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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550602/optimizing-the-modification-of-wood-waste-biochar-via-metal-oxides-to-remove-and-recover-phosphate-from-human-urine
#1
Kangning Xu, Chuke Zhang, Xiaomin Dou, Weifang Ma, Chengwen Wang
The recovery of phosphate from human urine has been considered as one of the most attractive benefits of urine source separation because P is an essential but limited macronutrient. This study investigated the approach to modify wood waste biochar via metal oxides aiming to recover phosphate from human urine to produce a value-added biochar. Results showed the phosphate removal ability was enhanced for the modified biochar pre-treated in modification solutions of MgCl2, AlCl3, CaCl2 and FeCl3, respectively, while natural biochar released phosphate to urine...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549738/direct-actions-of-macronutrient-components-on-goldfish-hepatopancreas-in-vitro-to-modulate-the-expression-of-ghr-i-ghr-ii-igf-i-and-igf-ii-mrnas
#2
Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Luis Fabián Canosa, Suraj Unniappan
In mammals and fish, somatic growth and metabolism are coordinated by the GH-IGF axis, composed of growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptors I and II (GHR-I and GHR-II), and the insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II). In order to determine if dietary macronutrients regulate the hepatopancreatic expression of ghr-I, ghr-II, igf-I and igf-II independently of circulating GH, organ culture experiments were conducted. Briefly, goldfish hepatopancreas sections were incubated with different doses of glucose; L-tryptophan; oleic acid; linolenic acid (LNA); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
May 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547377/the-excessive-enrichment-of-trace-elements-in-migratory-and-breeding-red-crowned-cranes-grus-japonensis-in-china
#3
Luo Jinming, Wang Yongjie, Gao Zhongyan, Wang Wenfeng
The excessive enrichment of trace elements, such as Pb and Cd, from food may contribute to the decline of migratory red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in China. To test this prediction, we determined the concentrations of Pb and Cd, as well as further macro and trace elements (Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn) in the target species and their prey (sediment, reed root, mollusk, arthropods, and common fish species) in both the wintering (Yancheng wetland) and breeding sites (Zhalong wetland) of cranes in China. The maximum concentrations of Pb (130 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw)) and Cd (10...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545937/treatment-of-nafld-with-diet-physical-activity-and-exercise
#4
REVIEW
Manuel Romero-Gómez, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Michael Trenell
Lifestyle intervention can be useful across all the spectrum of NAFLD patients. Losing weight decreases cardiovascular / diabetes risk and also regresses liver disease. Weight reductions of ≥ 10% are required for inducing near universal NASH resolution or fibrosis improvement by at least one stage. However, modest weight losses (>5%) also produce important benefits on NAS and its components. In addition, to improve the success of this intervention we need to explore, beyond total calories and type of weight loss diet, the role of micro and macronutrients, evidence-based benefits of physical activity and exercise and finally supporting these modifications through established behaviour change models and techniques...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541069/reading-between-the-menu-lines-are-restaurants-descriptions-of-healthy-foods-unappealing
#5
Bradley P Turnwald, Dan Jurafsky, Alana Conner, Alia J Crum
OBJECTIVE: As obesity rates continue to climb in America, much of the blame has fallen on the high-calorie meals at popular chain restaurants. Many restaurants have responded by offering "healthy" menu options. Yet menus' descriptions of healthy options may be less attractive than their descriptions of less healthy, standard options. This study examined the hypothesis that the words describing items in healthy menu sections are less appealing than the words describing items in standard menu sections...
May 25, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538814/maize-dry-matter-production-and-macronutrient-extraction-model-as-a-new-approach-for-fertilizer-rate-estimation
#6
Karla V Martins, Durval Dourado-Neto, Klaus Reichardt, José L Favarin, Felipe F Sartori, Guilherme Felisberto, Simone C Mello
Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution...
May 22, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535825/the-effect-of-increased-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-on-selected-macronutrient-and-micronutrient-intakes-in-four-randomised-controlled-trials
#7
Sharon L Fulton, Michelle C McKinley, Charlotte E Neville, Francina R Baldrick, Ciara Mulligan, Damian O McCall, David R McCance, J D Edgar, J S Elborn, Ian S Young, Chris C Patterson, Jayne V Woodside
Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is associated with reduced risk of a number of non-communicable diseases. Research tends to focus on antioxidants, flavonoids and polyphenols contained in FV as the main beneficial components to health; however, increasing FV may also alter overall diet profile. Extra FV may be substituted for foods thought to be less healthy, therefore altering the overall macronutrient and/or micronutrient content in the diet. This analysis merged dietary data from four intervention studies in participants with varying health conditions and examined the effect of increased FV consumption on diet profile...
May 24, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531788/association-of-dietary-factors-with-severity-of-coronary-artery-disease
#8
Namita Mahalle, M K Garg, S S Naik, M V Kulkarni
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has taken epidemic proportions during past decades. Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to progression of coronary lesions, worsening the patient's prognosis. This study was planned to analyze the association of dietary factors with severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Indian patients. METHODS: Three hundred patients with known coronary disease above the age of 25 years were included in this study. Blood samples were collected for biochemical markers...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531783/prototypical-versus-contemporary-mediterranean-diet
#9
W Rizza, L De Gara, R Antonelli Incalzi, C Pedone
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. METHODS: We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531568/macronutrient-and-alcohol-intake-is-associated-with-intermuscular-adipose-tissue-in-a-randomly-selected-group-of-younger-and-older-men-and-women
#10
Kajsa Sjöholm, Lena Gripeteg, Ingrid Larsson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and macronutrient intake have been found to be related to general and central body fat distribution. Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is a small ectopic fat depot located within the muscle bundles. IMAT is important for muscle function, mobility and energy homeostasis and also associated with cardiovascular- and diabetes-related risk factors. AIM: To test the hypothesis that macronutrient and alcohol intake is associated with IMAT. METHODS: 50 men and 50 women, randomly selected from the general population formed height- and weight-representative age groups of 50 younger (27-31 years) and 50 older (57-61 years) subjects...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531563/what-do-individuals-with-morbid-obesity-report-as-a-usual-dietary-intake-a-narrative-review-of-available-evidence
#11
Cathy M Harbury, Elisabeth E Verbruggen, Robin Callister, Clare E Collins
BACKGROUND: In several developed countries, as obesity prevalence doubles it has quadrupled for morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kgm(-2)). As more individuals with morbid obesity present for weight loss treatment there is a greater need to understand their dietary habits. No reviews were found in the literature, therefore this systematic review aims to identify and describe the existing evidence on the usual dietary intake of individuals with morbid obesity including those from a general population and those seeking treatment such as weight loss surgery...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527590/phosphate-scouting-by-root-tips
#12
REVIEW
Steffen Abel
Chemistry assigns phosphate (Pi) dominant roles in metabolism; however, it also renders the macronutrient a genuinely limiting factor of plant productivity. Pi bioavailability is restricted by low Pi mobility in soil and antagonized by metallic toxicities, which force roots to actively seek and selectively acquire the vital element. During the past few years, a first conceptual outline has emerged of the sensory mechanisms at root tips, which monitor external Pi and transmit the edaphic cue to inform root development...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527035/comparison-of-rhizosphere-properties-as-affected-by-different-bt-and-non-bt-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum-l-genotypes-and-fertilization
#13
Maqshoof Ahamd, Waleed Mumtaz Abbasi, Moazzam Jamil, Muhammad Iqbal, Azhar Hussain, Muhammad Fakhar-U-Zaman Akhtar, Farheen Nazli
Incorporation of genetically modified crops in the cropping system raises the need for studying the effect of these crops on the soil ecosystem. The current study aimed to compare the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and non-Bt-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes on rhizosphere properties under fertilized and unfertilized soil conditions. One non-Bt-cotton (IUB 75) and four Bt-cotton varieties (IUB-222, MM-58, IUB-13, FH-142) were sown in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a factorial fashion with three replications under unfertilized (T1) and fertilized (T2 at NPK 310-170-110 kg ha(-1)) soil conditions...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524760/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-hepg2-and-chemical-composition-of-polar-extracts-from-the-ruderal-species-coleostephus-myconis-l-rchb-f
#14
Sílvia M F Bessada, João C M Barreira, J Santos, Carla Costa, Filipa B Pimentel, Maria João Bessa, João Paulo Teixeira, M Beatriz P P Oliveira
Coleostephus myconis (L.) Rchb.f. (Asteraceae) is a highly disseminated plant species with ruderal and persistent growth. Owing to its advantageous agronomic properties, C. myconis might have industrial applications. However, this species needs to be comprehensively characterized before any potential use. In a previous study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of different C. myconis tissues were characterized. This investigation was extended to examine the cytotoxic potential of selected plant tissues (flowers and green parts) using a HepG2 cell line by utilizing the lysosomal neutral red uptake assay or mitochondrial (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523959/content-fat-and-calorie-of-human-milk-is-affected-by-interactions-between-maternal-age-and-body-mass-index
#15
Won-Ho Hahn, Tchaewon Jeong, Suyeon Park, Seunghyun Song, Nam Mi Kang
PURPOSE: We evaluated the association between macronutrients of human milk (HM), and interactions between maternal age and body mass index(BMI) in matched conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Totally, 80 HM samples were collected from healthy breast-feeding mothers at fourth week of lactation. HM macronutrients and maternal data were analyzed. Mothers were subgrouped into four groups by maternal age (20 s/30 s) and BMI (overweight/normal). RESULTS: Two-way ANOVA revealed significant interactions between age and BMI to affect macronutrients; fat, carbohydrate, and calories...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522351/effect-of-early-supplemental-parenteral-nutrition-in-the-paediatric-icu-a-preplanned-observational-study-of-post-randomisation-treatments-in-the-pepanic-trial
#16
Ilse Vanhorebeek, Sascha Verbruggen, Michaël P Casaer, Jan Gunst, Pieter J Wouters, Jan Hanot, Gonzalo Garcia Guerra, Dirk Vlasselaers, Koen Joosten, Greet Van den Berghe
BACKGROUND: Large randomised controlled trials have shown that early supplemental parenteral nutrition in patients admitted to adult and paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) is harmful. Overdosing of energy with too little protein was suggested as a potential reason for this. This study analysed which macronutrient was associated with harm caused by early supplemental parenteral nutrition in the Paediatric Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition In Critical Illness (PEPaNIC) randomised trial...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521685/weighing-the-impact-of-diet-and-lifestyle-on-female-reproductive-function
#17
Gabriella Garruti, Raffaella De Palo, Maria De Angelisc
In the last years several scientific societies and expert groups focused on the role played by nutritional factors, lifestyle and excess of body fat in interfering with female reproduction and fertility. In many studies a confounding factor is represented by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which is one of the major causes of infertility where genetic and family factors are certainly playing a role, together with lifestyle and nutritional factors. In an attempt to define "the optimal fertility diet", we will consider the role played by Mediterranean lifestyle and some macronutrients (animal and vegetable proteins) on ovulatory disorders and female fertility also considering some new visions derived from randomized trials of Lifestyle programs in obese Infertile women asking for in vitro fertilization or alternative assisted reproduction technologies...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521681/effects-of-diets-on-adipose-tissue
#18
Silvia Ezquerro, Amaia Rodríguez, Piero Portincasa, Gema Frühbeck
Obesity is a major health problem that has become a global epidemic. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with the development of several pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea and several types of cancer, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. An increased abdominal adiposity renders overweight and obese individuals more prone to metabolic and cardiovascular problems. In this sense, excess adiposity leads to several changes in the biology, morphology and function of the adipose tissue, such as adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and an impaired secretion of adipokines, contributing to the onset of obesity-related co-morbidities...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521508/the-phytoprotective-effects-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-on-enterolobium-contorstisiliquum-vell-morong-in-soil-containing-coal-mine-tailings
#19
Marcos Leandro Dos Santos, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares, Jucinei José Comin, Paulo Emílio Lovato
The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on pacara earpod tree (Enterolobium contorstisiliquum) growth and phytoprotection in soil containing coal mining waste. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with three inoculation treatments groups (non-inoculated, inoculated with Rhizophagus clarus and inoculated with Acaulospora colombiana) in two substrates (0 or 30% tailings). After 90 days the seedlings were collected to quantify growth parameters, quality, mycorrhizal root colonization rate and leaf content of chlorophylls and carotenoids...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515062/changes-in-total-energy-intake-and-macronutrient-composition-after-bariatric-surgery-predict-long-term-weight-outcome-findings-from-the-swedish-obese-subjects-sos-study
#20
Noora Kanerva, Ingrid Larsson, Markku Peltonen, Anna-Karin Lindroos, Lena M Carlsson
Background: Approximately 20-30% of obese patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.Objective: We examined whether short-term changes (≤0.5 y postsurgery) in energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery could predict 10-y weight change.Design: Participants were recruited from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, which was a matched (nonrandomized) prospective trial that compared bariatric surgery with usual care for obese patients. A total of 2010 patients who underwent bariatric surgery were included in the study...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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