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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550769/mk-8776-a-novel-chk1-inhibitor-exhibits-an-improved-radiosensitizing-effect-compared-to-ucn-01-by-exacerbating-radiation-induced-aberrant-mitosis
#1
Motofumi Suzuki, Tohru Yamamori, Tomoki Bo, Yuri Sakai, Osamu Inanami
Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in G2/M checkpoint signaling. Here, we evaluate the radiosensitizing effects of a novel selective Chk1 inhibitor MK-8776, comparing its efficacy with a first-generation Chk1 inhibitor UCN-01, and attempt to elucidate the mechanism of radiosensitization. In a clonogenic survival assay, MK-8776 demonstrated a more pronounced radiosensitizing effect than UCN-01, with lower cytotoxicity. Importantly, radiosensitization by MK-8776 can be achieved at doses as low as 2...
May 24, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549320/light-emission-miracle-in-the-sea-and-preeminent-applications-of-bioluminescence-in-recent-new-biotechnology
#2
Sana Sharifian, Ahmad Homaei, Roohullah Hemmati, Khosro Khajeh
Bioluminescence is referred to the light emission by a living organism due to a specific biochemical reaction. This interesting feature of the organisms could highly influences behavioral and ecosystem dynamics. Luminescence, mostly observed in marine species, is generally higher in deep-living genera than in benthic or shallow organisms. However, among creatures living in land, fireflies, beetles, springtails and fungi have shown some bioluminescent activities. Classically, the emission of light is catalyzed by luciferase from a substrate...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548489/glycosaminoglycans-specific-cell-targeting-and-imaging-using-fluorescent-nanodiamonds-coated-with-viral-envelope-proteins
#3
Minh D Pham, Chandra Prakash Epperla, Chia-Lung Hsieh, Wen Chang, Huan-Cheng Chang
Understanding virus-host interactions is crucial for vaccine development. This study investigates such interactions using fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) coated with vaccinia envelope proteins as the model system. To achieve this goal, we noncovalently conjugated 100-nm FND with A27(aa 21-84), a recombinant envelope protein of vaccinia virus, for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)-specific targeting and imaging of living cells. Another recombinant protein A27(aa 33-84) that removes the GAGs-binding sequences was also used for comparison...
May 26, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547585/aio-casilio-a-robust-crispr-cas9-pumilio-system-for-chromosome-labeling
#4
Shuxian Zhang, Zhan Song
The biological function of chromatin bases on its spatial organization and dynamic activities in different situations. Labeling and tracing of genomic sequences has been a huge challenge in studying the spatial dynamics of chromatin. We reported the development of 'all-in-one Casilio system (Aio-Casilio)', a new system that enables the labeling of endogenous genomic loci. The Aio-Casilio system consists of the dCas9 protein, mClover fused with the Pumilio and FBF proteins RNA-binding domain (PUF domain) and an U6-sgRNA appended with multiple PUF-binding site(s)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547002/oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-inhibits-pediatric-brain-tumor-migration-and-invasion
#5
Julia V Cockle, Anke Brüning-Richardson, Karen J Scott, Jill Thompson, Timothy Kottke, Ewan Morrison, Azam Ismail, Angel M Carcaboso, Ailsa Rose, Peter Selby, Joe Conner, Susan Picton, Susan Short, Richard Vile, Alan Melcher, Elizabeth Ilett
Pediatric high-grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are invasive tumors with poor survival. Oncolytic virotherapy, initially devised as a direct cytotoxic treatment, is now also known to act via immune-mediated mechanisms. Here we investigate a previously unreported mechanism of action: the inhibition of migration and invasion in pediatric brain tumors. We evaluated the effect of oncolytic herpes simplex virus 1716 (HSV1716) on the migration and invasion of pHGG and DIPG both in vitro using 2D (scratch assay, live cell imaging) and 3D (spheroid invasion in collagen) assays and in vivo using an orthotopic xenograft model of DIPG invasion...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546913/genetic-assembly-of-double-layered-fluorescent-protein-nanoparticles-for-cancer-targeting-and-imaging
#6
Seong-Eun Kim, Sung Duk Jo, Koo Chul Kwon, You-Yeon Won, Jeewon Lee
Hepatitis B virus capsid (HBVC), a self-assembled protein nanoparticle comprised of 180 or 240 subunit proteins, is used as a cage for genetic encapsulation of fluorescent proteins (FPs). The self-quenching of FPs is controlled by varying the spacing between FPs within the capsid structure. Double-layered FP nanoparticle possessing cancer cell-targeting capabilities is also produced by additionally attaching FPs and cancer cell receptor-binding peptides (affibodies) to the outer surface of the capsid. The generically modified HBVC with double layers of mCardinal FPs and affibodies (mC-DL-HBVC) exhibit a high fluorescence intensity and a strong photostability, and is efficiently internalized by cancer cells and significantly stable against intracellular degradation...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546824/high-spatio-temporal-resolution-detection-of-chlorophyll-fluorescence-dynamics-from-a-single-chloroplast-with-confocal-imaging-fluorometer
#7
Yi-Chin Tseng, Shi-Wei Chu
BACKGROUND: Chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) is a key indicator to study plant physiology or photosynthesis efficiency. Conventionally, CF is characterized by fluorometers, which only allows ensemble measurement through wide-field detection. For imaging fluorometers, the typical spatial and temporal resolutions are on the order of millimeter and second, far from enough to study cellular/sub-cellular CF dynamics. In addition, due to the lack of optical sectioning capability, conventional imaging fluorometers cannot identify CF from a single cell or even a single chloroplast...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544970/quantitative-chemical-imaging-with-stimulated-raman-scattering-microscopy
#8
REVIEW
Dan Fu
Chemical imaging plays an increasingly important role in studying heterogeneous biological systems. It combines molecular spectroscopy with high-resolution spatial information to create quantitative images of molecular distributions. Here I summarize recent progress in technical developments and biological applications of a specific chemical imaging technique-stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. SRS microscopy allows for a wide range of molecules - both endogenous and exogenous - to be imaged at high spatial and temporal resolution in living cells, tissues, and organisms...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544497/cell-tracking-using-gold-nanoparticles-and-computed-tomography-imaging
#9
REVIEW
Rinat Meir, Rachela Popovtzer
Cell-based therapies utilize transplantation of living cells with therapeutic traits to alleviate numerous diseases and disorders. The use of such biological agents is an attractive alternative for diseases that existing medicine cannot effectively treat. Although very promising, translating cell therapy to the clinic has proven to be challenging, due to inconsistent results in preclinical and clinical studies. To examine the underlying cause for these inconsistencies, it is crucial to noninvasively monitor the accuracy of cell injection, and cell survival and migration patterns...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544466/simultaneous-imaging-of-endogenous-survivin-mrna-and-on-demand-drug-release-in-live-cells-by-using-a-mesoporous-silica-nanoquencher
#10
Peiyan Yuan, Xin Mao, Kok Chan Chong, Jiaqi Fu, Sijun Pan, Shuizhu Wu, Changmin Yu, Shao Q Yao
The design of multifunctional drug delivery systems capable of simultaneous target detection, imaging, and therapeutics in live mammalian cells is critical for biomedical research. In this study, by using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) chemically modified with a small-molecule dark quencher, followed by sequential drug encapsulation, MSN capping with a dye-labeled antisense oligonucleotide, and bioorthogonal surface modification with cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s, the authors have successfully developed the first mesoporous silica nanoquencher (qMSN), characterized by high drug-loading and endocytosis-independent cell uptake, which is able to quantitatively image endogenous survivin mRNA and release the loaded drug in a manner that depends on the survivin expression level in tumor cells...
May 24, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542804/assessment-of-an-engineered-endothelium-via-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography
#11
Bin Jiang, Yidi Wu, Chad R Haney, Chongwen Duan, Guillermo A Ameer
The clinical translation of cell-based therapeutics often requires highly sensitive, non-invasive imaging tools to assess cell function and distribution in vivo. The objective of this research was to determine whether human Sodium-Iodide Symporter (hNIS) ectopic expression in endothelial cells (ECs) in combination with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a feasible approach to non-invasively monitor the presence and viability of an engineered endothelium on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)...
May 22, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538724/applying-systems-level-spectral-imaging-and-analysis-to-reveal-the-organelle-interactome
#12
Alex M Valm, Sarah Cohen, Wesley R Legant, Justin Melunis, Uri Hershberg, Eric Wait, Andrew R Cohen, Michael W Davidson, Eric Betzig, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
The organization of the eukaryotic cell into discrete membrane-bound organelles allows for the separation of incompatible biochemical processes, but the activities of these organelles must be coordinated. For example, lipid metabolism is distributed between the endoplasmic reticulum for lipid synthesis, lipid droplets for storage and transport, mitochondria and peroxisomes for β-oxidation, and lysosomes for lipid hydrolysis and recycling. It is increasingly recognized that organelle contacts have a vital role in diverse cellular functions...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537705/hypoxia-responsive-19-f-mri-probes-with-improved-redox-properties-and-biocompatibility
#13
Da Xie, Seyong Kim, Vikraant Kohli, Arnab Banerjee, Meng Yu, José S Enriquez, Jeffrey J Luci, Emily L Que
(19)F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an emerging modality in biomedical imaging, has shown promise for in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. Here we present a series of fluorinated Cu(II)ATSM derivatives for potential use as (19)F magnetic resonance agents for sensing cellular hypoxia. The synthesized complexes feature a hypoxia-targeting Cu(2+) coordination core, nine equivalent fluorine atoms connected via a variable-length poly(ethylene glycol) linker. Introduction of the fluorine moiety maintains the planar coordination geometry of the Cu(2+) center, while the linker length modulates the Cu(2+/+) reduction potential, (19)F NMR relaxation properties, and lipophilicity...
May 24, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537380/a-dna-tetrahedron-nanoprobe-with-controlled-distance-of-dyes-for-multiple-detection-in-living-cells-and-in-vivo
#14
Na Li, Meimei Wang, Xiaonan Gao, Zhengze Yu, Wei Pan, Hongyu Wang, Bo Tang
Multicomponent quantitative detection in living samples is becoming increasingly important, however, the current detection strategy may cause fluorescence self-quenching and reduce the sensitivity of detection. To solve the problem, we develop a DNA tetrahedral nanoprobe to control the dyes distance for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. Compared to mesoporous silica nanoparticles based nanoprobes, the DNA tetrahedral nanoprobes display enhanced fluorescence intensities due to partially avoiding the fluorescence resonance energy transfer...
May 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536535/role-of-intestinal-lxr%C3%AE-in-regulating-post-prandial-lipid-excursion-and-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-and-hepatic-lipid-accumulation
#15
Tibiábin Benítez-Santana, Sarah E Hugo, Amnon Schlegel
Post-prandial hyperlipidemia has emerged as a cardiovascular risk factor with limited therapeutic options. The Liver X receptors (Lxrs) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate cholesterol elimination. Knowledge of their role in regulating the absorption and handling of dietary fats is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of intestinal Lxrα in post-prandial intestinal lipid transport. Using Lxrα knockout (nr1h3(-/-)) and intestine-limited Lxrα over-expressing [Tg(fabp2a:EGFP-nr1h3)] zebrafish strains, we measured post-prandial lipid excursion with live imaging in larvae and physiological methods in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536263/axodendritic-sorting-and-pathological-missorting-of-tau-is-isoform-specific-and-determined-by-axon-initial-segment-architecture
#16
Hans Zempel, Frank Dennissen, Yatender Kumar, Julia Luedtke, Jacek Biernat, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Eckhard Mandelkow
Subcellular mislocalization of the microtubule-associated protein Tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Six Tau isoforms, differentiated by the presence or absence of a second repeat or of N-terminal inserts, exist in the human CNS but their physiological and pathological differences have long remained remain elusive. Here, we investigated the properties and distributions of human and rodent Tau isoforms in primary forebrain rodent neurons. We found that the Tau-Diffusion-Barrier (TDB), located within the Axon-Initial-Segment (AIS), controls retrograde (axon-to-soma) and anterograde (soma-to-axon) traffic of Tau...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534613/flashbody-a-next-generation-fluobody-with-fluorescence-intensity-enhanced-by-antigen-binding
#17
Devina Wongso, Jinhua Dong, Hiroshi Ueda, Tetsuya Kitaguchi
Fluorescent probes are valuable tools for visualizing the spatiotemporal dynamics of molecules in living cells. Here we developed a genetically-encoded antibody probe with antigen-dependent fluorescence intensity called "Flashbody". We first created a fusion of EGFP to the single chain variable region fragment (scFv) of antibody against seven amino acids of the bone Gla protein C-terminus (BGPC7) called BGP Fluobody, which successfully showed the intracellular localization of BGPC7-tagged protein. To generate BGP Flashbody, circularly permuted GFP was inserted in between two variable region fragments, and the linkers were optimized, resulting in fluorescence intensity increase of 300% upon binding with BGPC7 in a dose-dependent manner...
May 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533267/the-kv1-associated-molecules-tag-1-and-caspr2-are-selectively-targeted-to-axon-initial-segment-in-hippocampal-neurons
#18
Delphine Pinatel, Bruno Hivert, Margaux Saint-Martin, Nelly Noraz, Maria Savvaki, Domna Karagogeos, Catherine Faivre-Sarrailh
Caspr2 and TAG-1 are cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) associated with the voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.1/1.2 at regions controlling axonal excitability, the axon initial segment (AIS) and juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons. The distribution of Kv1 at juxtaparanodes requires axo-glial contacts mediated by Caspr2 and TAG-1. In the present study, we showed that TAG-1 strongly co-localizes with Kv1.2 at the AIS of cultured hippocampal neurons whereas Caspr2 is uniformly expressed along the axolemma. Live-cell imaging revealed that Caspr2 and TAG-1 are sorted together in axonal transport vesicles...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531842/a-highly-selective-long-wavelength-fluorescent-probe-for-hydrazine-and-its-application-in-living-cell-imaging
#19
Yuanqiang Hao, Yintang Zhang, Kehong Ruan, Fanteng Meng, Ting Li, Jinsheng Guan, Lulu Du, Peng Qu, Maotian Xu
A highly selective long-wavelength turn-on fluorescent probe has been developed for the detection of N2H4. The probe was prepared by conjugation the tricyanofuran-based D-π-A system with a recognizing moiety of acetyl group. In the presence of N2H4, the probe can be effectively hydrazinolysized and produce a turn-on fluorescent emission at 610nm as well as a large red-shift in the absorption spectrum corresponding to a color change from yellow to blue. The sensing mechanism was confirmed by HPLC, MS, UV-vis, emission spectroscopic and theoretical calculation studies...
April 20, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531263/in-vivo-dynamics-of-the-cortical-actin-network-revealed-by-fast-scanning-atomic-force-microscopy
#20
Yanshu Zhang, Aiko Yoshida, Nobuaki Sakai, Yoshitsugu Uekusa, Masahiro Kumeta, Shige H Yoshimura
Together with lamellipodia and stress fibers, a dynamic network of actin filaments in the cell cortex plays a major role in the maintenance of cell morphology and motility. In contrast to lamellipodia, which have been well studied in various motile cells, the dynamics of actin filaments in the cell cortex have not yet been clarified due to a lack of proper imaging techniques. Here, we utilized high-speed atomic force microscopy for live-cell imaging and analyzed cortical actin dynamics in living cells. We successfully measured the polymerization rate and the frequency of filament synthesis in living COS-7 cells, and examined the associated effects of various inhibitors and actin-binding proteins...
May 20, 2017: Microscopy
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