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HAI infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109022/itpa-polymorphism-correlates-with-the-reductions-in-hemoglobin-concentration-and-ribavirin-dose-during-sofosbuvir-and-ribavirin-therapy
#1
Ritsuzo Kozuka, Hoang Hai, Yuga Teranishi, Hiroyuki Motoyama, Etsushi Kawamura, Atsushi Hagihara, Sawako Uchida-Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Morikawa, Masaru Enomoto, Yoshiki Murakami, Norifumi Kawada, Akihiro Tamori
BACKGROUND AND AIM: It is unclear whether polymorphism in the inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene correlates with the reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations during sofosbuvir (SOF) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy. We investigated the effects of the ITPA polymorphism in Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 2 infection treated with SOF/RBV therapy. METHODS: In 106 patients treated with SOF/RBV therapy, we assessed the effects of the ITPA polymorphism (rs1127354) on anemia, RBV dose reduction, and sustained virological response (SVR)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107447/a-software-tool-for-estimation-of-burden-of-infectious-diseases-in-europe-using-incidence-based-disability-adjusted-life-years
#2
Edoardo Colzani, Alessandro Cassini, Daniel Lewandowski, Marie-Josee J Mangen, Dietrich Plass, Scott A McDonald, Alies van Lier, Juanita A Haagsma, Guido Maringhini, Alessandro Pini, Piotr Kramarz, Mirjam E Kretzschmar
The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE) project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101771/impact-of-relocation-and-environmental-cleaning-on-reducing-the-incidence-of-healthcare-associated-infection-in-nicu
#3
Qiu-Fang Li, Hong Xu, Xiao-Ping Ni, Rong Lin, Hui Jin, Ling-Ya Wei, Dan Liu, Lin-Hai Shen, Jie Zha, Xin-Fen Xu, Bo Wu
BACKGROUND: Hospital environment remains a risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). This was a prospective study to evaluate the comprehensive impact of relocating a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to a new facility and improved environmental cleaning practice on the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on inanimate surfaces and the incident rate of HAIs. METHODS: New environmental cleaning measures were adopted after the NICU was moved to a new and better-designed location...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097270/prospective-study-analyzing-risk-factors-and-characteristics-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-urology-ward
#4
José Medina-Polo, Raquel Sopeña-Sutil, Raúl Benítez-Sala, Alba Lara-Isla, Manuel Alonso-Isa, Javier Gil-Moradillo, Juan Justo-Quintas, Esther García-Rojo, Daniel Antonio González-Padilla, Juan Bautista Passas-Martínez, Ángel Tejido-Sánchez
PURPOSE: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in urological patients have special features due to specific risk factors. Our objective was to evaluate the characteristics and risk factors for HAIs in patients hospitalized in a Urology ward. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated prospectively, from 2012 to 2015, the incidence, types and risk factor for HAIs, microbiological and resistance patterns. RESULTS: The incidence of HAIs was 6.3%. The most common types were urinary infections (70...
January 2017: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096455/multicenter-prospective-study-on-device-associated-infection-rates-and-bacterial-resistance-in-intensive-care-units-of-venezuela-international-nosocomial-infection-control-consortium-inicc-findings
#5
Gabriel D Empaire, Maria E Guzman Siritt, Victor D Rosenthal, Fernando Pérez, Yvis Ruiz, Claudia Díaz, Gabriela Di Silvestre, Evelyn Salinas, Nelva Orozco
BACKGROUND: Device-associated healthcare-acquired infections (DA-HAI) pose a threat to patient safety in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in two adult medical/surgical ICUs at two hospitals in Caracas, Venezuela, in different periods from March 2008 to April 2015, using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and criteria, and INICC methods...
January 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095879/treatment-seeking-behaviour-and-barriers-to-service-access-for-sexually-transmitted-diseases-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-survey
#6
Jun-Jie Xu, Yan-Qiu Yu, Qing-Hai Hu, Hong-Jing Yan, Zhe Wang, Lin Lu, Ming-Hua Zhuang, Xi Chen, Ji-Hua Fu, Wei-Ming Tang, Wen-Qing Geng, Yong-Jun Jiang, Hong Shang
BACKGROUND: Delayed or inappropriate treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increases the risk of HIV acquisition and may cause other harmful outcomes. However, studies on STD treatment-seeking behaviour and correlated factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) are scarce. This information is crucial for the promotion of STD treatment-seeking behaviour and reduction of HIV transmission among Chinese MSM. METHODS: During 2012-2013, a multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 Chinese cities...
January 18, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093896/intravenous-combined-with-topical-administration-of-tranexamic-acid-in-primary-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Yi Zeng, Hai-Bo Si, Bin Shen, Jing Yang, Zong-Ke Zhou, Peng-de Kang, Fu-Xing Pei
OBJECTIVE: Although there are still some controversies, large previous studies have confirmed that intravenous (i.v.) tranexamic acid (TXA) can effectively reduce blood loss and transfusions in total hip arthroplasty (THA) without increasing the risk of deep venous thrombosis. However, few studies have investigated the combination of i.v. and topical application of TXA in primary THA. The purpose of our current study is to examine whether i.v. combined with topical administration of TXA decreases postoperative blood loss and transfusion rates after THA...
January 17, 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078082/core-components-for-effective-infection-prevention-and-control-programmes-new-who-evidence-based-recommendations
#8
Julie Storr, Anthony Twyman, Walter Zingg, Nizam Damani, Claire Kilpatrick, Jacqui Reilly, Lesley Price, Matthias Egger, M Lindsay Grayson, Edward Kelley, Benedetta Allegranzi
Health care-associated infections (HAI) are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076786/porphyromonas-gingivalis-promotes-unrestrained-type-i-interferon-production-by-dysregulating-tam-signaling-via-myd88-degradation
#9
Gabriel Mizraji, Maria Nassar, Hadas Segev, Hafiz Sharawi, Luba Eli-Berchoer, Tal Capucha, Tsipora Nir, Yaara Tabib, Avraham Maimon, Shira Dishon, Lior Shapira, Gabriel Nussbaum, Asaf Wilensky, Avi-Hai Hovav
Whereas type I interferons (IFNs-I) were proposed to be elevated in human periodontitis, their role in the disease remains elusive. Using a bacterial-induced model of murine periodontitis, we revealed a prolonged elevation in IFN-I expression. This was due to the downregulation of TAM signaling, a major negative regulator of IFN-I. Further examination revealed that the expression of certain TAM components was reduced as a result of prolonged degradation of MYD88 by the infection. As a result of such prolonged IFN-I production, innate immunological functions of the gingiva were disrupted, and CD4(+) T cells were constitutively primed by dendritic cells, leading to elevated RANKL expression and, subsequently, alveolar bone loss (ABL)...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072734/closed-reduction-using-the-percutaneous-leverage-technique-and-internal-fixation-with-k-wires-to-treat-angulated-radial-neck-fractures-in-children-case-report
#10
Hai Jiang, Yongtao Wu, Youting Dang, Yusheng Qiu
: Pediatric radial neck fractures are uncommon. Severely displaced and angulated fractures usually require treatment. Our goals for treatment are to avoid incision, reduce the fracture adequately with no reduction loss, and achieve good postoperative function. We aimed to observe the clinical outcomes of closed reduction with the percutaneous leverage technique and internal fixation with Kirschner-wires (K-wires) to treat angulated radial neck fractures in children.From January 2011 to April 2013, we treated 16 cases of angulated radial neck fracture in 12 boys and 4 girls...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069101/immune-responses-in-mice-vaccinated-with-a-dna-vaccine-expressing-serine-protease-like-protein-from-the-new-born-larval-stage-of-trichinella-spiralis
#11
Jing Xu, Xue Bai, Li Bo Wang, Hai Ning Shi, Joke W B VAN DER Giessen, Pascal Boireau, Ming Yuan Liu, Xiao Lei Liu
Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic helminth that can infect almost all mammals, including humans. Trichinella spiralis infection elicits a typical type 2 immune responses, while suppresses type 1 immune responses, which is in favour of their parasitism. DNA vaccines have been shown to be capable of eliciting balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses as well as humoral immune responses in small-animal models, which will be advantage to induce protective immune response against helminth infection. In this study, serine protease (Ts-NBLsp) was encoded by a cDNA fragment of new-born T...
January 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068364/meta-analysis-of-stenting-versus-non-stenting-for-the-treatment-of-ureteral-stones
#12
Hai Wang, Libo Man, Guizhong Li, Guanglin Huang, Ning Liu, Jianwei Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) are two widely used methods for the treatment of ureteral stones. The need for ureteral stenting during these procedures is controversial. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the benefits and disadvantages of ureteral stents for the treatment of ureteral stones. METHODS: Databases including PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library were selected for systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing outcomes with or without stenting during URL and ESWL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065327/eight-years-of-decreased-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-health-care-associated-infections-associated-with-a-veterans-affairs-prevention-initiative
#13
Martin E Evans, Stephen M Kralovic, Loretta A Simbartl, Rajiv Jain, Gary A Roselle
BACKGROUND: Declines in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) health care associated infections (HAIs) were previously reported in Veterans Affairs acute care (2012), spinal cord injury (SCIU) (2011), and long-term-care facilities (LTCFs) (2012). Here we report continuing declines in infection rates in these settings through September 2015. METHODS: Monthly data entered into a national database from 127 acute care facilities, 22 SCIUs, and 133 LTCFs were evaluated for trends using negative binomial regression...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065202/using-positive-deviance-in-the-prevention-and-control-of-mrsa-infections-in-a-colombian-hospital-a-time-series-analysis
#14
N M Olarte Escobar, I A Valderrama Márquez, J Avila Quiroga, T Goretty Trujillo, F González, M I Garzón Aguilar, J Escobar-Pérez
Positive Deviance (PD) is a process to achieve a social and cultural change. This strategy has been used for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in some health institutions in the United States, but has rarely been adopted in institutions from developing countries where resources are limited. We describe our experience of PD in the control of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) due to MRSA in a Colombian hospital with the aim of reducing HAI rates through a cultural change in processes...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065193/incidence-of-surgical-site-infections-cannot-be-derived-reliably-from-point-prevalence-survey-data-in-dutch-hospitals
#15
A P Meijs, J A Ferreira, S C DE Greeff, M C Vos, M B G Koek
Thorough studies on whether point prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) can be used to reliably estimate incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) are scarce. We examined this topic using surveillance data of 58 hospitals that participated in two Dutch national surveillances; HAI prevalence and SSI incidence surveillance, respectively. First, we simulated daily prevalences of SSIs from incidence data. Subsequently, Rhame & Sudderth's formula was used to estimate SSI incidence from prevalence...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063456/normal-saline-versus-heparin-for-patency-of-central-venous-catheters-in-adult-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Lei Zhong, Hai-Li Wang, Bo Xu, Yao Yuan, Xin Wang, Ying-Ying Zhang, Li Ji, Zi-Mu Pan, Zhan-Sheng Hu
BACKGROUND: Heparin saline (HS) is theoretically superior to normal saline (NS) for maintaining the patency of central venous catheters (CVCs), but the comparative efficacy of them remains controversial. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of NS versus HS in the maintenance of the patency of CVCs in adult patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of NS vs...
January 8, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062005/gga-mir-2127-downregulates-the-translation-of-chicken-p53-and-attenuates-chp53-mediated-innate-immune-response-against-ibdv-infection
#17
Wei Ouyang, Yong-Shan Wang, Kai Meng, Qun-Xing Pan, Xiao-Li Wang, Xing-Xia Xia, Yu-Mei Zhu, Zhen-Wei Bi, Hai-Bin Zhang, Kai Luo
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by the immune suppression of infected birds. The molecular mechanism by which IBD virus (IBDV) suppresses the host immune system remains to be elucidated. The tumor suppressor protein p53 can inhibit the replication of various viruses, but its effect on IBDV remains unknown. This study established an in vitro infection model based on DF-1 cells (chicken embryo fibroblast cell line) to investigate the antiviral effects of chicken p53 (chp53) on IBDV infection...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061318/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-promotes-the-invasion-of-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-by-upregulation-of-toll-like-receptor-2
#18
Shan Cheng, Bin Zhang, Ji-Ying Du, Yu-Hong Jin, Hai-Yang Lang, Li-Hua Zeng
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major risk factors leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) plays a pivotal role in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is also considered to mediate tumor progression. However, the interaction between HBsAg and TLR2 in HCC progression remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the study was to explore the effect of HBsAg-TLR2 pathway on growth and invasion of HBV-related HCC cells and examine the potential mechanisms been involved...
January 6, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059169/transcriptome-profiles-reveal-gene-regulation-of-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-nodulation
#19
Ze Peng, Fengxia Liu, Liping Wang, Hai Zhou, Dev Paudel, Lubin Tan, James Maku, Maria Gallo, Jianping Wang
The molecular mechanisms of symbiosis in cultivated peanut with a 'crack entry' infection process are largely understudied. In this study, we investigated the root transcriptional profiles of two pairs of non-nodulating (nod-) and nodulating (nod+) sister inbred peanut lines, E4/E5 and E7/E6, and their nod+ parents, F487A and PI262090 during rhizobial infection and nodule initiation by using RNA-seq technology. A total of 143, 101, 123, 215, 182, and 289 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in nod- E4, E7 and nod+ E5, E6, F487A, and PI262090 after inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056990/stigmatization-among-methadone-maintenance-treatment-patients-in-mountainous-areas-in-northern-vietnam
#20
Hung Van Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Hue Thi Mai, Hai Quan Le, Bach Xuan Tran, Canh Dinh Hoang, Huong Thi Le, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Tho Dinh Tran, Carl A Latkin, Thuc Minh Thi Vu
BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination may adversely affect the benefits of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for drug users, especially in disadvantaged settings. This study assessed stigma and discrimination against MMT patients in the mountainous and rural areas in Vietnam and explored their associated factors to inform implementation strategies. METHODS: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics: one in Tuyen Quang Province's inner city and the other in Son Duong District, to assess stigma and discrimination that patients perceived and experienced...
January 6, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
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