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Hospital acquired

L J Li, Y M Liu, Y M Wang, F Zhou, H Li, X Q Xing, X D Han, L Chen, C X Zhang, J X Wang, B Liu, L J Suo, G H Yu, G Q Wang, X X Yao, Y Xiao, X L Zhu, C X Xue, X J Cui, B Cao
Objective: To explore the clinical features, etiological features and prognostic risk factors of long-term glucocorticoid users with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: A retrospective study included 100 long-term glucocorticoid users with CAP (G-CAP group) from 11 hospitals of China between January 2014 and December 2014, while 100 non-immunocompromised patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled as controls (nICH-CAP group). Characteristics including age, gender, underlying diseases, corticosteroids, symptoms, disease severity, imaging manifestations, etiology, respiratory failure, mechanical ventilation, whether the application of vasoactive drugs, antibiotics application, hospital mortality rate between the two groups were compared, and the prognostic factors of G-CAP were investigated using Logistic regression...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Hongyan Li, Heng Weng, Changqing Lan, Hongying Zhang, Xinhang Wang, Jianguang Pan, Lulu Chen, Jinbao Huang
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).The clinical data of 18 cases of H7N9 and 26 cases of H1N1 with ARDS were collected and compared in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from March 2014 to December 2016.Patients with H7N9 had a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score (P < .05) and lung injury score (P < ...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ilknur Erdem, Fatih Saritas, Ritvan Karaali, Enes Ardic, Gaye Kubra Emeksiz, Sonat Pinar Kara, R Merve Yaniker, Oguzhan Bol
Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disease characterized by recurrent fever attacks and serositis. Nonspecific manifestations of the FMF can mimic many common acquired disorders such as infections and acute abdomen. This can delay recognition for many years and lead to comprehensive assessments and even unnecessary surgeries. Untreated FMF may lead to serious complications such as end-stage renal disease and malabsorption due to amyloid deposits in the kidneys and the digestive system...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Guojun Zhang, Guanghui Zheng, Yan Zhang, Ruimin Ma, Xixiong Kang
Post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM) is one of the most severe hospital-acquired infections (HAI) worldwide, and a large number of pathogens, especially those possessing multi-resistance genes, are related to these infections. Existing methods for detecting bacteria and measuring their response to antibiotics lack sensitivity and stability, and laboratory-based detection methods are inconvenient, which require at least 24h to complete. Rapid identification of bacteria and the determination of their susceptibility to antibiotics are urgently needed, in order to combat the emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Gabriela Ensinck, Adriana Ernst, Gustavo Lazarte, Antonela Romagnoli, Yanina Sguassero, Nanci Míguez, Santiago López Papucci, Alicia Aletti, Ana Chiossone, Fernanda Pigozzi, Matías Pinotti, Ana Cantador
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are a common reason for consultation in pediatrics. Most of them present as skin and soft tissue infections; however, invasive infections have increased during the last decade. OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to describe the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of CA-MRSA infections. The secondary objective was to compare prevalence, clinical presentation and antibiotic susceptibility with a pre-study period (1/2004-12/2007)...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Martin Mielke
Clinically relevant infections are the primary indication for the use of antimicrobial agents in human medicine. Consequently, the prevention of infections is the fundament of all measures to rationally reduce the use of antibiotics. A prevented infection must not be treated. For the prevention of several community-acquired infections, vaccines are available. In addition, several infections may be prevented on the basis of knowledge and responsible behavior. However, the prevention of nosocomial infections depends mainly on the responsibility of third parties in the context of medical procedures...
March 19, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Michelle P Kallis, Caroline Maloney, Aaron M Lipskar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pilonidal disease, and the treatment associated with it, can cause significant morbidity and substantial burden to patients' quality of life. Despite the plethora of surgical techniques that have been developed to treat pilonidal disease, discrepancies in technique, recurrence rates, complications, time to return to work/school and patients' aesthetic satisfaction between treatment options have led to controversy over the best approach to this common acquired disease of young adults...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Said Alyacoubi, Yousef Abuowda, Loai Albarqouni, Bettina Böttcher, Khamis Elessi
BACKGROUND: Disease severity scores such as CURB-65 are often used to guide the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Early and adequate empirical antibiotic treatment reduces mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the severity assessment and management of patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia at the European Gaza Hospital in the Gaza Strip and to compare this to the best available evidence. METHODS: Medical records of all patients admitted to the European Gaza Hospital with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia between Dec 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, were reviewed retrospectively...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ana Belkin, Zeala Gazit, Nathan Keller, Ronen Ben-Ami, Anat Wieder-Finesod, Ana Novikov, Galia Rahav, Tal Brosh-Nissimov
A patient transferred from South Africa to Israel acquired a Candida auris infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed resemblance of C. auris to isolates from South Africa but not Israel, suggesting travel-associated infection. C. auris infection occurred weeks later in another patient at the same hospital, suggesting prolonged environmental persistence.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Lee Squitieri, Daniel A Waxman, Carol M Mangione, Debra Saliba, Clifford Y Ko, Jack Needleman, David A Ganz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate national present-on-admission (POA) reporting for hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) and examine the impact of quality measure exclusion criteria on HAPU rates. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Medicare inpatient, outpatient, and nursing facility data as well as independent provider claims (2010-2011). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We evaluated acute inpatient hospital admissions among Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) beneficiaries in 2011...
January 25, 2018: Health Services Research
Suzanne S Dunne, Merja Ahonen, Martina Modic, Francy Rl Crijns, Minna M Keinänen-Toivola, Ruth Meinke, C William Keevil, Jim Gray, Nuala H O'Connell, Colum P Dunne
Recognized issues with poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, and reports of re-contamination of previously chemically disinfected surfaces through hand contact, emphasize need for novel hygiene methods in addition to those currently available. One such approach involves antimicrobial (nano)-coatings (AMC), whereby integrated active ingredients are responsible for elimination of microorganisms that come into contact with treated surfaces. While widely studied under laboratory conditions with promising results, studies under real life healthcare conditions are scarce...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
L Armand-Lefèvre, A Andremont, E Ruppé
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered a major threat to health. Enterobacteriaceae have increasingly become resistant to antibiotics through the acquisition and dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) that confer resistance to most beta-lactams. While ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were formerly restricted to hospitals, they have now spread to community settings, especially in developing countries. The tremendous expansion of international travels contributed to the importation of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MRE) to low prevalence countries...
March 14, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Junhao Lei, Chunhua Luo, Songtao Cheng, Wen Yan, Xinghuan Wang, Xinjun Su
BACKGROUND: To introduce the detailed procedures of two innovative surgical options for pediatric buried penis and prospectively compare their efficacy and safety. METHODS: A single-center, non-randomized, prospective study was conducted at the Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, where patients were operated on using the so-called "one stitch" (OS) or "four stitch" (FS) methods. The operation time, adverse events, and satisfaction were recorded for both groups...
March 16, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Payal K Patel, M Todd Greene, Mary A M Rogers, David Ratz, Latoya Kuhn, Jennifer Davis, Sanjay Saint
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired urinary tract-related bloodstream infections are rare but often lethal. Recent epidemiology of this condition among the United States veteran population is poorly described. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of hospital-acquired urinary tract-related bloodstream infections of adult inpatients admitted to 4 Veterans Affairs hospitals over 15 years. Electronic medical records were used to obtain clinical, demographic, and microbiologic information...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Naoya Sakamoto, Kyohei Tsuchiya, Mayu Hikone
We report the case of a 47-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who was referred to our hospital for acute dyspnea. The radiologic findings revealed consolidation with a cavity in the left upper lobe of the lung. Blood/sputum cultures detected Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite intensive care, the patient died from respiratory failure. Autopsy revealed multiple small necrotizing cavities that had coalesced. Although P. aeruginosa is a known causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in patients with structural lung disease, the radiologic findings were non-specific...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Yusuke Okubo, Nobuaki Michihata, Naho Morisaki, Kazuhiro Uda, Isao Miyairi, Yuichi Ogawa, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia/bronchitis in children, and macrolide-resistant strains are increasing in East Asian countries. Recent practice patterns, especially for antibiotic selection, and benefits of corticosteroid treatment in pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections remain unclear. METHODS: Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database, we analyzed recent trends in antibiotic selection and corticosteroid use for pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related respiratory infections, using multivariable mixed effects logistic regressions...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Angela D Rowe, Karen McCarty, Amy Huett
PURPOSE: A large, freestanding pediatric hospital in the southern United States saw a 117% increase in reported hospital acquired pressure injuries (HAPI) between 2013 and 2015, with the intensive care units being the units of highest occurrence. Design and Methods A quality improvement project was designed and implemented to assist with pressure injury prevention. Literature review confirmed that pediatric HAPIs are a challenge and that usage of bundles and user-friendly guidelines/pathways can help eliminate barriers to prevention...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Mao-Song Tsai, Shih-Ping Lin, Te-Yu Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Yi-Chien Lee, Yu-Shan Huang, Chun-Eng Liu, Yuan-Ti Lee, Hung-Jen Tang, Ning-Chi Wang, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Wen-Chien Ko, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the evolution of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients included in two cohorts in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the information on demographic and clinical characteristics of 4,025 and 3,856 HIV-positive Taiwanese, who were aged 18 years or older at designated hospitals around Taiwan in 2004-2007, when an outbreak of HIV infection was occurring, and 2012-2016, when the outbreak was controlled with the implementation of harm reduction program, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Jane Hawkey, David B Ascher, Louise M Judd, Ryan R Wick, Xenia Kostoulias, Heather Cleland, Denis W Spelman, Alex Padiglione, Anton Y Peleg, Kathryn E Holt
Acinetobacter baumannii is a common causative agent of hospital-acquired infections and a leading cause of infection in burns patients. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii is considered a major public-health threat and has been identified by the World Health Organization as the top priority organism requiring new antimicrobials. The most common mechanism for carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is via horizontal acquisition of carbapenemase genes. In this study, we sampled 20 A. baumannii isolates from a patient with extensive burns, and characterized the evolution of carbapenem resistance over a 45 day period via Illumina and Oxford Nanopore sequencing...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Genomics
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