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nutrient-gene interaction

Yilun Deng, Yuejuan Qin, Subramanya Srikantan, Anqi Luo, Zi-Ming Cheng, Shahida K Flores, Kris S Vogel, Exing Wang, Patricia L M Dahia
The TMEM127 tumor suppressor gene encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function mutated in pheochromocytomas and, rarely, in renal cancers. Tumors with inactivating TMEM127 mutations have increased mTORC1 signaling by undefined mechanisms. Here we report that TMEM127 interacts with the lysosome-anchored complex comprised of Rag GTPases, the LAMTOR pentamer (or 'ragulator') and vATPase, which controls amino acid-mediated mTORC1 activation. We found that in nutrient-rich conditions TMEM127 expression reduces mTORC1 recruitment to Rags...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Ron Stauder, Ralf Welsch, Maurizio Camagna, Wouter Kohlen, Gerd U Balcke, Alain Tissier, Michael H Walter
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Maria Laura De Marchis, Fiorella Guadagni, Erica Silvestris, Domenica Lovero, David Della-Morte, Patrizia Ferroni, Piero Barbanti, Raffaele Palmirotta
Migraine is a common multifactorial and polygenic neurological disabling disorder characterized by a genetic background and associated to environmental, hormonal and food stimulations. A large series of evidence suggest a strong correlation between nutrition and migraine and indicates several commonly foods, food additives and beverages that may be involved in the mechanisms triggering the headache attack in migraine-susceptible persons. There are foods and drinks, or ingredients of the same, that can trigger the migraine crisis as well as some foods play a protective function depending on the specific genetic sensitivity of the subject...
March 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Li Li, Osama Abdalla Abdelshafy Mohamad, Jinbiao Ma, Ariel D Friel, Yangui Su, Yun Wang, Zulpiya Musa, Yonghong Liu, Brian P Hedlund, Wenjun Li
Little is known about the composition, diversity, and geographical distribution of bacterial communities associated with medicinal plants in arid lands. To address this, a collection of 116 endophytic bacteria were isolated from wild populations of the herb Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch (licorice) in Xinyuan, Gongliu, and Tekesi of Xinjiang Province, China, and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The endophytes were highly diverse, including 20 genera and 35 species. The number of distinct bacterial genera obtained from root tissues was higher (n = 14) compared to stem (n = 9) and leaf (n = 6) tissue...
March 7, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Féaron C Cassidy, Marika Charalambous
In the 1980s, mouse nuclear transplantation experiments revealed that both male and female parental genomes are required for successful development to term ( McGrath and Solter, 1983; Surani and Barton, 1983). This non-equivalence of parental genomes is because imprinted genes are predominantly expressed from only one parental chromosome. Uniparental inheritance of these genomic regions causes paediatric growth disorders such as Beckwith-Wiedemann and Silver-Russell syndromes (reviewed in Peters, 2014). More than 100 imprinted genes have now been discovered and the functions of many of these genes have been assessed in murine models...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Gianpiero Vigani, Youry Pii, Silvia Celletti, Mauro Maver, Tanja Mimmo, Stefano Cesco, Stefania Astolfi
Within the last years, extensive information has been accumulated on the reciprocal influence between S and Fe nutrition at both physiological and molecular level in several plant species, but the mechanisms regulating S and Fe sensing and signaling are not fully understood. Fe and S interact for the building of Fe-S clusters, and mitochondria is one of the cellular compartments where Fe-S cluster assembly takes place. Therefore, it would be expected that mitochondria might play a central role in the regulation of Fe and S interaction...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Cynthia L Hsu, Elian X Lee, Kara L Gordon, Edwin A Paz, Wen-Chuan Shen, Kohta Ohnishi, Jill Meisenhelder, Tony Hunter, Albert R La Spada
Autophagy is the major cellular pathway by which macromolecules are degraded, and amino acid depletion powerfully activates autophagy. MAP4K3, or germinal-center kinase-like kinase, is required for robust cell growth in response to amino acids, but the basis for MAP4K3 regulation of cellular metabolic disposition remains unknown. Here we identify MAP4K3 as an amino acid-dependent regulator of autophagy through its phosphorylation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a transcriptional activator of autophagy, and through amino acid starvation-dependent lysosomal localization of MAP4K3...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Claudia Tominski, Tina Lösekann-Behrens, Alexander Ruecker, Nikolas Hagemann, Sara Kleindienst, Carsten W Mueller, Carmen Höschen, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Andreas Kappler, Sebastian Behrens
The enrichment culture KS is one of the few existing autotrophic, nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing cultures that can be continuously transferred without an organic carbon source. We used a combination of Catalyzed Amplification Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) and Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to analyze community dynamics, single-cell activities and interactions among the two most abundant microbial community members ( i.e , Gallionellaceae sp. and Bradyrhizobium spp...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xiao Huang, Pascale Anderle, Lu Hostettler, Marc U Baumann, Daniel V Surbek, Edgar C Ontsouka, Christiane Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Gestational disorders such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and pre-eclampsia (PE) are main causes of poor perinatal outcomes worldwide. Both diseases are related with impaired materno-fetal nutrient transfer, but the crucial transport mechanisms underlying IUGR and PE are not fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to identify membrane transporters highly associated with transplacental nutrient deficiencies in IUGR/PE. RESULTS: In silico analyses on the identification of differentially expressed nutrient transporters were conducted using seven eligible microarray datasets (from Gene Expression Omnibus), encompassing control and IUGR/PE placental samples...
March 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Fabrizio Pantanella, Valerio Iebba, Francesco Mura, Luciana Dini, Valentina Totino, Bruna Neroni, Giulia Bonfiglio, Trancassini Maria, Claudio Passariello, Serena Schippa
The present study aimed to characterize the behavior of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. B. bacteriovorus was co-cultured with S. aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus mutans, in planktonic and sessile conditions. Co-cultures were studied by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), turbidimetry, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and sequencing of gene Bd0108 of B. bacteriovorus. Results indicated that B. bacteriovorus comparably inhibited planktonic growth of P...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
J A Gill, Michele A La Merrill
Metabolic disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, and obesity, a central risk factor, is reaching epidemic proportions. Energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis are implicated in metabolic disease, and it is becoming evident that impaired BAT activity is regulated by gene/environment interactions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (Pgc-1α) is a critical regulator of BAT thermogenesis, which is highly inducible by environmental stimuli such as cold and diet...
May 2017: Environmental Epigenetics
Brandon Sy, Julia Wong, Sander Granneman, David Tollervey, David Gally, Jai J Tree
Small regulatory nonprotein-coding RNAs (sRNAs) have emerged as ubiquitous and abundant regulators of gene expression in a diverse cross section of bacteria. They play key roles in most aspects of bacterial physiology, including central metabolism, nutrient acquisition, virulence, biofilm formation, and outer membrane composition. RNA sequencing technologies have accelerated the identification of bacterial regulatory RNAs and are now being employed to understand their functions. Many regulatory RNAs require protein partners for activity, or modulate the activity of interacting proteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matthew Granger, Peter Eck
Vitamin C is essential to prevent scurvy in humans and is implicated in the primary prevention of common and complex diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This chapter reviews the latest knowledge about dietary vitamin C in human health with an emphasis on studies of the molecular mechanisms of vitamin C maintenance as well as gene-nutrient interactions modifying these relationships. Epidemiological evidence indicates 5% prevalence for vitamin C deficiency and 13% prevalence for suboptimal status even in industrialized countries...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Xuling Chang, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Ye Sun, Yi Han, Ling Wang, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Xueling Sim, E-Shyong Tai, Jianjun Liu, Jian-Min Yuan, Woon-Puay Koh, Rob M van Dam, Yechiel Friedlander, Chew-Kiat Heng
BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 97 body-mass index (BMI) associated loci. We aimed to evaluate if dietary intake modifies BMI associations at these loci in the Singapore Chinese population. METHODS: We utilized GWAS information from six data subsets from two adult Chinese population (N = 7817). Seventy-eight genotyped or imputed index BMI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that passed quality control procedures were available in all datasets...
February 24, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Jessica Sacks, Anny Mulya, Ciaran E Fealy, Hazel Huang, John D Mosinski, Mangesh R Pagadala, Hideharu Shimizu, Esam Batayyah, Philip R Schauer, Stacy A Brethauer, John P Kirwan
Bariatric surgery provides significant and durable improvements in glycemic control and hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanisms that drive improvements in these metabolic parameters remain to be fully elucidated. Recently, alterations in mitochondrial morphology have shown a direct link to nutrient adaptations in obesity. Here, we evaluate the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on markers of liver mitochondrial dynamics in a diet-induced obesity Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Livers were harvested from adult male SD rats 90-days after either Sham or RYGB surgery and continuous high-fat feeding...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
Jae-Il Roh, Yujin Kim, Jahyun Oh, Yunmi Kim, Jeehyun Lee, Jaehoon Lee, Kyung-Hee Chun, Han-Woong Lee
Autophagy is systematically regulated by upstream factors and nutrients. Recent studies reported that telomerase and hexokinase 2 [HK2) regulate autophagy through mTOR and that telomerase has the capacity to bind to the HK2 promoter. However, the molecular linkage among telomerase, HK2, and autophagy is not fully understood. Here, we show that HK2 connects telomerase to autophagy. HK2 inhibition in HepG2 cells suppressed TERT-induced autophagy activation and further enhancement by glucose deprivation. The HK2 downstream factor mTOR was responsible for the TERT-induced autophagy activation under glucose deprivation, implying that TERT promotes autophagy through an HK2-mTOR pathway...
2018: PloS One
Brenda Gamboa-Loira, César Hernández-Alcaraz, A Jay Gandolfi, Mariano E Cebrián, Ana Burguete-García, Angélica García-Martínez, Lizbeth López-Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Nutrients and genetic polymorphisms participating in one-carbon metabolism may explain interindividual differences in inorganic arsenic (iAs) methylation capacity, which in turn may account for variations in susceptibility to iAs-induced diseases. OBJECTIVES: 1) To evaluate the association between polymorphisms in five one-carbon metabolism genes (FOLH1 c.223 T > C, MTHFD1 c.1958 G > A, MTHFR c.665 C > T, MTR c.2756 A > G, and MTRR c...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Research
Naved Akbar, Supriya Gupta, Apoorv Tiwari, K P Singh, Anil Kumar
In the present study, we identified seven major genes of oxalic acid biosynthesis pathway (SGAT, GGAT, ICL, GLO, MHAR, APO and OXO) from developing spike transcriptome of finger millet using rice as a reference. Sequence alignment of identified genes showed high similarity with their respective homolog in rice except for OXO and GLO. Transcript abundance (FPKM) reflects the higher accumulation of identified genes in GP-1 (low calcium genotype) as compared to GP-45 (high calcium genotype) which was further confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, indicating differential oxalate formation in both genotypes...
April 5, 2018: Gene
Wei Xie, Zhipeng Hao, Xiaofu Zhou, Xuelian Jiang, Lijiao Xu, Songlin Wu, Aihua Zhao, Xin Zhang, Baodong Chen
Liquorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is an important medicinal plant for which there is a huge market demand. It has been reported that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and drought stress can stimulate the accumulation of the active ingredients, glycyrrhizin and liquiritin, in liquorice plants, but the potential interactions of AM symbiosis and drought stress remain largely unknown. In the present work, we investigated mycorrhizal effects on plant growth and accumulation of glycyrrhizin and liquiritin in liquorice plants under different water regimes...
February 17, 2018: Mycorrhiza
Lacey L Westphal, Jasmine Lau, Zuly Negro, Ivan J Moreno, Wazim Ismail Mohammed, Heewook Lee, Haixu Tang, Steven E Finkel, Karin E Kram
Experimental evolution studies have characterized the genetic strategies microbes utilize to adapt to their environments, mainly focusing on how microbes adapt to constant and/or defined environments. Using a system that incubates Escherichia coli in different complex media in long-term batch culture, we have focused on how heterogeneity and environment affects adaptive landscapes. In this system, there is no passaging of cells, and therefore genetic diversity is lost only through negative selection, without the experimentally-imposed bottlenecking common in other platforms...
February 14, 2018: Research in Microbiology
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