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nutrient-gene interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223530/differential-tor-activation-and-cell-proliferation-in-arabidopsis-root-and-shoot-apexes
#1
Xiaojuan Li, Wenguo Cai, Yanlin Liu, Hui Li, Liwen Fu, Zengyu Liu, Lin Xu, Hongtao Liu, Tongda Xu, Yan Xiong
The developmental plasticity of plants relies on the remarkable ability of the meristems to integrate nutrient and energy availability with environmental signals. Meristems in root and shoot apexes share highly similar molecular players but are spatially separated by soil. Whether and how these two meristematic tissues have differential activation requirements for local nutrient, hormone, and environmental cues (e.g., light) remain enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Here, we report that the activation of root and shoot apexes relies on distinct glucose and light signals...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221136/an-essential-dual-function-complex-mediates-erythrocyte-invasion-and-channel-mediated-nutrient-uptake-in-malaria-parasites
#2
Daisuke Ito, Marc A Schureck, Sanjay A Desai
Malaria parasites evade immune detection by growth and replication within erythrocytes. After erythrocyte invasion, the intracellular pathogen must increase host cell uptake of nutrients from plasma. Here, we report that the parasite-encoded RhopH complex contributes to both invasion and channel-mediated nutrient uptake. As rhoph2 and rhoph3 gene knockouts were not viable in the human P. falciparum pathogen, we used conditional knockdowns to determine that the encoded proteins are essential and to identify their stage-specific functions...
February 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220138/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-phomopsis-liquidambari-provides-insights-into-genes-associated-with-different-lifestyles-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#3
Jun Zhou, Xin Li, Yan Chen, Chuan-Chao Dai
The mechanisms that trigger the switch from endophytic fungi to saprophytic fungi are largely unexplored. Broad host range Phomopsis liquidambari is established in endophytic and saprophytic systems with rice (Oryza sativa L.). Endophytic P. liquidambari promotes rice growth, increasing rice yield and improving the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. This species's saprophytic counterpart can decompose rice litterfall, promoting litter organic matter cycling and the release of nutrients and improving the soil microbial environment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219464/effect-of-egg-storage-duration-and-brooding-temperatures-on-chick-growth-intestine-morphology-and-nutrient-transporters
#4
S Yalcin, I Gursel, G Bilgen, B H Horuluoglu, G Gucluer, G T Izzetoglu
The effects of egg storage duration (ESD) and brooding temperature (BT) on BW, intestine development and nutrient transporters of broiler chicks were investigated. A total of 396 chicks obtained from eggs stored at 18°C for 3 days (ESD3-18°C) or at 14°C for 14 days (ESD14-14°C) before incubation were exposed to three BTs. Temperatures were initially set at 32°C, 34°C and 30°C for control (BT-Cont), high (BT-High) and low (BT-Low) BTs, respectively. Brooding temperatures were decreased by 2°C each at days 2, 7, 14 and 21...
February 21, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215351/a-genomic-comparison-of-putative-pathogenicity-related-gene-families-in-five-members-of-the-ophiostomatales-with-different-lifestyles
#5
Ljerka Lah, Ulrike Löber, Tom Hsiang, Stefanie Hartmann
Ophiostomatoid fungi are vectored by their bark-beetle associates and colonize different host tree species. To survive and proliferate in the host, they have evolved mechanisms for detoxification and elimination of host defence compounds, efficient nutrient sequestration, and, in pathogenic species, virulence towards plants. Here, we assembled a draft genome of the spruce pathogen Ophiostoma bicolor. For our comparative and phylogenetic analyses, we mined the genomes of closely related species (Ophiostoma piceae, Ophiostoma ulmi, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, and Grosmannia clavigera)...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212609/exogenous-glutamate-rapidly-induces-the-expression-of-genes-involved-in-metabolism-and-defense-responses-in-rice-roots
#6
Chia-Cheng Kan, Tsui-Yun Chung, Hsin-Yu Wu, Yan-An Juo, Ming-Hsiun Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Glutamate is an active amino acid. In addition to protein synthesis and metabolism, increasing evidence indicates that glutamate may also function as a signaling molecule in plants. Still, little is known about the nutritional role of glutamate and genes that are directly regulated by glutamate in rice. RESULTS: Exogenous glutamate could serve as a nitrogen nutrient to support the growth of rice seedlings, but it was not as effective as ammonium nitrate or glutamine...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212431/mediterranean-dietary-pattern-and-vegf-405-g-c-gene-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-an-aspect-of-gene-nutrient-interaction
#7
Ghazaleh Hajiluian, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Leila Jahangiry
AIMS: To evaluate the relationship between Mediterranean dietary pattern, anthropometric and metabolic biomarkers and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405 G/C gene polymorphism in patient with metabolic syndrome (Mets). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 150 patients with Mets and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled. Dietary intakes were evaluated with a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and Mediterranean dietary quality index (Med-DQI) was assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209137/transcriptional-analysis-of-defense-mechanisms-in-upland-tetraploid-switchgrass-to-greenbugs
#8
Teresa Donze-Reiner, Nathan A Palmer, Erin D Scully, Travis J Prochaska, Kyle G Koch, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Jeffrey D Bradshaw, Paul Twigg, Keenan Amundsen, Scott E Sattler, Gautam Sarath
BACKGROUND: Aphid infestation of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has the potential to reduce yields and biomass quality. Although switchgrass-greenbug (Schizaphis graminum; GB) interactions have been studied at the whole plant level, little information is available on plant defense responses at the molecular level. RESULTS: The global transcriptomic response of switchgrass cv Summer to GB was monitored by RNA-Seq in infested and control (uninfested) plants harvested at 5, 10, and 15 days after infestation (DAI)...
February 16, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202720/interacting-tcp-and-nlp-transcription-factors-control-plant-responses-to-nitrate-availability
#9
Peizhu Guan, Juan-José Ripoll, Renhou Wang, Lam Vuong, Lindsay J Bailey-Steinitz, Dening Ye, Nigel M Crawford
Plants have evolved adaptive strategies that involve transcriptional networks to cope with and survive environmental challenges. Key transcriptional regulators that mediate responses to environmental fluctuations in nitrate have been identified; however, little is known about how these regulators interact to orchestrate nitrogen (N) responses and cell-cycle regulation. Here we report that teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor1-20 (TCP20) and NIN-like protein (NLP) transcription factors NLP6 and NLP7, which act as activators of nitrate assimilatory genes, bind to adjacent sites in the upstream promoter region of the nitrate reductase gene, NIA1, and physically interact under continuous nitrate and N-starvation conditions...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193158/transcriptional-and-physiological-analyses-of-fe-deficiency-response-in-maize-reveal-the-presence-of-strategy-i-components-and-fe-p-interactions
#10
Laura Zanin, Silvia Venuti, Anita Zamboni, Zeno Varanini, Nicola Tomasi, Roberto Pinton
BACKGROUND: Under limited iron (Fe) availability maize, a Strategy II plant, improves Fe acquisition through the release of phytosiderophores (PS) into the rhizosphere and the subsequent uptake of Fe-PS complexes into root cells. Occurrence of Strategy-I-like components and interactions with phosphorous (P) nutrition has been hypothesized based on molecular and physiological studies in grasses. RESULTS: In this report transcriptomic analysis (NimbleGen microarray) of Fe deficiency response revealed that maize roots modulated the expression levels of 724 genes (508 up- and 216 down-regulated, respectively)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188205/metagenomic-and-metatranscriptomic-analyses-reveal-structure-and-dynamics-of-a-dechlorinating-community-containing-dehalococcoides-mccartyi-and-corrinoid-providing-microorganisms-under-cobalamin-limited-condition
#11
Yujie Men, Ke Yu, Jacob Bælum, Ying Gao, Julien Tremblay, Emmanuel Prestat, Ben Stenuit, Susannah G Tringe, Janet Jansson, Tong Zhang, Lisa Alvarez-Cohen
The aim of this study is to obtain a systems level understanding of the interactions between Dehalococcoides and corrinoid-supplying microorganisms by analyzing community structures and functional compositions, activities and dynamics in trichloroethene (TCE) - dechlorinating enrichments. Metagenomes and metatranscriptomes of the dechlorinating enrichments with and without exogenous cobalamin were compared. Seven putative draft genomes were binned from the metagenomes. At an early stage (2 d), more transcripts of genes in the Veillonellaceae bin-genome were detected in the metatranscriptome of the enrichment with exogenous cobalamin compared to the one without cobalamin addition...
February 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181581/transcriptome-profiling-of-galaxea-fascicularis-and-its-endosymbiont-symbiodinium-reveals-chronic-eutrophication-tolerance-pathways-and-metabolic-mutualism-between-partners
#12
Zhenyue Lin, Mingliang Chen, Xu Dong, Xinqing Zheng, Haining Huang, Xun Xu, Jianming Chen
In the South China Sea, coastal eutrophication in the Beibu Gulf has seriously threatened reef habitats by subjecting corals to chronic physiological stress. To determine how coral holobionts may tolerate such conditions, we examined the transcriptomes of healthy colonies of the galaxy coral Galaxea fascicularis and its endosymbiont Symbiodinium from two reef sites experiencing pristine or eutrophied nutrient regimes. We identified 236 and 205 genes that were differentially expressed in eutrophied hosts and symbionts, respectively...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177216/bacterioferritin-structure-dynamics-and-protein-protein-interactions-at-play-in-iron-storage-and-mobilization
#13
Mario Rivera
Despite its essentiality to life, iron presents significant challenges to cells: the exceedingly low solubility of Fe(3+) limits its bioavailability, and the reactivity of Fe(2+) toward H2O2 is a source of the toxic hydroxyl radical (HO(•)). Consequently, cellular levels of free iron are highly regulated to ensure sufficiency while preventing iron-induced toxicity. Relatively little is known about the fate of iron in the bacterial cytosol or how cells balance the need for relatively high cytosolic iron concentrations with the potential toxicity of the nutrient...
February 8, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167220/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cytochrome-p450-derived-eicosanoids-in-cardiovascular-diseases-which-actions-and-interactions-modulate-hemodynamics
#14
REVIEW
Sara Bonafini, Cristiano Fava
Increasing interest is focused on omega-3 fatty acids (FA) because of their potential beneficial effects, particularly in cardiovascular disease prevention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two major omega-3 FA, are mainly consumed through diet, particularly from fish and seafood intake, whereas alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is present in high amounts in leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds. The hypothesis of a cardiovascular protective action of omega-3 FA derives mainly from observational studies, whereas the evidence from interventional studies is not always consistent...
February 3, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147220/intersections-of-pathways-involving-biotin-and-iron-relative-to-therapeutic-mechanisms-for-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Rebecca M Heidker, Mitchell R Emerson, Steven M LeVine
While there are a variety of therapies for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), there is a lack of treatments for progressive MS. An early study indicated that high dose biotin therapy has beneficial effects in approximately 12-15% of patients with progressive MS. The mechanisms behind the putative improvements seen with biotin therapy are not well understood, but have been postulated to include: 1) improving mitochondrial function which is impaired in MS, 2) increasing synthesis of lipids and cholesterol to facilitate remyelination, and 3) affecting gene expression...
December 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143904/ampk-promotes-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function-by-phosphorylating-the-epigenetic-factors-dnmt1-rbbp7-and-hat1
#16
Traci L Marin, Brendan Gongol, Fan Zhang, Marcy Martin, David A Johnson, Han Xiao, Yinsheng Wang, Shankar Subramaniam, Shu Chien, John Y-J Shyy
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis by directly phosphorylating metabolic enzymes and nutrient transporters and by indirectly promoting the transactivation of nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We explored the mechanism of AMPK-mediated induction of gene expression. We identified AMPK consensus phosphorylation sequences in three proteins involved in nucleosome remodeling: DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), retinoblastoma binding protein 7 (RBBP7), and histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1)...
January 31, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137775/a-living-vector-field-reveals-constraints-on-galactose-network-induction-in-yeast
#17
Sarah R Stockwell, Scott A Rifkin
When a cell encounters a new environment, its transcriptional response can be constrained by its history. For example, yeast cells in galactose induce GAL genes with a speed and unanimity that depends on previous nutrient conditions. Cellular memory of long-term glucose exposure delays GAL induction and makes it highly variable with in a cell population, while other nutrient histories lead to rapid, uniform responses. To investigate how cell-level gene expression dynamics produce population-level phenotypes, we built living vector fields from thousands of single-cell time courses of the proteins Gal3p and Gal1p as cells switched to galactose from various nutrient histories...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135300/comprehensive-identification-of-mrna-binding-proteins-of-leishmania-donovani-by-interactome-capture
#18
Devki Nandan, Sneha A Thomas, Anne Nguyen, Kyung-Mee Moon, Leonard J Foster, Neil E Reiner
Leishmania are unicellular eukaryotes responsible for leishmaniasis in humans. Like other trypanosomatids, leishmania regulate protein coding gene expression almost exclusively at the post-transcriptional level with the help of RNA binding proteins (RBPs). Due to the presence of polycystronic transcription units, leishmania do not regulate RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription initiation. Recent evidence suggests that the main control points in gene expression are mRNA degradation and translation. Protein-RNA interactions are involved in every aspect of RNA biology, such as mRNA splicing, polyadenylation, localization, degradation, and translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131363/echinococcus-host-interactions-at-cellular-and-molecular-levels
#19
K Brehm, U Koziol
The potentially lethal zoonotic diseases alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are caused by the metacestode larval stages of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. In both cases, metacestode growth and proliferation occurs within the inner organs of mammalian hosts, which is associated with complex molecular host-parasite interactions that regulate nutrient uptake by the parasite as well as metacestode persistence and development. Using in vitro cultivation systems for parasite larvae, and informed by recently released, comprehensive genome and transcriptome data for both parasites, these molecular host-parasite interactions have been subject to significant research during recent years...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130654/the-genetic-architecture-of-coronary-artery-disease-current-knowledge-and-future-opportunities
#20
REVIEW
Jaana Hartiala, William S Schwartzman, Julian Gabbay, Anatole Ghazalpour, Brian J Bennett, Hooman Allayee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of our current understanding of the genetic architecture of coronary artery disease (CAD) and discuss areas of research that provide excellent opportunities for further exploration. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale studies in human populations, coupled with rapid advances in genetic technologies over the last decade, have clearly established the association of common genetic variation with risk of CAD. However, the effect sizes of the susceptibility alleles are for the most part modest and collectively explain only a small fraction of the overall heritability...
February 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
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