Read by QxMD icon Read

molecular nutrition

Zhideng Lin, Yisheng Huang, Weiguang Zou, Hua Rong, Meiling Hao, Xiaobo Wen
Enzymes that lengthen the carbon chain of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are key to the biosynthesis of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Here we report on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution, functional characterization and nutritional regulation of a elovl5 gene from Nibea coibor. The full-length cDNA was 1315 bp, including a 5-untranslated region (UTR) of 134 bp, a 3-UTR of 296 bp and an open reading frame of 885 bp, which specified a peptide of 294 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the deduced peptide sequence possessed all the characteristic features of microsomal fatty acyl elongases, including the so-called histidine box (HXXHH), the canonical C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, several predicted transmembrane regions and other highly conserved motifs...
March 16, 2018: Gene
Ellen Young, Manus Carey, Andrew A Meharg, Caroline Meharg
BACKGROUND: Plants can adapt to edaphic stress, such as nutrient deficiency, toxicity and biotic challenges, by controlled transcriptomic responses, including microbiome interactions. Traditionally studied in model plant species with controlled microbiota inoculation treatments, molecular plant-microbiome interactions can be functionally investigated via RNA-Seq. Complex, natural plant-microbiome studies are limited, typically focusing on microbial rRNA and omitting functional microbiome investigations, presenting a fundamental knowledge gap...
March 20, 2018: Microbiome
Sandeep Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Das, Manoj Kumar Patel, Ashish Shah, Vinay Kumar, Saikat Gantait
With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Paola Fincheira, Andrés Quiroz
Agricultural practices require novel products that allow sustainable development and commercial production according to the needs of farmers and consumers. Therefore, in the last decade, eco-friendly alternatives have been studied, so volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by microorganisms have emerged as a cheaper, effective, efficient, and an eco-friendly alternative. VOCs are lipophilic compounds derived from microbial metabolic pathways with low molecular weight (<300 g mol-1 ), low boiling point, and high vapor pressure that allow them to act as signal molecules over short and long distances...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Ram Naresh Bharagava, Sujata Mani, Sikandar I Mulla, Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
This study deals the biodegradation of crystal violet dye by a ligninolytic enzyme producing bacterium isolated from textile wastewater that was characterized and identified as Aeromonas hydrophila based on the 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The degradation of crystal violet dye was studied under different environmental and nutritional conditions, and results showed that the isolated bacterium was effective to decolourize 99% crystal violet dye at pH 7 and temperature 35 °C in presence of sucrose and yeast extract as C and N source, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Julia Karmann, Benedikt Müller, Ulrich Z Hammes
Pathways for assimilates. During their life cycle, plants alternate between a haploid stage, the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, the sporophyte. In higher plants, meiosis generates the gametophyte deeply embedded in the maternal tissue of the flower. The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis, and then, the surviving megaspore of the four megaspores produced undergoes mitotic divisions and finally gives rise to the female gametophyte, consisting of the egg cell, two synergids, the central cell, which due to the fusion of two nuclei is diploid (double haploid) in Arabidopsis and most angiosperms and the antipods, whose number is not fixed and varies significantly between species (Yadegari and Drews in Plant Cell 16(Suppl):S133-S141, 2004)...
March 16, 2018: Plant Reproduction
Michelle A Farrar, Hooi Ling Teoh, Kate A Carey, Anita Cairns, Robin Forbes, Karen Herbert, Sandra Holland, Kristi J Jones, Manoj P Menezes, Margot Morrison, Kate Munro, Daniella Villano, Richard Webster, Ian R Woodcock, Eppie M Yiu, Hugo Sampaio, Monique M Ryan
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating motor neuron disorder causing progressive muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency. We present the initial Australian experiences implementing the expanded access programme (EAP) to enable preapproval access to nusinersen, the first disease-modifying therapy, for SMA type 1. METHODS: An Australian multicentre, open-label EAP for nusinersen enrolled patients with infantile-onset SMA type 1 from November 2016 to September 2017...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Neerupma Bhardwaj, Kirtimaan Syal, Dipankar Chatterji
ppGpp, an alarmone for stringent response, plays an important role in the reprogramming of the transcription complex at the time of stress. In Escherichia coli, ppGpp mediates its action by binding to at least two different sites on RNA polymerase (RNAP). One of the sites to which ppGpp binds to RNAP is at the β'-ω interface; however, the underlying molecular mechanism and the physiological relevance of ppGpp binding to this site remain unclear. In this study, we have performed UV cross-linking experiments using32 P azido-labeled ppGpp to probe its association with RNAP in the absence and presence of ω, and observed weaker binding of ppGpp to the RNAP without ω...
March 15, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Abdelaziz M Hussein, Mohamed Adel, Mohamed El-Mesery, Khaled M Abbas, Amr N Ali, Osama A Abulseoud
l-Carnitine is a unique nutritional supplement for athletes that has been recently studied as a potential treatment for certain neuropsychiatric disorders. However, its efficacy in seizure control has not been investigated. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive either saline (Sal) (negative control) or pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) 40 mg/kg i.p. × 3 times/week × 3 weeks. The PTZ group was further subdivided into two groups, the first received oral l-carnitine (l-Car) (100 mg/kg/day × 4 weeks) (PTZ + l-Car), while the second group received saline (PTZ + Sal)...
March 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
Yathisha Ug, Ishani Bhat, Iddya Karunasagar, Mamatha Bs
The rising interest to utilize nutritionally exorbitant fish proteins has instigated research activities in fish waste utilization. The development of newer technologies to utilize fish waste has fostered use of bioactive value-added products for specific health benefits. Enzymatically obtained Fish Protein Hydrolysate (FPH) is a rich source of biologically active peptides possessing anti-oxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial and anti-hypertensive activity. Isolating natural remedies to combat alarming negative consequences of synthetic drugs has been the new trend in current research promoting identification of antihypertensive peptides from FPH...
March 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Detlef Ulrich, Steffen Kecke, Klaus Olbricht
The strawberry, with its unique aroma, is one of the most popular fruits worldwide. The demand for specific knowledge of metabolism in strawberries is increasing. This knowledge is applicable for genetic studies, plant breeding, resistance research, nutritional science, and the processing industry. The molecular basis of strawberry aroma has been studied for more than 80 years. Thus far, hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOC) have been identified. The qualitative composition of the strawberry volatilome remains controversial though considerable progress has been made during the past several decades...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tomas Strandin, Simon A Babayan, Kristian M Forbes
While urban expansion increasingly encroaches on natural habitats, many wildlife species capitalize on anthropogenic food resources, which have the potential to both positively and negatively influence their responses to infection. Here we examine how food availability and key nutrients have been reported to shape innate and adaptive immunity in wildlife by drawing from field-based studies, as well as captive and food restriction studies with wildlife species. Examples of food provisioning and key nutrients enhancing immune function were seen across the three study type distinctions, as were cases of trace metals and pharmaceuticals impairing the immunity of wildlife species...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Natalia Nikonorova, Lam Dai Vu, Elisabeth Stes, Kris Gevaert, Ive De Smet
Plant health and development are directly depending on a plant's ability to react to a constantly changing environment. Sensing of water and nutrition levels and of the biotic environment is vital for a plant, making the root one of the key plant organs. Proteins are the key molecules that play numerous roles in a cell's everyday life. Quantitative proteome profiling of roots can provide a global overview on the molecular regulatory mechanisms and networks involved in plant growth and development and abiotic and biotic stress responses...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrea Osimani, Vesna Milanović, Federica Cardinali, Cristiana Garofalo, Francesca Clementi, Marina Pasquini, Paola Riolo, Sara Ruschioni, Nunzio Isidoro, Nino Loreto, Elena Franciosi, Kieran Tuohy, Annalisa Petruzzelli, Martina Foglini, Claudia Gabucci, Franco Tonucci, Lucia Aquilanti
Tenebrio molitor represents one of the most popular species used for the large-scale conversion of plant biomass into protein and is characterized by high nutritional value. In the present laboratory study, the bacterial biota characterizing a pilot production chain of fresh T. molitor larvae was investigated. To this end, different batches of fresh mealworm larvae, their feeding substrate (wheatmeal) and frass were analyzed by viable microbial counts, PCR-DGGE and Illumina sequencing. Moreover, the occurrence of Coxiella burnetii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shiga toxin-producing E...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Chenzhipeng Nie, Peilei Zhu, Shuping Ma, Mingchun Wang, Youdong Hu
Stem lettuce has a long history of cultivation in China and possesses high nutritional and medicinal value. In our previous studies, extraction optimization, characterization, and bioactivities of stem lettuce polysaccharides (SLP) were investigated. In this study, SLP were further separated into two purified polysaccharides, SLP-1 and SLP-2, by anion exchange chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. SLP-1, with a molecular weight of 90 KDa, was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 17...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Heng Ye, Manish Roorkiwal, Babu Valliyodan, Lijuan Zhou, Pengyin Chen, Rajeev Varshney, Henry T Nguyen
Climate changes increase the occurrence of extreme weather patterns globally, cause significant reduction in crop production and hence threatening the food security. In order to meet the food demand of growing world population, faster rate of genetic gains leading to productivity enhancement for major crops is required. Grain legumes are an essential commodity in optimal human diets and animal feed because of their unique nutritional composition. Currently, limited water is a major constraint in grain legume production...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Longlong Li, Jinlong Zhao, Chongyang Ge, Lei Yu, Haitian Ma
This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) rehabilitated BRL-3A cells oxidative stress damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Results showed that DHEA reversed the decrease of cell viability and ameliorated nuclear chromatin damage in H2 O2 -induced BRL-3A cells. DHEA increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase, and decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in H2 O2 -induced BRL-3A cells...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Nadine Graupner, Manfred Jensen, Christina Bock, Sabina Marks, Sven Rahmann, Daniela Beisser, Jens Boenigk
Shifts in the nutritional mode between phototrophy, mixotrophy and heterotrophy are a widespread phenomenon in the evolution of eukaryotic diversity. The transition between nutritional modes is particularly pronounced in chrysophytes and occurred independently several times through parallel evolution. Thus, chrysophytes provide a unique opportunity for studying the molecular basis of nutritional diversification and of the accompanying pathway reduction and degradation of plastid structures. In order to analyze the succession in switching the nutritional mode from mixotrophy to heterotrophy, we compared the transcriptome of the mixotrophic Poterioochromonas malhamensis with the transcriptomes of three obligate heterotrophic species of Ochromonadales...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Piers R Boshier, Matyas Fehervari, Sheraz R Markar, Sanjay Purkayastha, Patrik Spanel, David Smith, George B Hanna
BACKGROUND: Dietary restriction together with alteration of the gastrointestinal tract results in major metabolic changes and significant weight loss in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Current methods of measuring these changes are often inaccurate and lack a molecular basis. The objective of this study was to determine the role of exhaled ketones as non-invasive markers of nutritional status in patients undergoing surgical treatment of obesity. METHODS: Patients at different stages of treatment for obesity were recruited to this single-centre cross-sectional study...
March 7, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Gianpiero Vigani, Youry Pii, Silvia Celletti, Mauro Maver, Tanja Mimmo, Stefano Cesco, Stefania Astolfi
Within the last years, extensive information has been accumulated on the reciprocal influence between S and Fe nutrition at both physiological and molecular level in several plant species, but the mechanisms regulating S and Fe sensing and signaling are not fully understood. Fe and S interact for the building of Fe-S clusters, and mitochondria is one of the cellular compartments where Fe-S cluster assembly takes place. Therefore, it would be expected that mitochondria might play a central role in the regulation of Fe and S interaction...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"