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nutrient-gene interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747918/root-knot-and-cyst-nematodes-activate-procambium-associated-genes-in-arabidopsis-roots
#1
Yasuka L Yamaguchi, Reira Suzuki, Javier Cabrera, Satoru Nakagami, Tomomi Sagara, Chika Ejima, Ryosuke Sano, Yuichi Aoki, Rocio Olmo, Tetsuya Kurata, Takeshi Obayashi, Taku Demura, Takashi Ishida, Carolina Escobar, Shinichiro Sawa
Developmental plasticity is one of the most striking features of plant morphogenesis, as plants are able to vary their shapes in response to environmental cues. Biotic or abiotic stimuli often promote organogenesis events in plants not observed under normal growth conditions. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are known to parasitize multiple species of rooting plants and to induce characteristic tissue expansion called galls or root-knots on the roots of their hosts by perturbing the plant cellular machinery. Galls contain giant cells (GCs) and neighboring cells, and the GCs are a source of nutrients for the parasitizing nematode...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747798/microbial-planktonic-communities-in-the-red-sea-high-levels-of-spatial-and-temporal-variability-shaped-by-nutrient-availability-and-turbulence
#2
John K Pearman, Joanne Ellis, Xabier Irigoien, Y V B Sarma, Burton H Jones, Susana Carvalho
The semi-enclosed nature of the Red Sea (20.2°N-38.5°N) makes it a natural laboratory to study the influence of environmental gradients on microbial communities. This study investigates the composition and structure of microbial prokaryotes and eukaryotes using molecular methods, targeting ribosomal RNA genes across different regions and seasons. The interaction between spatial and temporal scales results in different scenarios of turbulence and nutrient conditions allowing for testing of ecological theory that categorizes the response of the plankton community to these variations...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732571/examining-the-gut-bacteriome-virome-and-mycobiome-in-glucose-metabolism-disorders-are-we-on-the-right-track
#3
REVIEW
Charikleia Stefanaki, Melpomeni Peppa, George Mastorakos, George P Chrousos
Human gut microbiome is defined as the gene complement of the gut microbial community, measured via laboratory metagenomic techniques. It includes bacteriome, virome and mycobiome, which represent, respectively, the assemblages of bacteria, viruses and fungi, living in the human gut. Gut microbiota function as a living "organ" that interacts with the gastro-intestinal environment, provides nutrients and vitamins to the organism and transduces hormonal messages, essentially influencing the main metabolic pathways, including drug metabolism...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726765/oleic-acid-uptake-reveals-the-rescued-enterocyte-phenotype-of-colon-cancer-caco-2-by-ht29-mtx-cells-in-co-culture-mode
#4
Emmanuelle Berger, Merian Nassra, Claude Atgié, Pascale Plaisancié, Alain Géloën
Gastrointestinal epithelium is the unique route for nutrients and for many pharmaceuticals to enter the body. The present study aimed to analyze precisely whether co-culture of two colon cancer cell lines, mucus-producing cells HT29-MTX and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ameliorate differentiation into an in vitro intestinal barrier model and the signaling pathways involved. Differentiated Caco-2 cells gene datasets were compared first to intestinal or cancer phenotypes and second to signaling pathway gene datasets...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725232/transcriptome-wide-identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-solanum-lycopersicon-l-in-response-to-an-alfalfa-protein-hydrolysate-using-microarrays
#5
Andrea Ertani, Michela Schiavon, Serenella Nardi
An alfalfa-based protein hydrolysate (EM) has been tested in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants at two different concentrations (0.1 and 1 mL L(-1)) to get insight on its efficacy as biostimulant in this species and to unravel possible metabolic targets and molecular mechanisms that may shed light on its mode of action. EM was efficient in promoting the fresh biomass and content in chlorophyll and soluble sugars of tomato plants, especially when it was applied at the concentration of 1 mL L(-1). This effect on plant productivity was likely related to the EM-dependent up-regulation of genes identified via microarray and involved in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and developmental processes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717018/structure-and-properties-of-oil-bodies-in-diatoms
#6
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Maeda, Daisuke Nojima, Tomoko Yoshino, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
Diatoms accumulate triacylglycerols in spherical organelles called oil bodies when exposed to nutrient deprivation conditions. Oil body biology in diatoms has attracted significant attention due to the complexity of the intracellular organelles and the unique combination of genes generated by the evolutionary history of secondary endosymbiosis. The demand for biofuel production has further increased the interest in and importance of a better understanding of oil body biology in diatoms, because it could provide targets for genetic engineering to further enhance their promising lipid accumulation...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715420/blood-vessel-tortuosity-selects-against-evolution-of-aggressive-tumor-cells-in-confined-tissue-environments-a-modeling-approach
#7
András Szabó, Roeland M H Merks
Cancer is a disease of cellular regulation, often initiated by genetic mutation within cells, and leading to a heterogeneous cell population within tissues. In the competition for nutrients and growth space within the tumors the phenotype of each cell determines its success. Selection in this process is imposed by both the microenvironment (neighboring cells, extracellular matrix, and diffusing substances), and the whole of the organism through for example the blood supply. In this view, the development of tumor cells is in close interaction with their increasingly changing environment: the more cells can change, the more their environment will change...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714057/population-specific-responses-to-interspecific-competition-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-two-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-populations
#8
Xiaoping He, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel D Heath
The gut microbial community in vertebrates plays a role in nutrient digestion and absorption, development of intestine and immune systems, resistance to infection, regulation of bone mass and even host behavior and can thus impact host fitness. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reintroduction efforts into Lake Ontario, Canada, have been unsuccessful, likely due to competition with non-native salmonids. In this study, we explored interspecific competition effects on the gut microbiota of two Atlantic salmon populations (LaHave and Sebago) resulting from four non-native salmonids...
July 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710132/autophagy-deficiency-compromises-alternative-pathways-of-respiration-following-energy-deprivation
#9
Jessica As Barros, João Henrique F Cavalcanti, David B Medeiros, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner Araujo
Under heterotrophic conditions carbohydrate oxidation inside the mitochondria is the primary energy source for cellular metabolism. However, during energy-limited conditions, alternative substrates are required to support respiration. Amino acid oxidation in plant cells plays a key role in this by generating electrons that can be transferred to the mitochondrial electron transport chain via the electron transfer flavoprotein/ubiquinone oxidoreductase system. Autophagy, a catabolic mechanism for macromolecule and protein recycling, allows the maintenance of amino acid pools and nutrient remobilization...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702793/the-gut-eukaryotic-microbiota-influences-the-growth-performance-among-cohabitating-shrimp
#10
Wenfang Dai, Weina Yu, Jinjie Zhang, Jinyong Zhu, Zhen Tao, Jinbo Xiong
Increasing evidence has revealed a close interplay between the gut bacterial communities and host growth performance. However, until recently, studies generally ignored the contribution of eukaryotes, endobiotic organisms. To fill this gap, we used Illumina sequencing technology on eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene to compare the structures of gut eukaryotic communities among cohabitating retarded, overgrown, and normal shrimp obtained from identically managed ponds. Results showed that a significant difference between gut eukaryotic communities differed significantly between water and intestine and among three shrimp categories...
July 12, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695465/trichoderma-for-climate-resilient-agriculture
#11
REVIEW
Prem Lal Kashyap, Pallavi Rai, Alok Kumar Srivastava, Sudheer Kumar
Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of the twenty-first century for sustainable agricultural production. Several reports highlighted the need for better agricultural practices and use of eco-friendly methods for sustainable crop production under such situations. In this context, Trichoderma species could be a model fungus to sustain crop productivity. Currently, these are widely used as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation. They are reported to improve photosynthetic efficiency, enhance nutrient uptake and increase nitrogen use efficiency in crops...
August 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693496/interaction-of-%C3%AE-fe2o3-nanoparticles-with-citrus-maxima-leaves-and-the-corresponding-physiological-effects-via-foliar-application
#12
Jing Hu, Huiyuan Guo, Junli Li, Yunqiang Wang, Lian Xiao, Baoshan Xing
BACKGROUND: Nutrient-containing nanomaterials have been developed as fertilizers to foster plant growth and agricultural yield through root applications. However, if applied through leaves, how these nanomaterials, e.g. γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs), influence the plant growth and health are largely unknown. This study is aimed to assess the effects of foliar-applied γ-Fe2O3 NPs and their ionic counterparts on plant physiology of Citrus maxima and the associated mechanisms. RESULTS: No significant changes of chlorophyll content and root activity were observed upon the exposure of 20-100 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs and Fe(3+)...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691768/microbiome-inflammation-epigenetic-alterations-and-mental-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Reza Alam, Hamid M Abdolmaleky, Jin-Rong Zhou
Major mental diseases such as autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder are debilitating illnesses with complex etiologies. Recent findings show that the onset and development of these illnesses cannot be well described by the one-gene; one-disease approach. Instead, their clinical presentation is thought to result from the regulative interplay of a large number of genes. Even though the involvement of many genes are likely, up regulating and activation or down regulation and silencing of these genes by the environmental factors play a crucial role in contributing to their pathogenesis...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682226/la-g%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-tique-de-l%C3%A2-h%C3%A3-te-influe-sur-les-%C3%A3-cosyst%C3%A3-mes-microbiens-par-l%C3%A2-interm%C3%A3-diaire-du-syst%C3%A3-me-immunitaire-de-l%C3%A2-h%C3%A3-te
#14
Hela El Kafsy, Guy Gorochov, Martin Larsen
Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms occurred as a response to environmental challenges, in particular competition for nutrients, climatic change, physical and chemical stressors and pathogens. However organism fitness depends on both the efficiency of its defences and its capacities for benefiting from its symbiotic organisms. Indeed microbes not only engender pathogenies, but enable efficient uptake of host non-self biodegradable nutriments. Furthermore, microbes play an important role in the development of host immunity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679551/pretreatment-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-insulin-modify-dietary-weight-loss-success-results-from-3-randomized-clinical-trials
#15
Mads F Hjorth, Christian Ritz, Ellen E Blaak, Wim Hm Saris, Dominique Langin, Sanne Kellebjerg Poulsen, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Thorkild Ia Sørensen, Yishai Zohar, Arne Astrup
Background: Which diet is optimal for weight loss and maintenance remains controversial and implies that no diet fits all patients.Objective: We studied concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) as prognostic markers for successful weight loss and maintenance through diets with different glycemic loads or different fiber and whole-grain content, assessed in 3 randomized trials of overweight participants.Design: After an 8-wk weight loss, participants in the DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity, and Genes) trial consumed ad libitum for 26 wk a diet with either a high or a low glycemic load...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678615/the-future-of-nutrition-nutrigenomics-and-nutrigenetics-in-obesity-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
Alicia Cristina Peña-Romero, Diana Navas-Carrillo, Francisco Marín, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Over time, the relationship between diet and health has aroused great interest, since nutrition can prevent and treat several diseases. It has been demonstrated that general recommendations on macronutrients and micronutrients do not affect to every individual in the same way because diet is an important environmental factor that interacts with genes. Thus, there is a growing necessity of improving a personalized nutrition to treat obesity and associated medical conditions, taking into account the interactions between diet, genes and health...
July 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676460/nutrigenomics-in-cancer-revisiting-the-effects-of-natural-compounds
#17
REVIEW
Cornelia Braicu, Nikolay Mehterov, Boyan Vladimirov, Victoria Sarafian, Seyed Nabavi, Atanas G Atanasov, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
Nutrigenomics effects have an important role in the manipulation of dietary components for human benefit, particularly in cancer prevention or treatment. The impact of dietary components, including phytochemicals, is largely studied by nutrigenomics, looking at the gene expression and molecular mechanisms interacting with bioactive compounds and nutrients, based on new 'omics' technologies. The high number of preclinical studies proves the relevant role of nutrigenomics in cancer management. By deciphering the network of nutrient-gene connections associated with cancer, relevant data will be transposed as therapeutic interventions for this devastating pathology and for fulfilling the concept of personalized nutrition...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667402/phylogenetic-structural-and-functional-characterization-of-amt3-1-an-ammonium-transporter-induced-by-mycorrhization-among-model-grasses
#18
Sally Koegel, Delphine Mieulet, Sefer Baday, Odile Chatagnier, Moritz F Lehmann, Andres Wiemken, Thomas Boller, Daniel Wipf, Simon Bernèche, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
In the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, plants satisfy part of their nitrogen (N) requirement through the AM pathway. In sorghum, the ammonium transporters (AMT) AMT3;1, and to a lesser extent AMT4, are induced in cells containing developing arbuscules. Here, we have characterized orthologs of AMT3;1 and AMT4 in four other grasses in addition to sorghum. AMT3;1 and AMT4 orthologous genes are induced in AM roots, suggesting that in the common ancestor of these five plant species, both AMT3;1 and AMT4 were already present and upregulated upon AM colonization...
June 30, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667109/detection-of-diazotrophy-in-the-acetylene-fermenting-anaerobe-pelobacter-strain-sfb93
#19
Denise M Akob, Shaun M Baesman, John M Sutton, Janna L Fierst, Adam C Mumford, Yesha Shrestha, Amisha T Poret-Peterson, Stacy Bennett, Darren S Dunlap, Karl B Haase, Ronald S Oremland
Acetylene (C2H2) is a trace constituent of the present Earth's oxidizing atmosphere, reflecting a mix of terrestrial and marine emissions from anthropogenic, biomass burning, and unidentified biogenic sources. Fermentation of acetylene was serendipitously discovered during C2H2-block assays of N2O reductase, and Pelobacter acetylenicus was shown to grow on C2H2 via acetylene hydratase (AH). AH is a W-containing, catabolic, low redox potential enzyme that unlike nitrogenase (N2ase) is specific for acetylene...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655293/plant-manipulation-through-gall-formation-constrains-amino-acid-transporter-evolution-in-sap-feeding-insects
#20
Chaoyang Zhao, Paul D Nabity
BACKGROUND: The herbivore lifestyle leads to encounters with plant toxins and requires mechanisms to overcome suboptimal nutrient availability in plant tissues. Although the evolution of bacterial endosymbiosis alleviated many of these challenges, the ability to manipulate plant nutrient status has evolved in lineages with and without nutritional symbionts. Whether and how these alternative nutrient acquisition strategies interact or constrain insect evolution is unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of galling and free-living aphidomorphs to characterize how amino acid transporter evolution is influenced by the ability to manipulate plant resource availability...
June 27, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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