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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078240/effect-of-methanol-leaf-extract-of-dalbergia-saxatilis-hook-f-fabaceae-on-renal-function
#1
Fatima Ismail Hassan, Zezi Abdulkadir Umar, Danmalam Umar Habib, Yaro Abdullahi Hamza
OBJECTIVE: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis) is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1) received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively) daily for 28 days...
November 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075049/src-homology-2-domain-containing-inositol-5-phosphatase-ameliorates-high-glucose-induced-extracellular-matrix-deposition-via-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein-kinase-b-pathway-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#2
Fan Li, Lisha Li, Jun Hao, Shuxia Liu, Huijun Duan
A typical hallmark of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the glomerulus and renal tubulointerstitium, leading to glomerulosclerosis and tubular interstitial fibrosis. Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase (SHIP) is a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling. Here, we investigated the effect of SHIP on ECM deposition in diabetic mice and high glucose-stimulated human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK2 cells)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074869/urinary-exosome-derived-micrornas-reflecting-the-changes-of-renal-function-and-histopathology-in-dogs
#3
Osamu Ichii, Hiroshi Ohta, Taro Horino, Teppei Nakamura, Marina Hosotani, Tatsuya Mizoguchi, Keitaro Morishita, Kensuke Nakamura, Yuki Hoshino, Satoshi Takagi, Noboru Sasaki, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi, Ryo Sato, Kazuhisa Oyamada, Yasuhiro Kon
MicroRNAs act as post-transcriptional regulators, and urinary exosome (UExo)-derived microRNAs may be used as biomarkers. Herein, we screened for UExo-derived microRNAs reflecting kidney disease (KD) status in dogs. Examined dogs were divided into healthy kidney control (HC) and KD groups according to renal dysfunction. We confirmed the appearance of UExo having irregular globe-shapes in a dog by immunoblot detection of the exosome markers, TSG101 and CD9. Based on our previous data using KD model mice and the data obtained herein by next generation sequencing of UExo-derived microRNAs in dogs, miR-26a, miR-146a, miR-486, miR-21a, and miR-10a/b were selected as candidate microRNAs...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069662/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-inhibition-limits-the-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-rat
#4
Victoria Yum, Rachel E Carlisle, Chao Lu, Elise Brimble, Jasmine Chahal, Chandak Upagupta, Kjetil Ask, Jeffrey G Dickhout
Proteinuria is one of the primary risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and has been implicated in the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We hypothesized that the suppression of ER stress with a low molecular weight chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), would reduce the severity of CKD and proteinuria in the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) hypertensive rat. To induce hypertension and CKD, 12-wk-old male rats were placed on a high-salt (HS) diet for 4 wk with or without 4-PBA treatment...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054559/the-rhoa-rock-pathway-ameliorates-adhesion-and-inflammatory-infiltration-induced-by-ages-in-glomerular-endothelial-cells
#5
Jialing Rao, Zengchun Ye, Hua Tang, Cheng Wang, Hui Peng, Weiyan Lai, Yin Li, Wanbing Huang, Tanqi Lou
A recent study demonstrated that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a role in monocyte infiltration in mesangial areas in diabetic nephropathy. The Ras homolog gene family, member A Rho kinase (RhoA/ROCK) pathway plays a role in regulating cell migration. We hypothesized that the RhoA/ROCK pathway affects adhesion and inflammation in endothelial cells induced by AGEs. Rat glomerular endothelial cells (rGECs) were cultured with AGEs (80 μg/ml) in vitro. The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 (10 nmol/l) and ROCK1-siRNA were used to inhibit ROCK...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038445/ochratoxin-a-induces-er-stress-and-apoptosis-in-mesangial-cells-via-a-nadph-oxidase-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-calpain-activation-pathway
#6
Meei-Ling Sheu, Chin-Chang Shen, Yuan-Siao Chen, Chih-Kang Chiang
Ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated food increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in glomerulus and causes glomerulopathy. The molecular mechanisms still remain uncertain. In this study, we used mouse and rat glomerular mesangial cells and delineate the signaling pathway behind the OTA-triggered cell apoptosis. OTA dose-dependently induced expression of ER stress markers including phospho-PERK, phospho-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94, and CHOP. Apoptosis events including cleavage of caspase-12, caspase-7, and PARP are also observed...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028615/podocyte-number-and-density-changes-during-early-human-life
#7
Masao Kikuchi, Larysa Wickman, Raja Rabah, Roger C Wiggins
BACKGROUND: Podocyte depletion, which drives progressive glomerulosclerosis in glomerular diseases, is caused by a reduction in podocyte number, size or function in the context of increasing glomerular volume. METHODS: Kidneys obtained at autopsy from premature and mature infants who died in the first year of life (n = 24) were used to measure podometric parameters for comparison with previously reported data from older kidneys. RESULTS: Glomerular volume increased 4...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027303/olfactory-sensory-neurons-control-dendritic-complexity-of-mitral-cells-via-notch-signaling
#8
Yuko Muroyama, Atsushi Baba, Motoo Kitagawa, Tetsuichiro Saito
Mitral cells (MCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb have a single primary dendrite extending into a single glomerulus, where they receive odor information from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Molecular mechanisms for controlling dendritic arbors of MCs, which dynamically change during development, are largely unknown. Here we found that MCs displayed more complex dendritic morphologies in mouse mutants of Maml1, a crucial gene in Notch signaling. Similar phenotypes were observed by conditionally misexpressing a dominant negative form of MAML1 (dnMAML1) in MCs after their migration...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024668/potential-risks-of-maternal-administration-of-mucophylline-on-the-pups-of-albino-rats-during-lactation
#9
Hamida Hamdi, Heba Ali
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential risks of the mucolytic and broncholytic drug, Theophylline derivatives (Mucophylline) maternally administered on the pups. The nursing rats orally administered from 1st postpartum day (PPD) to 21th PPD with two different doses 30.83mg/kg (low dose) and 66.61mg/kg (Human equivalent dose (HED)). On the 21th PPD, the postnatal developmental signs, skeletal malformation and the histopathology of neonatal liver, kidney and brain were examined. Our results showed that Mucophylline induced a significant reduction in the neonatal weight and length, delayed, weak and incomplete ossification, wavy ribs and the neonatal liver revealed histopathological changes, pyknotic hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization, dilated sinusoid and necrotic area...
December 23, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003079/leukocyte-derived-microvesicles-dock-on-glomerular-endothelial-cells-stardust-in-the-kidney
#10
Matthias Mack
Microvesicles are released from the plasma membrane of various cell types, can be taken up by other cells, and can transport membrane proteins and cytosolic contents between cells. Kahn et al. demonstrate that leukocyte-derived microvesicles bearing B1-kinin receptors are enriched in the plasma of vasculitis patients and dock on endothelial cells in the glomerulus. Cell culture experiments suggest that B1-receptors transferred by these microvesicles are functionally active on acceptor cells.
January 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001299/organization-of-the-antennal-lobes-in-the-praying-mantis-tenodera-aridifolia
#11
Thomas Carle, Hidehiro Watanabe, Yoshifumi Yamawaki, Fumio Yokohari
Olfaction in insects plays pivotal roles in searching for food and/or for sexual partners. Although many studies have focused on the olfactory processes of non-predatory insect species, little is known about those in predatory insects. Here, we investigated the anatomical features of the primary olfactory center (antennal lobes) in an insect predator whose visual system is well developed, the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia. Both sexes of T. aridifolia were found to possess 54 glomeruli, and each glomerulus was identified based on its location and size...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998979/alpha-actinin-4-actn4-regulates-glucocorticoid-receptor-mediated-transactivation-and-transrepression-in-podocytes
#12
Xuan Zhao, Simran Khurana, Sharmistha Charkraborty, Yuqian Tian, John R Sedor, Leslie A Bruggeman, Hung-Ying Kao
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a general class of steroids that possess renoprotective activity in glomeruli through their interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor. However, the mechanisms by which the GCs ameliorate proteinuria and glomerular disease are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that alpha actinin 4 (ACTN4), an actin-crosslinking protein known to coordinate cytoskeletal organization, interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the nucleus of human podocytes (HPCs), a key cell type in the glomerulus critical for kidney filtration function...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998729/in%C3%A2-vivo-imaging-of-inflamed-glomeruli-reveals-dynamics-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-glomerular-capillaries
#13
Clare L V Westhorpe, James E Bayard, Kim M O'Sullivan, Pam Hall, Qiang Cheng, A Richard Kitching, Michael J Hickey
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been documented in glomeruli of patients with glomerulonephritis. However, the dynamics of NET formation in the glomerulus and their functional contribution to acute glomerular injury are poorly understood. Herein, we used in vivo multiphoton microscopy to investigate NET formation in the acutely inflamed glomerulus. Glomerular inflammation was induced using an antibody against the glomerular basement membrane. After induction of glomerular inflammation, multiphoton microscopy revealed that approximately 20% of glomeruli contained structures composed of extracellular DNA within the capillaries...
December 17, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941991/in-vivo-distribution-and-clearance-of-purified-capsular-polysaccharide-from-burkholderia-pseudomallei-in-a-murine-model
#14
Teerapat Nualnoi, Adam Kirosingh, Sujata G Pandit, Peter Thorkildson, Paul J Brett, Mary N Burtnick, David P AuCoin
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe infection prominent in northern Australia and Southeast Asia. The "gold standard" for melioidosis diagnosis is bacterial isolation, which takes several days to complete. The resulting delay in diagnosis leads to delayed treatments, which could result in death. In an attempt to develop better methods for early diagnosis of melioidosis, B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS) was identified as an important diagnostic biomarker. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay utilizing CPS-specific monoclonal antibody was developed and tested in endemic regions worldwide...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940282/sub-chronic-90-day-toxicity-of-neamine-in-sd-rats-and-its-anti-liver-cancer-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Yanli Wu, Yongdong Feng, Yanling Li, Yiping Xu, Nian Shi, Guo-Fu Hu, Yunxia Wu
Neamine, an inhibitor of angiogenin (ANG), is a new investigative anticancer drug currently in preclinical stage. Here we report the 90-day sub-chronic toxicity of neamine in SD rats and its anti-liver cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Neamine has a No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 12 and 16mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) for female and male rats, respectively. No mortality was found. The adverse effects included increased organ coefficients of spleen and kidney, increased BUN in both female and male rats at high dose, increased CR and decreased organ coefficients of heart and liver in male rats at high dose...
December 9, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929116/a-proteolytic-modification-of-aim-promotes-its-renal-excretion
#16
Tomoko Yamazaki, Ryoichi Sugisawa, Emiri Hiramoto, Ryosuke Takai, Ayaka Matsumoto, Yoshie Senda, Katsuhiko Nakashima, Peter S Nelson, Jared M Lucas, Andrew Morgan, Zhenghua Li, Ken-Ichi Yamamura, Satoko Arai, Toru Miyazaki
Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM, encoded by cd5l) is a multi-functional circulating protein that has a beneficial role in the regulation of a broad range of diseases, some of which are ameliorated by AIM administration in mice. In blood, AIM is stabilized by association with IgM pentamers and maintains its high circulating levels. The mechanism regulating the excessive accumulation of blood AIM remains unknown, although it is important, since a constitutive increase in AIM levels promotes chronic inflammation...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927952/postnatal-odor-exposure-increases-the-strength-of-interglomerular-lateral-inhibition-onto-olfactory-bulb-tufted-cells
#17
Matthew Geramita, Nathan N Urban
: Lateral inhibition between pairs of olfactory bulb (OB) mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) is linked to a variety of computations including gain control, decorrelation, and gamma-frequency synchronization. Differential effects of lateral inhibition onto MCs and TCs via distinct lateral inhibitory circuits are one of several recently described circuit-level differences between MCs and TCs that allow each to encode separate olfactory features in parallel. Here, using acute OB slices from mice, we tested whether lateral inhibition is affected by prior odor exposure and if these effects differ between MCs and TCs...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927893/paraprotein-related-kidney-disease-attack-of-the-killer-m-proteins
#18
Mark A Perazella, Kevin W Finkel
Paraproteins are monoclonal Igs or their components (light or heavy chains) that are produced by a clonal population of mature B cells, most commonly plasma cells. These paraproteins or monoclonal proteins are secreted into the blood and subsequently filtered by the glomerulus before entering into urine, where they can cause various types of kidney disease, including both glomerular and tubulointerstitial injuries. Furthermore, a monoclonal protein that causes a specific glomerular or tubulointerstitial lesion in a human can reproducibly cause the same pathology when injected into an animal, supporting unique paraprotein characteristics...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908582/effect-of-curcumin-on-kidney-histopathological-changes-lipid-peroxidation-and-total-antioxidant-capacity-of-serum-in-sodium-arsenite-treated-mice
#19
Hamid Reza Momeni, Najmeh Eskandari
Sodium arsenite is an environmental pollutant with the ability to generate free radicals and curcumin acts as a potent antioxidant. This study investigates the effect of curcumin on kidney histopathology, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of serum in the mice treated with sodium arsenite. Adult male mice were divided into four groups: control, sodium arsenite, curcumin and curcumin+sodium arsenite. The treatments were delivered for 5 weeks. After the treatment period, blood samples were collected and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity of serum were determined...
November 28, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900941/the-kidney-in-sickle-hemoglobinopathies%C3%A2
#20
Medha Airy, Garabed Eknoyan
With improvements in the care of patients with sickle hemoglobinopathies, sickle cell disease (SCD) has evolved from a disease that was fatal in childhood into one in which most survive past their 5th decade and some into old age. As a result, the renal complications of sickle hemoglobinopathies, which are age dependent, have emerged as a common and serious complication of SCD. Approximately 14 - 18% of mortality in SCD is attributed to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which develops in 1/3 of individuals with SCD and progresses to end-stage renal disease in 4 - 18% of them...
February 2017: Clinical Nephrology
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