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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916834/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-glomerulopathy-in-alport-mice-by-helium-ion-scanning-microscopy-him
#1
Kenji Tsuji, Hani Suleiman, Jeffrey H Miner, James M Daley, Diane E Capen, Teodor G Păunescu, Hua A Jenny Lu
The glomerulus exercises its filtration barrier function by establishing a complex filtration apparatus consisting of podocyte foot processes, glomerular basement membrane and endothelial cells. Disruption of any component of the glomerular filtration barrier leads to glomerular dysfunction, frequently manifested as proteinuria. Ultrastructural studies of the glomerulus by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been routinely used to identify and classify various glomerular diseases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902935/perconditioning-combined-with-postconditioning-on-kidney-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#2
Felipe Lobato da Silva Costa, Vitor Nagai Yamaki, Renan Kleber Costa Teixeira, Daniel Haber Feijó, André Lopes Valente, Luan Teles Ferreira de Carvalho, Edson Yuzur Yasojima, Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito
Purpose: To evaluate if combination of perconditioning and postconditioning provides improved renal protection compared to perconditioning alone in a model of renal reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were assigned into 6 groups: normality; sham; ischemia and reperfusion; postconditioning; perconditioning; perconditioning + postconditioning. Animals were subjected to right nephrectomy and left renal ischemia for 30 minutes. Postconditioning consisted of 3 cycles of 5 min renal perfusion followed by 5 min of renal ischemia after major ischemic period...
August 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886733/radix-puerariae-and-fructus-crataegi-mixture-inhibits-renal-injury-in-type-2-diabetes-via-decreasing-of-akt-pi3k
#3
Zhengyue Chen, Yanyan Yuan, Xinrong Zou, Mengqi Hong, Ming Zhao, Yu Zhao, Yuanping Liu, Guofu Li, Yabin Zhu, Lin Luo, Beiyan Bao, Shizhong Bu
BACKGROUND: Radix puerariae (RP) is a herbal medicines for diabetes, mainly because of anti-oxidative, insulin resistance and hypoglycemic effect. Fructus crataegi (FC) also possesses strong antioxidant activity in vitro. This study focused on the effects of herbal mixture of RP and FC (RPFC) on renal protection through a diabetic rat model. METHODS: Type 2 Diabetic model was established with high fat diet followed by injecting rats a low dose of STZ (25 mg/kg body weight)...
September 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884028/spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-a-rare-manifestation-of-alport-syndrome
#4
Amornpol Anuwatworn, Prince Sethi, Kelly Steffen, Orvar Jonsson, Marian Petrasko
Alport syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder due to inheritance of genetic mutations which lead to production of abnormal type IV collagen. AS has been associated with renal, auditory, and ocular diseases due to the presence of abnormal alpha chains of type IV collagen in the glomerulus, cochlea, cornea, lens, and retina. The resulting disorder includes hereditary nephritis, corneal opacities, anterior lenticonus, fleck retinopathy, temporal retinal thinning, and sensorineural deafness. Aortic and aortic valve pathologies have been described as extrarenal manifestations of AS in multiple case reports...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868127/mori-cortex-prevents-kidney-damage-through-inhibiting-expression-of-inflammatory-factors-in-the-glomerulus-in-streptozocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#5
Lili Ma, Hailai Ni, Xinrong Zou, Yanyan Yuan, Chun Luo, Bingyang Liu, Fuyan Wang, Yang Xi, Yudong Chu, Pangjie Xu, Xiaohui Qiu, Song Li, Shizhong Bu
OBJECTIVES: It has been widely reported that Mori cortex extract (MCE) is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The present study was designed to investigate its mechanism of action in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We assessed whether MCE preventive treatment ameliorates kidney damage in high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were fed a high-fat diet and injected with STZ...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842487/loss-of-mucin-type-o-glycans-impairs-the-integrity-of-the-glomerular-filtration-barrier-in-the-mouse-kidney
#6
Kai Song, Jianxin Fu, Jianhua Song, Brett H Herzog, Kirk Bergstrom, Yuji Kondo, J Michael McDaniel, Samuel McGee, Robert Silasi-Mansat, Florea Lupu, Hong Chen, Harini Bagavant, Lijun Xia
The kidney filtration activity is essential for removing toxins and waste products from the body. The vascular endothelial cells of the glomerulus are fenestrated, flattened and are surrounded by podocytes, specialized cells that support the glomerular endothelial cells. Mucin-type core 1-derived O-glycans are highly expressed on both glomerular capillary endothelial cells and their supporting podocytes, but their biological role is unclear. Biosynthesis of core 1-derived O-glycans is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase C1galt1...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814668/injury-induced-actin-cytoskeleton-reorganization-in-podocytes-revealed-by-super-resolution-microscopy
#7
Hani Y Suleiman, Robyn Roth, Sanjay Jain, John E Heuser, Andrey S Shaw, Jeffrey H Miner
The architectural integrity of tissues requires complex interactions, both between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix. Fundamental to cell and tissue homeostasis are the specific mechanical forces conveyed by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we used super-resolution imaging methods to visualize the actin cytoskeleton in the kidney glomerulus, an organized collection of capillaries that filters the blood to make the primary urine. Our analysis of both mouse and human glomeruli reveals a network of myosin IIA-containing contractile actin cables within podocyte cell bodies and major processes at the outer aspects of the glomerular tuft...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813008/dietary-fructose-enhances-the-ability-of-low-concentrations-of-angiotensin-ii-to-stimulate-proximal-tubule-na%C3%A2-%C2%BA-reabsorption
#8
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Pablo D Cabral, Nancy J Hong, Jessica Asirwatham, Nianxin Yang, Jessica M Berthiaume, Fernando P Dominici, Jeffrey L Garvin
Fructose-enriched diets cause salt-sensitive hypertension. Proximal tubules (PTs) reabsorb 70% of the water and salt filtered through the glomerulus. Angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates this process. Normally, dietary salt reduces Ang II allowing the kidney to excrete more salt, thereby preventing hypertension. We hypothesized that fructose-enriched diets enhance the ability of low concentrations of Ang II to stimulate PT transport. We measured the effects of a low concentration of Ang II (10(-12) mol/L) on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO₂), and Na/K-ATPase and Na/H-exchange (NHE) activities and expression in PTs from rats consuming tap water (Control) or 20% fructose (FRUC)...
August 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811850/effect-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-with-low-sglt2-sglt1-selectivity-on-circulating-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
REVIEW
Kohzo Takebayashi, Toshihiko Inukai
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic drugs that improve glycemic control by inhibiting reabsorption of glucose filtered through the renal glomerulus. Use of drugs in this class has increased because of their effect of decreasing body weight and a low risk for hypoglycemia, in addition to a relatively strong glucose-lowering effect. SGLT2 inhibitors such as canagliflozin and sotagliflozin (a SGLT1/SGLT2 dual inhibitor) also have a mild or moderate intestinal and renal SGLT1 inhibitory effect because of their relatively weak selectivity for SGLT2 over SGLT1...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797656/plant-associated-odor-perception-and-processing-in-two-parasitoid-species-with-different-degrees-of-host-specificity-implications-for-host-location-strategies
#10
Prithwiraj Das, Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Microplitis croceipes and Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are parasitoids of lepidopteran larvae with different degrees of host specificity. Both parasitoid species rely on host-related plant volatiles as odor cues to locate their herbivore hosts. To better understand mechanisms of odor processing in parasitoids, we tested responses of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the antennal sensilla placodea of female parasitoids to select plant volatiles and mixtures. The compounds tested include two green leaf volatiles (i...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791182/malignancy-in-membranous-nephropathy-evaluation-of-incidence
#11
Basil Alnasrallah, John F Collins, L Jonathan Zwi
BACKGROUND: Membranous nephropathy (MN) can be associated with malignancy. However, the relative risk for malignancy remains unclear. It has been reported that higher numbers of inflammatory cells seen in the glomeruli at biopsy correlate with the occurrence of malignancy in patients with MN and might be used to direct screening. METHODS: We examined the occurrence of malignancy in 201 MN patients in Auckland, New Zealand. We also examined the pathology of renal biopsies from 17 MN patients with malignancies and compared the number of inflammatory cells per glomerulus with matched control patients with MN but no malignancy...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776225/forced-expression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-in-podocytes-decreases-mesangial-cell-numbers-and-attenuates-endothelial-cell-differentiation-in-the-mouse-glomerulus
#12
Masahiro Suyama, Yoichi Miyazaki, Taiji Matsusaka, Naoki Sugano, Hiroyuki Ueda, Tetsuya Kawamura, Makoto Ogura, Takashi Yokoo
BACKGROUND: Glomerular podocyte-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is indispensable for the migration and proliferation of glomerular endothelial cells. In contrast, podocyte-specific Vegf overexpression leads to the collapse of glomerular tufts; however, the mechanisms underlying this outcome have not yet been reported. METHODS: To further clarify the effects of elevated levels of Vegf expression on glomerular cells, we established a dual transgenic mouse line in which Vegf was exclusively and inducibly expressed in podocytes under the control of the "Tet-on system" (Podocin-rtTA/TetO-Vegf164 mice)...
August 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769002/mechanism-based-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-luseogliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Yoshishige Samukawa, Masaru Mutoh, Shi Chen, Nobuo Mizui
Luseogliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that reduces hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by promoting urinary glucose excretion (UGE). A clinical pharmacology study conducted in Japanese patients with T2DM confirmed dose-dependency of UGE with once-daily administration of luseogliflozin; however, the reason for sustained UGE after plasma luseogliflozin decreased was unclear. To elucidate the effect of inhibition rate constants, Kon and Koff, and to explain the sustained UGE, a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model was built based on the mechanisms of glucose filtration in the glomerulus and reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule of kidney as well as the kinetics of competitive inhibition of SGLT1/2 and inhibition rate constants of SGLT2, by using UGE and plasma glucose levels and luseogliflozin concentrations...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762682/-use-of-citrate-in-patients-with-nephrolithiasis
#14
REVIEW
Martino Marangella
Citrate is a tricarboxylic acid and an intermediate metabolite of Krebs cycle. It contributes to oxidative metabolism of both kidney and liver. Alkaline sodium or potassium salts have the potential to increase alkaline reserve. In the kidney citrate is completely filtered at the glomerulus, undergoing to 10-40% tubular resorption. Renal insufficiency, even early, metabolic acidosis, potassium depletion induce hypocitraturia. Its importance in nephrolithiasis stems from its ability to form soluble complexes with calcium and to interfere with crystal formation, thus exerting a dual inhibition, thermodynamic and kinetic...
August 1, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754557/accelerated-podocyte-detachment-and-progressive%C3%A2-podocyte-loss-from-glomeruli-with%C3%A2-age%C3%A2-in-alport-syndrome
#15
Fangrui Ding, Larysa Wickman, Su Q Wang, Yanqin Zhang, Fang Wang, Farsad Afshinnia, Jeffrey Hodgin, Jie Ding, Roger C Wiggins
Podocyte depletion is a common mechanism driving progression in glomerular diseases. Alport Syndrome glomerulopathy, caused by defective α3α4α5 (IV) collagen heterotrimer production by podocytes, is associated with an increased rate of podocyte detachment detectable in urine and reduced glomerular podocyte number suggesting that defective podocyte adherence to the glomerular basement membrane might play a role in driving progression. Here a genetically phenotyped Alport Syndrome cohort of 95 individuals [urine study] and 41 archived biopsies [biopsy study] were used to test this hypothesis...
July 26, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748873/apoptosis-of-rat-renal-cells-by-organophosphate-pesticide-quinalphos-ultrastructural-study
#16
Refaat A Eid
Quinalphos or Ekalux, an organophosphate pesticide, is used in controlling the pests of a variety of crops. Quinalphos was studied on male Sprague-Dawley albino rats. The acute po LD50 of technical Ekalux was 19.95 mg/kg in males. Ekalux, produced several pathological changes in the kidney. A glomerulus demonstrated capillary lumina occluded by degenerated cellular debris. Basement membrane showed irregular wrinkling and branching. The proximal tubular cells showed damage such as dilation of endoplasmic reticulum, accumulation of glycogen granules, and pyknotic nucleus...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739650/lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-antagonism-protects-against-diabetic-nephropathy-in-a-type-2-diabetic-model
#17
Ming-Zhi Zhang, Xin Wang, Haichun Yang, Agnes B Fogo, Brian J Murphy, Robert Kaltenbach, Peter Cheng, Bradley Zinker, Raymond C Harris
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) functions through activation of LPA receptors (LPARs). LPA-LPAR signaling has been implicated in development of fibrosis. However, the role of LPA-LPAR signaling in development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been studied. We examined whether BMS002, a novel dual LPAR1 and LPAR3 antagonist, affects development of DN in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-knockout db/db mice. Treatment of these mice with BMS002 from 8 to 20 weeks of age led to a significant reduction in albuminuria, similar to that observed with renin-angiotensin system inhibition (losartan plus enalapril)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737605/glomerulus-on-a-chip-life-up
#18
Nureddin Ashammakhi, Elmahdi A Elkhammas, Anwarul Hasan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737447/pmab-52-specific-and-sensitive-monoclonal-antibody-against-cat-podoplanin-for-immunohistochemistry
#19
Shinji Yamada, Shunsuke Itai, Takuro Nakamura, Miyuki Yanaka, Noriko Saidoh, Yao-Wen Chang, Saori Handa, Hiroyuki Harada, Yumiko Kagawa, Osamu Ichii, Satoru Konnai, Mika K Kaneko, Yukinari Kato
Podoplanin (PDPN) is expressed in several normal tissues, such as lymphatic endothelial cells, podocytes of renal glomerulus, and type I alveolar cells of lung. PDPN activates platelet aggregation by binding to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) on platelet. Although monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human PDPN, mouse PDPN, rat PDPN, rabbit PDPN, dog PDPN, and bovine PDPN have been established, anticat PDPN (cPDPN) mAbs have not been developed. In this study, we immunized mice with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell lines expressing cPDPN, and developed anti-cPDPN mAbs...
July 24, 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736172/early-integration-of-temperature-and-humidity-stimuli-in-the-drosophila-brain
#20
Dominic D Frank, Anders Enjin, Genevieve C Jouandet, Emanuela E Zaharieva, Alessia Para, Marcus C Stensmyr, Marco Gallio
The Drosophila antenna contains receptor neurons for mechanical, olfactory, thermal, and humidity stimuli. Neurons expressing the ionotropic receptor IR40a have been implicated in the selection of an appropriate humidity range [1, 2], but although previous work indicates that insect hygroreceptors may be made up by a "triad" of neurons (with a dry-, a cold-, and a humid-air-responding cell [3]), IR40a expression included only cold- and dry-air cells. Here, we report the identification of the humid-responding neuron that completes the hygrosensory triad in the Drosophila antenna...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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