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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822255/malnutrition-in-postacute-geriatric-care-basic-espen-diagnosis-and-etiology-based-diagnoses-analyzed-by-length-of-stay-in-hospital-mortality-and-functional-rehabilitation-indexes
#1
Dolores Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ester Marco, Cédric Annweiler, Natalia Ronquillo-Moreno, Andrea Tortosa, Olga Vázquez-Ibar, Ferran Escalada, Xavier Duran, Josep M Muniesa
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationships between malnutrition and nutrition-related conditions according to the European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) consensus and guidelines and clinical outcomes in postacute rehabilitation. METHODS: Of 102 eligible inpatients, 95 (84.5 years old, 63.2% women) fulfilled inclusion criteria: aged ≥70 years, body mass index <30kg/m(2), admission for rehabilitation. Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF≤11) identified patients "at risk" and ESPEN basic and etiology based definitions were applied...
August 2, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817665/concentrations-of-trace-elements-in-human-milk-comparisons-among-women-in-argentina-namibia-poland-and-the-united-states
#2
Laura D Klein, Alicia A Breakey, Brooke Scelza, Claudia Valeggia, Grazyna Jasienska, Katie Hinde
Human milk contains essential micronutrients for growth and development during early life. Environmental pollutants, such as potentially toxic metals, can also be transferred to the infant through human milk. These elements have been well-studied, but changing diets and environments and advances in laboratory technology require re-examining these elements in a variety of settings. The aim of this study was to characterize the concentrations of essential and toxic metals in human milk from four diverse populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817367/nutrition-implications-for-long-term-survivors-of-pancreatic-cancer-surgery
#3
Maria Q B Petzel, Leah Hoffman
With slowly increasing survival rates in pancreatic cancer and international consensus guidelines recommending surgical resection of premalignant lesions, survival post-pancreatic resection is increasing. With longer survival time, the significant comorbidities of such major surgery have far-reaching effects on the nutrition status of the survivor of pancreatic cancer. This review describes the many nutrition-related side effects of pancreatic surgery, including the development of pancreatic enzyme insufficiency, micronutrient deficiencies, diabetes, fatty liver, and metabolic bone disease...
August 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814651/n2-fixing-tropical-legume-evolution-a-contributor-to-enhanced-weathering-through-the-cenozoic
#4
REVIEW
Dimitar Z Epihov, Sarah A Batterman, Lars O Hedin, Jonathan R Leake, Lisa M Smith, David J Beerling
Fossil and phylogenetic evidence indicates legume-rich modern tropical forests replaced Late Cretaceous palm-dominated tropical forests across four continents during the early Cenozoic (58-42 Ma). Tropical legume trees can transform ecosystems via their ability to fix dinitrogen (N2) and higher leaf N compared with non-legumes (35-65%), but it is unclear how their evolutionary rise contributed to silicate weathering, the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Here we hypothesize that the increasing abundance of N2-fixing legumes in tropical forests amplified silicate weathering rates by increased input of fixed nitrogen (N) to terrestrial ecosystems via interrelated mechanisms including increasing microbial respiration and soil acidification, and stimulating forest net primary productivity...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814517/zinc-salts-block-hepatitis-e-virus-replication-by-inhibiting-the-activity-of-viral-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase
#5
Nidhi Kaushik, Chandru Subramani, Saumya Anang, Rajagopalan Muthumohan, Shalimar, Baibaswata Nayak, C T Ranjith-Kumar, Milan Surjit
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an acute, self limiting hepatitis in normal individuals and leads to chronic disease in immunocompromised individuals. HEV infection in pregnant women results in a more severe outcome, with the mortality rate going upto 30%. Though the virus usually causes sporadic infection, epidemics have been reported in developing and resource starved countries. No specific anti-viral exists against HEV. A combination of interferon and ribavirin therapy has been used to control the disease with some success...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814396/consumption-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-iron-absorption-from-a-micronutrient-powder-containing-ferrous-fumarate-and-sodium-iron-edta-a-stable-isotope-study-in-kenyan-infants
#6
Daniela Paganini, Mary A Uyoga, Colin I Cercamondi, Diego Moretti, Edith Mwasi, Clarissa Schwab, Salome Bechtler, Francis M Mutuku, Valeria Galetti, Christophe Lacroix, Simon Karanja, Michael B Zimmermann
Background: Whether consumption of prebiotics increases iron absorption in infants is unclear.Objective: We set out to determine whether prebiotic consumption affects iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) containing a mixture of ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA (FeFum+NaFeEDTA) in Kenyan infants.Design: Infants (n = 50; aged 6-14 mo) consumed maize porridge that was fortified with an MNP containing FeFum+NaFeEDTA and 7.5 g galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) (Fe+GOS group, n = 22) or the same MNP without GOSs (Fe group, n = 28) each day for 3 wk...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814349/breakfast-consumption-and-nutrient-intakes-in-4-18-year-olds-uk-national-diet-and-nutrition-survey-rolling-programme-2008-2012
#7
Janine D Coulthard, Luigi Palla, Gerda K Pot
Although breakfast consumption is widely considered to be an important component of a healthy lifestyle, few UK studies have examined differences in nutrient intakes between breakfast consumers and breakfast skippers among children and adolescents. We investigated associations between breakfast skipping in 4-18-year-olds and their nutrient intakes using data from the UK's National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme. Dietary data were derived from 4-d estimated food diaries of 802 children aged 4-10 years and 884 children aged 11-18 years (1686 in total)...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813103/nutrition-facts-and-limits-for-micronutrients-in-tree-species-used-in-urban-forestry
#8
Flávia G K Brun, Eleandro J Brun, Dionatan Gerber, Denise A Szymczak, Eduardo K Londero, Evandro A Meyer, Márcio C Navroski
There is a huge lack of researches that evaluate the nutritional limits in tree species used in urban forestry, especially in terms of micronutrients. This study aimed to establish limits and range of micronutrients levels for the proper development of tree species utilized in urban forestry. The study was conducted in the city of Santa Maria-RS-Brazil. Through forest inventory, 23 forest species present in urban forest were selected, and 05 vegetative branches of each tree were collected, in which the contents of B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were analyzed...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812189/nutrient-intake-of-swiss-toddlers
#9
Thomas A Brunner, Luca Casetti, Petra Haueter, Pascal Müller, Andreas Nydegger, Johannes Spalinger
PURPOSE: During the first years of life, food preferences are shaped that might last throughout a person's entire life affecting his/her health in the long term. However, knowledge on early feeding habits is still limited for toddlers. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to: (1) assess toddlers' nutrient intake; (2) compare the findings to past studies as well as to national feeding recommendations and (3) identify major food sources for energy and macronutrients. METHODS: A food survey using a 4-day diary was conducted...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810231/cr-induced-cellular-injury-and-necrosis-in-glycine-max-l-biochemical-mechanism-of-oxidative-damage-in-chloroplast
#10
Kalimuthu Balasaraswathi, Sivalingam Jayaveni, Janardhanam Sridevi, Dhanasingh Sujatha, Kavati Phebe Aaron, Chellan Rose
Chromium-induced toxicity and mechanisms of cell death involved in plants are yet to be fully elucidated. To understand the events of these processes, the stress response of the soybean plant using trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds, namely, basic chromium sulphate (BCS) and potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was investigated. The leaf surface morphology for stomatal aperture, wax deposition and presence of trichomes for chromium accumulation was examined by SEM-EDAX and light microscopy. The leaf mesophyll cell integrity was identified by trypan blue staining; chlorophyll autofluorescence, ROS generation and mitochondrial function were studied by fluorescence microscopy using different dyes...
August 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809926/impact-of-fortified-versus-unfortified-lipid-based-supplements-on-morbidity-and-nutritional-status-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-in-ill-gambian-children
#11
Stefan A Unger, Saikou Drammeh, Jahid Hasan, Kabiru Ceesay, Edrisa Sinjanka, Sainey Beyai, Bakary Sonko, Bai Lamin Dondeh, Anthony J Fulford, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice
BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrients (MMN) are commonly prescribed in pediatric primary healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa to improve nutritional status and appetite without evidence for their effectiveness or international clinical guidelines. Community-wide MMN supplementation has shown limited and heterogeneous impact on growth and morbidity. Short-term ready-to-use therapeutic foods in acutely sick children in a hospital setting also had limited efficacy regarding subsequent growth. The effectiveness of MMN in improving morbidity or growth in sick children presenting for primary care has not been assessed...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806418/seasonality-affects-dietary-diversity-of-school-age-children-in-northern-ghana
#12
Abdul-Razak Abizari, Fusta Azupogo, Miwako Nagasu, Noortje Creemers, Inge D Brouwer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary diversity score (DDS) is relatively easy to measure and is shown to be a very useful indicator of the probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Dietary diversity, however, is usually assessed during a single period and little is known about the effect of seasonality on it. This study investigates whether dietary diversity is influenced by seasonality. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in two different seasons-dry season (October 2010) and rainy season (May 2011) among the same school-age children (SAC) in two rural schools in northern Ghana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805747/what-is-nutritious-snack-food-a-comparison-of-expert-and-layperson-assessments
#13
Tamara Bucher, Christina Hartmann, Megan E Rollo, Clare E Collins
The term "nutritious" is being increasingly used by product manufacturers but the term is not currently regulated as a nutrition claim. It is unclear how lay consumers and experts define and interpret the term or how they evaluate the "nutritiousness" of various foods. To address this evidence gap, a mixed methods design was applied and both nutrition experts (n = 206) and lay participants (n = 269) provided definitions of the term "nutritious" and evaluated the "nutritiousness" of 20 different snack foods in a cross-sectional survey...
August 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805097/comparison-of-methods-to-assess-consumption-of-micronutrient-powders-among-young-children-in-nepal
#14
Bernadette N Ng'eno, Cria G Perrine, Giri Raj Subedi, Saba Mebrahtu, Pradiumna Dahal, Maria Elena D Jefferds
BACKGROUND: Assessing micronutrient powder (MNP) consumption is the key for monitoring program performance; no gold standard exists for assessing consumption in nutrition programs. OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of MNP consumption assessed by maternal report versus observed unopened MNP sachets in the household. METHODS: Cross-sectional household surveys of children aged 6 to 23 months were conducted to assess an MNP project in Nepal; eligible children received 60 sachets per distribution...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803108/enhanced-biobutanol-production-with-high-yield-from-crude-glycerol-by-acetone-uncoupled-clostridium-sp-strain-ct7
#15
Fengxue Xin, Tianpeng Chen, Yujia Jiang, Jiasheng Lu, Weiliang Dong, Wenming Zhang, Jiangfeng Ma, Min Zhang, Min Jiang
This study reports a unique acetone uncoupled Clostridium species strain CT7, which shows efficient capability of glycerol utilization with high butanol ratio. Medium compositions, such as substrate concentration, micronutrients and pH show significant effects on butanol production from glycerol by strain CT7. To further maximize butanol production, fermentation conditions were optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). Final butanol production of 16.6g/L with yield of 0.43g/g consumed glycerol was obtained, representing the highest butanol production and yield from glycerol in the batch fermentation mode...
August 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802519/espen-guidelines-on-nutritional-support-for-polymorbid-internal-medicine-patients
#16
Filomena Gomes, Philipp Schuetz, Lisa Bounoure, Peter Austin, María Ballesteros-Pomar, Tommy Cederholm, Jane Fletcher, Alessandro Laviano, Kristina Norman, Kalliopi-Anna Poulia, Paula Ravasco, Stephane M Schneider, Zeno Stanga, C Elizabeth Weekes, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Polymorbidity (also known as multimorbidity) - defined as the co-occurrence of at least two chronic health conditions - is highly prevalent, particularly in the hospitalized population. Nonetheless, clinical guidelines largely address individual diseases and rarely account for polymorbidity. The aim of this project was to develop guidelines on nutritional support for polymorbid patients hospitalized in medical wards. METHODS: The methodology used for the development of the current project follows the standard operating procedures for ESPEN guidelines...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801770/nutrient-composition-of-culture-media-induces-different-patterns-of-co2-fixation-from-biogas-and-biomass-production-by-the-microalga-scenedesmus-obliquus-u169
#17
Francisco J Choix, Elena Polster, Rosa Isela Corona-González, Raúl Snell-Castro, Hugo O Méndez-Acosta
Microalgae are considered as a promising biotechnological strategy to capture CO2 from biogas, producing biomass with valuable energetic compounds. This study has evaluated the biotechnological potential to fix CO2 from biogas and biomass production by Scenedesmus obliquus cultured in four different formulations of culture media, C30, Bristol, Bold 3N, and C30+M, as well as the effect of methane (CH4) of biogas during CO2 fixation and biomass production. The results obtained showed that different nutrient composition and concentration of culture media, mainly micronutrient and vitamin concentrations, induced different patterns of CO2 fixation from biogas and biomass production in S...
August 11, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800115/intake-of-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-the-belgian-population-adequacy-and-contribution-of-foods-fortified-foods-and-supplements
#18
Isabelle Moyersoen, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Arnold Dekkers, Karin de Ridder, Jean Tafforeau, John van Camp, Herman van Oyen, Carl Lachat
A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D...
August 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799803/nutrition-inflammation-and-liver-spleen-axis
#19
Luigi Barrea, Carolina Di Somma, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Giovanni Tarantino, Gian Carlo Tenore, Francesco Orio, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Chronic low-grade systemic inflammation represents a mechanism common to many diseases linked to atherosclerosis-related pathways. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the combination of food quantity and quality along with genetic susceptibility are able to induce the aberrant activation of innate immune signalling, which initially contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation. Liver represents the central player to inflammatory response. Dietary/metabolic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), the main causes of liver disease in the Western world...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799141/trace-element-and-vitamin-concentrations-in-paediatric-dialysis-patients
#20
Triona Joyce, Frances Court Brown, Dean Wallace, Christopher J D Reid, Manish D Sinha
BACKGROUND: There are few recent data regarding blood micronutrient concentrations and supplementation in children on maintenance dialysis. We investigated micronutrient concentrations following dialysis commencement. METHODS: Retrospective review, including all children on maintenance dialysis (peritoneal dialysis, PD; intermittent haemodialysis, IHD), for nutritional blood concentrations measured over the first 12 months. Patients received pyridoxine and Dialyvit® daily with planned 3-monthly micronutrient concentration monitoring including selenium, manganese, copper, zinc, folate and vitamins A, D, B12 and E...
August 10, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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