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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320091/animal-models-for-assessing-the-impact-of-natural-products-on-the-aetiology-and-metabolic-pathophysiology-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Md Asrafuzzaman, Yingnan Cao, Rizwana Afroz, Danielle Kamato, Susan Gray, Peter J Little
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex and heterogeneous disorder which in its most common manifestation arises from insulin resistance and later insulin insufficiency. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by impaired insulin sensitivity and diagnosed as hyperglycaemia. Because of its cardiovascular consequences, Type 2 diabetes represents one of the world's leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Drug discovery and development are required to produce better ways to prevent, treat and manage diabetes and its complications...
March 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319048/amino-acid-insensitive-mtorc1-regulation-enables-nutritional-stress-resilience-in-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#2
Demetrios Kalaitzidis, Dongjun Lee, Alejo Efeyan, Youmna Kfoury, Naema Nayyar, David B Sykes, Francois E Mercier, Ani Papazian, Ninib Baryawno, Gabriel D Victora, Donna Neuberg, David M Sabatini, David T Scadden
The mTOR pathway is a critical determinant of cell persistence and growth wherein mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) mediates a balance between growth factor stimuli and nutrient availability. Amino acids or glucose facilitates mTORC1 activation by inducing RagA GTPase recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal outer surface, enabling activation of mTOR by the Ras homolog Rheb. Thereby, RagA alters mTORC1-driven growth in times of nutrient abundance or scarcity. Here, we have evaluated differential nutrient-sensing dependence through RagA and mTORC1 in hematopoietic progenitors, which dynamically drive mature cell production, and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which provide a quiescent cellular reserve...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317775/starch-and-protein-analysis-of-wheat-bread-enriched-with-phenolics-rich-sprouted-wheat-flour
#3
Michał Świeca, Dariusz Dziki, Urszula Gawlik-Dziki
Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses <20kDa) was determined for breads with 20% of SF...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317485/defective-insulin-signalling-mediated-by-inflammation-connects-obesity-to-alzheimer-disease-relevant-pharmacological-therapies-and-preventive-dietary-interventions
#4
Arantxa Rodriguez-Casado, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo Toledano
Recent evidence suggests that obesity, besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular events, also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Insulin resistance is common in all cases of obesity and appears to be the linkage between both diseases. Obesity, often associated with excessive fat and sugar intake, represents a preclinical stage toward insulin resistance during which nutrition intervention is likely to have maximum effect. In this way, healthy lifestyles lifetime to prevent obesity-related modifiable risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders could be simultaneously beneficial for preserving cognition and controlling the Alzheimer's...
March 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303424/inherited-disorders-of-transition-metal-metabolism-an-update
#5
REVIEW
Peter T Clayton
Elements with a biological role include six trace transition metals: manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc and molybdenum. Transition metals participate in group transfer reactions such as glycosylation and phosphorylation and those that can transfer an electron by alternating between two redox states such as iron (3+/2+) and copper (2+/1+) are also very important in biological redox reactions including the reduction of molecular oxygen and the transport of oxygen. However, these trace metals are also potentially toxic, generating reactive oxygen species through Fenton chemistry...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299860/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-fuels-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-and-de-novo-lipid-biosynthesis-during-bacillus-anthracis-sporulation
#6
Marat R Sadykov, Jong-Sam Ahn, Todd J Widhelm, Valerie M Eckrich, Jennifer L Endres, Adam Driks, Gregory E Rutkowski, Kevin L Wingerd, Kenneth W Bayles
Numerous bacteria accumulate poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) as an intracellular reservoir of carbon and energy in response to imbalanced nutritional conditions. In Bacillus spp., where PHB biosynthesis precedes the formation of the dormant cell type called the spore (sporulation), the direct link between PHB accumulation and efficiency of sporulation was observed in multiple studies. Although the idea of PHB as an intracellular carbon and energy source fueling sporulation was proposed several decades ago, the mechanisms underlying PHB contribution to sporulation have not been defined...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297714/root-microbiota-drive-direct-integration-of-phosphate-stress-and-immunity
#7
Gabriel Castrillo, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Sur Herrera Paredes, Theresa F Law, Laura de Lorenzo, Meghan E Feltcher, Omri M Finkel, Natalie W Breakfield, Piotr Mieczkowski, Corbin D Jones, Javier Paz-Ares, Jeffery L Dangl
Plants live in biogeochemically diverse soils with diverse microbiota. Plant organs associate intimately with a subset of these microbes, and the structure of the microbial community can be altered by soil nutrient content. Plant-associated microbes can compete with the plant and with each other for nutrients, but may also carry traits that increase the productivity of the plant. It is unknown how the plant immune system coordinates microbial recognition with nutritional cues during microbiome assembly. Here we establish that a genetic network controlling the phosphate stress response influences the structure of the root microbiome community, even under non-stress phosphate conditions...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294226/insight-into-the-gastro-duodenal-digestion-resistance-of-soybean-proteins-and-potential-implications-for-residual-immunogenicity
#8
Elisabetta De Angelis, Rosa Pilolli, Simona L Bavaro, Linda Monaci
Soy is an important component of the human diet thanks to its nutritional value and high protein content; however, it also represents a risk for allergenic consumers due to its potential to trigger adverse reactions in sensitized individuals. The putative correlation between immunoreactivity and resistance to the human gastrointestinal (GI) digestion has drawn attention to investigating soybean proteins digestibility. In this work, we provided further insights into this field by performing in vitro simulated GI digestion experiments directly on ground soybean seeds, to provide more realistic results obtained from the digestion of the whole food matrix...
March 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294088/an-update-on-diet-and-nutritional-factors-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-management
#9
Marina Aparicio-Soto, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease characterised by multiple organ involvement and a large number of complications. SLE management remains complicated owing to the biological heterogeneity between patients and the lack of safe and specific targeted therapies. There is evidence that dietary factors can contribute to the geoepidemiology of autoimmune diseases such as SLE. Thus, diet therapy could be a promising approach in SLE owing to both its potential prophylactic effects, without the side effects of classical pharmacology, and its contribution to reducing co-morbidities and improving quality of life in patients with SLE...
March 15, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292919/molecular-determinants-of-the-regulation-of-development-and-metabolism-by-neuronal-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Warakorn Kulalert, Harini Sadeeshkumar, Ying K Zhang, Frank C Schroeder, Dennis H Kim
Cell-non-autonomous effects of signaling in the nervous system of animals can influence diverse aspects of organismal physiology. We previously showed that phosphorylation of Ser49 of eIF2α in two chemosensory neurons by PEK-1/PERK promotes entry of Caenorhabditis elegans into dauer diapause. Here, we identified and characterized the molecular determinants that confer sensitivity to effects of neuronal eIF2α phosphorylation on development and physiology of C. elegans Isolation and characterization of mutations in eif-2B...
March 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290522/nutritional-control-of-il-23-th17-mediated-autoimmune-disease-through-ho-1-stat3-activation
#11
Jürgen Brück, Julia Holstein, Ivana Glocova, Ursula Seidel, Julia Geisel, Toshio Kanno, Jin Kumagai, Naoko Mato, Stephan Sudowe, Katja Widmaier, Tobias Sinnberg, Amir S Yazdi, Franziska C Eberle, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Toshinori Nakayama, Martin Röcken, Kamran Ghoreschi
The nutritional curcumin (CUR) is beneficial in cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. The molecular mechanisms underlying this food-mediated silencing of inflammatory immune responses are poorly understood. By investigating antigen-specific immune responses we found that dietary CUR impairs the differentiation of Th1/Th17 cells in vivo during encephalomyelitis and instead promoted Th2 cells. In contrast, feeding CUR had no inhibitory effect on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Mechanistically, we found that CUR induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype in dendritic cells (DC) with enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation and suppressed expression of Il12b and Il23a...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287596/generation-of-fluorescent-protein-fusions-in-candida-species
#12
Sara Gonia, Judith Berman, Cheryl A Gale
Candida species, prevalent colonizers of the intestinal and genitourinary tracts, are the cause of the majority of invasive fungal infections in humans. Thus, molecular and genetic tools are needed to facilitate the study of their pathogenesis mechanisms. PCR-mediated gene modification is a straightforward and quick approach to generate epitope-tagged proteins to facilitate their detection. In particular, fluorescent protein (FP) fusions are powerful tools that allow visualization and quantitation of both yeast cells and proteins by fluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting, respectively...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284611/dead-mouse-hopping-tyzzer-s-disease-in-spinifex-hopping-mice-notomys-alexis
#13
Hayley J Stannard, Melissa L Tulk, Julie M Old
Tyzzer's disease is caused by Clostridium piliformes and affects a wide range of domestic and wildlife species. Non-descript signs, if any, and a short incubation period make Tyzzer's disease difficult to diagnose and treat before death occurs. Here we describe an unexpected outbreak of Tyzzer's disease in a colony of native Australian spinifex hopping-mice (Notomys alexis). In this study captive hopping-mice were used in a nutrition trial (n=11), and others were housed in close proximity (n=4). During the nutrition trial, two hopping-mice exhibited signs of lethargy and diarrhoea, and were removed from the trial but died soon after...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283816/fowl-adenovirus-history-emergence-biology-and-development-of-a-vaccine-against-hydropericardium-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
M S Shah, A Ashraf, M I Khan, M Rahman, M Habib, M I Chughtai, J A Qureshi
The poultry industry has emerged as one of the largest and fastest growing public sectors in the developed and developing countries. Unfortunately, this industry is under a major threat from diseases that are viral (Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease, influenza, hydropericardium syndrome), bacterial (colibacillosis, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, mycoplasmosis), parasitic (coccidiosis, histoplasmosis) or nutritional (dyschondroplasia, osteoporosis). Among these diseases, hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) is one of the important emerging diseases occurring in the specific areas of the world where broilers (chickens) are reared under intensive conditions...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283525/molecular-viability-testing-of-uv-inactivated-bacteria
#15
Kris M Weigel, Felicia K Nguyen, Moira R Kearney, John S Meschke, Gerard A Cangelosi
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is effective at detecting bacterial DNA in samples, but it is unable to differentiate viable bacteria from inactivated cells or free DNA fragments. New PCR-based analytical strategies have been developed to address this limitation. Molecular viability testing (MVT) correlates bacterial viability with the ability to rapidly synthesize species-specific ribosomal RNA precursor (pre-rRNA) in response to brief nutritional stimulation. Previous studies demonstrated that MVT can assess bacterial inactivation by chlorine, serum, and low-temperature pasteurization...
March 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280866/qtl-mapping-of-fruit-mineral-contents-provides-new-chances-for-molecular-breeding-of-tomato-nutritional-traits
#16
Carmen Capel, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Gloria López-Casado, Trinidad Angosto, Antonio Heredia, Jesús Cuartero, Rafael Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael Lozano, Juan Capel
Agronomical characterization of a RIL population for fruit mineral contents allowed for the identification of QTL controlling these fruit quality traits, flanked by co-dominant markers useful for marker-assisted breeding. Tomato quality is a multi-variant attribute directly depending on fruit chemical composition, which in turn determines the benefits of tomato consumption for human health. Commercially available tomato varieties possess limited variability in fruit quality traits. Wild species, such as Solanum pimpinellifolium, could provide different nutritional advantages and can be used for tomato breeding to improve overall fruit quality...
March 9, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278224/ampk-modulatory-activity-of-olive-tree-leaves-phenolic-compounds-bioassay-guided-isolation-on-adipocyte-model-and-in-silico-approach
#17
Cecilia Jiménez-Sánchez, Mariló Olivares-Vicente, Celia Rodríguez-Pérez, María Herranz-López, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez, José Antonio Encinar, Vicente Micol
SCOPE: Olive-tree polyphenols have demonstrated potential for the management of obesity-related pathologies. We aimed to explore the capacity of Olive-tree leaves extract to modulate triglyceride accumulation and AMP-activated protein kinase activity (AMPK) on a hypertrophic adipocyte model. METHODS: Intracellular triglycerides and AMPK activity were measured on the hypertrophic 3T3-L1 adipocyte model by AdipoRed and immunofluorescence microscopy, respectively. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass detection with electrospray ionization (RP-HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS) was used for the fractionation of the extract and the identification of the compounds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274456/physicochemical-and-functional-properties-of-protein-extracts-from-torreya-grandis-seeds
#18
Mei Yu, Maomao Zeng, Fang Qin, Zhiyong He, Jie Chen
Proteins extracted from Torreya grandis seeds were investigated for their physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed protein extracts from two cultivars of T. grandis, Shengzhou I (SZPI) and Dazinaiyou (DNPI), had similar protein contents and appropriate amino acid balances with about 41% of the essential amino acid. The molecular weights of seed protein fractions were mostly about 31-37kDa and 20-21kDa. SZPI and DNPI had similar denaturation temperature of around 93.7°C while free sulfhydryl group and disulfide bond contents were found to differ slightly...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273477/metabolic-inputs-into-the-epigenome
#19
REVIEW
Upasna Sharma, Oliver J Rando
A number of molecular pathways play key roles in transmitting information in addition to the genomic sequence-epigenetic information-from one generation to the next. However, so-called epigenetic marks also impact an enormous variety of physiological processes, even under circumstances that do not result in heritable consequences. Perhaps inevitably, the epigenetic regulatory machinery is highly responsive to metabolic cues, as, for example, central metabolites are the substrates for the enzymes that catalyze the deposition of covalent modifications on histones, DNA, and RNA...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271632/the-role-of-insufficient-copper-in-lipid-synthesis-and-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Austin Morrell, Savannah Tallino, Lei Yu, Jason L Burkhead
The essential transition metal copper is important in lipid metabolism, redox balance, iron mobilization, and many other critical processes in eukaryotic organisms. Genetic diseases where copper homeostasis is disrupted, including Menkes disease and Wilson disease, indicate the importance of copper balance to human health. The severe consequences of insufficient copper supply are illustrated by Menkes disease, caused by mutation in the X-linked ATP7A gene encoding a protein that transports copper from intestinal epithelia into the bloodstream and across the blood-brain barrier...
March 8, 2017: IUBMB Life
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