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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428931/the-role-of-renal-proximal-tubule-transport-in-the-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#1
REVIEW
Shoko Horita, Motonobu Nakamura, Masashi Suzuki, Nobuhiko Satoh, Atsushi Suzuki, Yukio Homma, Masaomi Nangaku
The electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) on the basolateral side of the renal proximal tubule plays a pivotal role in systemic acid-base homeostasis. Mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1 cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis accompanied by other extrarenal symptoms. The proximal tubule reabsorbs most of the sodium filtered in the glomerulus, contributing to the regulation of plasma volume and blood pressure. NBCe1 and other sodium transporters in the proximal tubule are regulated by hormones, such as angiotensin II and insulin...
March 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424211/connecting-tubule-glomerular-feedback-mediates-tubuloglomerular-feedback-resetting-post-unilateral-nephrectomy
#2
Sumit R Monu, Yilin Ren, J X Masjoan Juncos, Kristopher Kutskill, Hong Wang, Nitin Kumar, Edward L Peterson, Oscar A Carretero
Unilaterally nephrectomized rats (UNx) have higher glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) that can cause significant glomerular injury in the remnant kidney. PGC is controlled by the ratio of afferent (Af-Art) and efferent arteriole resistance. Af-Art resistance in turn is regulated by two intrinsic feedback mechanisms: 1) Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) that causes Af-Art constriction in response to increased NaCl in the macula densa and 2) connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF) that causes Af-Art dilatation in response to an increase in NaCl transport in the connecting tubule via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424207/a-distributed-solute-model-an-extended-two-pore-model-with-application-to-the-glomerular-sieving-of-ficoll
#3
Carl M Öberg, Joseph J Groszek, Shuvo Roy, William H Fissell, Bengt Rippe
One of the many unresolved questions regarding the permeability of the glomerular filtration barrier is the reason behind the marked difference in permeability between albumin and polysaccharide probe molecules such as Ficoll and dextran of the same molecular size. Although the differences in permeability have been mainly attributed to charge effects, we have previously shown that this would require a highly charged filtration barrier, having a charge density that is ~10 times more than that on the albumin molecule...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418422/a-disease-model-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-a-glomerulus-on-a-chip-microdevice
#4
Li Wang, Tingting Tao, Wentao Su, Hao Yu, Yue Yu, Jianhua Qin
Diabetic nephropathy is a major chronic renal complication of diabetes mellitus, and is the leading cause of end-stage kidney diseases. Establishing a disease model of diabetic nephropathy in vitro can accelerate the understanding of its mechanisms and pharmaceutical development. We provide the proof-of-principle for using a glomerulus-on-a-chip microdevice that reconstitutes organ-level kidney functions to create a human disease model of early stage diabetic nephropathy on chip. The microfluidic device, which recapitulates the glomerular microenvironment, consists of parallel channels lined by isolated primary glomerular microtissues that experience fluid flow to mimic the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB), including glomerular endothelial cells, 3D basement membrane and podocytes...
April 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417217/levels-of-cystatin-c-in-low-and-high-flux-hemodialysis-in-children-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#5
Fatina I Fadel, Abbass A Mourad, Azza M O Abdel Rahman, Hafez M Bazaraa, Mohamed Farouk Mohamed, Dalia H El-Lebedy, Mohamed M Soliman
BACKGROUND: Cystatin-C (CyC) is a middle molecule that is freely filtered at the glomerulus and almost completely reabsorbed by the proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum CyC and its reduction ratio as a biomarker for assessing the adequacy of the hemodialysis (HD) sessions in children with end-stage renal disease on maintenance HD. We also compared levels of CyC in patients on low-flux HD (LFH) and high-flux HD (HFH). METHODS: Forty patients were included in the study and divided into two groups, with one group (16 patients) receiving HFH and the other group receiving LFH (24 patients) (high-flux and low-flux polysulfone filters, respectively)...
April 17, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409347/origin-and-function-of-the-renal-stroma-in-health-and-disease
#6
Christopher J Rowan, Sepideh Sheybani-Deloui, Norman D Rosenblum
The renal stroma is defined as a heterogeneous population of cells that serve both as a supportive framework and as a source of specialized cells in the renal capsule, glomerulus, vasculature, and interstitium. In this chapter, we review published evidence defining what, where, and why stromal cells are important. We describe the functions of the renal stroma andhow stromal derivatives are crucial for normal kidney function. Next, we review the specification of stromal cells from the Osr1+ intermediate mesoderm and T+ presomitic mesoderm during embryogenesis and stromal cell differentiation...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409035/the-use-of-coupled-plasma-filtration-adsorption-in-traumatic-rhabdomyolysis
#7
Mario Pezzi, Silvia Renda, Anna Maria Giglio, Anna Maria Scozzafava, Simona Paola Tiburzi, Patrizia Casella, Fabrizio Iannelli, Mario Verre
Severe musculoskeletal injuries induce the release of sarcoplasmic elements such as muscle enzymes, potassium, and myoglobin in the systemic circulation. The circulating myoglobin damages the glomerulus and renal tubules. Conventional haemodialysis is not able to remove myoglobin, due to its high molecular weight (17,8 kilodaltons [kDa]). We treated four traumatic rhabdomyolysis patients with Coupled Plasma Filtration Adsorption (CPFA) in order to remove myoglobin followed by 14 hours of Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration (CVVH)...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404591/intravital-imaging-of-the-kidney-in-a-rat-model-of-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#8
Bradley T Endres, Ruben M Sandoval, George J Rhodes, Silvia B Campos-Bilderback, Malgorzata M Kamocka, Christopher McDermott-Roe, Alexander Staruschenko, Bruce A Molitoris, Aron M Geurts, Oleg Palygin
Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide, and a major risk factor for renal failure and cardiovascular disease. The role of albuminuria, a common feature of hypertension and robust predictor of cardiorenal disorders, remains incompletely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanisms leading to albuminuria in the kidney of a rat model of hypertension, the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat. To determine the relative contributions of the glomerulus and proximal tubule (PT) to albuminuria, we applied intravital two-photon-based imaging to investigate the complex renal physiological changes that occur during salt-induced hypertension...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398522/zika-virus-infection-of-the-human-glomerular-cells-implications-for-viral-reservoirs-and-renal-pathogenesis
#9
Donald J Alcendor
Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the human renal compartment has not been reported. Several clinical reports describe high level persistent viral shedding in urine of infected patients. The mechanisms associated high level persistent viruria observed in ZIKV infected patients until now have not been explored. We examined cellular components of the glomerulus of the human kidney for ZIKV infectivity. METHODS: Here we infect primary human podocytes, renal glomerular endothelial cells, and mesangial cells with ZIKV...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395969/ultrasmall-polymeric-nanocarriers-for-drug-delivery-to-podocytes-in-kidney-glomerulus
#10
Riccardo Bruni, Paolo Possenti, Carlotta Bordignon, Min Li, Stefania Ordanini, Piergiorgio Messa, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Francesco Cellesi
We explored the use of new drug-loaded nanocarriers and their targeted delivery to the kidney glomerulus and in particular to podocytes, in order to overcome the failure of current therapeutic regimens in patients with proteinuric (i.e. abnormal amount of proteins in the urine) diseases. Podocytes are glomerular cells which are mainly responsible for glomerular filtration and are primarily or secondarily involved in chronic kidney diseases. Therefore, the possibility to utilise a podocyte-targeted drug delivery could represent a major breakthrough in kidney disease research, particularly in terms of dosage reduction and elimination of systemic side effects of current therapies...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391346/what-can-target-kidney-fibrosis
#11
Irina A Leaf, Jeremy S Duffield
Fibrosis, a characteristic of all chronic kidney diseases, is now recognized to be an independent predictor of disease progression. Deposition of pathological matrix in the walls of glomerular capillaries, the interstitial space and around arterioles both predicts and contributes to functional demise of the nephron and its surrounding vasculature. Recent identification of the major cell populations of fibroblast precursors in the kidney interstitium as pericytes and tissue-resident mesenchymal stem cells, and in the glomerulus as podocytes, parietal epithelial and mesangial cells, has enabled the study of the fibrogenic process in much greater depth directly in the fibroblast precursors...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367534/soluble-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-supar-and-impaired-kidney-function-in-the-population-based-malm%C3%A3-diet-and-cancer-study
#12
Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Margaretha Persson, Anders Christensson, George Hindy, Peter Almgren, Peter M Nilsson, Olle Melander, Gunnar Engström, Marju Orho-Melander
INTRODUCTION: The soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has recently been associated with a decline in kidney function and incidence of chronic kidney disease in patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing cardiac catheterization, yet little is known whether suPAR is associated with deterioration of kidney function in the general population. METHODS: In the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort, plasma levels of suPAR were quantified in 5381 participants at baseline (1991-1994), and creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerulus filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and follow-up (2007-2012)...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366227/fast-renal-decline-to-end-stage-renal-disease-an-unrecognized-feature-of-nephropathy-in-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Andrzej S Krolewski, Jan Skupien, Peter Rossing, James H Warram
A new model of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes emerged from our studies of Joslin Clinic patients. The dominant feature is progressive renal decline, not albuminuria. This decline is a unidirectional process commencing while patients have normal renal function and, in the majority, progressing steadily (linearly) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While an individual's rate of renal decline is constant, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope varies widely among individuals from -72 to -3...
March 30, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361319/making-a-kidney-organoid-using-the-directed-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Minoru Takasato, Melissa H Little
An organoid can be defined as a three-dimensional organ-like structure formed from organ-specific progenitor cells. Organ progenitor cells were empirically found to self-organize three-dimensional tissues when they were aggregated and cultivated in vitro. While this nature power of progenitor cells has an amazing potential to recreate artificial organs in vitro, there had been difficulty to apply this technology to human organs due to the inaccessibility to human progenitor cells until human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) was invented by Takahashi and Yamanaka in 2007...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361304/parietal-cells-new-perspectives-in-glomerular-disease
#15
Laura Miesen, Eric Steenbergen, Bart Smeets
In normal glomeruli, parietal epithelial cells (PECs) line the inside of Bowman's capsule and form an inconspicuous sheet of flat epithelial cells in continuity with the proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) at the urinary pole and with the podocytes at the vascular pole. PECs, PTECs and podocytes have a common mesenchymal origin and are the result of divergent differentiation during embryogenesis. Podocytes and PTECs are highly differentiated cells with well-established functions pertaining to the maintenance of the filtration barrier and transport, respectively...
March 30, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346014/intestinal-absorption-and-renal-reabsorption-of-calcium-throughout-postnatal-development
#16
Megan R Beggs, R Todd Alexander
Calcium is vital for many physiological functions including bone mineralization. Postnatal deposition of calcium into bone is greatest in infancy and continues through childhood and adolescence until peek mineral density is reached in early adulthood. Thereafter, bone mineral density remains static until it eventually declines in later life. A positive calcium balance, i.e. more calcium absorbed than excreted, is crucial to bone deposition during growth and thus to peek bone mineral density. Dietary calcium is absorbed from the intestine into the blood...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339935/nephrotoxicity-of-anticancer-treatment
#17
Jolanta Malyszko, Klaudia Kozlowska, Leszek Kozlowski, Jacek Malyszko
Severe adverse systemic drug events occur commonly as a result of treatment of cancer patients. Nephrotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents remains a significant complication limiting the efficacy of the treatment. A variety of renal disease and electrolyte disorders can result from the drugs that are used to treat malignant disease. The kidneys are a major elimination pathway for many antineoplastic drugs and their metabolites. Tumour lysis syndrome, an emergency in haematooncology, occurs most often after the initiation of cytotoxic therapy in patients with high-grade lymphomas and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia...
October 6, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331889/unsupervised-labeling-of-glomerular-boundaries-using-gabor-filters-and-statistical-testing-in-renal-histology
#18
Brandon Ginley, John E Tomaszewski, Rabi Yacoub, Feng Chen, Pinaki Sarder
The glomerulus is the blood filtering unit of the kidney. Each human kidney contains [Formula: see text] glomeruli. Several renal conditions originate from structural damage to glomerular microcompartments, such as proteinuria, the excessive loss of blood proteins into urine. The gold standard for evaluating structural damage in renal pathology is histopathological and immunofluorescence examination of needle biopsies under a light microscope. This method is limited by qualitative or semiquantitative manual scoring approaches to the evaluation of glomerular structural features...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331185/the-role-of-angiotensin-ii-in-glomerular-volume-dynamics-and-podocyte-calcium-handling
#19
Daria V Ilatovskaya, Oleg Palygin, Vladislav Levchenko, Bradley T Endres, Alexander Staruschenko
Podocytes are becoming a primary focus of research efforts due to their association with progressive glomeruli damage in disease states. Loss of podocytes can occur as a result of excessive intracellular calcium influx, and we have previously shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) via canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) channels caused increased intracellular Ca(2+) flux in podocytes. We showed here with patch-clamp electrophysiology that Ang II activates TRPC channels; then using confocal calcium imaging we demonstrated that Ang II-dependent stimulation of Ca(2+) influx in the podocytes is precluded by blocking either AT1 or AT2 receptors (ATRs)...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329012/tracking-the-stochastic-fate-of-cells-of-the-renin-lineage-after-podocyte-depletion-using-multicolor-reporters-and-intravital-imaging
#20
Natalya V Kaverina, Hiroyuki Kadoya, Diana G Eng, Michael E Rusiniak, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez, R Ariel Gomez, Jeffrey W Pippin, Kenneth W Gross, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Stuart J Shankland
Podocyte depletion plays a major role in focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). Because cells of the renin lineage (CoRL) serve as adult podocyte and parietal epithelial cell (PEC) progenitor candidates, we generated Ren1cCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT and Ren1dCre/R26R-ConfettiTG/WT mice to determine CoRL clonality during podocyte replacement. Four CoRL reporters (GFP, YFP, RFP, CFP) were restricted to cells in the juxtaglomerular compartment (JGC) at baseline. Following abrupt podocyte depletion in experimental FSGS, all four CoRL reporters were detected in a subset of glomeruli at day 28, where they co-expressed de novo four podocyte proteins (podocin, nephrin, WT-1 and p57) and two glomerular parietal epithelial cell (PEC) proteins (claudin-1, PAX8)...
2017: PloS One
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