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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917173/live-imaging-of-immune-responses-in-experimental-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Barbara Rossi, Gabriela Constantin
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most common animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by multifocal perivascular infiltrates that predominantly comprise lymphocytes and macrophages. During EAE, autoreactive T cells first become active in the secondary lymphoid organs upon contact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and then gain access to CNS parenchyma, through a compromised blood-brain barrier, subsequently inducing inflammation and demyelination...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916527/dynamic-mrna-transport-and-local-translation-in-radial-glial-progenitors-of-the-developing-brain
#2
Louis-Jan Pilaz, Ashley L Lennox, Jeremy P Rouanet, Debra L Silver
In the developing brain, neurons are produced from neural stem cells termed radial glia [1, 2]. Radial glial progenitors span the neuroepithelium, extending long basal processes to form endfeet hundreds of micrometers away from the soma. Basal structures influence neuronal migration, tissue integrity, and proliferation [3-7]. Yet, despite the significance of these distal structures, their cell biology remains poorly characterized, impeding our understanding of how basal processes and endfeet influence neurogenesis...
November 30, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916123/a-mitochondria-targeted-fluorescence-probe-for-ratiometric-detection-of-endogenous-hypochlorite-in-the-living-cells
#3
Wen-Li Wu, Xuan Zhao, Long-Long Xi, Miao-Fei Huang, Wen-Hui Zeng, Jun-Ying Miao, Bao-Xiang Zhao
A mitochondria-targeted fluorescence probe (CPBT) for ratiometric detection of endogenous hypochlorite in the living cells was developed. CPBT could detect hypochlorite with high selectivity and sensitivity in a ratiometric manner based on FRET mechanism. In absence of hypochlorite, when CPBT was excited with absorption maximum wavelength of the donor moiety, it showed the emission of acceptor moiety because of FRET process. However, in the presence of hypochlorite, the reaction of CC double bond with hypochlorite interrupted the conjugation system resulting in the inhibition of FRET process and the emission of the donor moiety...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914080/immobilization-techniques-of-bacteria-for-live-super-resolution-imaging-using-structured-illumination-microscopy
#4
Amy L Bottomley, Lynne Turnbull, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Elizabeth J Harry
Advancements in optical microscopy technology have allowed huge progression in the ability to understand protein structure and dynamics in live bacterial cells using fluorescence microscopy. Paramount to high-quality microscopy is good sample preparation to avoid bacterial cell movement that can result in motion blur during image acquisition. Here, we describe two techniques of sample preparation that reduce unwanted cell movement and are suitable for application to a number of bacterial species and imaging methods...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912872/anti-allergic-potential-of-typhonium-blumei-inhibition-of-degranulation-via-suppression-of-pi3k-plc%C3%AE-2-phosphorylation-and-calcium-influx
#5
Michal Korinek, Kuan-Ming Chen, Yu-Han Jiang, Mohamed El-Shazly, Joel Stocker, Chon-Kit Chou, Tsong-Long Hwang, Yang-Chang Wu, Bing-Hung Chen, Fang-Rong Chang
BACKGROUND: Typhonium blumei Nicolson & Sivadasan (Araceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb possessing detumescent, detoxifying, and anti-inflammatory activities. It is used in Taiwan as a folk medicine to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases. Typhonium blumei is usually not distinguished from Typhonium roxburghii Schott and they are commonly used interchangeably. PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of T...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911982/enantioselective-fluorescent-imaging-of-free-amino-acids-in-living-cells
#6
Chaoyuan Zeng, Xiaoling Zhang, Lin Pu
The 1,1'-spirobiindane-7,7'-diol (SPINOL)-based chiral aldehydes (R)- and (S)-3 in combination with Zn2+ are found to be highly enantioselective fluorescent sensors for structurally diverse chiral amino acids. Application of this enantiomeric sensor pair in HeLa cells containing a free amino acid shows that the chirality matched sensor-amino acid interaction leads to strong blue emission and the chirality mismatched gives only weak fluorescence. This allows a quick determination of the chiral configuration of the free amino acid in living cells...
December 2, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911898/bilaterian-giant-ankyrins-have-a-common-evolutionary-origin-and-play-a-conserved-role-in-patterning-the-axon-initial-segment
#7
Timothy Jegla, Michelle M Nguyen, Chengye Feng, Daniel J Goetschius, Esteban Luna, Damian B van Rossum, Bishoy Kamel, Aditya Pisupati, Elliott S Milner, Melissa M Rolls
In vertebrate neurons, the axon initial segment (AIS) is specialized for action potential initiation. It is organized by a giant 480 Kd variant of ankyrin G (AnkG) that serves as an anchor for ion channels and is required for a plasma membrane diffusion barrier that excludes somatodendritic proteins from the axon. An unusually long exon required to encode this 480Kd variant is thought to have been inserted only recently during vertebrate evolution, so the giant ankyrin-based AIS scaffold has been viewed as a vertebrate adaptation for fast, precise signaling...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911821/myth4-ferm-myosins-have-an-ancient-and-conserved-role-in-filopod-formation
#8
Karl J Petersen, Holly V Goodson, Ashley L Arthur, G W Gant Luxton, Anne Houdusse, Margaret A Titus
The formation of filopodia in Metazoa and Amoebozoa requires the activity of myosin 10 (Myo10) in mammalian cells and of Dictyostelium unconventional myosin 7 (DdMyo7) in the social amoeba Dictyostelium However, the exact roles of these MyTH4-FERM myosins (myosin tail homology 4-band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, moesin; MF) in the initiation and elongation of filopodia are not well defined and may reflect conserved functions among phylogenetically diverse MF myosins. Phylogenetic analysis of MF myosin domains suggests that a single ancestral MF myosin existed with a structure similar to DdMyo7, which has two MF domains, and that subsequent duplications in the metazoan lineage produced its functional homolog Myo10...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911813/spatiotemporal-imaging-of-small-gtpases-activity-in-live-cells
#9
Stephanie Voss, Dennis M Krüger, Oliver Koch, Yao-Wen Wu
Ras-like small GTPases function as molecular switches and regulate diverse cellular events. To examine the dynamics of signaling requires spatiotemporal visualization of their activity in the cell. Current small GTPase sensors rely on specific effector domains that are available for only a small number of GTPases and compete for endogenous regulator/effector binding. Here, we describe versatile conformational sensors for GTPase activity (COSGAs) based on the conserved GTPase fold. Conformational changes upon GDP/GTP exchange were directly observed in solution, on beads, and in live cells by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911812/cytoskeleton-dynamics-control-the-first-asymmetric-cell-division-in-arabidopsis-zygote
#10
Yusuke Kimata, Takumi Higaki, Tomokazu Kawashima, Daisuke Kurihara, Yoshikatsu Sato, Tomomi Yamada, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Frederic Berger, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
The asymmetric cell division of the zygote is the initial and crucial developmental step in most multicellular organisms. In flowering plants, whether zygote polarity is inherited from the preexisting organization in the egg cell or reestablished after fertilization has remained elusive. How dynamically the intracellular organization is generated during zygote polarization is also unknown. Here, we used a live-cell imaging system with Arabidopsis zygotes to visualize the dynamics of the major elements of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs), and actin filaments (F-actins), during the entire process of zygote polarization...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911810/in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-reveals-copper-deficiency-in-a-murine-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Marie C Heffern, Hyo Min Park, Ho Yu Au-Yeung, Genevieve C Van de Bittner, Cheri M Ackerman, Andreas Stahl, Christopher J Chang
Copper is a required metal nutrient for life, but global or local alterations in its homeostasis are linked to diseases spanning genetic and metabolic disorders to cancer and neurodegeneration. Technologies that enable longitudinal in vivo monitoring of dynamic copper pools can help meet the need to study the complex interplay between copper status, health, and disease in the same living organism over time. Here, we present the synthesis, characterization, and in vivo imaging applications of Copper-Caged Luciferin-1 (CCL-1), a bioluminescent reporter for tissue-specific copper visualization in living animals...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911758/multimodal-imaging-for-dreadd-expressing-neurons-in-living-brain-and-their-application-to-implantation-of-ipsc-derived-neural-progenitors
#12
Bin Ji, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Takafumi Minamimoto, Haruhisa Inoue, Hiroki Takeuchi, Katsushi Kumata, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Chie Seki, Maiko Ono, Masaki Tokunaga, Satoshi Tsukamoto, Koji Tanabe, Ryong-Moon Shin, Takeharu Minamihisamatsu, Seiji Kito, Barry J Richmond, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
: Chemogenetic manipulation of neuronal activities has been enabled by a designer receptor (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs, DREADD) that is activated exclusively by clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Here, we applied CNO as a functional reporter probe to positron emission tomography (PET) of DREADD in living brains. Mutant human M4 DREADD (hM4Di) expressed in transgenic (Tg) mouse neurons was visualized by PET with microdose [(11)C]CNO. Deactivation of DREADD-expressing neurons in these mice by nonradioactive CNO at a pharmacological dose could also be captured by arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910951/molecular-imaging-with-engineered-physiology
#13
Mitul Desai, Adrian L Slusarczyk, Ashley Chapin, Mariya Barch, Alan Jasanoff
In vivo imaging techniques are powerful tools for evaluating biological systems. Relating image signals to precise molecular phenomena can be challenging, however, due to limitations of the existing optical, magnetic and radioactive imaging probe mechanisms. Here we demonstrate a concept for molecular imaging which bypasses the need for conventional imaging agents by perturbing the endogenous multimodal contrast provided by the vasculature. Variants of the calcitonin gene-related peptide artificially activate vasodilation pathways in rat brain and induce contrast changes that are readily measured by optical and magnetic resonance imaging...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910868/relationship-between-nanotopographical-alignment-and-stem-cell-fate-with-live-imaging-and-shape-analysis
#14
Peter Newman, Jorge Luis Galenano-Niño, Pamela Graney, Joselito M Razal, Andrew I Minett, João Ribas, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Maté Biro, Hala Zreiqat
The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910407/anisotropic-contrast-optical-microscope
#15
D Peev, T Hofmann, N Kananizadeh, S Beeram, E Rodriguez, S Wimer, K B Rodenhausen, C M Herzinger, T Kasputis, E Pfaunmiller, A Nguyen, R Korlacki, A Pannier, Y Li, E Schubert, D Hage, M Schubert
An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908723/oxidation-inhibits-pth-receptor-signaling-and-trafficking
#16
Juan A Ardura, Verónica Alonso, Pedro Esbrit, Peter A Friedman
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) increase during aging, potentially affecting many tissues including brain, heart, and bone. ROS alter signaling pathways and constitute potential therapeutic targets to limit oxidative damaging effects in aging-associated diseases. Parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHR) are widely expressed and PTH is the only anabolic therapy for osteoporosis. The effects of oxidative stress on PTHR signaling and trafficking have not been elucidated. Here, we used Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based cAMP, ERK, and calcium fluorescent biosensors to analyze the effects of ROS on PTHR signaling and trafficking by live-cell imaging...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907871/fluorescent-probe-based-subcellular-distribution-of-cu-ii-ions-in-living-electrotrophs-isolated-from-cu-ii-reduced-biocathodes-of-microbial-fuel-cells
#17
Ye Tao, Hua Xue, Liping Huang, Peng Zhou, Wei Yang, Xie Quan, Jinxiu Yuan
Based on the four indigenous electrotrophs (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia JY1, Citrobacter sp. JY3, Pseudomonas aeruginosa JY5 and Stenotrophomonas sp. JY6) isolated from well adapted Cu(II)-reduced biocathodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), a rhodamine based Cu(II) fluorescent probe was used to imaginably and quantitatively track subcellular Cu(II) ions in these electrotrophs. Cathodic electrons led to more Cu(II) ions (14.3-30.1%) in the intracellular sites at operation time of 2-3h with Cu(II) removal rates of 2...
November 22, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907861/in-situ-time-lapse-study-of-extracellular-polymeric-substance-discharge-in-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm
#18
Bernard Haochih Liu, Li-Chieh Yu
Streptococcus mutans is one of the main pathogens that cause tooth decay. By metabolizing carbohydrates, S. mutans emits extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that adheres to the tooth surface and forms layers of biofilm. Periodontal disease occurs due to the low pH environment created by S. mutans biofilm, and such an acidic environment gradually erodes tooth enamel. Since the existence of EPS is essential in the formation of biofilm, the in-situ investigation of its generation and distribution in real time is the key to the control and suppression of S...
November 24, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907085/the-natural-variation-in-lifespans-of-single-yeast-cells-is-related-to-variation-in-cell-size-ribosomal-protein-and-division-time
#19
Georges E Janssens, Liesbeth M Veenhoff
There is a large variability in lifespans of individuals even if they are genetically identical and raised under the same environmental conditions. Our recent system wide study of replicative aging in baker's yeast predicts that protein biogenesis is a driver of aging. Here, we address how the natural variation in replicative lifespan within wild-type populations of yeast cells correlates to three biogenesis-related parameters, namely cell size, ribosomal protein Rpl13A-GFP levels, and division times. Imaging wild type yeast cells in microfluidic devices we observe that in all cells and at all ages, the division times as well as the increase in cell size that single yeast undergo while aging negatively correlate to their lifespan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907065/statistical-frailty-modeling-for-quantitative-analysis-of-exocytotic-events-recorded-by-live-cell-imaging-rapid-release-of-insulin-containing-granules-is-impaired-in-human-diabetic-%C3%AE-cells
#20
Giuliana Cortese, Nikhil R Gandasi, Sebastian Barg, Morten Gram Pedersen
Hormones and neurotransmitters are released when secretory granules or synaptic vesicles fuse with the cell membrane, a process denoted exocytosis. Modern imaging techniques, in particular total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, allow the investigator to monitor secretory granules at the plasma membrane before and when they undergo exocytosis. However, rigorous statistical approaches for temporal analysis of such exocytosis data are still lacking. We propose here that statistical methods from time-to-event (also known as survival) analysis are well suited for the problem...
2016: PloS One
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