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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087344/up-regulation-of-the-active-form-of-small-gtpase-rab13-promotes-macroautophagy-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Lu Zhang, Fang Dai, LiuQing Cui, Bo Zhou, YuQi Guo
The importance of macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) in vascular endothelial cell (VEC) biology and dysfunction is increasingly recognized, but the molecular mechanisms of autophagy in VECs in the presence of serum are still poorly understood. Previously, we identified pterostilbene as a potent autophagy inducer of VECs in the presence of serum. In this study, we used pterostilbene as a tool to induce VEC autophagy and identified the differentially expressed genes using high-throughput DAN microarray...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086790/rna-sequencing-for-global-gene-expression-associated-with-muscle-growth-in-a-single-male-modern-broiler-line-compared-to-a-foundational-barred-plymouth-rock-chicken-line
#2
Byung-Whi Kong, Nicholas Hudson, Dongwon Seo, Seok Lee, Bhuwan Khatri, Kentu Lassiter, Devin Cook, Alissa Piekarski, Sami Dridi, Nicholas Anthony, Walter Bottje
BACKGROUND: Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. METHODS: To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086748/genetic-mechanisms-of-bone-digestion-and-nutrient-absorption-in-the-bone-eating-worm-osedax-japonicus-inferred-from-transcriptome-and-gene-expression-analyses
#3
Norio Miyamoto, Masa-Aki Yoshida, Hiroyuki Koga, Yoshihiro Fujiwara
BACKGROUND: Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) have adapted to whale fall environments by acquiring a novel characteristic called the root, which branches and penetrates into sunken bones. The worms lack a digestive tract and mouth opening, and it has been suggested that Osedax degrade vertebrate bones and uptake nutrients through acidification and secretion of enzymes from the root. Symbiotic bacteria in the root tissue may have a crucial role in the metabolism of Osedax...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068486/the-changing-epidemiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Kristen Lyall, Lisa Croen, Julie Daniels, M Daniele Fallin, Christine Ladd-Acosta, Brian K Lee, Bo Y Park, Nathaniel W Snyder, Diana Schendel, Heather E Volk, Gayle C Windham, Craig Newschaffer
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with lifelong impacts. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to ASD etiology, which remains incompletely understood. Research on ASD epidemiology has made significant advances in the past decade. Current prevalence is estimated to be at least 1.5% in developed countries, with recent increases primarily among those without comorbid intellectual disability. Genetic studies have identified a number of rare de novo mutations and gained footing in the areas of polygenic risk, epigenetics, and gene-by-environment interaction...
December 21, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046098/germination-physiological-responses-and-gene-expression-of-tall-fescue-festuca-arundinacea-schreb-growing-under-pb-and-cd
#5
Yanhong Lou, Peng Zhao, Deling Wang, Erick Amombo, Xin Sun, Hui Wang, Yuping Zhuge
Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are recognized as the most toxic metal ions due to their detrimental effects not only to plants, but also to humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Cd and Pb treatments on seed germination, plant growth, and physiological response in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). We employed six treatments: CK (nutrient solution as control), T1 (1000 mg L-1 Pb), T2 (50 mg L-1 Cd), T3 (150 mg L-1 Cd), T4 (1000 mg L-1 Pb+50 mg L-1 Cd), T5 (1000 mg L-1 Pb+150 mg L-1 Cd)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039132/plant-bacterial-pathogen-manipulates-the-energy-metabolism-of-its-insect-vector
#6
Nabil Killiny, Faraj Hijaz, Timothy A Ebert, Michael E Rogers
: Insect-transmitted plant-pathogenic bacteria may alter their vectors' fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism. Because these pathogens interact with their vectors on the cellular and organismal levels, potential changes at the biochemical level might occur. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is transmitted in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The genome of CLas revealed the presence of an ATP translocase that mediates the uptake of ATP and other nucleotides from the media to achieve its biological processes such as growth and multiplication...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039131/salmonella-persistence-in-tomatoes-requires-a-distinct-set-of-metabolic-functions-identified-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing
#7
Marcos H de Moraes, Prerak Desai, Steffen Porwollik, Rocio Canals Alvarez, Daniel R Perez, Weiping Chu, Michael McClelland, Max Teplitski
: Human enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella and verotoxigenic E. coli, are increasingly recognized as causes of gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Persistence in plants represents an important part of the life cycle of these pathogens. The identification of the full complement of Salmonella genes involved in the colonization of the model plant (tomato) was carried out using transposon insertion sequencing analysis. With this approach, 230,000 transposon insertions were screened in tomato pericarps to identify loci with reduction in fitness, followed by validation of the screen results using competition assays of the isogenic mutants against the wild type...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036107/linkage-drag-constrains-the-roots-of-modern-wheat
#8
Kai P Voss-Fels, Lunwen Qian, Sebastian Parra-Londono, Ralf Uptmoor, Matthias Frisch, Gabriel Keeble-Gagnère, Rudi Appels, Rod J Snowdon
Roots, the hidden half of crop plants, are essential for resource acquisition. However, knowledge about the genetic control of below-ground plant development in wheat, one of the most important small-grain crops in the world, is very limited. The molecular interactions connecting root and shoot development and growth, and thus modulating the plant's demand for water and nutrients along with its ability to access them, are largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that linkage drag in European bread wheat, driven by strong selection for a haplotype variant controlling heading date, has eliminated a specific combination of two flanking, highly conserved, haplotype variants whose interaction confers increased root biomass...
December 30, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018846/developing-integrated-crop-knowledge-networks-to-advance-candidate-gene-discovery
#9
Keywan Hassani-Pak, Martin Castellote, Maria Esch, Matthew Hindle, Artem Lysenko, Jan Taubert, Christopher Rawlings
The chances of raising crop productivity to enhance global food security would be greatly improved if we had a complete understanding of all the biological mechanisms that underpinned traits such as crop yield, disease resistance or nutrient and water use efficiency. With more crop genomes emerging all the time, we are nearer having the basic information, at the gene-level, to begin assembling crop gene catalogues and using data from other plant species to understand how the genes function and how their interactions govern crop development and physiology...
December 2016: Applied & Translational Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011634/structure-of-the-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-gtp-sensing-global-regulator-cody-from-bacillus-subtilis
#10
Vladimir M Levdikov, Elena V Blagova, Vicki L Young, Boris R Belitsky, Andrey Lebedev, Abraham L Sonenshein, Anthony J Wilkinson
CodY is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and GTP sensor, and a global regulator of transcription in low G + C Gram-positive bacteria. It controls the expression of over 100 genes and operons, principally by repressing during growth genes whose products are required for adaptations to nutrient limitation. CodY consists of a GAF domain that binds BCAAs and a winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain that binds to DNA, but the way in which these domains interact and the structural basis of the BCAA-dependence of this interaction are unknown...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005968/common-snp-rs6564851-in-the-bco1-gene-affects-the-circulating-levels-of-%C3%AE-carotene-and-the-daily-intake-of-carotenoids-in-healthy-japanese-women
#11
Suemi Yabuta, Masanori Urata, Roseline Yap Wai Kun, Motofumi Masaki, Yoshihiro Shidoji
The circulating levels of β-carotene are modulated not only by sex, but also by autosomal gene variations and fruit intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between β-carotene metabolism-related gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; genetic factors) and nutrient intake (environmental factors) relating to their effects on circulating β-carotene. The serum concentrations of β-carotene and the habitual food intake of 92 healthy Japanese adults were examined. All subjects were genotyped for three common SNPs: rs6564851 in the β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase 1 (BCO1) gene, rs2278986 in the scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1) gene and rs362090 in the intestine-specific homeobox (ISX) gene...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005214/aluminium-toxicity-to-plants-as-influenced-by-the-properties-of-the-root-growth-environment-affected-by-other-co-stressors-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Joanna Siecińska, Artur Nosalewicz
Aluminium toxicity to crops depends on the acidity of the soil and specific plant resistance. However, it is also strongly affected by other environmental factors that have to be considered to properly evaluate the resultant effects on plants. Observed weather perturbations and predicted climate changes will increase the probability of co-occurrence of aluminium toxicity and other abiotic stresses.In this review the mechanisms of plant-aluminium interactions are shown to be influenced by soil mineral nutrients, heavy metals, organic matter, oxidative stress and drought...
December 23, 2016: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999168/author-correction-for-c%C3%A3-t%C3%A3-et-al-the-genome-wide-interaction-network-of-nutrient-stress-genes-in-escherichia-coli
#13
Jean-Philippe Côté, Shawn French, Sebastian S Gehrke, Craig R MacNair, Chand S Mangat, Amrita Bharat, Eric D Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988942/young-healthy-south-asians-have-enhanced-lipogenic-sensitivity-to-dietary-sugar
#14
Lisa C Hudgins, Jonathan L Hugo, Samim Enayat, Thomas S Parker, Amanda S Artis, Daniel M Levine
OBJECTIVE: South Asians have higher rates of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease compared to most other racial/ethnic groups. Increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in response to dietary sugar may accelerate the development of these chronic diseases in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Hepatic DNL in response to a calorically sweetened beverage was measured in an outpatient setting in 15 South Asians and 15 Caucasians with similar and normal body mass indexes, waist circumferences, glucose tolerance and lipid profiles...
December 17, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978548/vitamin-d-receptor-genotype-vitamin-d3-supplementation-and-risk-of-colorectal-adenomas-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Elizabeth L Barry, Janet L Peacock, Judy R Rees, Roberd M Bostick, Douglas J Robertson, Robert S Bresalier, John A Baron
Importance: Despite epidemiological and preclinical evidence suggesting that vitamin D and calcium inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis, daily supplementation with these nutrients for 3 to 5 years was not found to significantly reduce the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas in a recent randomized clinical trial. Objective: To investigate whether common variants in 7 vitamin D and calcium pathway genes (VDR, GC, DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and CASR) modify the effects of vitamin D3 or calcium supplementation on colorectal adenoma recurrence...
December 15, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958277/a-genome-wide-screen-of-bacterial-mutants-that-enhance-dauer-formation-in-c-elegans
#16
Amit Khanna, Jitendra Kumar, Misha A Vargas, LaKisha Barrett, Subhash Katewa, Patrick Li, Tom McCloskey, Amit Sharma, Nicole Naudé, Christopher Nelson, Rachel Brem, David W Killilea, Sean D Mooney, Matthew Gill, Pankaj Kapahi
Molecular pathways involved in dauer formation, an alternate larval stage that allows Caenorhabditis elegans to survive adverse environmental conditions during development, also modulate longevity and metabolism. The decision to proceed with reproductive development or undergo diapause depends on food abundance, population density, and temperature. In recent years, the chemical identities of pheromone signals that modulate dauer entry have been characterized. However, signals derived from bacteria, the major source of nutrients for C...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939756/plant-nf-y-transcription-factors-key-players-in-plant-microbe-interactions-root-development-and-adaptation-to-stress
#17
REVIEW
María Eugenia Zanetti, Carolina Rípodas, Andreas Niebel
NF-Ys are heterotrimeric transcription factors composed by the NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits. In plants, NF-Y subunits are encoded by multigene families whose members show structural and functional diversifications. An increasing number of NF-Y genes has been shown to play key roles during different stages of root nodule and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, as well as during the interaction of plants with pathogenic microorganisms. Individual members of the NF-YA and NF-YB families have also been implicated in the development of primary and lateral roots...
December 8, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935835/robust-extracellular-ph-modulation-by-candida-albicans-during-growth-in-carboxylic-acids
#18
Heather A Danhof, Slavena Vylkova, Elisa M Vesely, Amy E Ford, Manuel Gonzalez-Garay, Michael C Lorenz
: The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans thrives within diverse niches in the mammalian host. Among the adaptations that underlie this fitness is an ability to utilize a wide array of nutrients, especially sources of carbon that are disfavored by many other fungi; this contributes to its ability to survive interactions with the phagocytes that serve as key barriers against disseminated infections. We have reported that C. albicans generates ammonia as a byproduct of amino acid catabolism to neutralize the acidic phagolysosome and promote hyphal morphogenesis in a manner dependent on the Stp2 transcription factor...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935592/molecular-insights-into-a-dinoflagellate-bloom
#19
Weida Gong, Jamie Browne, Nathan Hall, David Schruth, Hans Paerl, Adrian Marchetti
In coastal waters worldwide, an increase in frequency and intensity of algal blooms has been attributed to eutrophication, with further increases predicted because of climate change. Yet, the cellular-level changes that occur in blooming algae remain largely unknown. Comparative metatranscriptomics was used to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with a dinoflagellate bloom in a eutrophied estuary. Here we show that under bloom conditions, there is increased expression of metabolic pathways indicative of rapidly growing cells, including energy production, carbon metabolism, transporters and synthesis of cellular membrane components...
December 9, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920756/salmonella-typhimurium-and-multidirectional-communication-in-the-gut
#20
REVIEW
Elena V Gart, Jan S Suchodolski, Thomas H Welsh, Robert C Alaniz, Ronald D Randel, Sara D Lawhon
The mammalian digestive tract is home to trillions of microbes, including bacteria, archaea, protozoa, fungi, and viruses. In monogastric mammals the stomach and small intestine harbor diverse bacterial populations but are typically less populated than the colon. The gut bacterial community (microbiota hereafter) varies widely among different host species and individuals within a species. It is influenced by season of the year, age of the host, stress and disease. Ideally, the host and microbiota benefit each other...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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