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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346014/intestinal-absorption-and-renal-reabsorption-of-calcium-throughout-postnatal-development
#1
Megan R Beggs, R Todd Alexander
Calcium is vital for many physiological functions including bone mineralization. Postnatal deposition of calcium into bone is greatest in infancy and continues through childhood and adolescence until peek mineral density is reached in early adulthood. Thereafter, bone mineral density remains static until it eventually declines in later life. A positive calcium balance, i.e. more calcium absorbed than excreted, is crucial to bone deposition during growth and thus to peek bone mineral density. Dietary calcium is absorbed from the intestine into the blood...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339935/nephrotoxicity-of-anticancer-treatment
#2
Jolanta Malyszko, Klaudia Kozlowska, Leszek Kozlowski, Jacek Malyszko
Severe adverse systemic drug events occur commonly as a result of treatment of cancer patients. Nephrotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents remains a significant complication limiting the efficacy of the treatment. A variety of renal disease and electrolyte disorders can result from the drugs that are used to treat malignant disease. The kidneys are a major elimination pathway for many antineoplastic drugs and their metabolites. Tumour lysis syndrome, an emergency in haematooncology, occurs most often after the initiation of cytotoxic therapy in patients with high-grade lymphomas and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia...
October 6, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331889/unsupervised-labeling-of-glomerular-boundaries-using-gabor-filters-and-statistical-testing-in-renal-histology
#3
Brandon Ginley, John E Tomaszewski, Rabi Yacoub, Feng Chen, Pinaki Sarder
The glomerulus is the blood filtering unit of the kidney. Each human kidney contains [Formula: see text] glomeruli. Several renal conditions originate from structural damage to glomerular microcompartments, such as proteinuria, the excessive loss of blood proteins into urine. The gold standard for evaluating structural damage in renal pathology is histopathological and immunofluorescence examination of needle biopsies under a light microscope. This method is limited by qualitative or semiquantitative manual scoring approaches to the evaluation of glomerular structural features...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331185/the-role-of-angiotensin-ii-in-glomerular-volume-dynamics-and-podocyte-calcium-handling
#4
Daria V Ilatovskaya, Oleg Palygin, Vladislav Levchenko, Bradley T Endres, Alexander Staruschenko
Podocytes are becoming a primary focus of research efforts due to their association with progressive glomeruli damage in disease states. Loss of podocytes can occur as a result of excessive intracellular calcium influx, and we have previously shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) via canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) channels caused increased intracellular Ca(2+) flux in podocytes. We showed here with patch-clamp electrophysiology that Ang II activates TRPC channels; then using confocal calcium imaging we demonstrated that Ang II-dependent stimulation of Ca(2+) influx in the podocytes is precluded by blocking either AT1 or AT2 receptors (ATRs)...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329012/tracking-the-stochastic-fate-of-cells-of-the-renin-lineage-after-podocyte-depletion-using-multicolor-reporters-and-intravital-imaging
#5
Natalya V Kaverina, Hiroyuki Kadoya, Diana G Eng, Michael E Rusiniak, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez, R Ariel Gomez, Jeffrey W Pippin, Kenneth W Gross, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Stuart J Shankland
Podocyte depletion plays a major role in focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). Because cells of the renin lineage (CoRL) serve as adult podocyte and parietal epithelial cell (PEC) progenitor candidates, we generated Ren1cCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT and Ren1dCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT mice to determine CoRL clonality during podocyte replacement. Four CoRL reporters (GFP, YFP, RFP, CFP) were restricted to cells in the juxtaglomerular compartment (JGC) at baseline. Following abrupt podocyte depletion in experimental FSGS, all four CoRL reporters were detected in a subset of glomeruli at day 28, where they co-expressed de novo four podocyte proteins (podocin, nephrin, WT-1 and p57) and two glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) proteins (claudin-1, PAX8)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325740/proximal-tubulopathy-prime-mover-and-key-therapeutic-target-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#6
Richard E Gilbert
The current view of diabetic kidney disease, based on meticulously acquired ultrastructural morphometry and the utility of measuring plasma creatinine and urinary albumin, has been almost entirely focused on the glomerulus. While clearly of great importance, changes in the glomerulus are not the major determinant of renal prognosis in diabetes and may not be the primary event in the development of diabetic kidney disease either. Indeed, advances in biomarker discovery and a greater appreciation of tubulointerstitial histopathology and the role of tubular hypoxia in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease have given us pause to reconsider the current "glomerulocentric" paradigm and focus attention on the proximal tubule that by virtue of the high energy requirements and reliance on aerobic metabolism render it particularly susceptible to the derangements of the diabetic state...
April 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320523/roles-of-fluid-shear-stress-and-retinoic-acid-in-the-differentiation-of-primary-cultured-human-podocytes
#7
Seung Hee Yang, Jin Woo Choi, Dongeun Huh, Hyung Ah Jo, Sejoong Kim, Chun Soo Lim, Jung Chan Lee, Hee Chan Kim, Hyug Moo Kwon, Chang Wook Jeong, Cheol Kwak, Kwon Wook Joo, Yon Su Kim, Dong Ki Kim
Due to the distinct features that distinguish immortalized podocyte cell lines from their in vivo counterparts, primary cultured human podocytes might be a superior cell model for glomerular disease studies. However, the podocyte de-differentiation that occurs in culture remains an unresolved problem. Here, we present a method to differentiate primary cultured podocytes using retinoic acid (RA) and fluid shear stress (FSS), which mimic the in vivo environment of the glomerulus. RA treatment induced changes in the cell shape of podocytes from a cobblestone-like morphology to an arborized configuration with enhanced mobility...
March 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302370/the-lipid-5-phoshatase-ship2-controls-renal-brush-border-ultrastructure-and-function-by-regulating-the-activation-of-erm-proteins
#8
Sufyan G Sayyed, François Jouret, Marjorie Vermeersch, David Pérez-Morga, Stéphane Schurmans
The microvillus brush border on the renal proximal tubule epithelium allows the controlled reabsorption of solutes that are filtered through the glomerulus and thus participates in general body homeostasis. Here, using the lipid 5-phosphatase Ship2 global knockout mice, proximal tubule-specific Ship2 knockout mice, and a proximal tubule cell model in which SHIP2 is inactivated, we show that SHIP2 is a negative regulator of microvilli formation, thereby controlling solute reabsorption by the proximal tubule...
March 13, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292877/the-effects-of-dual-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-agonism-compared-with-ace-inhibition-in-the-btbrob-ob-mouse-model-of-diabetes-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#9
Anette Ericsson, Pernilla Tonelius, Mark Lal, Alan Sabirsh, Gerhard Böttcher, Lena William-Olsson, Maria Strömstedt, Camilla Johansson, Gina Hyberg, Sofia Tapani, Ann-Cathrine Jönsson-Rylander, Robert Unwin
The leptin-deficient BTBRob/ob mouse develops progressive albuminuria and morphological lesions similar to human diabetic nephropathy (DN), although whether glomerular hyperfiltration, a recognized feature of early DN that may contribute to renal injury, also occurs in this model is not known. Leptin replacement has been shown to reverse the signs of renal injury in this model, but in contrast, the expected renoprotection by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in BTBRob/ob mice seems to be limited...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290515/identification-of-accessory-olfactory-system-and-medial-amygdala-in-the-zebrafish
#10
Daniela Biechl, Kristin Tietje, Soojin Ryu, Benedikt Grothe, Gabriele Gerlach, Mario F Wullimann
Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory cues of their kin on day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively. Only imprinted (but not non-imprinted) larvae show strongly activated crypt (and some microvillous) cells demonstrated by pERK levels after subsequent exposure to kin odor. Here, we investigate the olfactory bulb of zebrafish larvae for activated neurons located at the sole glomerulus mdG2 which receives crypt cell input. Imprinted larvae show a significantly increased activation of olfactory bulb cells compared to non-imprinted larvae after exposure to kin odor...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287110/t-cells-and-autoimmune-kidney-disease
#11
REVIEW
Abel Suárez-Fueyo, Sean J Bradley, David Klatzmann, George C Tsokos
Glomerulonephritis is traditionally considered to result from the invasion of the kidney by autoantibodies and immune complexes from the circulation or following their formation in situ, and by cells of the innate and the adaptive immune system. The inflammatory response leads to the proliferation and dysfunction of cells of the glomerulus, and invasion of the interstitial space with immune cells, resulting in tubular cell malfunction and fibrosis. T cells are critical drivers of autoimmunity and related organ damage, by supporting B-cell differentiation and antibody production or by directly promoting inflammation and cytotoxicity against kidney resident cells...
March 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272693/glipizide-blocks-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-akt-signaling-pathway
#12
G Yang, G Zeng, J-P Wu, O Jiang, Y-B Zeng, S-J Huang, J-J Huang, D-Q Wu
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes affects the renal function at a certain stage. Oral medication glipizide plays a hypoglycemic effect mainly through releasing insulin, while more insulin is derived from islet β cells. It is still controversy whether antidiabetics. This study mainly intends to investigate the role of glipizide in inhibiting renal interstitial fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 93 SD rats were purchased from Guangdong animal monitoring and established unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model to simulate renal interstitial fibrosis...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262365/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-study-on-repeat-dose-toxicity-of-fine-particulate-matter-in-rats-after-intratracheal-instillation
#13
Yannan Zhang, Hejing Hu, Yanfeng Shi, Xiaozhe Yang, Lige Cao, Jing Wu, Collins Otieno Asweto, Lin Feng, Junchao Duan, Zhiwei Sun
Systemic metabolic effects and toxicity mechanisms of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) remain uncertain. In order to investigate the mechanisms in PM2.5 toxicity, we explored the endogenous metabolic changes and possible influenced metabolic pathways in rats after intratracheal instillation of PM2.5 by using a (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach. Liver and kidney histopathology examinations were also performed. Chemical characterization demonstrated that PM2.5 was a complex mixture of elements...
March 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250053/two-photon-intravital-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-of-the-kidney-reveals-cell-type-specific-metabolic-signatures
#14
Takashi Hato, Seth Winfree, Richard Day, Ruben M Sandoval, Bruce A Molitoris, Mervin C Yoder, Roger C Wiggins, Yi Zheng, Kenneth W Dunn, Pierre C Dagher
In the live animal, tissue autofluorescence arises from a number of biologically important metabolites, such as the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Because autofluorescence changes with metabolic state, it can be harnessed as a label-free imaging tool with which to study metabolism in vivo Here, we used the combination of intravital two-photon microscopy and frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to map cell-specific metabolic signatures in the kidneys of live animals...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238347/liver-and-kidney-toxicity-induced-by-afzal-smokeless-tobacco-product-in-oman
#15
Nawal Al-Mukhaini, Taher Ba-Omar, Elsadig Eltayeb, Aisha Al-Shihi, Nafila Al-Riyami, Jamila Al-Belushi, Kawthar Al-Adawi
Afzal, the common smokeless tobacco product (STP) in Oman, is believed to contain toxins that may impair the function of some organs such as liver and kidney. An aqueous extract from Afzal was added to drinking water to be administrated orally to Wistar albino rats (n=72) young and adult from both genders weighing between 60-80g and 150-240g respectively for 8 weeks. Animals were divided into three groups: control (distilled water instead of Afzal extract), low-dose (3mgnicotine/kgbodyweight/day) and high-dose (6mgnicotine/kgbodyweight/day)...
February 6, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237245/the-formation-of-quiescent-glomerular-endothelial-cell-monolayer-in-vitro-is-strongly-dependent-on-the-choice-of-extracellular-matrix-coating
#16
Kamilla Pajęcka, Malik Nygaard Nielsen, Troels Krarup Hansen, Julie M Williams
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs)...
February 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236091/viability-of-primary-cultured-podocytes-is-associated-with-extracellular-high-glucose-dependent-autophagy-downregulation
#17
Irena Audzeyenka, Dorota Rogacka, Agnieszka Piwkowska, Stefan Angielski, Maciej Jankowski
Structural and functional impairment of podocytes plays an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy, a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus and leading cause of renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. Autophagy plays a crucial role in podocyte viability and function, and its activity is modulated by a variety of pathophysiological factors found in diabetic milieu. Here we show that downregulation of autophagy is critical for podocyte survival in hyperglycemic environment. Moreover, long-term exposure to high glucose leads to inhibition of autophagy as well as to the development of insulin resistance in podocytes...
February 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233699/sinapic-acid-ameliorate-cadmium-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-vivo-possible-involvement-of-oxidative-stress-apoptosis-and-inflammation-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-downregulation
#18
Mushtaq Ahmad Ansari, Mohammad Raish, Ajaz Ahmad, Khalid M Alkharfy, Sheikh Fayaz Ahmad, Sabry M Attia, Abdulaziz M S Alsaad, Saleh A Bakheet
Cadmium (CD), an environmental and industrial pollutant, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NOS responsible for oxidative and nitrosative stress that can lead to nephrotoxic injury, including proximal tubule and glomerulus dysfunction. Sinapic acid (SA) has been found to possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to examine the nephroprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects of SA against CD-induced nephrotoxicity and its underlying mechanism...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232619/micrornas-as-master-regulators-of-glomerular-function-in-health-and-disease
#19
Piera Trionfini, Ariela Benigni
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression, and the dysregulation of miRNAs is a common feature of several diseases. More miRNAs are identified almost daily, revealing the complexity of these transcripts in eukaryotic cellular networks. The study of renal miRNAs, using genetically modified mice or by perturbing endogenous miRNA levels, has revealed the important biologic roles miRNAs have in the major cell lineages that compose the glomerulus. Here, we provide an overview of miRNA biogenesis and function in regulating key genes and cellular pathways in glomerular cells during development and homeostasis...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228401/wolf-hirschhorn-syndrome-candidate-1-like-1-epigenetically-regulates-nephrin-gene-expression
#20
Yugo Ito, Kan Katayama, Yukino Nishibori, Yoshihiro Akimoto, Akihiko Kudo, Ryota Kurayama, Ichiro Hada, Shohei Takahashi, Toru Kimura, Toshiyuki Fukutomi, Tomohisa Katada, Junichi Suehiro, Olga Beltcheva, Karl Tryggvason, Kunimasa Yan
Altered expression of nephrin underlies the pathophysiology of proteinuria in both congenital and acquired nephrotic syndrome. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of nephrin gene regulation remain elusive. Here, we show that Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 long form (WHSC1L1-L) is a novel epigenetic modifier of nephrin gene regulation. WHSC1L1-L was associated with histone H3K4 and H3K36 in human embryonic kidney cells. WHSC1L1-L gene was expressed in the podocytes and functional protein product was detected in these cells...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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