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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158918/challenges-with-surveillance-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-intensive-care-units-in-south-africa
#1
Saajida Mahomed, Ozayr Mahomed, A Willem Sturm, Stephen Knight, Prashini Moodley
Background: The incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the public health sector in South Africa is not known due to the lack of a surveillance system. We report on the challenges experienced in the implementation of a surveillance system for HAIs in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: A passive, paper-based surveillance system was piloted in eight ICUs to measure the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and central line-associated bloodstream infection...
2017: Critical Care Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155030/transcriptome-analysis-and-discovery-of-genes-involved-in-immune-pathways-from-coelomocytes-of-onchidium-struma-after-bacterial-challenge
#2
Mingming Zhang, Guo Qiao, Qiang Li, De-Hai Xu, Zhitao Qi, Aiming Wang, Mengyao Xu, Jintian Huang
Onchidium struma widely distributes in subtidal and low-tidal zones, which is considered to be an economical species with rich nutrition, a valuable biomonitor for heavy metal pollution and a representative species for evolution from ocean to land. However, there is limited genetic information available for O. struma development. This study compared transcriptomic profiles of coelomocytes from normal and bacteria infected O. struma by Illumina-based paired-end sequencing to explore the molecular immune mechanism of O...
November 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154953/correlation-between-cefepime-utilization-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-resistance-rate-to-beta-lactams-and-carbapenems-in-patients-with-healthcare-associated-infections
#3
Zorana M Djordjevic, Marko M Folic, Slobodan M Jankovic
OBJECTIVES: There is direct link between overutilization or abuse of antibiotics and P.aeruginosa resistance rate, but other factors could influence the resistance rate, too. The study aim was to observe changes of P.aeruginosa resistance rate in patients with hospital acquired infections (HAIs) after a period of cefepime unavailability in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: The study was designed as retrospective observational analysis of trends in utilization of antibiotics and density of resistance to antibiotics...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153947/paper-based-fluorogenic-devices-for-in-vitro-diagnostics
#4
REVIEW
Meirong Wu, Qiongyu Lai, Qiang Ju, Lin Li, Hai-Dong Yu, Wei Huang
In vitro diagnostics (IVD) are essential in healthcare systems for detection of diseases, conditions, or infections. Affordable and sensitive methods remain a challenge in the development of IVD. In this article, we give an overview of paper-based fluorogenic devices, an emerging cost-effective analytical method for IVD applications. The paper-based devices are inexpensive, sensitive, selective, user-friendly and equipment-free. Furthermore, the fluorescent detection on paper-based devices has recently attracted enormous attentions due to its high sensitivity and selectivity...
November 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150923/pkg-ii-effectively-reversed-egf-induced-protein-expression-alterations-in-human-gastric-cancer-cell-lines
#5
Hai Qian, Yan Tao, Lu Jiang, Ying Wang, Ting Lan, Min Wu, Ji Pang, Kwaku Appiah-Kubi, Yongchang Chen, Yan Wu
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in gastric cancer (GC) progression. Our previous data demonstrated that type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG II) could block the EGF-EGFR axis as well as down-stream signaling pathways for example, MAPK, PI3K and PLC in gastric cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms of PKG II against cancer remain unclear. Therefore, the present work was to address the above question. Human gastric cancer cell line AGS was infected with adenoviral construct encoding cDNA of PKG II (Ad-PKG II) to up-regulate PKG II and then treated with 8-pCPT-cGMP...
November 18, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150362/prevalence-of-pediculus-capitis-in-schoolchildren-in-battambang-cambodia
#6
Chien-Wei Liao, Po-Ching Cheng, Ting-Wu Chuang, Kuan-Chih Chiu, I-Chen Chiang, Juo-Han Kuo, Yun-Hung Tu, Yu-Min Fan, Hai-Tao Jiang, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pediculus capitis is the most common human ectoparasite. When it feeds on the blood through the scalp of its host, the anticoagulant in its saliva causes scalp inflammation and itching, and consequent scratching by the host causes further inflammation from bacterial infection. P. capitis infestation is currently a common parasitic dermatosis and a critical public health concern in underdeveloped countries. METHODS: Through naked eye inspection of P...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145498/antigenicity-of-the-2015-2016-seasonal-h1n1-human-influenza-virus-ha-and-na-proteins
#7
Amelia M Clark, Marta L DeDiego, Christopher S Anderson, Jiong Wang, Hongmei Yang, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Martin S Zand, Mark Y Sangster, David J Topham
Antigenic drift of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) influenza virus proteins contributes to reduced vaccine efficacy. To analyze antigenic drift in human seasonal H1N1 viruses derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus (pH1N1-like viruses) accounts for the limited effectiveness (around 40%) of vaccination against pH1N1-like viruses during the 2015-2016 season, nasal washes/swabs collected from adult subjects in the Rochester, NY area, were used to sequence and isolate the circulating viruses. The HA and NA proteins from viruses circulating during the 2015-2016 season encoded eighteen and fourteen amino acid differences, respectively, when compared to A/California/04/2009, a strain circulating at the origin of the 2009 pandemic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145159/potential-link-between-m-6-a-modification-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
REVIEW
Lian-Ju Li, Yin-Guang Fan, Rui-Xue Leng, Hai-Feng Pan, Dong-Qing Ye
The field of m(6)A modification and epitranscriptomics has recently attracted much attention. More methods allowing for precise m(6)A site profiling and location are developed and crucial players of m(6)A modification machinery are increasingly identified. Although some challenges remain, m(6)A modification is found to modulate almost all aspects of RNA metabolism, such as splicing, stability, structure, translation, and export. Thus, m(6)A modification adds a new layer of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, and it is implicated in T cell response to HIV infection, type I interferon production, and T cell differentiation and homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144463/a-single-cell-survey-of-the-small-intestinal-epithelium
#9
Adam L Haber, Moshe Biton, Noga Rogel, Rebecca H Herbst, Karthik Shekhar, Christopher Smillie, Grace Burgin, Toni M Delorey, Michael R Howitt, Yarden Katz, Itay Tirosh, Semir Beyaz, Danielle Dionne, Mei Zhang, Raktima Raychowdhury, Wendy S Garrett, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Hai Ning Shi, Omer Yilmaz, Ramnik J Xavier, Aviv Regev
Intestinal epithelial cells absorb nutrients, respond to microbes, function as a barrier and help to coordinate immune responses. Here we report profiling of 53,193 individual epithelial cells from the small intestine and organoids of mice, which enabled the identification and characterization of previously unknown subtypes of intestinal epithelial cell and their gene signatures. We found unexpected diversity in hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells and constructed the taxonomy of newly identified subtypes, and distinguished between two subtypes of tuft cell, one of which expresses the epithelial cytokine Tslp and the pan-immune marker CD45, which was not previously associated with non-haematopoietic cells...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144223/no-touch-disinfection-methods-to-decrease-multidrug-resistant-organism-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Alexandre R Marra, Marin L Schweizer, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that using no-touch disinfection technologies (ie, ultraviolet light [UVL] or hydrogen peroxide vapor [HPV] systems) can limit the transmission of nosocomial pathogens and prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). To investigate these findings further, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of no-touch disinfection methods to decrease HAIs. METHODS We searched PubMed, CINAHL, CDSR, DARE and EMBASE through April 2017 for studies evaluating no-touch disinfection technology and the nosocomial infection rates for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137390/a-cocktail-of-p16-ink4a-and-ki-67-p16-ink4a-and-minichromosome-maintenance-protein-2-as-triage-tests-for-human-papillomavirus-primary-cervical-cancer-screening
#11
Hai-Rui Wang, Yu-Cong Li, Hui-Qin Guo, Lu-Lu Yu, Zeni Wu, Jian Yin, Guang-Dong Liao, Yi-Min Qu, Yu Jiang, Dong Wang, Wen Chen
Most human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient and additional triage approaches should be built after HPV-based primary cervical cancer screening. We evaluated the accuracy of p16/Ki-67 and p16/mcm2 dual staining as biomarkers for triaging HPV positive women in China. 4070 participants aged 35 to 64 years attending ongoing cervical cancer screening were enrolled in 2015-2016. Cervical exfoliated cells were collected for HPV DNA analysis and the residual positive specimens were tested for liquid-based cytology and biomarkers...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137006/definition-of-persistent-vomiting-in-current-medical-literature-a-systematic-review
#12
Mostafa Ebraheem Morra, Abdelrahman Elshafay, Aswin Ratna Kansakar, Ghaleb Muhammad Mehyar, Nguyen Phan Hoang Dang, Omar Mohamed Mattar, Somia Iqtadar, Mostafa Reda Mostafa, Vu Ngoc Hai, Tran Le-Huy Vu, Ahmed Abdelmotaleb Ghazy, Fatima Kaboub, Nguyen Tien Huy, Kenji Hirayama
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Persistent vomiting is mentioned as a symptom of a large variety of systemic disorders. It is commonly used interchangeably with chronic, recurrent, or intractable vomiting and widely used as a warning sign of severe illness in dengue infection. However, it has been poorly defined in the medical literature. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review a definition of persistent vomiting in the medical literature. METHODS: A systematic search was done through; PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, VHL, WHO-GHL, Grey Literature Report, POPLINE, and SIGLE for the last 10 years...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132355/criteria-for-prioritization-of-hiv-programs-in-viet-nam-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#13
Ali Safarnejad, Milena Pavlova, Vo Hai Son, Huynh Lan Phuong, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: With the decline in funding for Viet Nam's response to the HIV epidemic, there is a need for evidence on the criteria to guide the prioritization of HIV programs. There is a gap in the research on the relative importance of multiple criteria for prioritizing a package of interventions. This study elicits preferences and the trade-offs made between different HIV programs by relevant stakeholders and decision-makers in Viet Nam. It also pays attention to how differences in social and professional characteristics of stakeholders and their agency affiliations shape preferences for HIV program criteria in Viet Nam...
November 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126889/impaired-glutamatergic-projection-from-the-motor-cortex-to-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned-hemi-parkinsonian-rats
#14
Yan-Yan Wang, Yong Wang, Hai-Fei Jiang, Jun-Hua Liu, Jun Jia, Ke Wang, Fei Zhao, Min-Hua Luo, Min-Min Luo, Xiao-Min Wang
The glutamatergic projection from the motor cortex to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitutes the cortico-basal ganglia circuit and plays a critical role in the control of movement. Emerging evidence shows that the cortico-STN pathway is susceptible to dopamine depletion. Specifically in Parkinson's disease (PD), abnormal electrophysiological activities were observed in the motor cortex and STN, while the STN serves as a key target of deep brain stimulation for PD therapy. However, direct morphological changes in the cortico-STN connectivity in response to PD progress are poorly understood at present...
November 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123370/assessing-hand-hygiene-compliance-among-healthcare-workers-in-six-intensive-care-units
#15
REVIEW
M Musu, A Lai, N M Mereu, M Galletta, M Campagna, M Tidore, M F Piazza, L Spada, M V Massidda, S Colombo, P Mura, R C Coppola
Introduction: Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) are a cause of high morbidity, disability and reduced quality of life, as well as mortality and rising costs for health systems. Preventing the HAI risk by planning and implementing effective preventive strategies is important to safeguard patient health. Methods: The study aimed to evaluate the presence of procedures and protocols for infection control, to assess the adhesion to the different aspects of hand hygiene (HH) and hand washing technique by healthcare workers in six ICUs...
September 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121070/identification-and-characterization-of-intestine-micrornas-and-targets-in-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii-infected-with-white-spot-syndrome-virus
#16
Zhi-Qiang Du, Kai Wang, Xiu-Li Shen, Yan-Hui Jin, Hai-Xia Jin, Xin-Cang Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that play important roles in the innate immunity system of invertebrates, especially in the aspect of antivirus. In the present study, high-throughput small RNA Illumina sequencing systems were used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) from the intestines of Procambarus clarkii that were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). As a result, 39 known and 12 novel miRNAs were identified in both NG and WG small RNA libraries...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116590/detection-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-in-newborns-using-nucleic-acid-amplification-techniques-and-its-public-health-implications
#17
REVIEW
Guoyu Liu, Rong Hai, Fenyong Liu
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a herpesvirus, is an important human pathogen that causes asymptomatic infections in healthy or immunocompetent individuals but can lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications in immune-immature individuals such as neonates or immune-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and HIV-positive individuals. Congenital HCMV infection represents a significant public health issue and poses substantial healthcare and economic burden to society. This virus causes the most common viral congenital infection worldwide, and is the leading non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children in developed countries...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113861/identification-and-characterization-of-myeloperoxidase-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#18
Hai-Qing Wang, Ling Zhou, Man Yang, Xiao-Chun Luo, Yan-Wei Li, Xue-Ming Dan
Cryptocaryon irritans is an important protozoan ciliate, which has led to heavy economic losses in marine aquaculture. Previous studies have indicated that C. irritans infection could induce the migration of neutrophils to infection sites. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) mainly exists in the cytoplasmic granules of the neutrophil and performs its function by a unique enzymatic capacity to produce hypohalous acid and other toxic oxidants. To determine the involvement of MPO and neutrophils against C. irritans infection in the host, we amplified MPO cDNA (EcMPO) from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)...
November 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111352/use-of-antibiotics-in-paediatric-long-term-care-facilities
#19
Meghan T Murray, Candace L Johnson, Bevin Cohen, Olivia Jackson, Laney K Jones, Lisa Saiman, Elaine L Larson, Natalie Neu
BACKGROUND: Adult long term care (LTC) have high rates of antibiotic use, raising concerns about antimicrobial resistance. Few studies have examined antibiotic use in paediatric LTC. AIM: We sought to describe antibiotic use in three paediatric LTC facilities and to describe the factors associated with use. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted September 2012 - December 2015 in three paediatric LTC facilities. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, healthcare-associated infections (HAI), antimicrobial use, and diagnostic testing...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109715/specific-detection-of-serum-antibodies-against-bkpyv-a-small-dna-tumour-virus-in-patients-affected-by-choroidal-nevi
#20
Silvia Pietrobon, Ilaria Bononi, Francesca Lotito, Paolo Perri, Sara Violanti, Elisa Mazzoni, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Ocular or choroidal nevus (CN) is a rare benign neoplastic lesion of the eye. The cause of CN onset/progression, which arises from the transformation of ocular melanocytes, is not known. A fraction of CN patients may develop uveal melanoma. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between CN and BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), a small DNA tumor virus. Serum IgG antibodies which react with BKPyV antigens were analyzed. An indirect E.L.I.S.A. using synthetic peptides that mimic BKPyV antigens was employed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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