outcomes, there is not yet any unifying framework for understanding the relationship between diet and liver disease. The Geometric Framework for Nutrition (GFN) is an innovative model for designing nutritional experiments or interpreting nutritional data that can determine the effects of nutrients and their interactions on animal behaviour and phenotypes...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121495/energy-expenditure-growth-and-nutritional-therapy-in-appropriate-and-small-for-gestational-age-preterm-infants
#13
Andrea Dunshee de Abranches, Fernanda Valente Mendes Soares, Letícia Duarte Villela, Maria Dalva Barbosa Barker Méio, Olivia Araújo Zin, Saint-Clair Gomes Junior, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the resting energy expenditure, growth, and quantity of energy and macronutrients intake in a group of preterm newborns. METHODS: The cohort study was performed with appropriate and small for gestational age preterm infants (birth weight lower than 1500g or gestational age<32 weeks). Resting energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of life, and at discharge. Length, head circumference and body weight were assessed weekly...
November 6, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118016/modelling-insulin-resistance-in-rodents-by-alterations-in-diet-what-have-high-fat-and-high-calorie-diets-revealed
#14
Lewin Small, Amanda E Brandon, Nigel Turner, Gregory J Cooney
For over half a century, researchers have been feeding different diets to rodents to examine the effects of macronutrients on whole body and tissue insulin action. During this period, the number of different diets and the source of macronutrients employed has grown dramatically. Due to the large heterogeneity in both the source and percentage of different macronutrients used for studies, it is not surprising that different high calorie diets do not produce the same changes in insulin action. Despite this, diverse high calorie diets continue to be employed in an attempt to generate a "generic" insulin resistance...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117110/digestibility-is-similar-between-commercial-diets-that-provide-ingredients-with-different-perceived-glycemic-responses-and-the-inaccuracy-of-using-the-modified-atwater-calculation-to-calculate-metabolizable-energy
#15
Natalie J Asaro, Marcial A Guevara, Kimberley Berendt, Ruurd Zijlstra, Anna K Shoveller
Dietary starch is required for a dry, extruded kibble; the most common diet type for domesticated felines in North America. However, the amount and source of dietary starch may affect digestibility and metabolism of other macronutrients. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of 3 commercial cat diets on in vivo and in vitro energy and macronutrient digestibility, and to analyze the accuracy of the modified Atwater equation. Dietary treatments differed in their perceived glycemic response (PGR) based on ingredient composition and carbohydrate content (34...
November 8, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116185/targeted-metabolomics-reveals-abnormal-hepatic-energy-metabolism-by-depletion-of-%C3%AE-carotene-oxygenase-2-in-mice
#16
Lei Wu, Xin Guo, Yi Lyu, Stephen L Clarke, Edralin A Lucas, Brenda J Smith, Deana Hildebrand, Weiqun Wang, Denis M Medeiros, Xinchun Shen, Dingbo Lin
β-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) is a carotenoid cleavage enzyme located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Ablation of BCO2 impairs mitochondrial function leading to oxidative stress. Herein, we performed a targeted metabolomics study using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to discriminate global metabolites profiles in liver samples from six-week-old male BCO2 systemic knockout (KO), heterozygous (Het), and wild type (WT) mice fed a chow diet...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112863/the-liver
#17
Elijah Trefts, Maureen Gannon, David H Wasserman
The liver is a critical hub for numerous physiological processes. These include macronutrient metabolism, blood volume regulation, immune system support, endocrine control of growth signaling pathways, lipid and cholesterol homeostasis, and the breakdown of xenobiotic compounds, including many current drugs. Processing, partitioning, and metabolism of macronutrients provide the energy needed to drive the aforementioned processes and are therefore among the liver's most critical functions. Moreover, the liver's capacities to store glucose in the form of glycogen, with feeding, and assemble glucose via the gluconeogenic pathway, in response to fasting, are critical...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110749/salivary-leptin-and-tas1r2-tas1r3-polymorphisms-are-related-to-sweet-taste-sensitivity-and-carbohydrate-intake-from-a-buffet-meal-in-healthy-young-adults
#18
Pengfei Han, Russell S J Keast, Eugeni Roura
The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control)...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109719/phenotypic-characterization-of-human-monocytes-following-macronutrient-intake-in-healthy-humans
#19
Awad Alshahrani, Abdalmalik Bin Khunayfir, Mohammed Al Rayih, Hasan Al Sayed, Abdullah Alsadoon, Mohammed Al Dubayee, Mahmoud Zahra, Yousof Alrumayyan, Maha Al Zayer, Amre Nasr, Ahmad Aljada
Background: Three subsets of human monocytes in circulation have been identified and their characterization is still ill-defined. Although glucose and lipid intakes have been demonstrated to exert pro-inflammatory effects on mononuclear cells (MNCs) of healthy subjects, characterization of monocytes phenotypes following macronutrient (glucose, protein, and lipid) intake in humans remains to be determined. Methods: Thirty-six healthy, normal weight volunteers were recruited in the study...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109552/butyrate-and-propionate-inhibit-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cell-activation-by-suppressing-il-12-production-by-antigen-presenting-cells
#20
Claudia Nastasi, Simon Fredholm, Andreas Willerslev-Olsen, Morten Hansen, Charlotte Menné Bonefeld, Carsten Geisler, Mads Hald Andersen, Niels Ødum, Anders Woetmann
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are products of microbial macronutrients fermentation that distribute systemically and are believed to modulate host immune responses. Recent data have indicated that certain SCFAs, such as butyrate and propionate, directly modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function. Given the role of DCs in initiating and shaping the adaptive immune response, we now explore how SCFAs affect the activation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells stimulated with autologous, MART1 peptide-pulsed DC...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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