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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522884/profiles-of-periglomerular-cells-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-prokineticin-type-2-receptor-deficient-mice
#1
Atsuko Kubo, Mitsugu Sujino, Koh-Hei Masumoto, Atsuko Fujioka, Toshio Terashima, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi, Mamoru Nagano
Both prokineticin receptor 2 (pkr2) and prokineticin 2 (pk2) gene-deficient mice have hypoplasia of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). This hypoplasia has been attributed to disruption of the glomerulus that is caused by loss of afferent projection from olfactory sensory neurons (OSN), and to the impaired migration of granule cells, a type of interneuron. In the present study, we examined whether migration of the second type of interneuron, periglomerular cells (PGC), is dependent on the pkr2 expression by observing the localization of distinct subpopulations of PGC: calretinin (CR)-, calbindin (CB)- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing neurons...
April 27, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516997/peptide-and-antibody-ligands-for-renal-targeting-nanomedicine-strategies-for-kidney-disease
#2
Jonathan Wang, Jacqueline J Masehi-Lano, Eun Ji Chung
The kidney is one of the body's main filtration organs, and hence, opportunity exists for designing nanomedicine that can naturally accumulate in the kidneys for renal diseases. In addition to traditional physiochemical properties for kidney accumulation, such as size and charge, synthesized nanoparticles can be conjugated with targeting ligands which further home the nanocarriers to cell types of interest. In this review, we highlight key studies that have shown success in utilizing peptide- or antibody-based ligands in nanoparticles to target the glomerulus, podocytes, or renal tubule cells in the kidney...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508976/idiopathic-collapsing-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-in-an-81-year-old-japanese-woman-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Jun Yamazaki, Eriko Kanehisa, Wakaba Yamaguchi, Jiro Kumagai, Kiyotaka Nagahama, Hajime Fujisawa
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is classified into five variants, with the collapsing variant being the most rare. Collapsing FSGS is characterized by a black racial predominance and is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy. However, the number of idiopathic cases is increasing and the presentation of non-black patients becoming more routine. Our analysis of 15 previous reports investigating FSGS variants shows that the collapsing variant accounts for 10.6 % of FSGS cases and its average age of onset is 32 years old...
November 2016: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503551/a-case-of-fibrillary-glomerulonephritis-with-fibril-deposition-in-the-arteriolar-wall-and-a-family-history-of-renal-disease
#4
Kentaro Watanabe, Kentaro Nakai, Nozomi Hosokawa, Shuhei Watanabe, Keiji Kono, Shunsuke Goto, Hideki Fujii, Shigeo Hara, Shinichi Nishi
Herein, we report a case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN). FGN usually shows non-amyloidal fibrils in the mesangium and glomerular capillary walls on electron microscopy. Inherited cases of FGN have been reported in only 3 families, and the suspected genetic form was autosomal dominant. In the present case, the deposition of microfibrils in the arteriolar wall as well as the glomerulus is unique. Our patient's father died of nephrotic syndrome, and his elder brother had a biopsy-proven glomerulopathy...
January 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502661/an-adenosine-receptor-for-olfaction-in-fish
#5
Noriko Wakisaka, Nobuhiko Miyasaka, Tetsuya Koide, Miwa Masuda, Towako Hiraki-Kajiyama, Yoshihiro Yoshihara
Nucleotides released from food sources into environmental water are supposed to act as feeding cues for many fish species. However, it remains unknown how fish can sensitively detect those nucleotides. Here we discover a novel olfactory mechanism for ATP sensing in zebrafish. Upon entering into the nostril, ATP is efficiently converted into adenosine through enzymatic reactions of two ecto-nucleotidases expressed in the olfactory epithelium. Adenosine subsequently activates a small population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a novel adenosine receptor A2c that is unique to fishes and amphibians...
May 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501082/a-high-content-screening-technology-for-quantitatively-studying-podocyte-dynamics
#6
REVIEW
Jochen Reiser, Ha Won Lee, Vineet Gupta, Mehmet M Altintas
Podocytes form the visceral layer of a kidney glomerulus and express a characteristic octopus-like cellular architecture specialized for the ultrafiltration of blood. The cytoskeletal dynamics and structural elasticity of podocytes rely on the self-organization of highly interconnected actin bundles, and the maintenance of these features is important for the intact glomerular filtration. Development of more differentiated podocytes in culture has dramatically increased our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating podocyte actin dynamics...
May 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458345/hydrogen-rich-water-attenuates-renal-injury-and-fibrosis-by-regulation-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-induced-sirt1
#7
Zhaoyu Xing, Wanma Pan, Jing Zhang, Xianlin Xu, Xuemei Zhang, Xiaozhou He, Min Fan
The current research was designed to study the role of hydrogen in renal fibrosis and the renal epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Hydrogen rich water (HW) was used to treat animal and cell models. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was performed on Balb/c mice to create a model of renal fibrosis. Human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells) were treated with TGF-β1 for 36 h to induce EMT. Serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured to test renal function, in addition, kidney histology and immunohistochemical staining of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive cells was performed to examine the morphological changes...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451893/immunology-of-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Manuela Colucci, Giorgia Corpetti, Francesco Emma, Marina Vivarelli
The pathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is as yet unknown, but several lines of evidence indicate that the immune system may play a crucial pathogenic role in non-genetic INS. The most important of these are, first, the effectiveness of therapy based on immunosuppression and, second, a vast body of data derived both from experimental models and from patient studies that implicate T cells and more recently B cells as major players in INS pathogenesis. However, recent findings also suggest a direct role of podocytes as drivers of the disease process, and the interplay between the glomerulus and the immune system is still being elucidated...
April 27, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428931/the-role-of-renal-proximal-tubule-transport-in-the-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#9
REVIEW
Shoko Horita, Motonobu Nakamura, Masashi Suzuki, Nobuhiko Satoh, Atsushi Suzuki, Yukio Homma, Masaomi Nangaku
The electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) on the basolateral side of the renal proximal tubule plays a pivotal role in systemic acid-base homeostasis. Mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1 cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis accompanied by other extrarenal symptoms. The proximal tubule reabsorbs most of the sodium filtered in the glomerulus, contributing to the regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure. NBCe1 and other sodium transporters in the proximal tubule are regulated by hormones, such as angiotensin II and insulin...
March 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424211/connecting-tubule-glomerular-feedback-mediates-tubuloglomerular-feedback-resetting-post-unilateral-nephrectomy
#10
Sumit R Monu, Yilin Ren, J X Masjoan Juncos, Kristopher Kutskill, Hong Wang, Nitin Kumar, Edward L Peterson, Oscar A Carretero
Unilaterally nephrectomized rats (UNx) have higher glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) that can cause significant glomerular injury in the remnant kidney. PGC is controlled by the ratio of afferent (Af-Art) and efferent arteriole resistance. Af-Art resistance in turn is regulated by two intrinsic feedback mechanisms: 1) Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) that causes Af-Art constriction in response to increased NaCl in the macula densa and 2) connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF) that causes Af-Art dilatation in response to an increase in NaCl transport in the connecting tubule via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424207/a-distributed-solute-model-an-extended-two-pore-model-with-application-to-the-glomerular-sieving-of-ficoll
#11
Carl M Öberg, Joseph J Groszek, Shuvo Roy, William H Fissell, Bengt Rippe
One of the many unresolved questions regarding the permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier is the reason behind the marked difference in permeability between albumin and polysaccharide probe molecules such as Ficoll and dextran of the same molecular size. Although the differences in permeability have been mainly attributed to charge effects, we have previously shown that this would require a highly charged filtration barrier, having a charge density that is ~10 times more than that on the albumin molecule...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418422/a-disease-model-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-a-glomerulus-on-a-chip-microdevice
#12
Li Wang, Tingting Tao, Wentao Su, Hao Yu, Yue Yu, Jianhua Qin
Diabetic nephropathy is a major chronic renal complication of diabetes mellitus, and is the leading cause of end-stage kidney diseases. Establishing a disease model of diabetic nephropathy in vitro can accelerate the understanding of its mechanisms and pharmaceutical development. We provide the proof-of-principle for using a glomerulus-on-a-chip microdevice that reconstitutes organ-level kidney functions to create a human disease model of early stage diabetic nephropathy on chip. The microfluidic device, which recapitulates the glomerular microenvironment, consists of parallel channels lined by isolated primary glomerular microtissues that experience fluid flow to mimic the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB), including glomerular endothelial cells, 3D basement membrane and podocytes...
April 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417217/levels-of-cystatin-c-in-low-and-high-flux-hemodialysis-in-children-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#13
Fatina I Fadel, Abbass A Mourad, Azza M O Abdel Rahman, Hafez M Bazaraa, Mohamed Farouk Mohamed, Dalia H El-Lebedy, Mohamed M Soliman
BACKGROUND: Cystatin-C (CyC) is a middle molecule that is freely filtered at the glomerulus and almost completely reabsorbed by the proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum CyC and its reduction ratio as a biomarker for assessing the adequacy of the hemodialysis (HD) sessions in children with end-stage renal disease on maintenance HD. We also compared levels of CyC in patients on low-flux HD (LFH) and high-flux HD (HFH). METHODS: Forty patients were included in the study and divided into two groups, with one group (16 patients) receiving HFH and the other group receiving LFH (24 patients) (high-flux and low-flux polysulfone filters, respectively)...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409347/origin-and-function-of-the-renal-stroma-in-health-and-disease
#14
Christopher J Rowan, Sepideh Sheybani-Deloui, Norman D Rosenblum
The renal stroma is defined as a heterogeneous population of cells that serve both as a supportive framework and as a source of specialized cells in the renal capsule, glomerulus, vasculature, and interstitium. In this chapter, we review published evidence defining what, where, and why stromal cells are important. We describe the functions of the renal stroma andhow stromal derivatives are crucial for normal kidney function. Next, we review the specification of stromal cells from the Osr1+ intermediate mesoderm and T+ presomitic mesoderm during embryogenesis and stromal cell differentiation...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409035/the-use-of-coupled-plasma-filtration-adsorption-in-traumatic-rhabdomyolysis
#15
Mario Pezzi, Silvia Renda, Anna Maria Giglio, Anna Maria Scozzafava, Simona Paola Tiburzi, Patrizia Casella, Fabrizio Iannelli, Mario Verre
Severe musculoskeletal injuries induce the release of sarcoplasmic elements such as muscle enzymes, potassium, and myoglobin in the systemic circulation. The circulating myoglobin damages the glomerulus and renal tubules. Conventional haemodialysis is not able to remove myoglobin, due to its high molecular weight (17,8 kilodaltons [kDa]). We treated four traumatic rhabdomyolysis patients with Coupled Plasma Filtration Adsorption (CPFA) in order to remove myoglobin followed by 14 hours of Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration (CVVH)...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404591/intravital-imaging-of-the-kidney-in-a-rat-model-of-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#16
Bradley T Endres, Ruben M Sandoval, George J Rhodes, Silvia B Campos-Bilderback, Malgorzata M Kamocka, Christopher McDermott-Roe, Alexander Staruschenko, Bruce A Molitoris, Aron M Geurts, Oleg Palygin
Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide, and a major risk factor for renal failure and cardiovascular disease. The role of albuminuria, a common feature of hypertension and robust predictor of cardiorenal disorders, remains incompletely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanisms leading to albuminuria in the kidney of a rat model of hypertension, the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. To determine the relative contributions of the glomerulus and proximal tubule (PT) to albuminuria, we applied intravital two-photon-based imaging to investigate the complex renal physiological changes that occur during salt-induced hypertension...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398522/zika-virus-infection-of-the-human-glomerular-cells-implications-for-viral-reservoirs-and-renal-pathogenesis
#17
Donald J Alcendor
Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the human renal compartment has not been reported. Several clinical reports describe high level persistent viral shedding in urine of infected patients. The mechanisms associated high level persistent viruria observed in ZIKV infected patients until now have not been explored. We examined cellular components of the glomerulus of the human kidney for ZIKV infectivity. METHODS: Here we infect primary human podocytes, renal glomerular endothelial cells, and mesangial cells with ZIKV...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395969/ultrasmall-polymeric-nanocarriers-for-drug-delivery-to-podocytes-in-kidney-glomerulus
#18
Riccardo Bruni, Paolo Possenti, Carlotta Bordignon, Min Li, Stefania Ordanini, Piergiorgio Messa, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Francesco Cellesi
We explored the use of new drug-loaded nanocarriers and their targeted delivery to the kidney glomerulus and in particular to podocytes, in order to overcome the failure of current therapeutic regimens in patients with proteinuric (i.e. abnormal amount of proteins in the urine) diseases. Podocytes are glomerular cells which are mainly responsible for glomerular filtration and are primarily or secondarily involved in chronic kidney diseases. Therefore, the possibility to utilise a podocyte-targeted drug delivery could represent a major breakthrough in kidney disease research, particularly in terms of dosage reduction and elimination of systemic side effects of current therapies...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391346/what-can-target-kidney-fibrosis
#19
Irina A Leaf, Jeremy S Duffield
Fibrosis, a characteristic of all chronic kidney diseases, is now recognized to be an independent predictor of disease progression. Deposition of pathological matrix in the walls of glomerular capillaries, the interstitial space and around arterioles both predicts and contributes to functional demise of the nephron and its surrounding vasculature. Recent identification of the major cell populations of fibroblast precursors in the kidney interstitium as pericytes and tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells, and in the glomerulus as podocytes, parietal epithelial and mesangial cells, has enabled the study of the fibrogenic process in much greater depth directly in the fibroblast precursors...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367534/soluble-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-supar-and-impaired-kidney-function-in-the-population-based-malm%C3%A3-diet-and-cancer-study
#20
Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Margaretha Persson, Anders Christensson, George Hindy, Peter Almgren, Peter M Nilsson, Olle Melander, Gunnar Engström, Marju Orho-Melander
INTRODUCTION: The soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has recently been associated with a decline in kidney function and incidence of chronic kidney disease in patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing cardiac catheterization, yet little is known whether suPAR is associated with deterioration of kidney function in the general population. METHODS: In the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, plasma levels of suPAR were quantified in 5381 participants at baseline (1991-1994), and creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerulus filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and follow-up (2007-2012)...
March 2017: KI Reports
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