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nutrient-gene interaction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149845/early-nutritional-programming-affects-liver-transcriptome-in-diploid-and-triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#1
L M Vera, C Metochis, J F Taylor, M Clarkson, K H Skjærven, H Migaud, D R Tocher
BACKGROUND: To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon...
November 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141977/vitamins-associated-with-brain-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-epidemiological-and-experimental-evidence-plausible-mechanisms-and-knowledge-gaps
#2
REVIEW
Michael Fenech
The key to preventing brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) via vitamin intake is first to understand molecular mechanisms, then to deduce relevant biomarkers, and subsequently to test the level of evidence for the impact of vitamins in the relevant pathways and their modulation of dementia risk. This narrative review infers information on mechanisms from gene and metabolic defects associated with MCI and AD, and assesses the role of vitamins using recent results from animal and human studies...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137150/in-vitro-fermentation-patterns-of-rice-bran-components-by-human-gut-microbiota
#3
Tung Pham, Keat Thomas Teoh, Brett J Savary, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Anna McClung, Sun-Ok Lee
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133370/a-mucin-like-protein-of-planthopper-is-required-for-feeding-and-induces-immunity-response-in-plants
#4
Xinxin Shangguan, Jing Zhang, Bingfang Liu, Yan Zhao, Huiying Wang, Zhizheng Wang, Jianping Guo, Weiwei Rao, Shengli Jing, Wei Guan, Yinhua Ma, Yan Wu, Liang Hu, Rongzhi Chen, Bo Du, Lili Zhu, Dazhao Yu, Guangcun He
The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is a pest that threatens rice production worldwide. While feeding on rice plants, planthoppers secrete saliva, which plays crucial roles in nutrient ingestion and modulating plant defense responses, although the specific functions of salivary proteins remain largely unknown. We identified a N. lugens-secreted mucin-like protein (NlMLP) by transcriptome and proteome analyses and characterized its function, both in brown planthopper and in plants. NlMLP is highly expressed in salivary glands and is secreted into rice during feeding...
November 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132026/integrated-omics-analysis-of-root-preferred-genes-across-diverse-rice-varieties-including-japonica-and-indica-cultivars
#5
Sunok Moon, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Yun-Shil Gho, Sun-A Park, Sung-Ryul Kim, Yo-Han Yoo, Ki-Hong Jung
Plant root systems play essential roles in developmental processes, such as the absorption of water and inorganic nutrients, and structural support. Gene expression is affected by growth conditions and the genetic background of plants. To identify highly conserved root-preferred genes in rice across diverse growth conditions and varieties, we used two independent meta-anatomical expression profiles based on a large collection of Affymetrix and Agilent 44K microarray data sets available for public use. We then identified 684 loci with root-preferred expression, which were validated with in silico analysis using both meta-expression profiles...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128106/who-are-the-long-term-survivors-of-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Claire Hoppenot, Mark A Eckert, Samantha M Tienda, Ernst Lengyel
Although the median survival for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is <5years, approximately 15% of patients will survive for >10years. A better understanding of these exceptional responders could reveal opportunities to improve the dismal prognosis of most EOC patients. In this review, we examine the clinical and genomic features that have been associated with long-term survival, which is generally defined as survival of >7-10years after initial diagnosis. Clinical features influencing long-term survival have been best reported in large retrospective population-based studies...
November 8, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125597/phage-mobility-is-a-core-determinant-of-phage-bacteria-coexistence-in-biofilms
#7
Matthew Simmons, Knut Drescher, Carey D Nadell, Vanni Bucci
Many bacteria are adapted for attaching to surfaces and for building complex communities, termed biofilms. The biofilm mode of life is predominant in bacterial ecology. So too is the exposure of bacteria to ubiquitous viral pathogens, termed bacteriophages. Although biofilm-phage encounters are likely to be common in nature, little is known about how phages might interact with biofilm-dwelling bacteria. It is also unclear how the ecological dynamics of phages and their hosts depend on the biological and physical properties of the biofilm environment...
November 10, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125191/dual-flow-rootchip-reveals-local-adaptations-of-roots-towards-environmental-asymmetry-at-the-physiological-and-genetic-levels
#8
Claire E Stanley, Jagriti Shrivastava, Rik Brugman, Elisa Heinzelmann, Dirk van Swaay, Guido Grossmann
Roots grow in highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments. Biological activity as well as uneven nutrient availability or localized stress factors result in diverse microenvironments. Plants adapt their root morphology in response to changing environmental conditions, yet it remains largely unknown to what extent developmental adaptations are based on systemic or cell-autonomous responses. We present the dual-flow-RootChip, a microfluidic platform for asymmetric perfusion of Arabidopsis roots to investigate root-environment interactions under simulated environmental heterogeneity...
November 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123941/bile-acids-as-global-regulators-of-hepatic-nutrient-metabolism
#9
Phillip B Hylemon, Kazuaki Takabe, Mikhail Dozmorov, Masayuki Nagahashi, Huiping Zhou
Bile acids (BA) are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver. They are essential for promotion of the absorption of lipids, cholesterol, and lipid-soluble vitamins from the intestines. BAs are hormones that regulate nutrient metabolism by activating nuclear receptors (farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor, vitamin D) and G protein-coupled receptors (e.g., TGR5, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2)) in the liver and intestines. In the liver, S1PR2 activation by conjugated BAs activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT signaling pathways, and nuclear sphingosine kinase 2...
June 2017: Liver Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122174/differential-gene-expression-profiling-analysis-in-pleurotus-ostreatus-during-interspecific-antagonistic-interactions-with-dichomitus-squalens-and-trametes-versicolor
#10
Zixuan Zhong, Liu Li, Peng Chang, Haiying Xie, Huiting Zhang, Yasuo Igarashi, Nannan Li, Feng Luo
This study provided analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Pleurotus ostreatus under the interaction with Dichomitus squalens and Trametes versicolor, which is valuable for exploration on the fungal defence system against stressful condition caused by interspecific antagonistic interaction. Our result showed significant upregulation of abundant defence-related genes encoding laccase, manganese peroxidase, aldo-keto reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, which all play important roles in oxidative stress-resistant response...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119269/molecular-regulation-of-aluminum-resistance-and-sulfur-nutrition-during-root-growth
#11
REVIEW
Edith Alarcón-Poblete, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Miren Alberdi, Zed Rengel, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz
Aluminum toxicity and sulfate deprivation both regulate microRNA395 expression, repressing its low-affinity sulfate transporter ( SULTR2;1 ) target. Sulfate deprivation also induces the high-affinity sulfate transporter gene ( SULTR12 ), allowing enhanced sulfate uptake. Few studies about the relationships between sulfate, a plant nutrient, and aluminum, a toxic ion, are available; hence, the molecular and physiological processes underpinning this interaction are poorly understood. The Al-sulfate interaction occurs in acidic soils, whereby relatively high concentrations of trivalent toxic aluminum (Al(3+)) may hamper root growth, limiting uptake of nutrients, including sulfur (S)...
November 8, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109733/plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-in-amelioration-of-salinity-stress-a-systems-biology-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Gayathri Ilangumaran, Donald L Smith
Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100056/regulation-of-the-hippo-yap-pathway-by-glucose-sensor-o-glcnacylation
#13
Changmin Peng, Yue Zhu, Wanjun Zhang, Qinchao Liao, Yali Chen, Xinyuan Zhao, Qiang Guo, Pan Shen, Bei Zhen, Xiaohong Qian, Dong Yang, Jin-San Zhang, Dongguang Xiao, Weijie Qin, Huadong Pei
The Hippo pathway is crucial in organ size control and tissue homeostasis, with deregulation leading to cancer. An extracellular nutrition signal, such as glucose, regulates the Hippo pathway activation. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. Here, we found that the Hippo pathway is directly regulated by the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) in response to metabolic nutrients. Mechanistically, the core component of Hippo pathway (YAP) is O-GlcNAcylated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) at serine 109. YAP O-GlcNAcylation disrupts its interaction with upstream kinase LATS1, prevents its phosphorylation, and activates its transcriptional activity...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093760/gene-nutrient-interactions-and-susceptibility-to-human-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Joseph J Castillo, Robert A Orlando, William S Garver
A large number of genome-wide association studies, transferability studies, and candidate gene studies performed in diverse populations around the world have identified gene variants that are associated with common human obesity. The mounting evidence suggests that these obesity gene variants interact with multiple environmental factors and increase susceptibility to this complex metabolic disease. The objective of this review article is to provide concise and updated information on energy balance, heritability of body weight, origins of gene variants, and gene-nutrient interactions in relation to human obesity...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089429/autophagy-related-protein-atg18-regulates-apicoplast-biogenesis-in-apicomplexan-parasites
#15
Priyanka Bansal, Anuj Tripathi, Vandana Thakur, Asif Mohmmed, Pushkar Sharma
Mechanisms by which 3'-phosphorylated phosphoinositides (3'-PIPs) regulate the development of apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii are poorly understood. The catabolic process of autophagy, which is dependent on autophagy-related proteins (ATGs), is one of the major targets of 3'-PIPs in yeast and mammals. In the present study, we identified autophagy-related protein ATG18 as an effector of 3'-PIPs in these parasites. Pfalciparum ATG18 (PfATG18) and Tgondii ATG18 (TgATG18) interact with 3'-PIPs but exhibited differences in their specificity of interaction with the ligand PIP...
October 31, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083435/dairy-intakes-in-older-irish-adults-and-effects-on-vitamin-micronutrient-status-data-from-the-tuda-study
#16
E Laird, M C Casey, M Ward, L Hoey, C F Hughes, K McCarroll, C Cunningham, J J Strain, H McNulty, A M Molloy
BACKGROUND: Consumption of dairy products has been associated with positive health outcomes including a lower risk of hypertension, improved bone health and a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. The suggested dairy intake for health in older adults is three servings per day but recent analysis of the NHANES data for older adults reported 98% were not meeting these recommendations. No studies have investigated the consequences of such declines in the dairy intakes of Irish older adults and the subsequent effects on vitamin micronutrient status...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081767/strong-regionality-and-dominance-of-anaerobic-bacterial-taxa-characterize-diazotrophic-bacterial-communities-of-the-arcto-alpine-plant-species-oxyria-digyna-and-saxifraga-oppositifolia
#17
Manoj Kumar, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Riitta Nissinen
Arctic and alpine biomes are most often strongly nitrogen-limited, and hence biological nitrogen fixation is a strong driver of these ecosystems. Both biomes are characterized by low temperatures and short growing seasons, but they differ in seasonality of solar radiation and in soil water balance due to underlying permafrost in the Arctic. Arcto-alpine plant species are well-adapted to the low temperatures that prevail in their habitats, and plant growth is mainly limited by the availability of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, due to slow mineralization...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080339/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-bile-acid-metabolism
#18
Oscar Ramírez-Pérez, Vania Cruz-Ramón, Paulina Chinchilla-López, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez
The gut microbiota has been considered a cornerstone of maintaining the health status of its human host because it not only facilitates harvesting of nutrients and energy from ingested food, but also produces numerous metabolites that can regulate host metabolism. One such class of metabolites, the bile acids, are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota into secondary bile acids. These bioconversions modulate the signaling properties of bile acids through the nuclear farnesoid X receptor and the G protein-coupled membrane receptor 5, which regulate diverse metabolic pathways in the host...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079615/%C3%AE-glucanase-activity-of-the-oral-bacterium-tannerella-forsythia-contributes-to-the-growth-of-a-partner-species-fusobacterium-nucleatum-in-co-biofilms
#19
Kiyonobu Honma, Angela Ruscitto, Ashu Sharma
Tannerella forsythia and Fusobacterium nucleatum are dental plaque bacteria implicated in the development of periodontitis. These two species have been shown to form synergistic biofilms and found to be closely associated in dental plaque biofilms. A number of genetic loci for TonB-dependent membrane receptors (TDR) for glycan acquisition, with many existing in association with genes coding for enzymes involved in the breakdown of complex glycans, have been identified in T. forsythia In this study, we focused on a locus, BFO_0186 -- BFO_0188, that codes for a predicted TDR-SusD transporter along with a putative β-glucan hydrolyzing enzyme (BFO_0186)...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075273/the-peach-rgf-glv-signaling-peptide-pctg134-is-involved-in-a-regulatory-circuit-that-sustains-auxin-and-ethylene-actions
#20
Nicola Busatto, Umberto Salvagnin, Francesca Resentini, Silvia Quaresimin, Lorella Navazio, Oriano Marin, Maria Pellegrini, Fabrizio Costa, Dale F Mierke, Livio Trainotti
In vascular plants the cell-to-cell interactions coordinating morphogenetic and physiological processes are mediated, among others, by the action of hormones, among which also short mobile peptides were recognized to have roles as signals. Such peptide hormones (PHs) are involved in defense responses, shoot and root growth, meristem homeostasis, organ abscission, nutrient signaling, hormone crosstalk and other developmental processes and act as both short and long distant ligands. In this work, the function of CTG134, a peach gene encoding a ROOT GROWTH FACTOR/GOLVEN-like PH expressed in mesocarp at the onset of ripening, was investigated for its role in mediating an auxin-ethylene crosstalk...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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