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molecular nutrition

Wenfeng Li, Yalong Lu, Di Huang, Xiao Han, Xingbin Yang
BACKGROUND: Nutritional and absorption-promoting properties of stachyose combined with tea catechins (TC) have been revealed. However, the mechanism involved in non-digestible oligosaccharides-mediated enhancement of flavonoid absorption has largely remained elusive. METHODS: This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanism of stachyose in enhancing absorption and transportation of TC in mice. Mice were orally pre-treated with stachyose (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg·bw) for 0-8 weeks, and 1 h before sacrifice, mice were treated with TC (250 mg/kg·bw)...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Iuliana Aprodu, Florentina-Mihaela Ursache, Mihaela Turturică, Gabriela Râpeanu, Nicoleta Stănciuc
Sea buckthorn has gained importance as a versatile nutraceutical, due to its high nutritive value in terms of carotenoids content. β-Lactoglobulin (β-LG) is a natural carrier for various bioactive compounds. In this study, the effect of thermal treatment in the temperature range of 25 to 100°C for 15min on the complex formed by β-LG and carotenoids from sea buckthorn was reported, based on fluorescence spectroscopy, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation results. Also, the berries extracts were analyzed for their carotenoids content...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Aleksandra S Kristo, Dorothy Klimis-Zacas, Angelos K Sikalidis
Dietary patterns, including regular consumption of particular foods such as berries as well as bioactive compounds, may confer specific molecular and cellular protection in addition to the overall epidemiologically observed benefits of plant food consumption (lower rates of obesity and chronic disease risk), further enhancing health. Mounting evidence reports a variety of health benefits of berry fruits that are usually attributed to their non-nutritive bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic substances such as flavonoids or anthocyanins...
October 19, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
L Ming, L Yi, R Sa, Z X Wang, Z Wang, R Ji
The Bactrian camel includes various domestic (Camelus bactrianus) and wild (Camelus ferus) breeds that are important for transportation and for their nutritional value. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure. Here, we studied these parameters by examining an 809-bp mtDNA fragment from 113 individuals, representing 11 domestic breeds, one wild breed and two hybrid individuals. We found 15 different haplotypes, and the phylogenetic analysis suggests that domestic and wild Bactrian camels have two distinct lineages...
October 24, 2016: Animal Genetics
Heng Yang, Shan Lin, Xiaoping Lei, Cong Yuan, Zhanwei Tian, Yaosheng Yu, Zongsheng Zhao, Jingbo Chen
Estrous regulation in sheep has an important role in the sheep industry in improving production of meat and wool. It has been reported that an enhanced nutritional status can induce estrus resulting in an end of the anestrous season earlier than occurs in ewes with a lesser nutritional status. However, the endocrine and physiological mechanisms that induce the increased incidence of estrus remains unclear. In the present study, the differences in amounts and characteristics of miRNAs in ewes at estrus or during the anestrous season were screened by using the Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology...
October 19, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Hongwu Wang, Kun Li, Xiaojiao Hu, Zhifang Liu, Yujin Wu, Changling Huang
BACKGROUND: Plant digestibility of silage maize (Zea mays L.) has a large influence on nutrition intake for animal feeding. Improving forage quality will enhance the utilization efficiency and feeding value of forage maize. Dissecting the genetic basis of forage quality will improve our understanding of the complex nature of cell wall biosynthesis and degradation, which is also helpful for breeding good quality silage maize. RESULTS: Acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stalk were evaluated in a diverse maize population, which is comprised of 368 inbred lines and planted across seven environments...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Seu Ping Guiraud, Ivan Montoliu, Laeticia Da Silva, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Martin Kussmann, Francois-Pierre Martin
The methionine cycle is a key pathway contributing to the regulation of human health, with well-established involvement in cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. Changes in one-carbon cycle metabolites have also been associated with mild cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is no single analytical method to monitor both metabolites and co-factors of the methionine cycle. To address this limitation, we here report for the first time a new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 17 metabolites in the methionine cycle, which are homocysteic acid, taurine, serine, cysteine, glycine, homocysteine, riboflavin, methionine, pyridoxine, cystathionine, pyridoxamine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid...
October 18, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
I Louveau, M-H Perruchot, M Bonnet, F Gondret
Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Dries S Martens, Michelle Plusquin, Wilfried Gyselaers, Immaculata De Vivo, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Newborn telomere length sets telomere length for later life. At birth, telomere length is highly variable among newborns and the environmental factors during in utero life for this observation remain largely unidentified. Obesity during pregnancy might reflect an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes, but the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with newborn telomere length, as a mechanism of maternal obesity, on the next generation has not been addressed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
Yael Haberman, Ayelet Di Segni, Nurit Loberman-Nachum, Ortal Barel, Vered Kunik, Eran Eyal, Nitzan Kol, Goni Hout-Siloni, Brigitte Kochavi, Camila Avivi, Michael Schvimer, Gideon Rechavi, Yair Anikster, Iris Barshack, Batia Weiss
OBJECTIVES: Congenital chronic diarrhea (CCD) is a group of inherited enteropathies presenting in early life and requiring parenteral nutrition. In most cases, genetics may be the key for precise diagnosis. We present an infant girl with CCD that resolved after introduction of fructose-based formula but had no identified mutation in the SLC5A1 gene. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) we identified other mutations that better dictated dietary adjustments. METHODS: WES of the patient and her parents was performed...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
M Carmen Crespo, Francesco Visioli
Some epidemiological studies suggest that increased consumption of anthocyanins is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension. Also, high consumption of anthocyanin-rich fruit, such as berries, is associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this review, we briefly yet critically assess the available evidence in support of an anti-diabetic role of anthocyanins derived from berries, especially bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L., also known as European blueberry, whortleberry, huckleberry and blaeberry) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, native to the United States)...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Robert P Fisher
How and when eukaryotic cells make the irrevocable commitment to divide remain central questions in the cell-cycle field. Parallel studies in yeast and mammalian cells seemed to suggest analogous control mechanisms operating during the G1 phase-at Start or the restriction (R) point, respectively-to integrate nutritional and developmental signals and decide between distinct cell fates: cell-cycle arrest or exit versus irreversible commitment to a round of division. Recent work has revealed molecular mechanisms underlying this decision-making process in both yeast and mammalian cells but also cast doubt on the nature and timing of cell-cycle commitment in multicellular organisms...
2016: F1000Research
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
August 8, 2016: Nutrition
Prakash M Gopalakrishnan Nair, Ill Min Chung
This study examined the mechanism of toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and zinc (Zn) ions. We subjected plants to different ZnO NPs and Zn ion concentrations (0, 20, 50, 100 and 200mg/L) and analyzed resulting morphological changes, transcriptional regulation of genes involved in Zn-homeostasis, macro- and microelement homeostasis, as well as auxin regulation. Except for 20mg/L, the fresh weight and primary root length was reduced after exposure to all other concentrations of Zn ion and ZnO NP concentrations...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ricardo J Stein, Stephan Höreth, J Romário F de Melo, Lara Syllwasschy, Gwonjin Lee, Mário L Garbin, Stephan Clemens, Ute Krämer
Leaf mineral composition, the leaf ionome, reflects the complex interaction between a plant and its environment including local soil composition, an influential factor that can limit species distribution and plant productivity. Here we addressed within-species variation in plant-soil interactions and edaphic adaptation using Arabidopsis halleri, a well-suited model species as a facultative metallophyte and metal hyperaccumulator. We conducted multi-element analysis of 1972 paired leaf and soil samples from 165 European populations of A...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Gianpiero Vigani, Dario Di Silvestre, Anna Maria Agresta, Silvia Donnini, Pierluigi Mauri, Christian Gehl, Florian Bittner, Irene Murgia
Molybdenum (Mo) and iron (Fe) are essential micronutrients required for crucial enzyme activities in plant metabolism. Here we investigated the existence of a mutual control of Mo and Fe homeostasis in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Plants were grown under single or combined Mo and Fe starvation. Physiological parameters were measured, the ionomes of tissues and the ionomes and proteomes of root mitochondria were profiled, and the activities of molybdo-enzymes and the synthesis of molybdenum cofactor (Moco) were evaluated...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Zhang Ke, Feng Guangde, Zhang Baoyun, Xiang Wei, Chen Long, Yang Fang, Chu Mingxing, Wang Pingqing
Livestock phenotypes are determined by the interaction of a variety of factors, including the genome, the epigenome and the environment. Epigenetics refers to gene expression changes without DNA sequence alterations. Epigenetic markers mainly include DNA methylation, histone modifications, non-coding RNAs, and imprinting genes. More and more researches show that epigenetic markers play an important role in the traits of pigs by modulating phenotype changes via gene expression. However, the role of epigenetic markers has caught little attention in swine breeding...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Jason Kam, Swati Puranik, Rama Yadav, Hanna R Manwaring, Sandra Pierre, Rakesh K Srivastava, Rattan S Yadav
Diabetes has become a highly problematic and increasingly prevalent disease world-wide. It has contributed toward 1.5 million deaths in 2012. Management techniques for diabetes prevention in high-risk as well as in affected individuals, beside medication, are mainly through changes in lifestyle and dietary regulation. Particularly, diet can have a great influence on life quality for those that suffer from, as well as those at risk of, diabetes. As such, considerations on nutritional aspects are required to be made to include in dietary intervention...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Nasser M Al-Daghri, Majed S Alokail, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Ashley Heinson, Omar Al-Attas, Yousef Al-Saleh, Shaun Sabico, Sobhy Yakout, Christopher H Woelk, George P Chrousos, Spiros D Garbis
BACKGROUND: Overweight adults are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and vitamin D deficiency, whereas an important feature to vitamin D physiology is its sex dependence. The aim of this study was to examine whether vitamin D status improvement exerts a sexually dimorphic effect on serum proteins associated with cardiovascular risk among overweight adults. METHODS: Unprocessed serum from age- and BMI-matched men (n=26) and pre-menopausal women (n=24) with vitamin D deficiency and after they achieved sufficiency through a 12-month nutritional intervention was analyzed using our previously published depletion-free, quantitative proteomics method...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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