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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926471/role-of-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-osteoarthritis-management
#1
Xiao-Yan Zheng, Jun Liang, Yu-Sheng Li, Min Tu
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease, in which metabolic imbalance in bone is observed. The pathological mechanism of metabolic imbalance is not clear yet, but the nutritional factors, particularly the vitamins, might be intrinsic to the development and progression of OA. In this review article, we have explored databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar articles until the beginning of 2017 and reviewed the role of fat-soluble vitamins in pathological and therapeutic aspects of OA...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918363/changes-in-zn-homeostasis-during-long-term-culture-of-primary-endothelial-cells-and-effects-of-zn-on-endothelial-cell-senescence
#2
Marco Malavolta, Laura Costarelli, Robertina Giacconi, Andrea Basso, Francesco Piacenza, Elisa Pierpaoli, Mauro Provinciali, Ogo A Ogo, Dianne Ford
Endothelial cell senescence and Zn nutritional status influence cardiovascular disease. The influence of Zn appears dichotomous, hence it is imperative to understand the relationship with cellular senescence to improve knowledge about the molecular and cellular basis of the disease. Here we aimed to determine: 1) the impact of chronic exposure to a moderately high dose of Zn on senescence of endothelial cells; 2) the changes in Zn homeostasis during the lifespan of primary cultured endothelial cells; and 3) the susceptibility of proliferating and senescent endothelial cells to cell death after short term exposure to increasing doses of Zn and of the Zn chelator TPEN...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917861/isolation-and-structural-elucidation-by-2d-nmr-of-planteose-a-major-oligosaccharide-in-the-mucilage-of-chia-salvia-hispanica-l-seeds
#3
Xiaohui Xing, Yves S Y Hsieh, Kuok Yap, Main E Ang, Jelle Lahnstein, Matthew R Tucker, Rachel A Burton, Vincent Bulone
An oligosaccharide was isolated in high purity and excellent yield from the water-extractable mucilage of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds using an optimized solid-phase extraction method. LC-MS analysis showed that the compound presents a molecular mass of 504Da and trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis revealed that it consists of galactose, glucose and fructose. Glycosidic linkage analysis showed that the oligosaccharide contains two non-reducing ends corresponding to terminal glucopyranose and terminal galactopyranose, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916932/informatics-for-nutritional-genetics-and-genomics
#4
Yuan Gao, Jiajia Chen
While traditional nutrition science is focusing on nourishing population, modern nutrition is aiming at benefiting individual people. The goal of modern nutritional research is to promote health, prevent diseases, and improve performance. With the development of modern technologies like bioinformatics, metabolomics, and molecular genetics, this goal is becoming more attainable. In this chapter, we will discuss the new concepts and technologies especially in informatics and molecular genetics and genomics, and how they have been implemented to change the nutrition science and lead to the emergence of new branches like nutrigenomics, nutrigenetics, and nutritional metabolomics...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910963/placental-transfer-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-and-feasibility-using-the-placenta-as-a-non-invasive-biomonitoring-matrix
#5
Yunsun Jeong, Sunggyu Lee, Sunmi Kim, Jeongim Park, Hai-Joong Kim, Gyuyeon Choi, Sooran Choi, Sungjoo Kim, Su Young Kim, Sungkyoon Kim, Kyungho Choi, Hyo-Bang Moon
The placenta is a crucial organ for the supply of oxygen and nutritional elements from mother to fetus. Several studies have reported evidence of the placental transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Despite the importance of prenatal exposure to POPs, the transport process of POPs via the human placenta is not well understood. To investigate the transport processes of these contaminants and to assess the feasibility of the placenta as a non-invasive biological matrix, we measured 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in placenta tissues...
September 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910791/inflammation-and-protein-energy-wasting-in-the-uremic-milieu
#6
Magdalena Jankowska, Gabriela Cobo, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Inflammation is normally a protective and physiological response to harmful stimuli, but typically becomes an uncontrolled, maladaptive, and persistent process in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Through a deleterious cascade of poorly controlled reactions mediated by biologically active molecules (also called middle molecular weight uremia retention solutes), inflammation associates with a range of complications including cardiovascular disease and protein-energy wasting (PEW). Persistent inflammation, which is central to the conceptual etiological models of PEW and the malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome, induces and reignites processes leading to PEW in a number of ways including stimulation of both direct and indirect mechanisms of muscle proteolysis...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901784/impact-of-maillard-reaction-products-on-nutrition-and-health-current-knowledge-and-need-to-understand-their-fate-in-the-human-digestive-system
#7
Nesreen ALJahdali, Franck Carbonero
The Maillard Reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic chemical reaction which results in the linkage between the amino group of amino acids and the carbonyl group of reduced sugars. MR products (MRPs) are common components of processed foods, mainly as a result of heating, especially in the Western diet. MRPs are classified as into three stages: initial, intermediate, and final stages, indicative of increased complexity and size, incurring different flavor, aroma, and texture. MRPs presence is known to reduce the nutritional quality of foods, particularly by reducing protein digestibility...
September 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901273/oleuropein-molecular-dynamics-and-computation
#8
Luigi Gentile, Nicola A Uccella, Ganapathy Sivakumar
Olive oil and table olive biophenols have been shown to significantly enrich the hedonic-sensory and nutritional quality of the Mediterranean diet. Oleuropein is one of the predominate biophenols in green olives and leaves, which not only has noteworthy free-radical quenching activity but also putatively reduces the incidence of various cancers. Clinical trials suggest that the consumption of extra virgin olive oil reduces the risk of several degenerative diseases. The oleuropein-based bioactives in olive oil could reduce tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β and nitric oxide...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899845/upwelling-derived-oceanographic-conditions-impact-growth-performance-and-growth-related-gene-expression-in-intertidal-fish
#9
Eduardo N Fuentes, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Oscar Almarza, Katterinne Mendez, Juan Antonio Valdés, Alfredo Molina, Jose Pulgar
Growth is one of the main biological processes in aquatic organisms that is affected by environmental fluctuations such as upwelling (characterized by food-rich waters). In fish, growth is directly related with skeletal muscle increase; which represents the largest tissue of body mass. However, the effects of upwelling on growth, at the physiological and molecular level, are unknown. This study used Girella laevifrons (one of the most abundant intertidal fish in Eastern South Pacific) as a biological model, considering animals from upwelling (U) and non-upwelling (NU) areas...
September 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889974/ionotropic-receptors-mediate-drosophila-oviposition-preference-through-sour-gustatory-receptor-neurons
#10
Yan Chen, Hubert Amrein
Carboxylic acids are present in many foods, being especially abundant in fruits. Yet, relatively little is known about how acids are detected by gustatory systems and whether they have a potential role in nutrition or provide other health benefits. Here we identify sour gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in tarsal taste sensilla of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that most tarsal sensilla harbor a sour GRN that is specifically activated by carboxylic and mineral acids but does not respond to sweet- and bitter-tasting chemicals or salt...
August 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888208/prophetic-medicine-as-potential-functional-food-elements-in-the-intervention-of-cancer-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Bassem Y Sheikh, Md Moklesur Rahman Sarker, Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Amin Ismail
Amounting scientific evidences have revealed the antitumor, antimetastatic, antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, chemopreventive and neo-adjuvant efficacy of Prophetic Medicine in various in vitro, in vivo and clinical cancer models. Prophetic Medicine includes plants, dietary materials or spices that were used as remedy recipes and nutrition by the great Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) to treat various ailments. Prophetic medicine is the total authentic Hadith narrated by the Prophet (PBUH) in relation to medicine, whether Qur'anic verses or honourable Prophetic Hadith...
September 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886263/functional-peptides-derived-from-rice-bran-proteins
#12
Y Q Liu, P Strappe, W T Shang, Z K Zhou
Rice bran has been predominantly used in the feed industry, and only recently it has attracted greater attention in terms of human nutrition with increasing knowledge of its bioactivity. A growing interest is the analysis of physiologically active peptides derived from rice bran proteins. In this paper, the bioactivities of rice bran proteins hydrolysates and peptides are reviewed based on recent studies. These enzymatic hydrolysates and peptides exert various biological activities including antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer and inhibitory activity for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which may ultimately prevent certain chronic diseases...
September 8, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880735/2017-midwest-zebrafish-meeting-report
#13
Elizabeth Sandquist, Sarah C Petersen, Cody J Smith
The 2017 Midwest Zebrafish meeting was held from June 16 to 18 at the University of Cincinnati, sponsored by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Divisions of Developmental Biology, Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, and Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. The meeting, organized by Saulius Sumanas, Joshua Waxman, and Chunyue Yin, hosted >130 attendees from 16 different states. Scientific sessions were focused on morphogenesis, neural development, novel technologies, and disease models, with Steve Ekker, Stephen Potter, and Lila Solnica-Krezel presenting keynote talks...
September 7, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879172/epigenetic-matters-the-link-between-early-nutrition-microbiome-and-long-term-health-development
#14
REVIEW
Flavia Indrio, Silvia Martini, Ruggiero Francavilla, Luigi Corvaglia, Fernanda Cristofori, Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Josef Neu, Samuli Rautava, Giovanna Russo Spena, Francesco Raimondi, Giuseppe Loverro
Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878180/bariatric-surgery-and-precision-nutrition
#15
REVIEW
Carolina F Nicoletti, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Marcela A S Pinhel, Carla B Nonino
This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient's genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment...
September 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878024/molecular-mechanism-of-substrate-recognition-and-transport-by-the-atsweet13-sugar-transporter
#16
Lei Han, Yongping Zhu, Min Liu, Ye Zhou, Guangyuan Lu, Lan Lan, Xianping Wang, Yongfang Zhao, Xuejun C Zhang
Sugar Will Eventually be Exported Transporters (SWEETs) are recently identified sugar transporters that can discriminate and transport di- or monosaccharides across a membrane following the concentration gradient. SWEETs play key roles in plant biological processes, such as pollen nutrition, nectar secretion, seed filling, and phloem loading. SWEET13 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSWEET13) is an important sucrose transporter in pollen development. Here, we report the 2.8-Å resolution crystal structure of AtSWEET13 in the inward-facing conformation with a substrate analog, 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate, bound in the central cavity...
September 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877683/genome-wide-association-study-reveals-putative-role-of-gga-mir-15a-in-controlling-feed-conversion-ratio-in-layer-chickens
#17
Jingwei Yuan, Sirui Chen, Fengying Shi, Guiqin Wu, Aiqiao Liu, Ning Yang, Congjiao Sun
BACKGROUND: Efficient use of feed resources for farm animals is a critical concern in animal husbandry. Numerous genetic and nutritional studies have been conducted to investigate feed efficiency during the regular laying cycle of chickens. However, by prolonging the laying period of layers, the performance of feed utilization in the late-laying period becomes increasingly important. In the present study, we measured daily feed intake (FI), residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 808 hens during 81-82 weeks of age to evaluate genetic properties and then used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to reveal the genetic determinants...
September 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877477/heparin-increases-food-intake-through-agrp-neurons
#18
Canjun Zhu, Pingwen Xu, Yanlin He, Yexian Yuan, Tao Wang, Xingcai Cai, Lulu Yu, Liusong Yang, Junguo Wu, Lina Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Songbo Wang, Ping Gao, Qianyun Xi, Yongliang Zhang, Yong Xu, Qingyan Jiang, Gang Shu
Although the widely used anticoagulant drug heparin has been shown to have many other biological functions independent of its anticoagulant role, its effects on energy homeostasis are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that heparin level is negatively associated with nutritional states and that heparin treatment increases food intake and body weight gain. By using electrophysiological, pharmacological, molecular biological, and chemogenetic approaches, we provide evidence that heparin increases food intake by stimulating AgRP neurons and increasing AgRP release...
September 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875582/identification-of-signaling-pathways-targeted-by-the-food-contaminant-fb1-transcriptome-and-kinome-analysis-of-samples-from-pig-liver-and-intestine
#19
Marion Régnier, Pascal Gourbeyre, Philippe Pinton, Scott Napper, Joëlle Laffite, Anne-Marie Cossalter, Jean-Denis Bailly, Yannick Lippi, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Ana Paula F R L Bracarense, Hervé Guillou, Nicolas Loiseau, Isabelle P Oswald
SCOPE: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. In mammals, this toxin causes widespread organ-specific damage; it promotes hepatotoxicity, is immunotoxic, alters intestinal functions… Despite its inhibitory effect on de novo ceramide synthesis, its molecular mechanism of action and toxicity are not totally elucidated. METHOD & RESULTS: To explore the mechanism of FB1 toxicity, we analyzed the transcriptome and kinome of two organs targeted by FB1: the liver and the jejunum...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874672/unravelling-a-stearidonic-acid-rich-triacylglycerol-biosynthetic-pathway-in-the-developing-seeds-of-buglossoides-arvensis-a-transcriptomic-landscape
#20
R V Sreedhar, P Prasad, L Prasanna Anjaneya Reddy, Ram Rajasekharan, Malathi Srinivasan
Buglossoides arvensis is an emerging oilseed crop that is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA) and has several potential applications in human health and nutrition. The molecular basis of SDA biosynthesis in this plant remains unknown due to lack of genomic information. To unravel key genes involved in SDA-rich triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, we performed transcriptome sequencing of pooled mRNA from five different developmental stages of B. arvensis seeds using Illumina NextSeq platform. De novo transcriptome assembly generated 102,888 clustered transcripts from 39...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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