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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636152/dynamics-and-origin-of-cytokinins-involved-in-plant-manipulation-by-a-leaf-mining-insect
#1
Hui Zhang, Antoine Guiguet, Géraldine Dubreuil, Anna Kisiala, Peter Andreas, R J Neil Emery, Elisabeth Huguet, Mélanie Body, David Giron
Several herbivorous insects and plant-associated microorganisms control the phytohormonal balance, thus enabling them to successfully exploit the plant by inhibiting plant defences and withdrawing plant resources for their own benefit. The leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella modifies the cytokinin (CK) profile of mined leaf-tissues, and the insect symbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is involved in the plant manipulation to the benefit of the insect host. To gain a deeper understanding into the possible origin and dynamics of CKs, we conducted an extensive characterization of CKs in larvae and in infected apple leaves...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631804/mandarin-fruit-quality-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Livnat Goldenberg, Yossi Yaniv, Ron Porat, Nir Carmi
During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630352/structural-complexity-and-molecular-heterogeneity-of-a-butterfly-ejaculate-reflect-a-complex-history-of-selection
#3
Camille Meslin, Tamara S Cherwin, Melissa S Plakke, Brandon S Small, Breanna J Goetz, Nathan I Morehouse, Nathan L Clark
Male ejaculates are often structurally complex, and this complexity is likely to influence key reproductive interactions between males and females. However, despite its potential evolutionary significance, the molecular underpinnings of ejaculate structural complexity have received little empirical attention. To address this knowledge gap, we sought to understand the biochemical and functional properties of the structurally complex ejaculates of Pieris rapae butterflies. Males in this species produce large ejaculates called spermatophores composed of an outer envelope, an inner matrix, and a bolus of sperm...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630299/bacteria-mediated-hypoxia-functions-as-a-signal-for-mosquito-development
#4
Kerri L Coon, Luca Valzania, David A McKinney, Kevin J Vogel, Mark R Brown, Michael R Strand
Mosquitoes host communities of microbes in their digestive tract that consist primarily of bacteria. We previously reported that several mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti, do not develop beyond the first instar when fed a nutritionally complete diet in the absence of a gut microbiota. In contrast, several species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, rescue development of axenic larvae into adults. The molecular mechanisms underlying bacteria-dependent growth are unknown. Here, we designed a genetic screen around E...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627618/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-regulates-autophagy-via-the-p27-e2f1-signaling-pathway
#5
Pan Wang, Meijing Long, Shijie Zhang, Zhenyun Cheng, Xin Zhao, Fucheng He, Hongchun Liu, Liang Ming
Autophagy is a highly conserved process by which the cell contents are delivered to lysosomes for degradation, or are used to provide macromolecules for energy generation under conditions of nutritional starvation. It has previously been demonstrated that cancer cells in hypoxic regions, with an oxygen concentration below the normal physiological level, express hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)‑1α, in order to adapt and survive. HIF‑1α is important in the regulation of oxygen homeostasis and the transcription of hundreds of genes in response to conditions of hypoxia, hence maintaining energy and redox homeostasis...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625252/-cerebral-injury-induced-by-heat-stroke-and-the-therapeutic-effect-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#6
Xiaoxiao Ni, Zhifeng Liu, Qiuyou Xie, Huasheng Tong, Lei Su, Ronghao Yu
With the global warming, the incidence of heat stroke was significantly higher than before. Severe heat stroke has a high mortality, high morbidity and consolidated central nervous system injury characteristics. The main features of severe heat stroke cerebral injury include cognitive impairment, delirium, convulsions and coma. Its mechanism is related with heat shock induced cerebral tissue ischemia and hypoxia, vascular dysfunction, secondary cascade inflammation and so on. Currently, the main treatment of heat stroke cerebral injury is the hypothermia therapy, dehydration for the reduction of intracranial pressure, naloxone and other cerebral protection and nutrition treatments...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625150/update-on-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-cholecystokinin-and-cholecystokinin-1-receptor-on-the-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#7
Helen H Wang, Piero Portincasa, David Q-H Wang
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important neuro-intestinal peptide hormone produced by the enteroendocrine I-cells in the upper part of small intestine. Protein- and fat-enriched food plays an important role in triggering CCK secretion from the intestine. Carbohydrates stimulate only small amounts of CCK release. The CCK-1 receptor (CCK-1R) is largely localized in the gallbladder, sphincter of Oddi, pancreas, small intestine, gastric mucosa, and pyloric sphincter, where it is responsible for CCK to regulate multiple digestive processes including gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion, small intestinal transit, and gastric emptying...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624879/lc-ms-ms-proteomic-analysis-of-starved-bacillus-subtilis-cells-overexpressing-ribonucleotide-reductase-nrdef-implications-in-stress-associated-mutagenesis
#8
Karla Viridiana Castro-Cerritos, Adolfo Lopez-Torres, Armando Obregón-Herrera, Katarzyna Wrobel, Kazimierz Wrobel, Mario Pedraza-Reyes
The non-appropriate conditions faced by nutritionally stressed bacteria propitiate error-prone repair events underlying stationary-phase- or stress-associated mutagenesis (SPM). The genetic and molecular mechanisms involved in SPM have been deeply studied but the biochemical aspects of this process have so far been less explored. Previous evidence showed that under conditions of nutritional stress, non-dividing cells of strain B. subtilis YB955 overexpressing ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) exhibited a strong propensity to generate true reversions in the hisC952 (amber), metB5 (ochre) and leuC425 (missense) mutant alleles...
June 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613378/genetic-diversity-of-desmanthus-sp-accessions-using-issr-markers-and-morphological-traits
#9
J C Costa, G G M Fracetto, F J C Fracetto, M V F Santos, M A Lira Júnior
Desmanthus is a genus of forage legumes with high nutritional value, productive potential, and ability to obtain nitrogen in association with diazotrophic bacteria. The use of accurate techniques for genotype identification and characterization is essential for breeding programs. Morphological markers are widely used to know the genetic diversity and the molecular markers are fundamental in these studies. We investigated the genetic diversity among Desmanthus sp genotypes in Pernambuco (Brazilian Northeast State), using morphological traits and ISSR markers...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606528/molecular-structures-and-properties-of-starches-of-australian-wild-rice
#10
Tiparat Tikapunya, Wei Zou, Wenwen Yu, Prudence O Powell, Glen P Fox, Agnelo Furtado, Robert J Henry, Robert G Gilbert
Australian wild rices have significant genetic differences from domesticated rices, which might provide rices with different starch molecular structure and thus different functional properties. Molecular structure, gelatinization properties, and pasting behaviours of starch of three Australian wild rices (Oryza australiensis, taxa A (O. rufipogon like) and taxa B (O. meridionalis like)) were determined and compared to domesticated indica and japonica rice. These had higher amylose content, more shorter amylose chains and fewer short amylopectin chains, resulted in a high gelatinization temperature in these wild rices...
September 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601383/pretreatment-serum-concentration-of-vitamin-d-and-breast-cancer-characteristics-a-prospective-observational-mediterranean-study
#11
Giuseppe Buono, Mario Giuliano, Carmine De Angelis, Rossella Lauria, Valeria Forestieri, Matilde Pensabene, Dario Bruzzese, Sabino De Placido, Grazia Arpino
BACKGROUND: Recent studies of the correlation between breast cancer (BC) and vitamin D yielded contrasting results. Although preclinical and clinical evidence has implicated vitamin D in BC prevention and outcome, little is known about the link between vitamin D and specific BC histologically defined subtypes. In the attempt to clarify this association we correlated vitamin D levels with BC characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 220 pre- and postmenopausal women with early BC in this prospective observational trial...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599393/hepar-uterinum-a-history-of-ideas-on-fetal-nutrition
#12
Michael Obladen
The means of fetal nutrition has been debated for over two millennia, with the controversy of oral versus parenteral nutrition already in the Corpus Hippocraticum. In 1587 Aranzio rejected connections between maternal and fetal blood vessels, and coined the term "hepar uterinum" for the placenta. From the 16th to the 18th century, a fervent debate focused on the type and extent of connection between maternal and fetal vessels, which was finally settled by Hunter's injection experiment in 1774. But up to the middle of the 19th century, an important nutritive function was attributed to amniotic fluid...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594832/the-road-not-taken-could-stress-specific-mutations-lead-to-different-evolutionary-paths
#13
Deepa Agashe
Organisms often encounter stressful conditions, some of which damage their DNA. In response, some organisms show a high expression of error-prone DNA repair machinery, causing a temporary increase in the genome-wide mutation rate. Although we now have a detailed map of the molecular mechanisms underlying such stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM), it has been hotly debated whether SIM alters evolutionary dynamics. Key to this controversy is our poor understanding about which stresses increase mutagenesis and their long-term consequences for adaptation...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586679/the-deep-sea-under-global-change
#14
Roberto Danovaro, Cinzia Corinaldesi, Antonio Dell'Anno, Paul V R Snelgrove
The deep ocean encompasses 95% of the oceans' volume and is the largest and least explored biome of Earth's Biosphere. New life forms are continuously being discovered. The physiological mechanisms allowing organisms to adapt to extreme conditions of the deep ocean (high pressures, from very low to very high temperatures, food shortage, lack of solar light) are still largely unknown. Some deep-sea species have very long life-spans, whereas others can tolerate toxic compounds at high concentrations; these characteristics offer an opportunity to explore the specialized biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with these responses...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585444/artificial-cultivation-of-true-morels-current-state-issues-and-perspectives
#15
Qizheng Liu, Husheng Ma, Ya Zhang, Caihong Dong
Morels (Morchella, Ascomycota), which are some of the most highly prized edible and medicinal mushrooms, are of great economic and scientific value. Morel cultivation has been a research focus worldwide for more than 100 years, and the outdoor cultivation of morels has succeeded and expanded to a large scale in China in recent years. In this study, we review the progress in recent research regarding the life cycle and reproductive systems in the genus Morchella and the current state of outdoor cultivation...
June 6, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585004/metallothionein-a-potential-link-in-the-regulation-of-zinc-in-nutritional-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Tariqur Rahman, Muhammad Manjurul Karim
Nutritional immunity describes mechanisms for withholding essential transition metals as well as directing the toxicity of these metals against infectious agents. Zinc is one of these transition elements that are essential for both humans and microbial pathogens. At the same time, Zn can be toxic both for man and microbes if its concentration is higher than the tolerance limit. Therefore a "delicate" balance of Zn must be maintained to keep the immune cells surveilling while making the level of Zn either to starve or to intoxicate the pathogens...
June 5, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578930/meal-timing-regulates-the-human-circadian-system
#17
Sophie M T Wehrens, Skevoulla Christou, Cheryl Isherwood, Benita Middleton, Michelle A Gibbs, Simon N Archer, Debra J Skene, Jonathan D Johnston
Circadian rhythms, metabolism, and nutrition are intimately linked [1, 2], although effects of meal timing on the human circadian system are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of a 5-hr delay in meals on markers of the human master clock and multiple peripheral circadian rhythms. Ten healthy young men undertook a 13-day laboratory protocol. Three meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) were given at 5-hr intervals, beginning either 0.5 (early) or 5.5 (late) hr after wake. Participants were acclimated to early meals and then switched to late meals for 6 days...
June 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576773/distinct-roles-for-the-mtor-pathway-in-postnatal-morphogenesis-maturation-and-function-of-pancreatic-islets
#18
Katie L Sinagoga, William J Stone, Jacqueline V Schiesser, Jamie I Schweitzer, Leesa Sampson, Yi Zheng, James M Wells
While much is known about the molecular pathways that regulate embryonic development and adult homeostasis of the endocrine pancreas, little is known about what regulates early postnatal development and maturation of islets. Given that birth marks the first exposure to enteral nutrition, we investigated how nutrient-regulated signaling pathways influence postnatal islet development. To do this we performed loss-of-function studies of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a highly conserved kinase within a nutrient-sensing pathway known to regulate cellular growth, morphogenesis and metabolism...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574180/topical-equol-preparation-improves-structural-and-molecular-skin-parameters
#19
U Magnet, Chr Urbanek, D Gaisberger, E Tomeva, E Dum, A Pointner, A G Haslberger
OBJECTIVE: Equol has been shown to improve skin health and regeneration, due to its antioxidative, phytoestrogenic and epigenetic characteristics. The effects of a topical intervention on skin structure, telomere length and epigenetic markers in skin cells were analysed. METHODS: 64 participants were divided in four groups and three of them treated topically with: emulsion with Equol powder (Isoflavandiol-E-55-RS(®) ); emulsion with microencapsulated Equol (Vesisorb(®) Isoflavandiol-E-55-RS(®) ) and an emulsion with lecithin (Vesisorb(®) placebo)...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567002/iron-restricted-diet-affects-brain-ferritin-levels-dopamine-metabolism-and-cellular-prion-protein-in-a-region-specific-manner
#20
Jessica M V Pino, Marcio H M da Luz, Hanna K M Antunes, Sara Q de Campos Giampá, Vilma R Martins, Kil S Lee
Iron is an essential micronutrient for several physiological functions, including the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. On the other hand, both iron, and dopamine can affect the folding and aggregation of proteins related with neurodegenerative diseases, such as cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) and α-synuclein, suggesting that deregulation of iron homeostasis and the consequential disturbance of dopamine metabolism can be a risk factor for conformational diseases. These proteins, in turn, are known to participate in the regulation of iron and dopamine metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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