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nutrient-gene interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631167/copper-and-ectopic-expression-of-the-arabidopsis-transport-protein-copt1-alter-iron-homeostasis-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#1
Amparo Andrés-Bordería, Fernando Andrés, Antoni Garcia-Molina, Ana Perea-García, Concha Domingo, Sergi Puig, Lola Peñarrubia
Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants...
June 19, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628360/genetic-risk-factors-for-folate-responsive-neural-tube-defects
#2
Anne M Molloy, Faith Pangilinan, Lawrence C Brody
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most severe congenital malformations of the central nervous system. The etiology is complex, with both genetic and environmental factors having important contributions. Researchers have known for the past two decades that maternal periconceptional use of the B vitamin folic acid can prevent many NTDs. Though this finding is arguably one of the most important recent discoveries in birth defect research, the mechanism by which folic acid exerts this benefit remains unknown. Research to date has focused on the hypothesis that an underlying genetic susceptibility interacts with folate-sensitive metabolic processes at the time of neural tube closure...
June 19, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622919/diet-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-bread-and-butter
#3
REVIEW
Mélanie K Rich, Eva Nouri, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty, Didier Reinhardt
Most plants entertain mutualistic interactions known as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) with soil fungi (Glomeromycota) which provide them with mineral nutrients in exchange for reduced carbon from the plant. Mycorrhizal roots represent strong carbon sinks in which hexoses are transferred from the plant host to the fungus. However, most of the carbon in AM fungi is stored in the form of lipids. The absence of the type I fatty acid synthase (FAS-I) complex from the AM fungal model species Rhizophagus irregularis suggests that lipids may also have a role in nutrition of the fungal partner...
June 13, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622070/loop-ileostomy-mediated-fecal-stream-diversion-is-associated-with-microbial-dysbiosis
#4
Emma L Beamish, Judith Johnson, Elisabeth J Shaw, Nigel A Scott, Arnab Bhowmick, Rachael J Rigby
Loop ileostomy is an effective procedure to protect downstream intestinal anastomoses. Ileostomy reversal surgery is often carried out within 12 months of formation but is associated with substantial morbidity due to severe post-operative complications. Distal ileum is deprived of enteral nutrition and rendered inactive, often becoming atrophied and fibrotic. This study aimed to investigate the microbial and morphological changes that occur in the defunctioned ileum following loop ileostomy-mediated faecal stream diversion...
June 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620589/transcriptomic-profiling-of-high-density-giardia-foci-encysting-in-the-murine-proximal-intestine
#5
Jonathan K Pham, Christopher Nosala, Erica Y Scott, Kristofer F Nguyen, Kari D Hagen, Hannah N Starcevich, Scott C Dawson
Giardia is a highly prevalent, understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Its life cycle consists of two stages: infectious cysts ingested from contaminated food or water sources, and motile trophozoites that colonize and attach to the gut epithelium, later encysting to form new cysts that are excreted into the environment. Current understanding of parasite physiology in the host is largely inferred from transcriptomic studies using Giardia grown axenically or in co-culture with mammalian cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611255/a-kinome-rnai-screen-in-drosophila-identifies-novel-genes-interacting-with-lgl-apkc-and-crb-cell-polarity-genes-in-epithelial-tissues
#6
Linda M Parsons, Nicola A Grzeschik, Kasun Amaratunga, Peter Burke, Leonie M Quinn, Helena E Richardson
In both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian systems, epithelial structure and underlying cell polarity are essential for proper tissue morphogenesis and organ growth. Cell polarity interfaces with multiple cellular processes that are regulated by the phosphorylation status of large protein networks. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that coordinate cell polarity with tissue growth, we screened a boutique collection of RNAi stocks targeting the kinome for their capacity to modify Drosophila 'cell polarity' eye and wing phenotypes...
June 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585451/a-three-way-transcriptomic-interaction-study-of-a-biocontrol-agent-clonostachys-rosea-a-fungal-pathogen-helminthosporium-solani-and-a-potato-host-solanum-tuberosum
#7
Erik Lysøe, Merete W Dees, May Bente Brurberg
Helminthosporium solani causes silver scurf, which affects the quality of potato. The biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea greatly limited the severity of silver scurf symptoms and amount of H. solani genomic DNA in laboratory experiments. Transcriptomic analysis during interaction showed that H. solani gene expression was highly reduced when coinoculated with the biocontrol agent C. rosea, whereas gene expression of C. rosea was clearly boosted as a response to the pathogen. The most notable upregulated C. rosea genes were those encoding proteins involved in cellular response to oxidative stress, proteases, G-protein signaling, and the methyltransferase LaeA...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580946/dopamine-d2-receptor-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-comprises-a-metabolic-cognitive-brain-interface-regulating-metabolic-components-of-glucose-reinforcement
#8
Michael Michaelides, Michael L Miller, Jennifer A DiNieri, Juan L Gomez, Elizabeth Schwartz, Gabor Egervari, Gene Jack Wang, Charles V Mobbs, Nora D Volkow, Yasmin L Hurd
Appetitive drive is influenced by coordinated interactions between brain circuits that regulate reinforcement and homeostatic signals that control metabolism. Glucose modulates striatal dopamine (DA), and regulates appetitive drive and reinforcement learning. Striatal DA D2 receptors (D2R) also regulate reinforcement learning, and are implicated in glucose-related metabolic disorders. Nevertheless, interactions between striatal D2R and peripheral glucose have not been previously described. Here we show that manipulations involving striatal D2R signaling coincide with perseverative and impulsive-like responding for sucrose, a disaccharide consisting of fructose and glucose...
June 5, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574454/gene-diet-interactions-in-type-2-diabetes-the-chicken-and-egg-debate
#9
REVIEW
Ángeles Ortega, Genoveva Berná, Anabel Rojas, Franz Martín, Bernat Soria
Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies indicates that Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disease resulting from the interaction of genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Nutrients and dietary patterns are important environmental factors to consider in the prevention, development and treatment of this disease. Nutritional genomics focuses on the interaction between bioactive food components and the genome and includes studies of nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and epigenetic modifications caused by nutrients...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573458/an-in-vivo-whole-plant-experimental-system-for-the-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-extraradical-mycorrhizal-mycelium
#10
Alessandra Pepe, Cristiana Sbrana, Nuria Ferrol, Manuela Giovannetti
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) establish beneficial mutualistic symbioses with land plants, receiving carbon in exchange for mineral nutrients absorbed by the extraradical mycelium (ERM). With the aim of obtaining in vivo produced ERM for gene expression analyses, a whole-plant bi-dimensional experimental system was devised and tested with three host plants and three fungal symbionts. In such a system, Funneliformis mosseae in symbiosis with Cichorium intybus var. foliosum, Lactuca sativa, and Medicago sativa produced ERM whose lengths ranged from 9...
June 1, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572728/analysis-of-the-cytotoxicity-of-hierarchical-nanoporous-graphenic-carbon-against-human-glioblastoma-grade-iv-cells
#11
Sławomir Jaworski, Paulina Biniecka, Żaneta Bugajska, Karolina Daniluk, Sławomir Dyjak, Barbara Strojny, Marta Kutwin, Mateusz Wierzbicki, Marta Grodzik, André Chwalibog
A newly produced hierarchical, nanoporous carbon (HNC) material is studied for the first time in a biological model. The material consists of uniform particles and is characterized by a mean diameter <150 nm, a high specific surface area of 1,000 m(2)/g, well-developed porosity, and high electrical conductivity. These unique properties and ability to transfer charge create a possibility of employing HNC as a moderator of tumor cell growth. As the charge of HNC may interfere with cell membranes by adhesion and by bonding with cell receptors, it may block the supply of nutrients...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554145/physiological-and-biochemical-perspectives-of-non-salt-tolerant-plants-during-bacterial-interaction-against-soil-salinity
#12
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Kwang Hyun Baek
Climatic changes on earth affect the soil quality of agricultural lands, especially by increasing salt deposition in soil, which results in soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major challenge to growth and reproduction among glycophytes (including all crop plants). Soil bacteria present in the rhizosphere and/or roots naturally protect plants from the adverse effects of soil salinity by reprogramming the stress-induced physiological changes in plants. Bacteria can enrich the soil with major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) in a form easily available to plants and prevent the transport of excess sodium to roots (exopolysaccharides secreted by bacteria bind with sodium ions) for maintaining ionic balance and water potential in cells...
May 22, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547568/biofertilizers-and-sustainable-agriculture-exploring-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#13
REVIEW
Nicholas O Igiehon, Olubukola O Babalola
Worldwide agricultural food production has to double in 2050 so as to feed the global increasing population while reducing dependency on conventional chemical fertilizers plus pesticides. To accomplish this objective, there is the need to explore the several mutualistic interactions between plant roots and rhizosphere microbiome. Biofertilization is the process of boosting the abundance of microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the natural plant rhizosphere which depicts a beneficial alternative to chemical fertilization practices...
May 25, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546829/vinasse-fertirrigation-alters-soil-resistome-dynamics-an-analysis-based-on-metagenomic-profiles
#14
Lucas P P Braga, Rafael F Alves, Marina T F Dellias, Acacio A Navarrete, Thiago O Basso, Siu M Tsai
Every year around 300 Gl of vinasse, a by-product of ethanol distillation in sugarcane mills, are flushed into more than 9 Mha of sugarcane cropland in Brazil. This practice links fermentation waste management to fertilization for plant biomass production, and it is known as fertirrigation. Here we evaluate public datasets of soil metagenomes mining for changes in antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of soils from sugarcane mesocosms repeatedly amended with vinasse. The metagenomes were annotated using the ResFam database...
2017: BioData Mining
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545065/influence-of-the-ferric-uptake-regulator-fur-protein-on-pathogenicity-in-pectobacterium-carotovorum-subsp-brasiliense
#15
Collins Kipngetich Tanui, Divine Yutefar Shyntum, Stefan Louis Priem, Jacques Theron, Lucy Novungayo Moleleki
Iron is an important nutrient for the survival and growth of many organisms. In order to survive, iron uptake from the environment must be strictly regulated and maintained to avoid iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates genes involved in iron homeostasis in many bacteria, including phytopathogens. However, to date, the role played by Fur in the biology of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb1692), an important pathogen of potatoes, has not yet been studied. To this end, we used the lambda recombineering method to generate a fur mutant strain of Pcb1692 and assessed the virulence and fitness of the mutant strain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544664/to-reproduce-or-work-insect-castes-emerge-from-socially-induced-changes-in-nutrition-related-genes
#16
Amy L Toth
In social species, there is a fundamental trade-off between 'me' and 'we'; that is, should I reproduce, or should I work to help others to reproduce? In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Okada et al. () delve into the evolution and genetic mechanisms of this core question, focusing on social caste formation in insects. The authors take advantage of a unique ant in the genus Diacamma, which has secondarily lost the classic, highly different queens and workers found in many other ants, bees and wasps. Instead, Diacamma ant castes are decided via aggressive dominance interactions among adult females, similar to dominance hierarchies seen in primitively social insects and many social vertebrates...
June 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529732/microarray-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-and-their-functions-in-omental-visceral-adipose-tissues-of-pregnant-women-with-vs-without-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Yuan Qian, Hao Sun, Hongli Xiao, Meirun Ma, Xue Xiao, Qinzai Qu
Increasing evidence has shown that insulin resistance in omental visceral adipose tissue (OVAT) is a characteristic of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their associated functions and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of GDM by comparing the expression profiles of OVATs obtained from pregnant Chinese women with and without GDM during caesarian section. A total of 935 DEGs were identified, including 450 downregulated and 485 upregulated genes...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529505/comparative-genomics-unravels-the-functional-roles-of-co-occurring-acidophilic-bacteria-in-bioleaching-heaps
#18
Xian Zhang, Xueduan Liu, Yili Liang, Yunhua Xiao, Liyuan Ma, Xue Guo, Bo Miao, Hongwei Liu, Deliang Peng, Wenkun Huang, Huaqun Yin
The spatial-temporal distribution of populations in various econiches is thought to be potentially related to individual differences in the utilization of nutrients or other resources, but their functional roles in the microbial communities remain elusive. We compared differentiation in gene repertoire and metabolic profiles, with a focus on the potential functional traits of three commonly recognized members (Acidithiobacillus caldus, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans) in bioleaching heaps...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528782/genomic-and-phenotypic-analyses-of-pseudomonas-psychrotolerans-prs08-11306-reveal-a-turnerbactin-biosynthesis-gene-cluster-that-contributes-to-nitrogen-fixation
#19
Ruifang Liu, Yu Zhang, Ping Chen, Haiyan Lin, Guoyou Ye, Zhongwei Wang, Changwei Ge, Bo Zhu, Deyong Ren
Plant-microbe interactions can provide agronomic benefits, such as enhancing nutrient uptake and providing fixed nitrogen. The Pseudomonas psychrotolerans strain PRS08-11306 was isolated from rice seeds and can enhance plant growth. Here, we analyzed the P. psychrotolerans genome, which is ∼5Mb, with 4389 coding sequences, 77 tRNAs, and 7 rRNAs. Genome analysis identified a cluster of turnerbactin biosynthetic genes, which are responsible for the production of a catecholate siderophore and contribute to nitrogen fixation for the host...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527800/from-pre-to-postweaning-transformation-of-the-young-calf-s-gastrointestinal-tract
#20
Sarah J Meale, Frederique Chaucheyras-Durand, Harma Berends, Le Luo Guan, Michael A Steele
The ruminant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) faces the challenge of protecting the host from luminal contents and pathogens, while supporting the absorption and metabolism of nutrients for growth and maintenance. The GIT of the calf in early life undergoes some of the most rapid microbial and structural changes documented in nature, and these adaptations in GIT function make the young calf susceptible to GIT diseases and disorders. Despite these challenges, the calf's GIT has a certain degree of plasticity and can sense nutrient supply and respond to bioactive ingredients...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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