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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777991/co-evolutionary-associations-between-root-associated-microbiomes-and-root-transcriptomes-in-wild-and-cultivated-rice-varieties
#1
Lei Tian, Shaohua Shi, Lina Ma, Fahad Nasir, Xiujun Li, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Chunjie Tian
The plants and root-associated microbiomes are closely related. Plant metabolic substances can serve as a nutrient source for the microbiome, and in return, the microbiome can regulate the production of plant metabolic substances. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), as the ancestor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), has changed several metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiome during evolution. Thus, the study of the different associations between metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiomes in wild and cultivated rice varieties is important for rice breeding...
April 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776927/ecological-engineering-helps-maximize-function-in-algal-oil-production
#2
Sara L Jackrel, Anita Narwani, Bastian Bentlage, Robert B Levine, David C Hietala, Phillip E Savage, Todd H Oakley, Vincent J Denef, Bradley J Cardinale
Algal biofuels have the potential to curb emissions of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels, but current growing methods fail to produce fuels that meet the multiple standards necessary for economical industrial use. For example, algae grown as monocultures for biofuel production have not simultaneously and economically achieved high yields of the high-quality, lipid-rich biomass desired for the industrial-scale production of bio-oil. Decades of study in the field of ecology have demonstrated that simultaneous increases in multiple functions, such as the quantity and quality of biomass, can occur in natural ecosystems by increasing biological diversity...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769529/methionine-metabolism-influences-genomic-architecture-and-gene-expression-through-h3k4me3-peak-width
#3
Ziwei Dai, Samantha J Mentch, Xia Gao, Sailendra N Nichenametla, Jason W Locasale
Nutrition and metabolism are known to influence chromatin biology and epigenetics through post-translational modifications, yet how this interaction influences genomic architecture and connects to gene expression is unknown. Here we consider, as a model, the metabolically-driven dynamics of H3K4me3, a histone methylation mark that is known to encode information about active transcription, cell identity, and tumor suppression. We analyze the genome-wide changes in H3K4me3 and gene expression in response to alterations in methionine availability in both normal mouse physiology and human cancer cells...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767727/effects-of-long-term-intake-of-a-yogurt-fermented-with-lactobacillus-delbrueckii-subsp-bulgaricus-2038-and-streptococcus-thermophilus-1131-on-mice
#4
Yuki Usui, Yasumasa Kimura, Takeshi Satoh, Naoki Takemura, Yasuo Ouchi, Hiroko Ohmiya, Kyosuke Kobayashi, Hiromi Suzuki, Satomi Koyama, Satoko Hagiwara, Hirotoshi Tanaka, Seiya Imoto, Gérard Eberl, Yukio Asami, Kosuke Fujimoto, Satoshi Uematsu
The gut is an extremely complicated ecosystem where microorganisms, nutrients and host cells interact vigorously. Although the function of the intestine and its barrier system weakens with age, some probiotics can potentially prevent age-related intestinal dysfunction. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131, which are the constituents of LB81 yogurt, are representative probiotics. However, it is unclear whether their long-term intake has a beneficial influence on systemic function...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764627/dietary-factors-influence-the-association-of-cyclin-d2-polymorphism-rs11063069-with-the-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Gelareh Koochakpoor, Parvin Mirmiran, Maryam S Daneshpour, Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani, Bahareh Sedaghati-Khayat, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Fereidoun Azizi
The relationship of CCND2 gene variation, rs11063069 with metabolic syndrome (MetS) modulates by dietary factors but enough data are not available on this issue. So, the hypothesis, which assumes that dietary factors modulate the relationship of CCND2 polymorphisms with the risk of MetS was investigated in our study. Subjects of this nested case-control study were selected from participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Each case (n=974) was pair-matched individually with a control by age, sex and the follow-up duration...
April 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764197/re-thinking-the-chicken-campylobacter-jejuni-interaction-a-review
#6
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Chickens are recognized as an imperative source of thermophilic Campylobacter spp., carrying this microorganism in high numbers in their intestinal tract. For long time, C. jejuni has been considered as a commensal microorganism which colonizes its primary host rather than infecting it, in the absence of any obvious clinical signs. However, recent studies question this and argue for a deeper understanding of the host-bacteria interaction. Following oral uptake it was demonstrated that C. jejuni interacts intimately with the gut epithelium and influences cellular functions of the host, with consequences on nutrient absorption...
May 15, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758013/selenium-dependent-antioxidant-enzymes-actions-and-properties-of-selenoproteins
#7
REVIEW
Evangelos Zoidis, Isidoros Seremelis, Nikolaos Kontopoulos, Georgios P Danezis
Unlike other essential trace elements that interact with proteins in the form of cofactors, selenium (Se) becomes co-translationally incorporated into the polypeptide chain as part of 21st naturally occurring amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), encoded by the UGA codon. Any protein that includes Sec in its polypeptide chain is defined as selenoprotein. Members of the selenoproteins family exert various functions and their synthesis depends on specific cofactors and on dietary Se. The Se intake in productive animals such as chickens affect nutrient utilization, production performances, antioxidative status and responses of the immune system...
May 14, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755429/cyanobacterial-community-composition-and-bacteria-bacteria-interactions-promote-the-stable-occurrence-of-particle-associated-bacteria
#8
Jason N Woodhouse, Jennifer Ziegler, Hans-Peter Grossart, Brett A Neilan
Within meso/eutrophic freshwater ecosystems the dominance of cyanobacterial blooms during summer months has substantial impacts on ecosystem function with the production of toxins and subsequent induction of hypoxia altering food web structures and biogeochemical cycles. Cyanobacterial aggregates are extensively colonized by heterotrophic bacteria that provide the cyanobacteria with key nutrients and contribute towards remineralisation of organic matter. Here we sampled from five sites within a shallow eutrophic pond over a 6 months period, relating changes in the abundance of particle-associated heterotrophic taxa to phytoplankton abundance, toxin gene copies and physiochemical properties...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746643/interactions-between-metabolically-active-bacteria-and-host-gene-expression-at-the-cecal-mucosa-in-pigs-of-diverging-feed-efficiency
#9
Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Peadar G Lawlor, Elizabeth Magowan, Qendrim Zebeli
Little is known about the role of the gut mucosal microbiota and microbe-host signaling in the variation of pig's feed efficiency (FE). This study therefore aimed to investigate the FE-related differences in the metabolically active mucosal bacterial microbiota and expression of genes for innate immune response, barrier function, nutrient uptake, and incretins in the cecum of finishing pigs. Pigs (n = 72) were ranked for their residual feed intake (RFI; metric for FE) between days 42 and 91 postweaning and were stratified within litter and sex into high (HRFI; n = 8) and low RFI (LRFI; n = 8)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729528/cross-kingdom-lipid-transfer-in-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-symbiosis-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Andreas Keymer, Caroline Gutjahr
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a widespread symbiosis between most land plants and fungi of the Glomeromycotina, which has existed for more than 400million years. AM fungi (AMF) improve plant nutrition with mineral nutrients and conversely, their growth and development is fueled by organic carbon supplied from their host. Recent studies demonstrated independently and with different experimental approaches that lipids are transferred from plants to fungi in addition to sugars, and that AMF are dependent on this lipid supply because they lack genes encoding fatty acid synthase I subunits...
May 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728387/an-escherichia-coli-nitrogen-starvation-response-is-important-for-mutualistic-coexistence-with-rhodopseudomonas-palustris
#11
Alexandra L McCully, Megan G Behringer, Jennifer R Gliessman, Evgeny V Pilipenko, Jeffrey L Mazny, Michael Lynch, D Allan Drummond, James B McKinlay
Microbial mutualistic cross-feeding interactions are ubiquitous and can drive important community functions. Engaging in cross-feeding undoubtedly affects the physiology and metabolism of individual species involved. However, the nature in which an individual's physiology is influenced by cross-feeding and the importance of those physiological changes for the mutualism have received little attention. We previously developed a genetically tractable coculture to study bacterial mutualisms. The coculture consists of fermentative Escherichia coli and phototrophic Rhodopseudomonas palustris In this coculture, E...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703735/the-catabolite-repressor-activator-cra-bridges-a-connection-between-carbon-metabolism-and-host-colonization-in-the-plant-drought-resistance-promoting-bacterium-pantoea-alhagi-ltyr-11z
#12
Lei Zhang, Muhang Li, Qiqi Li, Chaoqiong Chen, Meng Qu, Mengyun Li, Yao Wang, Xihui Shen
Efficient root colonization is a prerequisite for application of plant growth promoting (PGP) bacteria in improving health and yield of agricultural crops. We have recently identified an endophytic bacterium Pantoea alhagi LTYR-11Z with multiple PGP properties that effectively colonizes the root system of wheat and improves its growth and drought tolerance. To identify novel regulatory genes required for wheat colonization, we screened a LTYR-11Z transposon (Tn) insertion library and found cra to be a colonization-related gene...
April 27, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701874/how-do-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-handle-phosphate-new-insight-into-fine-tuning-of-phosphate-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Tatsuhiro Ezawa, Katsuharu Saito
Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Foraging for phosphate III. Fine-tuning of phosphate homeostasis IV. The frontiers: phosphate translocation and export V. Conclusions and outlook Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with most land plants and deliver mineral nutrients, in particular phosphate, to the host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of phosphate acquisition and delivery in the fungi is critical for full appreciation of the mutualism in this association...
April 27, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695434/regulation-of-apolipoprotein-e-trafficking-by-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-autophagy
#14
Ja Yeon Kim, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in the maturation and infectivity of hepatitis C virus (HCV). By analyzing the subcellular localization of ApoE in Huh7 hepatoma cells that harbored an HCV subgenomic RNA replicon, we found that ApoE colocalized with autophagosomes. This colocalization was marginally detected in HCV-infected cells apparently due to the depletion of ApoE by HCV, as the treatment with bafilomycin A1 (BafA1), a vacuolar ATPase inhibitor that inhibits autophagic protein degradation, partially restored the ApoE level and enhanced its colocalization with autophagosomes in HCV-infected cells...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678911/food-spoilage-associated-leuconostoc-lactococcus-and-lactobacillus-species-display-different-survival-strategies-in-response-to-competition
#15
Margarita Andreevskaya, Elina Jääskeläinen, Per Johansson, Anne Ylinen, Lars Paulin, Johanna Björkroth, Petri Auvinen
Psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the prevailing spoilage organisms in packaged cold-stored meat products. Species composition and metabolic activities of such LAB spoilage communities are determined by the nature of meat product, storage condition and interspecies interactions. Our knowledge of systems-level responses of LAB during such interactions is very limited. To expand it, we studied interactions between three common psychrotrophic spoilage LAB ( Leuconostoc gelidum , Lactococcus piscium and Lactobacillus oligofermentans ) by comparing their time-course transcriptome profiles obtained during their growth in individual, pairwise and triple cultures...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673546/interactions-among-the-variants-of-insulin-related-genes-and-nutrients-increase-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#16
Kyung-Won Hong, Sung Hoon Kim, Xin Zhang, Sunmin Park
Asians easily develops type 2 diabetes (T2DM) since they have insufficient glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in insulin resistant states. Since this may be associated with genetic background, the hypothesis of this study was that inter-genetic and gene-nutrient interactions may explain the low insulin secretory capacity of Asians. Accordingly, we identified the best gene-gene and gene-nutrient interactions using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) in a large Korean cohort (n=8,842)...
March 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659156/mosaic-patterns-of-b-vitamin-synthesis-and-utilization-in-a-natural-marine-microbial-community
#17
Laura Gómez-Consarnau, Rohan Sachdeva, Scott M Gifford, Lynda S Cutter, Jed A Fuhrman, Sergio A Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Mary Ann Moran
Aquatic environments contain large communities of microorganisms whose synergistic interactions mediate the cycling of major and trace nutrients, including vitamins. B-vitamins are essential coenzymes that many organisms cannot synthesize. Thus their exchange among de-novo synthesizers and auxotrophs is expected to play an important role in the microbial consortia and explain some of the temporal and spatial changes observed in diversity. In this study, we analyzed metatranscriptomes of a natural marine coastal microbial community, diel sampled quarterly over one year to try to identify the potential major B-vitamin synthesizers and consumers...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649756/transcriptional-effects-of-phospholipid-fatty-acid-profile-on-rainbow-trout-liver-cells-exposed-to-methylmercury
#18
Aline Ferain, Chloé Bonnineau, Ineke Neefs, Krishna Das, Yvan Larondelle, Jean-François Rees, Cathy Debier, Benjamin Lemaire
Lipids, and their constitutive fatty acids, are key nutrients for fish health as they provide energy, maintain cell structure, are precursors of signalling molecules and act as nuclear receptor ligands. These specific roles may be of crucial importance in a context of exposure to pollutants. We recently showed that the fatty acid profile of rainbow trout liver cell phospholipids modulates sensitivity to an acute methylmercury challenge. In order to investigate mechanisms of effects, we herein tested whether specific polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may protect cells from methylmercury through decreasing intracellular mercury accumulation and/or enhancing cellular defences (e...
March 22, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643845/spatiotemporal-distribution-and-assemblages-of-planktonic-fungi-in-the-coastal-waters-of-the-bohai-sea
#19
Yaqiong Wang, Biswarup Sen, Yaodong He, Ningdong Xie, Guangyi Wang
Fungi play a critical role in the nutrient cycling and ecological function in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Yet, many ecological aspects of their counterparts in coastal ecosystems remain largely elusive. Using high-throughput sequencing, quantitative PCR, and environmental data analyses, we studied the spatiotemporal changes in the abundance and diversity of planktonic fungi and their abiotic and biotic interactions in the coastal waters of three transects along the Bohai Sea. A total of 4362 ITS OTUs were identified and more than 60% of which were unclassified Fungi...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642965/host-symbiont-pathogen-interactions-in-blood-feeding-parasites-nutrition-immune-cross-talk-and-gene-exchange
#20
Filip Husnik
Animals are common hosts of mutualistic, commensal and pathogenic microorganisms. Blood-feeding parasites feed on a diet that is nutritionally unbalanced and thus often rely on symbionts to supplement essential nutrients. However, they are also of medical importance as they can be infected by pathogens such as bacteria, protists or viruses that take advantage of the blood-feeding nutritional strategy for own transmission. Since blood-feeding evolved multiple times independently in diverse animals, it showcases a gradient of host-microbe interactions...
April 12, 2018: Parasitology
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