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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913949/epigenetic-cpg-methylation-of-the-promoter-and-reactivation-of-the-expression-of-gstp1-by-astaxanthin-in-human-prostate-lncap-cells
#1
Yuqing Yang, Francisco Fuentes, Limin Shu, Chao Wang, Doug Pung, Wenji Li, Chengyue Zhang, Yue Guo, Ah-Ng Kong
Astaxanthin (AST), a red dietary carotenoid, has synergistic antioxidant effects with polyunsaturated fatty acids at low concentrations via Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2 or Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling. In addition, chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation-based gene silencing represent a common mechanism in prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression from normal cells to pre-initiated cells and ultimately to invasive carcinoma. Therefore, the control of epigenetic modification and the transcriptional/translational control of the activation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-target genes, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), appear to be an important mechanism that protects cells against injuries from oxidative stress and cancer development...
December 2, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912755/establishment-of-high-reciprocal-connectivity-between-clonal-cortical-neurons-is-regulated-by-the-dnmt3b-dna-methyltransferase-and-clustered-protocadherins
#2
Etsuko Tarusawa, Makoto Sanbo, Atsushi Okayama, Toshio Miyashita, Takashi Kitsukawa, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Sonoko Hasegawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shunsuke Toyoda, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi, Yumiko Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The specificity of synaptic connections is fundamental for proper neural circuit function. Specific neuronal connections that underlie information processing in the sensory cortex are initially established without sensory experiences to a considerable extent, and then the connections are individually refined through sensory experiences. Excitatory neurons arising from the same single progenitor cell are preferentially connected in the postnatal cortex, suggesting that cell lineage contributes to the initial wiring of neurons...
December 2, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910778/mirsnps-of-mir1274-and-mir3202-genes-that-target-mecp2-and-dnmt3b-are-associated-with-lung-cancer-risk-a-study-conducted-on-massarray-genotyping
#3
Cansu Ozbayer, Irfan Degirmenci, Derya Ustuner, Guntulu Ak, Faruk Saydam, Ertugrul Colak, Hasan Veysi Gunes, Muzaffer Metintas
Genetic variants of miRNAs that target DNMTs and MBDs involved in DNA methylation were scanned with current databases, and 35 miRSNPs in 22 miRNA genes were identified. The aim of the study was to determine the association between these variants of miRNA genes and lung cancer (LC). DNA samples were isolated from blood samples and genotyped using a Sequenom MassARRAY System. An association between the rs188912830 gene variant of miR3202 that targets the MeCP2 protein and LC was indicated in both subtypes. The presence of the C-allele in patients with LC and its subtypes was significantly lower, and the absence of the C-allele was determined to increase the risk of LC by 7,429-times compared to the presence (p=0,010)...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905513/whole-genome-scanning-for-the-litter-size-trait-associated-genes-and-snps-under-selection-in-dairy-goat-capra-hircus
#4
Fang-Nong Lai, Hong-Li Zhai, Ming Cheng, Jun-Yu Ma, Shun-Feng Cheng, Wei Ge, Guo-Liang Zhang, Jun-Jie Wang, Rui-Qian Zhang, Xue Wang, Ling-Jiang Min, Jiu-Zhou Song, Wei Shen
Dairy goats are one of the most utilized domesticated animals in China. Here, we selected extreme populations based on differential fecundity in two Laoshan dairy goat populations. Utilizing deep sequencing we have generated 68.7 and 57.8 giga base of sequencing data, and identified 12,458,711 and 12,423,128 SNPs in the low fecundity and high fecundity groups, respectively. Following selective sweep analyses, a number of loci and candidate genes in the two populations were scanned independently. The reproduction related genes CCNB2, AR, ADCY1, DNMT3B, SMAD2, AMHR2, ERBB2, FGFR1, MAP3K12 and THEM4 were specifically selected in the high fecundity group whereas KDM6A, TENM1, SWI5 and CYM were specifically selected in the low fecundity group...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895716/widespread-recovery-of-methylation-at-gametic-imprints-in-hypomethylated-mouse-stem-cells-following-rescue-with-dnmt3a2
#5
Avinash Thakur, Sarah-Jayne Mackin, Rachelle E Irwin, Karla M O'Neill, Gareth Pollin, Colum Walsh
BACKGROUND: Imprinted loci are paradigms of epigenetic regulation and are associated with a number of genetic disorders in human. A key characteristic of imprints is the presence of a gametic differentially methylated region (gDMR). Previous studies have indicated that DNA methylation lost from gDMRs could not be restored by DNMT1, or the de novo enzymes DNMT3A or 3B in stem cells, indicating that imprinted regions must instead undergo passage through the germline for reprogramming. However, previous studies were non-quantitative, were unclear on the requirement for DNMT3A/B and showed some inconsistencies...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895551/oct4-methylation-mediated-silencing-as-an-epigenetic-barrier-preventing-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-dedifferentiation-in-a-murine-model-of-retinal-injury
#6
Luis I Reyes-Aguirre, Monica Lamas
Müller glia (MG) is the most abundant glial type in the vertebrate retina. Among its many functions, it is capable of responding to injury by dedifferentiating, proliferating, and differentiating into every cell types lost to damage. This regenerative ability is notoriously absent in mammals. We have previously reported that cultured mammalian MG undergoes a partial dedifferentiation, but fails to fully acquire a progenitor phenotype and differentiate into neurons. This might be explained by a mnemonic mechanism comprised by epigenetic traits, such as DNA methylation...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876061/associations-of-dnmt3b-149c-t-and-2437t-a-polymorphisms-and-lung-cancer-risk-in-chinese-population
#7
Min Gao, Daqiang He, Fanji Meng, Jianing Li, Yan Shen
BACKGROUND: DNMT3B polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility of lung cancer. DNMT3B -2437T>A is a novel polymorphism, and its influence on the risk of lung cancer in Chinese was investigated in this study. In addition, effect of DNMT3B -149C>T polymorphism on lung cancer was also explored. METHODS: Genotyping in subjects were performed by PCR-RFLP. Haplotype frequencies were estimated by estimating haplotype software. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression analysis...
November 22, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871469/placental-telomere-length-decline-with-gestational-age-differs-by-sex-and-tert-dnmt1-and-dnmt3a-dna-methylation
#8
Samantha L Wilson, Yao Liu, Wendy P Robinson
INTRODUCTION: Telomere length (TL) has been suggested to be influenced by inherited genetic and epigenetic variation, hormonal effects, oxidative stress and age. However, the dynamics of TL during in utero development have not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between placental TL and sex, gestational age (GA), and DNA methylation (DNAm). Placental TL is further evaluated in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), conditions hypothesized to lead to decreased placental TL due to increased oxidative stress...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871462/placental-expression-of-dna-methyltransferase-1-dnmt1-gender-specific-relation-with-human-placental-growth
#9
A Mukhopadhyay, G Ravikumar, H Meraaj, P Dwarkanath, A Thomas, J Crasta, T Thomas, A V Kurpad, T S Sridhar
AIMS: Placental physiology and morphology is critically regulated by DNA methylation. As such, placental global DNA methylation and transcript abundance of placental DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A) may relate to placental and fetal growth in human pregnancies. We aimed to test correlations of human fetoplacental parameters and birth weight with the placental expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A) and placental global methylation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Placentae (n = 109) were collected from small- (SGA) and appropriate- (AGA) for gestational age full-term singleton pregnancies (n = 56 SGA and 53 AGA)...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865785/dnmt1-dnmt3a-and-dnmt3b-cooperate-in-photoreceptor-and-outer-plexiform-layer-development-in-the-mammalian-retina
#10
Ratnesh K Singh, Ramya K Mallela, Abigail Hayes, Nicholas R Dunham, Morgan E Hedden, Raymond A Enke, Robert N Fariss, Hal Sternberg, Michael D West, Igor O Nasonkin
Characterizing the role of epigenetic regulation in the mammalian retina is critical for understanding fundamental mechanisms of retinal development and disease. DNA methylation, an epigenetic modifier of genomic DNA, plays an important role in modulating networks of tissue and cell-specific gene expression. However, the impact of DNA methylation during retinal development and homeostasis of retinal neurons remains unclear. Here, we have created a tissue-specific DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) triple mutant mouse in an effort to characterize the impact of DNA methylation in retinal development and homeostasis...
November 16, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857218/tet1-dependent-epigenetic-modification-of-bdnf-expression-in-dorsal-horn-neurons-mediates-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#11
Ming-Chun Hsieh, Cheng-Yuan Lai, Yu-Cheng Ho, Hsueh-Hsiao Wang, Jen-Kun Cheng, Yat-Pang Chau, Hsien-Yu Peng
Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (Tet1) mediates the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC), hence promoting DNA demethylation. Although recent studies have linked the DNA demethylation of specific genes to pain hypersensitivity, the role of spinal Tet1-dependent DNA demethylation in nociception hypersensitivity development remains elusive. Here, we report correlated with behavioral allodynia, spinal nerve ligation (SNL) upregulated Tet1 expression in dorsal horn neurons that hydroxylate 5 mC to 5 hmC at CpG dinucleotides in the bdnf promoter to promote spinal BDNF expression at day 7 after operation...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856912/the-dna-methyltransferase-dnmt3c-protects-male-germ-cells-from-transposon-activity
#12
Joan Barau, Aurélie Teissandier, Natasha Zamudio, Stéphanie Roy, Valérie Nalesso, Yann Hérault, Florian Guillou, Déborah Bourc'his
DNA methylation is prevalent in mammalian genomes and plays a central role in the epigenetic control of development. The mammalian DNA methylation machinery is thought to be composed of three DNA methyltransferase enzymes (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B) and one cofactor (DNMT3L). Here, we describe the discovery of Dnmt3C, a de novo DNA methyltransferase gene that evolved via a duplication of Dnmt3B in rodent genomes and was previously annotated as a pseudogene. We show that DNMT3C is the enzyme responsible for methylating the promoters of evolutionarily young retrotransposons in the male germ line and that this specialized activity is required for mouse fertility...
November 18, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852417/-influences-of-dna-methylation-upon-neuroglobin-sustained-expression-in-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-model
#13
L N Zhang, S B Hu, S Y Deng, C X Chen, L Wu, Q Y Peng, L Huang, Y H Ai
Objective: To investigate the influences of genomic DNA methylation upon neuroglobin sustained expression in oxygen- glucose deprivation model. Methods: With A549 cell strain as the research object, the control group were cultivated in the complete medium containing 10 μmol/L of 5-azacytidine for 4 days, and the control group was cultivated in the complete medium for 4 days.Then carried out oxygen glucose deprivation treatment for 4 h.Detecting neuroglobin expression, DNA methyltransferase expression, cell inhibition ratio and DNA methylation level at different time points...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829219/altered-expression-of-mirnas-and-methylation-of-their-promoters-are-correlated-in-neuroblastoma
#14
Marco Maugeri, Davide Barbagallo, Cristina Barbagallo, Barbara Banelli, Stefania Di Mauro, Francesco Purrello, Gaetano Magro, Marco Ragusa, Cinzia Di Pietro, Massimo Romani, Michele Purrello
Neuroblastoma is the most common human extracranial solid tumor during infancy. Involvement of several miRNAs in its pathogenesis has been ascertained. Interestingly, most of their encoding genes reside in hypermethylated genomic regions: thus, their tumor suppressor function is normally disallowed in these tumors. To date, the therapeutic role of the demethylating agent 5'-Aza-2 deoxycytidine (5'-AZA) and its effects on miRNAome modulation in neuroblastoma have not been satisfactorily explored. Starting from a high-throughput expression profiling of 754 miRNAs and based on a proper selection, we focused on miR-29a-3p, miR-34b-3p, miR-181c-5p and miR-517a-3p as candidate miRNAs for our analysis...
November 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826837/genetic-studies-on-mammalian-dna-methyltransferases
#15
Jiameng Dan, Taiping Chen
Cytosine methylation at the C5-position, generating 5-methylcytosine (5mC), is a DNA modification found in many eukaryotic organisms, including fungi, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, albeit its levels vary greatly in different organisms. In mammals, cytosine methylation occurs predominantly in the context of CpG dinucleotides, with the majority (60-80 %) of CpG sites in their genomes being methylated. DNA methylation plays crucial roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression and is essential for mammalian development...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826836/enzymology-of-mammalian-dna-methyltransferases
#16
Renata Z Jurkowska, Albert Jeltsch
DNA methylation is currently one of the hottest topics in basic and biomedical research. Despite tremendous progress in understanding the structures and biochemical properties of the mammalian DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMTs), principles of their regulation in cells have only begun to be uncovered. In mammals, DNA methylation is introduced by the DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B enzymes, which are all large multi-domain proteins. These enzymes contain a catalytic C-terminal domain with a characteristic cytosine-C5 methyltransferase fold and an N-terminal part with different domains that interacts with other proteins and chromatin and is involved in targeting and regulation of the DNMTs...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826835/domain-structure-of-the-dnmt1-dnmt3a-and-dnmt3b-dna-methyltransferases
#17
Shoji Tajima, Isao Suetake, Kohei Takeshita, Atsushi Nakagawa, Hironobu Kimura
In mammals, three DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b, have been identified. Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are responsible for establishing DNA methylation patterns produced through their de novo-type DNA methylation activity in implantation stage embryos and during germ cell differentiation. Dnmt3-like (Dnmt3l), which is a member of the Dnmt3 family but does not possess DNA methylation activity, was reported to be indispensable for global methylation in germ cells. Once the DNA methylation patterns are established, maintenance-type DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 faithfully propagates them to the next generation via replication...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826104/in-vivo-and-in-silico-studies-to-identify-mechanisms-associated-with-nurr1-modulation-following-early-life-exposure-to-permethrin-in-rats
#18
Donatella Fedeli, Maura Montani, Laura Bordoni, Roberta Galeazzi, Cinzia Nasuti, Luísa Correia-Sá, Valentina F Domingues, Maini Jayant, Vani Brahmachari, Luca Massaccesi, Emiliano Laudadio, Rosita Gabbianelli
The present work was designed to study the mechanisms associated with Nurr1 modulation following early life permethrin (PERM) treatment during rat's life span. Here we demonstrate that PERM exposure in rats, at a dose close to No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for 15days during neonatal brain development leads to its accumulation long after exposure. In striatum from adolescent rats we detected an increase in DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) such as DNMT1, DNMT3a, Tyrosine hydroxylase, monomeric and aggregated α-synuclein protein levels...
November 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824296/lens-development-requires-dnmt1-but-takes-place-normally-in-the-absence-of-both-dnmt3a-and-dnmt3b-activity
#19
Thanh V Hoang, Evan R Horowitz, Blake R Chaffee, Peipei Qi, Rachel E Flake, Devin G Bruney, Blake J Rasor, Savana E Rosalez, Brad D Wagner, Michael L Robinson
Despite the wealth of knowledge of transcription factors involved in lens development, little information exists about the role of DNA methylation in this process. Here, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in lens development and fiber cell differentiation using mice conditionally lacking maintenance or de novo methyltransferases in the lens lineage. We found that while Dnmt1 inactivation at the lens placode stage (via the Le-Cre transgene) led to lens DNA hypomethylation and severe lens epithelial apoptosis, lens fiber cell differentiation remained largely unaffected...
November 8, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817038/dna-methyltransferase-3a-promoter-polymorphism-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-human-spontaneous-abortion-after-assisted-reproduction-techniques-and-natural-conception
#20
Yudong Liu, Haiyan Zheng, Pingping Guo, Shuxian Feng, Xingyu Zhou, Desheng Ye, Xin Chen, Shiling Chen
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the association of the DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT)-3A and DNMT3B promoter polymorphisms with the risk of human spontaneous abortion after assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) and natural conception. METHODS: We collected tissues from women who underwent abortion procedures: (a) chorionic villus samples (CVS) and muscle samples (MS) from spontaneous abortions conceived by ART and natural cycle (study group), n = 152; and (b) CVS and MS from normal early pregnancy and second trimester (control group), n = 155...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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