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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335802/use-of-low-dose-computed-tomography-to-assess-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-healthcare-workers-in-a-tuberculosis-hospital
#1
Wei He, Bu-Dong Chen, Yan Lv, Zhen Zhou, Jin-Ping Xu, Ping-Xin Lv, Xin-Hua Zhou, Feng-Gang Ning, Cheng-Hai Li, Dong-Po Wang, Jie Zheng
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, China is one of 22 countries with serious tuberculosis (TB) infections and one of the 27 countries with serious multidrug-resistant TB strains. Despite the decline of tuberculosis in the overall population, healthcare workers (HCWs) are still at a high risk of infection. Compared with high-income countries, the TB prevalence among HCWs is higher in low- and middle-income countries. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is becoming more popular due to its superior sensitivity and lower radiation dose...
March 24, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334183/comparative-transcriptional-analysis-of-the-host-specialized-aphids-aphis-gossypii-hemiptera-aphididae
#2
Yuan-Chen Zhang, Hai-Xia Lei, Ning-Hui Miao, Xiang-Dong Liu
Host specialization is an ubiquitous character in aphid populations. Many polyphagous aphid populations usually consist of several subpopulations that have strong fidelity to a specific host or a subset of host range. Host specialization is an evolutional result of food habit of insects. However, genetic basis and molecular mechanism of host specialization are still unclear. In this study, we presented a comparative analysis on global gene expression profiles of three lineages of Aphis gossypii Glover: cotton-specialized (CO), cucurbit-specialized (CU), and CU reared on cowpea (CU-cowpea), using RNA-Seq method...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334141/distribution-of-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-virulence-associated-factors-and-crispr-loci-in-isolates-of-enterococcus-faecalis-from-various-settings-and-genetic-lineages
#3
Iwona Gawryszewska, Katarzyna Malinowska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Lucja Laniewska-Trokenheim, Waleria Hryniewicz, Ewa Sadowy
Enterococcus faecalis represents an important factor of hospital-associated infections (HAIs). The knowledge on its evolution from a commensal to an opportunistic pathogen is still limited, thus we performed a study to characterize distribution of factors that may contribute to this adaptation. Using a collection obtained from various settings (hospitalized patients, community carriers, animals, fresh food, sewage, water) we investigated differences in antimicrobial susceptibility, distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence-associated determinants and phenotypes, and CRISPR loci in the context of the clonal relatedness of isolates...
March 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330510/an-integrated-environmental-improvement-of-marshlands-impact-on-control-and-elimination-of-schistosomiasis-in-marshland-regions-along-the-yangtze-river-china
#4
Le-Ping Sun, Wei Wang, Yin-Ping Zuo, Zheng-Qiu Zhang, Qing-Biao Hong, Guo-Jing Yang, Hong-Ru Zhu, You-Sheng Liang, Hai-Tao Yang
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a global snail-transmitted infectious disease of poverty. Transmission control had been achieved in China in 2015 after the control efforts for over 60 years. Currently, the remaining core regions endemic for Schistosoma japonicum are mainly located in the marshland and lake regions along the Yangtze River basin. METHODS: During the period from 2001 through 2015, an integrated environmental improvement of the marshlands was carried out through the implementation of industrial, agricultural and resources development projects in Yizheng County along the Yangtze River...
March 22, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329415/the-hand-hygiene-compliance-of-student-nurses-during-clinical-placements
#5
Jorun Saetre Sundal, Anne Grethe Aune, Eline Storvig, Jenny Kristin Aasland, Kaja Linn Fjeldsaeter, Kirsti Torjuul
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To observe student nurses' overall and moment-specific hand hygiene compliance during clinical placement. BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is the single most important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). However, research has shown low compliance among healthcare workers. During clinical placements, student nurses perform various nursing tasks and procedures to a large number of patients, requiring extensive patient contact. It is crucial that they practice correct hand hygiene in order to prevent healthcare-associated infections...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328162/predictive-model-for-inflammation-grades-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-large-scale-analysis-of-clinical-parameters-and-gene-expressions
#6
Weichen Zhou, Yanyun Ma, Jun Zhang, Jingyi Hu, Menghan Zhang, Yi Wang, Yi Li, Lijun Wu, Yida Pan, Yitong Zhang, Xiaonan Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Zhanqing Zhang, Jiming Zhang, Hai Li, Lungen Lu, Li Jin, Jiucun Wang, Zhenghong Yuan, Jie Liu
BACKGROUND: Liver biopsy is the gold standard to assess pathological features (e.g. inflammation grades) for hepatitis B virus infected patients, although it's invasive and traumatic; meanwhile, several gene profiles of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) have been separately described in relatively small HBV-infected samples. We aimed to analyze correlations among inflammation grades, gene expressions and clinical parameters (serum alanine amino transaminase, aspartate amino transaminase, and HBV-DNA) in large-scale CHB samples, and to predict inflammation grades by using clinical parameters and/or gene expressions...
March 22, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325921/zika-virus-genome-biology-and-molecular-pathogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Anyou Wang, Stephanie Thurmond, Leonel Islas, Kingyung Hui, Rong Hai
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging RNA virus in the widespread Flavivirus genus. Recently, ZIKV has rapidly spread around the world and has been implicated in human disease, including neurological disorders, triggering public and scientific attention. Understanding how ZIKV causes disease is the highest priority, yet little is known about this virus. Here we examine the currently published data from ZIKV studies to provide the latest understanding of ZIKV genome biology and molecular pathogenesis. The ZIKV genome evolved rapidly from the Flavivirus genus and diverged from the members of this genus, even within the dengue virus cluster to which ZIKV belongs...
March 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322895/baicalin-benefits-the-anti-hbv-therapy-via-inhibiting-hbv-viral-rnas
#8
Hai Huang, Wei Zhou, Haiyan Zhu, Pei Zhou, Xunlong Shi
BACKGROUND: Although current antiviral treatments (nucleoside analogs, NAs) for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are effective in suppressing HBV-DNA replication, their clinical outcomes can be compromised by the increasing drug resistance and the inefficiency in promoting HBsAg/HBeAg seroconversion. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we will explore possible effects and mechanism of a natural product baicalin (BA) with the anti-HBV efficacy of entecavir (ETV), a first-line anti-HBV drug, in HBV-DNA, HBsAg/HBeAg seroconversion and drug-resistance...
March 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321214/exogenous-l-valine-promotes-phagocytosis-to-kill-multidrug-resistant-bacterial-pathogens
#9
Xin-Hai Chen, Shi-Rao Liu, Bo Peng, Dan Li, Zhi-Xue Cheng, Jia-Xin Zhu, Song Zhang, Yu-Ming Peng, Hui Li, Tian-Tuo Zhang, Xuan-Xian Peng
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria presents a severe threat to public health and causes extensive losses in livestock husbandry and aquaculture. Effective strategies to control such infections are in high demand. Enhancing host immunity is an ideal strategy with fewer side effects than antibiotics. To explore metabolite candidates, we applied a metabolomics approach to investigate the metabolic profiles of mice after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Compared with the mice that died from K. pneumoniae infection, mice that survived the infection displayed elevated levels of l-valine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319793/early-response-of-wheat-antioxidant-system-with-special-reference-to-fusarium-head-blight-stress
#10
Valentina Spanic, Marija Viljevac Vuletic, Ivan Abicic, Tihana Marcek
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that causes significant grain yield losses and end-use quality reduction associated with contamination by the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Three winter wheat varieties ('Vulkan', 'Kraljica' and 'Golubica') were screened for FHB resistance using artificial inoculation technique under field conditions. The aim of this study was to examine a relationship between FHB resistance and the effectiveness of enzyme antioxidant system of wheat varieties under different sampling times (3, 15, 24, 48, 96, 120 and 336 hai)...
March 14, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314288/prevalence-of-cervical-infection-and-genotype-distribution-of-human-papilloma-virus-among-females-in-da-nang-vietnam
#11
Song Nguyen VAN, Minh Nguyen Khac, Jan Dimberg, Andreas Matussek, Anna J Henningsson
AIM: The goal of the present study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes in women from two districts in and around Da Nang city, Vietnam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All participants were randomly selected, 200 from the Hai Chau district and 200 from the Son Tra district. The detection and genotyping of HPV were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. RESULTS: Out of a total of 400 women, we found that 38 (9...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303960/the-immune-correlates-of-protection-for-an-avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccine-in-the-ferret-model-using-oil-in-water-adjuvants
#12
Sook-San Wong, Susu Duan, Jennifer DeBeauchamp, Mark Zanin, Lisa Kercher, Stephanie Sonnberg, Thomas Fabrizio, Trushar Jeevan, Jeri-Carol Crumpton, Christine Oshansky, Yilun Sun, Li Tang, Paul Thomas, Richard Webby
Because of the pathogenicity and low incidence of avian influenza virus infections in humans, the immune correlates of protection for avian influenza vaccines cannot be determined from clinical studies. Here, we used the ferret model to address this for an avian influenza H5N1 vaccine. Using oil-in-water adjuvants, we generated groups of ferrets with undetectable (geometric mean titer [GMT] < 10), low (GMT = 28.3), or high (GMT > 761.1) hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titers to the A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303341/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-associated-with-surgical-site-infection-after-different-types-of-hepatobiliary-and-pancreatic-surgery
#13
Keita Morikane
PURPOSE: Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAIs); however, SSI after hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery (HBPS) has not been well investigated in a large cohort of patients. This study analyzed the factors associated with SSI following HBPS in Japan, using a Japanese national database. METHODS: Data on HBPS performed between 2012 and 2014 were extracted from a national monitoring system for HAI: The Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance...
March 16, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300495/hospital-acquired-infections-in-paediatric-medical-wards-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#14
Kevin B Spicer, Jennifer Green, Barnesh Dhada
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) impact care and costs in hospitals across the globe. There are minimal data on HAIs in sub-Saharan Africa and data specific to paediatrics are especially limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of HAIs in the paediatric medical units at Grey's Hospital, a tertiary government hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: The Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) team collects data on all laboratory-confirmed infections, including from paediatric patients in two medical units (52 beds), the paediatric intensive/high-care unit (PICU, 8 beds) and the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, 23 beds)...
March 16, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296763/evaluating-the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-a-biondvax-developed-universal-influenza-vaccine-multimeric-001-either-as-a-standalone-vaccine-or-as-a-primer-to-h5n1-influenza-vaccine-phase-iib-study-protocol
#15
Eva van Doorn, Heng Liu, Tamar Ben-Yedidia, Shimon Hassin, Ildiko Visontai, Stephen Norley, Henderik W Frijlink, Eelko Hak
INTRODUCTION: Influenza is a major respiratory viral infection of humans with high mortality and morbidity rates and profound economic impact. Although influenza vaccines are generally updated yearly to match the viruses expected in the coming season, genetic mutation and reassortment can result in unexpected novel strains. Therefore, it is important to develop universal vaccines inducing protective immunity to such strains before they appear. This clinical trial is designed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Multimeric-001 (M-001), which contains conserved epitopes of influenza A and B...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292327/approaches-being-used-in-the-national-schistosomiasis-elimination-programme-in-china-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Le-Ping Sun, Wei Wang, Qing-Biao Hong, Shi-Zhu Li, You-Sheng Liang, Hai-Tao Yang, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Schistosomiasis japonica, caused by the human blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum, remains a major public health problem in China, although great success has been achieved. The control efforts during the past half-decade, notably the wide implementation of the new integrated strategy with emphasis on control of the source of S. japonicum infection across the country since 2004, has greatly reduced S. japonicum in humans, livestock, and intermediate host Oncomelania hupensis snails, and transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in China in 2015...
March 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289522/device-associated-infection-rates-mortality-length-of-stay-and-bacterial-resistance-in-intensive-care-units-in-ecuador-international-nosocomial-infection-control-consortium-s-findings
#17
Estuardo Salgado Yepez, Maria M Bovera, Victor D Rosenthal, Hugo A González Flores, Leonardo Pazmiño, Francisco Valencia, Nelly Alquinga, Vanessa Ramirez, Edgar Jara, Miguel Lascano, Veronica Delgado, Cristian Cevallos, Gasdali Santacruz, Cristian Pelaéz, Celso Zaruma, Diego Barahona Pinto
AIM: To report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) study conducted in Quito, Ecuador. METHODS: A device-associated healthcare-acquired infection (DA-HAI) prospective surveillance study conducted from October 2013 to January 2015 in 2 adult intensive care units (ICUs) from 2 hospitals using the United States Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and INICC methods. RESULTS: We followed 776 ICU patients for 4818 bed-days...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288756/antiparasitic-efficacy-of-curcumin-from-curcuma-longa-against-ichthyophthirius-multifiliis-in-grass-carp
#18
Yan-Meng Liu, Qi-Zhong Zhang, De-Hai Xu, Yao-Wu Fu, De-Jie Lin, Sheng-Yu Zhou, Jian-Pei Li
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated parasite that elicits great economic losses in aquaculture. In the present study, a polyphenol compound, curcumin, was obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa by bioassay-guided isolation based on the efficacy of anti-I. multifiliis theronts. Anti-I. multifiliis efficacy of curcumin was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin resulted in 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at a concentration of 1mg/L within 21.7±1.2min and killed all tomonts at 8mg/L within 31...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287614/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-is-the-predominant-chytrid-fungus-in-vietnamese-salamanders
#19
Alexandra E Laking, Hai Ngoc Ngo, Frank Pasmans, An Martel, Tao Thien Nguyen
The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281421/a-framework-for-preventing-healthcare-associated-infection-in-neonates-and-children-in-south-africa
#20
A Dramowski, M F Cotton, A Whitelaw
Healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is a frequent and serious complication affecting 4 - 8% of hospitalised children and neonates in high-income countries. The burden of HAI in South African (SA) paediatric and neonatal wards is substantial but underappreciated, owing to a lack of HAI surveillance and reporting. Maternal and child health and infection prevention are priority areas for healthcare quality improvement in the National Core Standards programme. Despite increasing recognition in SA, infection prevention efforts targeting hospitalised children and neonates are hampered by health system, institutional and individual patient factors...
February 27, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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