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Live cell imaging

Hong Chen, Tao Sun, Xiao-Guang Qiao, Qian-Oian Tang, Shan-Chao Zhao, Zhan Zhou
Due to the importance of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in biological and industrial, development of fluorescent probes for HClO has been an active research area. Here, a new red-emitting ratiometric fluorescent probe (P) was synthesized and well defined characterization via NMR, HR-MS, and fluorescence spectrum, which serves as a selective and sensitive probe for ClO- group. The probe showed a ratiometric fluorescent response to hypochlorite at the emission intensities ratio (I480 /I612 ) increasing from 0.28 to 27...
June 12, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Michael H Hastings, Elizabeth S Maywood, Marco Brancaccio
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is remarkable. Despite numbering only about 10,000 neurons on each side of the third ventricle, the SCN is our principal circadian clock, directing the daily cycles of behaviour and physiology that set the tempo of our lives. When this nucleus is isolated in organotypic culture, its autonomous timing mechanism can persist indefinitely, with precision and robustness. The discovery of the cell-autonomous transcriptional and post-translational feedback loops that drive circadian activity in the SCN provided a powerful exemplar of the genetic specification of complex mammalian behaviours...
June 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Markus Rempfler, Valentin Stierle, Konstantin Ditzel, Sanjeev Kumar, Philipp Paulitschke, Bjoern Andres, Bjoern H Menze
In vitro experiments with cultured cells are essential for studying their growth and migration pattern and thus, for gaining a better understanding of cancer progression and its treatment. Recent progress in lens-free microscopy (LFM) has rendered it an inexpensive tool for label-free, continuous live cell imaging, yet there is only little work on analysing such time-lapse image sequences. We propose (1) a cell detector for LFM images based on fully convolutional networks and residual learning, and (2) a probabilistic model based on moral lineage tracing that explicitly handles multiple detections and temporal successor hypotheses by clustering and tracking simultaneously...
June 5, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Ying Tu, Norlaily Ahmad, Joe Briscoe, De-Wen Zhang, Steffi Krause
Light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) are of great interest in bioimaging applications such as the monitoring of concentrations in microfluidic channels or the investigation of metabolic and signaling events in living cells. By measuring the photocurrents at electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) and electrolyte-semiconductor structures, LAPS can produce spatiotemporal images of chemical or biological analytes, electrical potentials and impedance. However, its commercial applications are often restricted by their limited AC photocurrents and resolution of LAPS images...
June 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Liang Shu, Ben Chen, Bin Chen, Hai Xu, Guoxiang Wang, Yian Huang, Yingya Zhao, Hui Gong, Min Jiang, Lidian Chen, Xu Liu, Yun Wang
Ischemic stroke not only induces neuron death in the infarct area but also structural and functional damage of the surviving neurons in the surrounding peri-infarct area. In the present study, we first identified cofilin rod, a pathological rod-like aggregation, formed in neurons of in vivo ischemic stroke animal model and induced neuronal impairment. Cofilin rods formed only on the ipsilateral side of the middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO-R) rat brain and showed the highest density in peri-infarct area...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Dan Yang, Sen Ye, Jun Jacob Hu
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been recognized as one of the most significant ROS (reactive oxygen species) in human health and disease. Due to the intrinsic attributes of H2O2 such as low reactivity under physiological pH, it is exceedingly challenging to develop small molecule fluorescent probes with high selectivity and sensitivity to visualize H2O2 in intricate biological milieux. To address this gap, we report a rationally designed tandem Payne/Dakin reaction that is specific to molecular recognition of H2O2, and demonstrate its application in developing novel biocompatible fluorescent probes...
June 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Donatella Treppiedi, Marie-Lise Jobin, Erika Peverelli, Elena Giardino, Titiwat Sungkaworn, Ulrike Zabel, Maura Arosio, Anna Spada, Giovanna Mantovani, Davide Calebiro
The cytoskeletal protein filamin A (FLNA) has been suggested to play an important role in the responsiveness of GH-secreting pituitary tumors to somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) agonists, by regulating SSTR2 expression and signaling. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we use fast multi-color single-molecule microscopy to image individual SSTR2 and FLNA molecules at the surface of living cells with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. We find that SSTR2 and FLNA undergo transient interactions, which occur preferentially along actin fibers and contribute to restraining SSTR2 diffusion...
June 19, 2018: Endocrinology
Murat Sunbul, Andres Jäschke
The SRB-2 aptamer originally selected against sulforhodamine B is shown here to promiscuously bind to various dyes with different colors. Binding of SRB-2 to these dyes results in either fluorescence increase or decrease, making them attractive for fluorescence microscopy and biological assays. By systematically varying fluorophore structural elements and measuring dissociation constants, the principles of fluorophore recognition by SRB-2 were analyzed. The obtained structure-activity relationships allowed us to rationally design a novel, bright, orange fluorescent turn-on probe (TMR-DN) with low background fluorescence, enabling no-wash live-cell RNA imaging...
June 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Won-Ki Cho, Jan-Hendrik Spille, Micca Hecht, Choongman Lee, Charles Li, Valentin Grube, Ibrahim I Cisse
Models of gene control have emerged from genetic and biochemical studies, with limited consideration of the spatial organization and dynamics of key components in living cells. Here we used live cell super-resolution and light sheet imaging to study the organization and dynamics of the Mediator coactivator and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) directly. Mediator and Pol II each form small transient and large stable clusters in living embryonic stem cells. Mediator and Pol II are colocalized in the stable clusters, which associate with chromatin, have properties of phase-separated condensates, and are sensitive to transcriptional inhibitors...
June 21, 2018: Science
Shasha Chong, Claire Dugast-Darzacq, Zhe Liu, Peng Dong, Gina M Dailey, Claudia Cattoglio, Alec Heckert, Sambashiva Banala, Luke Lavis, Xavier Darzacq, Robert Tjian
Many eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) contain intrinsically disordered low-complexity domains (LCDs), but how they drive transactivation remains unclear. Here, live-cell single-molecule imaging reveals that TF-LCDs form local high-concentration interaction hubs at synthetic and endogenous genomic loci. TF-LCD hubs stabilize DNA binding, recruit RNA polymerase II (Pol II), and activate transcription. LCD-LCD interactions within hubs are highly dynamic, display selectivity with binding partners, and are differentially sensitive to disruption by hexanediols...
June 21, 2018: Science
Holly R Brooker, Irene A Gyamfi, Agnieszka Wieckowska, Nicholas J Brooks, Daniel P Mulvihill, Michael A Geeves
Life is dependent upon the ability of a cell to rapidly respond to changes in environment. Small perturbations in local environments change the ability of molecules to interact and hence communicate. Hydrostatic pressure provides a rapid non-invasive, fully-reversible method for modulating affinities between molecules both in vivo and in vitro We have developed a simple fluorescence imaging chamber that allows intracellular protein dynamics and molecular events to be followed at pressures up to 200 bar in living cells...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Yandong Zhan, Youkui Huang, Jingying Chen, Zigang Cao, Jianbo He, Jingjing Zhang, Honghui Huang, Hua Ruan, Lingfei Luo, Li Li
Zebrafish hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) originate from the hemogenic endothelium of the ventral wall of the dorsal aorta (DA) through the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT) from approximately 30 to 60 hours post fertilization (hpf). However, whether other artery sites can generate HSPCs de novo remains unclear. In this study, using live imaging and lineage tracing, we found that the caudal dorsal artery (CDA) in the caudal hematopoietic tissue directly gave rise to HSPCs through EHT...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Dang Vinh Do, Bernhard Strauss, Engin Cukuroglu, Iain Macaulay, Keng Boon Wee, Tim Xiaoming Hu, Ruiz De Los Mozos Igor, Caroline Lee, Andrew Harrison, Richard Butler, Sabine Dietmann, Ule Jernej, John Marioni, Christopher W J Smith, Jonathan Göke, M Azim Surani
The RNA-binding protein SRSF3 (also known as SRp20) has critical roles in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. Zygotic knockout of Srsf3 results in embryo arrest at the blastocyst stage. However, SRSF3 is also present in oocytes, suggesting that it might be critical as a maternally inherited factor. Here we identify SRSF3 as an essential regulator of alternative splicing and of transposable elements to maintain transcriptome integrity in mouse oocyte. Using 3D time-lapse confocal live imaging, we show that conditional deletion of Srsf3 in fully grown germinal vesicle oocytes substantially compromises the capacity of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and consequently entry into meiosis...
2018: Cell Discovery
Jian Zhang, Joseph R Lakowicz
Background: Near-field fluorescence (NFF) effects were employed to develop a novel near-infrared (NIR) luminescent nanoparticle (LNP) with superior brightness. The LNP is used as imaging contrast agent for cellular and small animal imaging and furthermore suggested to use for detecting voltage-sensitive calcium in living cells and animals with high sensitivity. Results: NIR Indocyanine green (ICG) dye was conjugated with human serum albumin (HSA) followed by covalently binding to gold nanorod (AuNR)...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
Chao Wang, Baoli Dong, Xiuqi Kong, Nan Zhang, Wenhui Song, Weiying Lin
1,4-Dithiothreitol (DTT) has wide applications in cell biology and biochemistry. Development of effective methods for monitoring DTT in biological systems is important for the safe handling and study of toxicity to humans. Herein, we describe a two-photon fluorescence probe (Rh-DTT) to detect DTT in living systems for the first time. Rh-DTT showed high selectivity and sensitivity to DTT. Rh-DTT can be successfully used for the two-photon imaging of DTT in living cells, and also can detect DTT in living tissues and mice...
June 21, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Peter O Bayguinov, Dennis M Oakley, Chien-Cheng Shih, Daniel J Geanon, Matthew S Joens, James A J Fitzpatrick
Since its commercialization in the late 1980's, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has since become one of the most prevalent fluorescence microscopy techniques for three-dimensional structural studies of biological cells and tissues. The flexibility of the approach has enabled its application in a diverse array of studies, from the fast imaging of dynamic processes in living cells, to meticulous morphological analyses of tissues, and co-localization of protein expression patterns. In this chapter, we introduce the principles of confocal microscopy and discuss how the approach has become a mainstay in the biological sciences...
June 20, 2018: Current Protocols in Cytometry
Arja Ray, Rachel K Morford, Paolo P Provenzano
Cell migration is strongly influenced by the organization of the surrounding 3-D extracellular matrix. In particular, within fibrous solid tumors, carcinoma cell invasion may be directed by patterns of aligned collagen in the extra-epithelial space. Thus, studying the interactions of heterogeneous populations of cancer cells that include the stem/progenitor-like cancer stem cell subpopulation and aligned collagen networks is critical to our understanding of carcinoma dissemination. Here, we describe a robust method to generate aligned collagen matrices in vitro that mimic in vivo fiber organization...
May 24, 2018: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Ton van Helvoort, Neeraja Sankaran
This paper examines the vital role played by electron microscopy toward the modern definition of viruses, as formulated in the late 1950s. Before the 1930s viruses could neither be visualized by available technologies nor grown in artificial media. As such they were usually identified by their ability to cause diseases in their hosts and defined in such negative terms as "ultramicroscopic" or invisible infectious agents that could not be cultivated outside living cells. The invention of the electron microscope, with magnification and resolution powers several orders of magnitude better than that of optical instruments, opened up possibilities for biological applications...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the History of Biology
Ye Rong, Zhong-Yan DU, Gui-Feng Xiao, Hui-Fang Lou, Hang-Jun Wu
To study trafficking of bulk internalized vesicles such as macropinosome and lysosome in live cells, an efficient and convenient assay was established according to the axon turning assay. By injecting indicator or fluorescent dyes through a micropipette with air pressure into cell cultures to create a stable gradient around the micropipette tip, vesicles were indicated and labeled. With live cell imaging, the whole process was recorded. Without wash-out of fluorescent dyes and transferring, this assay is an effective, fast labeling system for bulk internalized vesicles, and can also be combined with imaging system...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Xaver Sewald
Viral pathogens have adapted to the host organism to exploit the cellular machinery for virus replication and to modulate the host cells for efficient systemic dissemination and immune evasion. Much of our knowledge of the effects that virus infections have on cells originates from in vitro imaging studies using experimental culture systems consisting of cell lines and primary cells. Recently, intravital microscopy using multi-photon excitation of fluorophores has been applied to observe virus dissemination and pathogenesis in real-time under physiological conditions in living organisms...
June 20, 2018: Viruses
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