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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232709/local-setting-influences-the-quantity-of-household-food-waste-in-mid-sized-south-african-towns
#1
Gamuchirai Chakona, Charlie M Shackleton
The world faces a food security challenge with approximately 868 million people undernourished and about two billion people suffering from the negative health consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. Yet, it is believed that at least 33% of food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted along the food chain. As food waste has a negative effect on food security, the present study sought to quantify household food waste along the rural-urban continuum in three South African mid-sized towns situated along an agro-ecological gradient...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228828/trace-elements-profiles-of-maternal-blood-umbilical-cord-blood-and-placenta-in-beijing-china
#2
Cui Zhou, Ran Zhang, Xueping Cai, Rong Xiao, Yu Huanling
Profiles of heavy metals chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and micronutrients ferrum (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) in maternal and umbilical cord blood clots were investigated for assessing placenta function in the transport of micronutrients or heavy metal pollutants. Correlations between contents of elements in the two tissues were also analyzed. Results demonstrated significantly lower levels of Cr, Pb and Cd in umbilical cord blood clots than in maternal blood clots, and negative relationship between lead levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood (r = -0...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227176/metabolomics-approach-in-the-study-of-the-well-defined-polyherbal-preparation-zyflamend
#3
Eric D Tague, Allen K Bourdon, Amber MacDonald, Maggie S Lookadoo, Edward D Kim, Wesley M White, Paul D Terry, Shawn R Campagna, Brynn H Voy, Jay Whelan
Zyflamend is a highly controlled blend of 10 herbal extracts that synergistically impact multiple cell signaling pathways with anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. More recently, its effects were shown to also modify cellular energetics, for example, activation of fatty acid oxidation and inhibition of lipogenesis. However, its general metabolic effects in vivo have yet to be explored. The objective of this study was to characterize the tissue specific metabolomes in response to supplementation of Zyflamend in mice, with a comparison of equivalent metabolomics data generated in plasma from humans supplemented with Zyflamend...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224583/nutrients-for-neurocognition-in-health-and-disease-measures-methodologies-and-mechanisms
#4
Andrew Scholey
Effective pharmaceutical treatments for age-related cognitive decline have proved elusive. There is, however, compelling evidence that nutritional status and supplementation could play crucial roles in modifying the expression of cognitive change through the lifespan. Subjective memory impairment and mild cognitive impairment can be harbingers of dementia but this is by no means inevitable. Neurocognitive change is influenced by a variety of processes, many of which are involved in other aspects of systemic health, including cardiovascular function...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223530/diet-quality-of-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-and-the-impact-of-nutritional-counseling
#5
Andréia Silva Fernandes, Christiane Ishikawa Ramos, Fabiana Baggio Nerbass, Lilian Cuppari
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to evaluate the quality of the diet of nondialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease and to investigate the impact of dietary counseling in the quality of the diet of these patients. METHODS: In the cross-sectional analysis, 3-day food records of 100 nondialysis-dependent patients with chronic kidney disease patients, in the first visit to the renal dietitians, were evaluated using the Diet Quality Index (DQI)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222899/prevalence-and-determinants-of-iron-deficiency-anemia-among-non-pregnant-women-of-reproductive-age-in-pakistan
#6
Muhammad Atif Habib, Camille Raynes-Greenow, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Noshad Ali, Sidrah Nausheen, Imran Ahmed, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Kirsten I Black
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in women of reproductive age is a recognized public health concern that impairs health and well-being in women and is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. In Pakistan there is a dearth of up-to-date information on the prevalence and predictors of IDA. This study sought to investigate IDA in Pakistani women. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis was performed using the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011- 2012...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221569/functional-analysis-of-the-igf-system-in-milk
#7
REVIEW
Andreas Hoeflich, Zianka Meyer
The development of milk during evolution is considered a more recent step to provide the neonate with adequate amounts of energy, nutrients, and specific hormonal signals thereby, granting a fast and efficient rate of postnatal growth and development. Since the insulin- or the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) systems were evolved much earlier, it can be assumed that the functionality of the IGF-system has been integrated into the novel matrix milk containing casein and whey proteins from the beginnings. In fact, IGFs and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are abundantly present in milk, which is particularly true for fore-milk or colostrum and the potential effects of milk-borne IGF-compounds on the consuming organisms have in fact been addressed by several studies...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218234/the-emerging-role-of-zinc-transporters-in-cellular-homeostasis-and-cancer
#8
Elizabeth Bafaro, Yuting Liu, Yan Xu, Robert E Dempski
Zinc is an essential micronutrient that plays a role in the structural or enzymatic functions of many cellular proteins. Cellular zinc homeostasis involves the opposing action of two families of metal transporters: the ZnT (SLC30) family that functions to reduce cytoplasmic zinc concentrations and the ZIP (SLC39) family that functions to increase cytoplasmic zinc concentrations. Fluctuations in intracellular zinc levels mediated by these transporter families affect signaling pathways involved in normal cell development, growth, differentiation and death...
2017: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217113/simultaneous-determination-of-borate-chloride-and-molybdate-in-pyrohydrolysis-distillates-of-plant-and-soil-samples-by-ion-chromatography
#9
Vivekchandra Guruprasad Mishra, Mrinal Kanti Das, Dipti Jayesh Shah, Subbiah Jeyakumar, Bhupendra Singh Tomar, Karanam Lakshminarayana Ramakumar
Determination of concentrations of micronutrients in plant samples is important in order to assess the growth and quality of plants. An ion chromatography (IC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of B, Cl and Mo (micronutrients present in their anionic form in aqueous samples) using a gradient elution with d-mannitol and NaOH. Despite their different chemical nature, these elements could be separated from the matrix by employing pyrohydrolysis. IC was employed for their sequential determination from single aliquot injection into the IC column...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211694/prevention-of-bladder-cancer-incidence-and-recurrence-nutrition-and-lifestyle
#10
Christian D Fankhauser, Hugh Mostafid
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the influence of nutrition and lifestyle on bladder cancer incidence and recurrence and summarize food items, diets and lifestyle practices that physicians may wish to prioritize for discussion with their patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent study results suggest an association between bladder cancer incidence and several food items including meat, fruit, vegetables, milk products and oil. Micronutrient deficiency is associated with bladder cancer risk; however, it remains unclear if micronutrient supplementation can modify bladder cancer incidence...
January 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211007/contribution-of-dietary-supplements-to-nutritional-adequacy-in-various-adult-age-groups
#11
Jeffrey B Blumberg, Balz Frei, Victor L Fulgoni, Connie M Weaver, Steven H Zeisel
Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 specifically identified vitamins A, C, D and E, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline and fiber as "underconsumed nutrients". Based on nationally representative data in 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2009-2012, assessments were made of age-group differences in the impact of dietary supplements on nutrient intake and inadequacies. Compared to food alone, use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly (p < 0...
December 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210520/supplementation-during-pregnancy-with-small-quantity-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-or-multiple-micronutrients-compared-with-iron-and-folic-acid-increases-women-s-urinary-iodine-concentration-in-semiurban-ghana-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Rebecca T Young, Anna Lartey, Harriet Okronipa, Per Ashorn, Ulla Ashorn, Mamane Zeilani, Kathryn G Dewey
There is little information on whether prenatal multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements containing iodine affect women's iodine status. In the International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements DYAD-Ghana trial, we aimed to assess women's urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L) during pregnancy, as one of the planned secondary outcomes. Women (n = 1,320) <20 weeks of gestation were randomized to consume 60 mg iron and 400 μg folic acid per day (iron and folic acid [IFA]); 18 vitamins and minerals including 250 μg iodine per day (MMN); or 20 g/day of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with the same and additional 4 vitamins and minerals as the MMN (LNS)...
December 6, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210507/acceptability-of-multiple-micronutrient-powders-and-iron-syrup-in-bihar-india
#13
Melissa F Young, Amy Webb Girard, Rukshan Mehta, Sridhar Srikantiah, Lucas Gosdin, Purnima Menon, Usha Ramakrishnan, Reynaldo Martorell, Rasmi Avula
Nearly two thirds of young children are anaemic in Bihar, India. Paediatric iron and folic acid syrup (IFAS) and multiple micronutrient powders (MNPs) are two evidence-based interventions to prevent anaemia. Using a randomized crossover design, we examined the acceptability of IFAS versus MNPs for children 6-23 months. In a catchment area of 2 health centres in Bihar, health front-line workers (FLWs) delivered either (a) IFAS twice weekly or (b) MNPs for 1 month followed by the other supplementation strategy for 1 month to the same families (NCT02610881)...
December 6, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208493/almond-hazelnut-and-walnut-three-nuts-for-neuroprotection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-neuropharmacological-review-of-their-bioactive-constituents
#14
REVIEW
Narjes Gorji, Reihaneh Moeini, Zahra Memariani
An increase in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder is an almost obvious issue in the world. Researches on natural products for finding effective drugs to prevent the disease are in progress. There is special attention to the three types of nuts including almond, hazelnut and walnut in manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine (PM) as preventive agents against brain's atrophy and memory loss. The purpose of this study is a pharmacological review of their bioactive constituents and introducing the value of these nuts as effective supplements and natural medicinal foods in AD patients...
December 2, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207789/minerals-in-pregnancy-and-lactation-a-review-article
#15
REVIEW
Samira Khayat, Hamed Fanaei, Abdolhakim Ghanbarzehi
Micronutrients (include vitamins and minerals) are essential for normal function, growth and development. Minerals have important effects on the health of the mother and foetus. But biological mechanisms of minerals are not completely understood. Micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy can lead to anaemia, hypertension, obstetric complications and even maternal death and in foetus lead to a fail in growth and development. Mineral deficiency during pregnancy, particularly exist in developing countries. During pregnancy due to the increased demands caused by physiological changes, deficiency is exaggerated and as a result its complications occur...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207495/validity-of-dietary-assessment-in-athletes-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Louise Capling, Kathryn L Beck, Janelle A Gifford, Gary Slater, Victoria M Flood, Helen O'Connor
Dietary assessment methods that are recognized as appropriate for the general population are usually applied in a similar manner to athletes, despite the knowledge that sport-specific factors can complicate assessment and impact accuracy in unique ways. As dietary assessment methods are used extensively within the field of sports nutrition, there is concern the validity of methodologies have not undergone more rigorous evaluation in this unique population sub-group. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare two or more methods of dietary assessment, including dietary intake measured against biomarkers or reference measures of energy expenditure, in athletes...
December 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204902/diet-and-risk-of-diabetic-retinopathy-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Courtney Dow, Francesca Mancini, Kalina Rajaobelina, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Beverley Balkau, Fabrice Bonnet, Guy Fagherazzi
Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes that threatens all individuals with diabetes, leading to vision loss or blindness if left untreated. It is frequently associated with diabetic macular edema, which can occur at any point during the development of diabetic retinopathy. The key factors known to lead to its development include hyperglycemia, hypertension, and the duration of diabetes. Though the diet is important in the development of diabetes, its role in diabetic retinopathy has not been clearly identified...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204197/infantile-tremor-syndrome-in-modern-times
#18
Piyush Gautam, Nivedita Sharma, Sanjeev Chaudhary, Ankush Kaushal
Background: Infantile tremor syndrome (ITS) is a clinical syndrome of acute or gradual onset of mental and psychomotor changes, pigmentary disturbances of hair and skin, pallor, and tremors in malnourished children aged between 5 months and 3 years. It is a well-known entity, but the exact etiopathogenesis is still not known. Setting and Design: Prospective observational study carried out in the Department of Pediatrics at Dr RPGMC Tanda, Kangra in Himachal Pradesh...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204115/a-randomized-double-blind-study-assessing-changes-in-cognitive-function-in-indian-school-children-receiving-a-combination-of-bacopa-monnieri-and-micronutrient-supplementation-vs-placebo
#19
Tora Mitra-Ganguli, Soumik Kalita, Sakshi Bhushan, Con Stough, James Kean, Nan Wang, Vidhu Sethi, Anuradha Khadilkar
Several studies have indicated a chronic cognitive enhancing effect of Bacopa monnieri across different ages and cognitive impairment associated with vitamin and mineral deficiencies in children. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 4-month supplementation with a combination of B. monnieri extract and multiple micronutrients on cognitive functions in Indian school children aged 7-12 years. This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel design, single-center study in which 300 children were randomized to receive a beverage either fortified with B...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203653/rapid-diagnostic-testing-platform-for-iron-and-vitamin-a-deficiency
#20
Zhengda Lu, Dakota O'Dell, Balaji Srinivasan, Elizabeth Rey, Ruisheng Wang, Sasank Vemulapati, Saurabh Mehta, David Erickson
Micronutrient deficiencies such as those of vitamin A and iron affect a third of the world's population with consequences such as night blindness, higher child mortality, anemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, and reduced work capacity. Many efforts to prevent or treat these deficiencies are hampered by the lack of adequate, accessible, and affordable diagnostic methods that can enable better targeting of interventions. In this work, we demonstrate a rapid diagnostic test and mobile enabled platform for simultaneously quantifying iron (ferritin), vitamin A (retinol-binding protein), and inflammation (C-reactive protein) status...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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