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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823111/welfare-to-work-interventions-and-their-effects-on-the-mental-and-physical-health-of-lone-parents-and-their-children
#1
REVIEW
Marcia Gibson, Hilary Thomson, Kasia Banas, Vittoria Lutje, Martin J McKee, Susan P Martin, Candida Fenton, Clare Bambra, Lyndal Bond
BACKGROUND: Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823072/prevalence-and-predictors-of-digoxin-utilization-among-heart-failure-patients-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-in-qatar
#2
Alaa Abdullah Rahhal, Ahmed Awaisu, Kawthar M Tawengi, Safae AbuYousef, Lylia Mekideche
Background Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside that is recommended by clinical practice guidelines to be used in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who still have persistent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. However, this recommendation is based on limited and old trial data. Moreover, pharmacoepidemiologic studies are important in determining the prevalence of digoxin use and factors influencing this. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the predictors of digoxin utilization among patients with HFrEF with or without atrial fibrillation (AF) in Qatar...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823064/preoperative-hypoalbuminemia-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-increased-high-grade-morbidity-after-elective-rectal-cancer-resection
#3
J Hardt, L Pilz, J Magdeburg, P Kienle, S Post, R Magdeburg
PURPOSE: This study investigated the association of preoperative hypoalbuminemia and postoperative complications after elective resection for rectal cancer. METHODS: From September 2009 to December 2014, all patients who underwent elective rectal resection for adenocarcinoma of the rectum were identified using a prospective colorectal cancer database. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as a serum albumin < 35 g/L. Characteristics and outcomes of hypoalbuminemic patients were compared to those of patients with normal albumin levels...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823023/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-and-white-matter-abnormalities-among-combat-exposed-veterans
#4
Kirstin Aschbacher, Synthia H Mellon, Owen M Wolkowitz, Clare Henn-Haase, Rachel Yehuda, Janine D Flory, Linda M Bierer, Duna Abu-Amara, Charles R Marmar, Susanne G Mueller
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormalities in functional connectivity of a specific cortico-limbic network; however, less is known about white matter abnormalities providing structural connections for this network. This study investigated whether the diagnosis and symptoms of PTSD are associated with alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA), an index reflecting white matter organization, across six, a priori-defined tracts. White matter FA was quantified by diffusion tensor imaging using 3 T-MRI among 57 male, combat-exposed veterans with no history of moderate to severe head injuries or current alcohol dependence: 31 met criteria for PTSD and 26 were demographically comparable, combat-exposed controls without PTSD...
August 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823010/the-reliability-of-rifampicin-resistance-as-a-proxy-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-of-studies-from-iran
#5
REVIEW
M J Nasiri, S Zamani, A Pormohammad, M M Feizabadi, H R Aslani, M Amin, R Halabian, A A Imani Fooladi
In Iran, patients showing rifampicin (RIF) resistance detected by the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay are considered as candidates for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment. Despite the fact that RIF resistance has been used as a proxy for MDR-TB, little is known about the proportion of isoniazid (INH) resistance patterns in RIF-resistant TB. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and other databases up to March 2017 for studies addressing the proportion of INH resistance patterns in RIF-resistant TB in Iran...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823009/proton-pump-inhibitors-as-risk-factor-for-metabolic-syndrome-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-coeliac-disease-patients-on-gluten-free-diet
#6
Nicola Imperatore, Raffaella Tortora, Testa Anna, Nicolò Gerbino, Nicola Caporaso, Antonio Rispo
BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown that patients with coeliac disease (CD) are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) and hepatic steatosis (HS) after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD). This study aimed to evaluate the predictive factors for MS and HS in CD after 1 year of GFD. METHODS: All consecutive newly diagnosed CD patients were enrolled. We prospectively collected data about BMI; waist circumference; blood pressure; cholesterol; triglycerides, glucose and insulin blood levels; insulin resistance (through the homeostatic model assessment HOMA-IR) and treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI)...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822998/spontaneous-shrinkage-of-solitary-osteochondromas
#7
Hisaki Aiba, Satoshi Yamada, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Shinji Miwa, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya, Takanobu Otsuka
OBJECTIVE: Osteochondromas are the most common benign bone tumors, and thus far, their spontaneous shrinkage is considered a rare phenomenon. This study was designed to investigate the exact ratio of remission to progressive or stable cases and analyze the mechanism of tumor regression on the basis of existing theories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively collected images of solitary osteochondromas in patients from 1992 to 2013, excluding cases involving short-term follow-up periods and follow-up periods that ended before growth plate closure...
August 19, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822756/differences-in-psychosocial-and-behavioral-variables-by-dietary-screening-tool-risk-category-in-older-adults
#8
Geoffrey W Greene, Ingrid Lofgren, Chelsea Paulin, Mary L Greaney, Phillip G Clark
BACKGROUND: The Dietary Screening Tool (DST) has been validated as a dietary screening instrument for older adults defining three categories of potential nutritional risk based on DST score cutoffs. Previous research has found that older adults classified as being "at risk" differed from those categorized as being "not at risk" for a limited number of health-related variables. The relationship between risk categories and a wide variety of variables has not yet been explored. This research will contribute to an increased understanding of clustering of multiple health concerns in this population...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822682/a-systematic-review-of-digital-interventions-for-improving-the-diet-and-physical-activity-behaviors-of-adolescents
#9
REVIEW
Taylor Rose, Mary Barker, Chandni Maria Jacob, Leanne Morrison, Wendy Lawrence, Sofia Strömmer, Christina Vogel, Kathryn Woods-Townsend, David Farrell, Hazel Inskip, Janis Baird
Many adolescents have poor diet and physical activity behaviors, which can lead to the development of noncommunicable diseases in later life. Digital platforms offer inexpensive means of delivering health interventions, but little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of digital interventions to improve diet quality and increase physical activity in adolescents, to effective intervention components and to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822627/do-anterior-catheterizable-urinary-channels-have-fewer-complications-than-posterior-channels-an-international-cohort-study
#10
K M Szymanski, P-J Lopez, J P Corbetta, F Reed, J Ruiz, Y Pullin, S Weller, R Zubieta, R C Rink, M P Cain
OBJECTIVE: Appendicovesicostomy (APV) and Monti ileovesicostomy (Monti) are durable catheterizable channels. While subfascial revision rates vary by channel type, a channel implanted in the anterior (vs posterior) aspect of the bladder may have a lower subfascial revision risk, due to decreased channel mobility and better fascial fixation. The present study aimed to compare long-term durability of anteriorly compared to posteriorly implanted APV and Monti channels in a large international cohort...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822604/volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat-for-whole-brain-radiotherapy-not-only-for-hippocampal-sparing-but-also-for-reduction-of-dose-to-organs-at-risk
#11
Sumit Sood, Damodar Pokhrel, Christopher McClinton, Christopher Lominska, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Fen Wang
A prospective clinical trial, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933, has demonstrated that whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) using conformal radiation delivery technique with hippocampal avoidance is associated with less memory complications. Further sparing of other organs at risk (OARs) including the scalp, ear canals, cochleae, and parotid glands could be associated with reductions in additional toxicities for patients treated with WBRT. We investigated the feasibility of WBRT using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to spare the hippocampi and the aforementioned OARs...
August 16, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822600/factors-associated-with-physical-activity-participation-in-adults-with-chronic-cervical-spine-pain-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Michael Mansfield, Michael Thacker, Nicolas Spahr, Toby Smith
OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with physical activity participation in adults with chronic cervical spine pain. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted including searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and CINAHL from inception to June 12th, 2016. Grey literature and reference checking was also undertaken. Quantitative studies including factors related to physical activity participation in adults with chronic cervical spine pain were included. Two independent authors conducted the searches, extracted data and completed methodological quality assessment...
February 13, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822513/frequency-and-predictors-of-non-adherence-to-lifestyle-modifications-and-medications-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Muhammad Armughan Ali, Javeria Yasir, Rida Noor Sherwani, Marium Fareed, Fizza Arshad, Fareeha Abid, Ramsha Arshad, Safana Ismail, Sarim Ahmed Khan, UroojJamal Siddiqui, Marium Gul Muhammad, Kaneez Fatima
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to dietary recommendations, exercise and prescribed drug regimens, in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a major health care issue worldwide. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and predictors of non-adherence to lifestyle changes and medication among CHD patients after undergoing CABG surgery. METHOD: The sample of this cross sectional descriptive study was 265 patients who underwent isolated primary CABG...
July 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822403/inpatient-peripherally-inserted-central-venous-catheter-complications-should-peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-lines-be-placed-in-the-intensive-care-unit-setting
#14
Michael Martyak, Ishraq Kabir, Rebecca Britt
Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are now commonly used for central access in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting; however, there is a paucity of data evaluating the complication rates associated with these lines. We performed a retrospective review of all PICCs placed in the inpatient setting at our institution during a 1-year period from January 2013 to December 2013. These were divided into two groups: those placed at the bedside in the ICU and those placed by interventional radiology in non-ICU patients...
August 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822399/chest-tube-removal-in-simple-pneumothorax-does-water-seal-duration-matter
#15
Lindsay C Bridges, Danny J Torrent, Catalina Mosquera, Michael R Bard
Timing of chest tube (CT) removal after transition from suction to water-seal (WS) varies when treating traumatic simple pneumothoraces (PTXs). Longer periods of WS may identify slow-occurring PTXs reducing CT replacement, whereas shorter periods may expedite patient disposition and have associated cost savings. Prior studies support the need for an interval of WS. We compare durations of WS, looking at rates of CT reinsertion. A 10-year retrospective review on trauma patients with a simple PTX requiring a CT was performed...
August 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822392/optimal-modified-frailty-index-cutoff-in-older-gastrointestinal-cancer-patients
#16
Mary Garland, Fang-Chi Hsu, Perry Shen, Clancy J Clark
The newly characterized modified frailty index (mFI) is a robust predictor of postoperative outcomes for surgical patients. The present study investigates the optimal cutoff for mFI specifically in older gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients undergoing surgery. All patients more than 60 years old who underwent surgery for a GI malignancy (esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, liver, and bile duct) were identified in the 2005 to 2012 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, Participant Use Data File (NSQIP PUF)...
August 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822355/baseline-assessment-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-assay-performance-a-vitamin-d-standardization-program-vdsp-interlaboratory-comparison-study
#17
Stephen Wise, Karen Phinney, Susan Tai, Johanna Camara, Gary Myers, Ramon Durazo-Arvizu, Lu Tian, Andrew Hoofnagle, Lorin Bachmann, Ian Young, Juanita Pettit, Grahame Caldwell, Andrew Liu, Stephen Brooks, Kurtis Sarafin, Michael Thamm, Gert Mensink, Markus Busch, Martina Rabenberg, Kevin Cashman, Mairead Kiely, Michael Kinsella, Karen Galvin, Joy Zhang, Kyungwon Oh, Sun-Wha Lee, Chae Jung, Lorna Cox, Gail Goldberg, Kate Guberg, Ann Prentice, Graham Carter, Julia Jones, Patsy Brannon, Robyn Lucas, Peter Crump, Etienne Cavalier, Joyce Merkel, Joseph Betz, Christopher Sempos
The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) coordinated an interlaboratory study to assess the comparability of measurements of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in human serum, which is the primary marker of vitamin D status. A set of 50 individual donor samples were analyzed by 15 different laboratories representing national nutrition surveys, assay manufacturers, and clinical and/or research laboratories to provide results for total 25(OH)D using both immunoassays (IAs) and LC tandem MS (MS/MS). The results were evaluated relative to bias compared with the target values assigned based on a combination of measurements at Ghent University (Belgium) and the U...
August 19, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822353/vdr-gene-variation-and-insulin-resistance-related-diseases
#18
Fei-Fei Han, Ya-Li Lv, Li-Li Gong, He Liu, Zi-Rui Wan, Li-Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status may influence the risk of Insulin resistance related diseases such as Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Several studies have assessed vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism in relationship with these diseases; however, results remain inconsistent. Our study was conducted to elucidate whether VDR Gene polymorphisms could predict insulin resistance on a large scale. METHODS: A meta-analysis using MEDLINE and EMBASE, was performed up to December 16th, 2016...
August 19, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822347/screening-and-confirmation-of-steroids-and-nitroimidazoles-in-urine-blood-and-food-matrices-sample-preparation-methods-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometric-separations
#19
Ádám Tölgyesi, Enikő Barta, Andrea Simon, Thomas J McDonald, Virender K Sharma
Veterinary drugs containing synthetic anabolic steroid and nitroimidazole active agents are not allowed for their applications in livestock of the European Union (EU). This paper presents analyses of twelve selected steroids and six nitroimidazole antibiotics at low levels (1.56μg/L-4.95μg/L and 0.17μg/kg-2.14μg/kg, respectively) in body fluids and egg incurred samples. Analyses involved clean-up procedures, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation, and tandem mass spectrometric screening and confirmatory methods...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822277/the-role-of-anxiety-sensitivity-in-reactivity-to-trauma-cues-in-treatment-seeking-adults-with-substance-use-disorders
#20
R Kathryn McHugh, Kim L Gratz, Matthew T Tull
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). Although the presence of trauma exposure and/or PTSD among those with SUDs is associated with a range of negative outcomes, much remains to be understood about the factors contributing to these outcomes. Anxiety sensitivity (the tendency to respond fearfully to the signs and symptoms of anxiety) has been linked to greater PTSD symptoms and the use of substances to cope with PTSD symptoms, and is a promising factor for understanding the negative outcomes associated with co-occurring PTSD and SUDs...
July 31, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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