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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642706/toll-like-receptor-4-modulates-small-intestine-neuromuscular-function-through-nitrergic-and-purinergic-pathways
#1
Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Silvia Cerantola, Mona Roozfarakh, Isabella Lante, Francesca Galuppini, Massimo Rugge, Eleonora Napoli, Cecilia Giulivi, Genny Orso, Maria Cecilia Giron
Objective: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the homeostatic microflora-host crosstalk. TLR4-mediated modulation of both motility and enteric neuronal survival has been reported mainly for colon with limited information on the role of TLR4 in tuning structural and functional integrity of enteric nervous system (ENS) and in controlling small bowel motility. Methods: Male TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-), 9 ± 1 weeks old) and sex- and age-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639128/comparison-of-4-l-polyethylene-glycol-and-2-l-polyethylene-glycol-plus-ascorbic-acid-in-patients-with-inactive-ulcerative-colitis
#2
Eun Soo Kim, Kyeong Ok Kim, Byung Ik Jang, Eun Young Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Hyun Seok Lee, Seong Woo Jeon, Hyun Jin Kim, Sung Kook Kim
BACKGROUND: Although colonoscopy preparation may cause symptom flares in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), little is known about the standard preparation regimen in this population. AIM: We aimed to compare 4L polyethylene glycol (4L-PEG) with 2L polyethylene glycol plus ascorbic acid (2L-PEG-Asc) in quiescent UC patients. METHODS: Patients with inactive UC undergoing colonoscopy for surveillance or checkup of mucosal healing were prospectively enrolled at 5 tertiary hospitals...
June 21, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637557/nomogram-derived-prediction-of-postoperative-ileus-after-colectomy-an-assessment-from-nationwide-procedure-targeted-cohort
#3
Ahmet Rencuzogullari, Cigdem Benlice, Meagan Costedio, Feza H Remzi, Emre Gorgun
Postoperative ileus (POI) is a clinical burden to health-care system. This study aims to evaluate the incidence and predictors of POI in patients undergoing colectomy and create a nomogram by using recently released procedure-targeted nationwide database. Patients who underwent elective colectomy in 2012 and 2013 were identified from American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program using the new procedure-targeted database. Demographics, comorbidities, and 30-day postoperative outcomes were evaluated...
June 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634136/tongxie-formula-reduces-symptoms-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
Heng Fan, Liang Zheng, Yaoliang Lai, Weimin Lu, Zhixiang Yan, Qi Xiao, Baiwen Li, Min Tang, Dawei Huang, Yuanyuan Wang, Zhen Li, Yuwei Mei, Zhengyan Jiang, Xingxing Liu, Qing Tang, Dongmei Zuo, Jingyi Ye, Yongqiang Yang, Huisuo Huang, Zongxiang Tang, Jun Xiao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic gastrointestinal disorder, yet few drugs are effective in reducing symptoms. Approximately 50% of patients with IBS attempt herbal therapy at least once. We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of the herb formulation tongxie vs placebo or pinaverium (an antispasmodic agent) in reducing symptoms of IBS. METHODS: We performed a trial of 1044 adult patients with IBS (based on Rome III criteria) at 5 hospitals in China, from August 2012 through January 2015...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614169/impact-of-resected-colon-site-on-quality-of-bowel-preparation-in-patients-who-underwent-prior-colorectal-resection
#5
Eric Chung, Jeonghyun Kang, Seung Hyuk Baik, Kang Young Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Various factors are known to be associated with quality of bowel preparation (QBP), but have rarely been investigated in patients with prior colorectal resection. The aim of this study was to investigate variables associated with bowel preparation in patients with prior colorectal resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 247 patients with prior colorectal resection and undergone surveillance colonoscopy were consecutively chosen. One clinician performed endoscopy for all patients...
June 13, 2017: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611515/transition-of-pediatric-to-adult-care-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-is-it-as-easy-as-1-2-3
#6
REVIEW
Anita Afzali, Ghassan Wahbeh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous group of chronic diseases with a rising prevalence in the pediatric population, and up to 25% of IBD patients are diagnosed before 18 years of age. Adolescents with IBD tend to have more severe and extensive disease and eventually require graduation from pediatric care toadult services. The transition of patients from pediatric to adult gastroenterologists requires careful preparation and coordination, with involvement of all key players to ensure proper collaboration of care and avoid interruption in care...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607683/improving-bowel-preparation-for-colonoscopy-in-a-cost-effective-manner
#7
Syed Anjum Gardezi, Clare Tibbatts
Colonoscopy is a key investigation used to exclude large bowel pathologies including surveillance for CRC (Colorectal cancer) Poor bowel preparation (bowel prep) is one of the most important factors affecting its diagnostic yield. Different formulations of bowel prep are currently in use depending upon patient tolerance, indication & co-morbidities. In University Hospital Llandough we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of colonoscopies performed over period of 3 months, in relation to the type and outcome of bowel preparations used...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606560/post-colonoscopy-colorectal-cancer-characteristics-and-predictive-factors
#8
María Muñoz García-Borruel, Antonio José Hervás Molina, Manuel L Rodríguez Perálvarez, Estefanía Moreno Rincón, Indhira Pérez Medrano, Francisco Javier Serrano Ruiz, Luis Leonardo Casáis Juanena, María Pleguezuelo Navarro, Antonio Naranjo Rodríguez, Carlos Villar Pastor
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: A high quality colonoscopy is key in preventing colorectal cancer, but the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) exists. The aims of the study were to investigate the incidence, characteristics and predictive factors of post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC). MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective and prospective observational study was designed. A population undergoing colonoscopy between 1-01-1997 and 31-12-2014 was included. We analysed demographic variables, characteristics of the diagnostic colonoscopy of CRC, of the previous ones and the lesions found in them...
June 10, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603435/an-active-learning-curriculum-improves-fellows-knowledge-and-faculty-teaching-skills
#9
Jennifer A Inra, Stephen Pelletier, Navin L Kumar, Edward L Barnes, Helen M Shields
OBJECTIVES: Traditional didactic lectures are the mainstay of teaching for graduate medical education, although this method may not be the most effective way to transmit information. We created an active learning curriculum for Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) gastroenterology fellows to maximize learning. We evaluated whether this new curriculum improved perceived knowledge acquisition and knowledge base. In addition, our study assessed whether coaching faculty members in specific methods to enhance active learning improved their perceived teaching and presentation skills...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594723/is-there-a-role-for-oral-antibiotic-preparation-alone-before-colorectal-surgery-acs-nsqip-analysis-by-coarsened-exact-matching
#10
Richard Garfinkle, Jad Abou-Khalil, Nancy Morin, Gabriela Ghitulescu, Carol-Ann Vasilevsky, Philip Gordon, Marie Demian, Marylise Boutros
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrated reduced postoperative complications using combined mechanical bowel and oral antibiotic preparation before elective colorectal surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of these 2 interventions on surgical site infections, anastomotic leak, ileus, major morbidity, and 30-day mortality in a large cohort of elective colectomies. DESIGN: This is a retrospective comparison of 30-day outcomes using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program colectomy-targeted database with coarsened exact matching...
July 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594580/the-management-of-hard-to-prepare-colonoscopy-patients
#11
Daniele Mandolesi, Leonardo Frazzoni, Franco Bazzoli, Lorenzo Fuccio
Effective bowel cleansing is crucial for high quality colonoscopy. A notable portion of patients still present with low quality bowel preparation prior to their colonoscopy, compromising the overall quality of their colonoscopy. Areas covered: This review focuses on the main strategies that can improve the cleansing quality with a special interest on those clinical conditions that have been associated with a poor bowel preparation quality, such as patients with chronic constipation, history of bowel resection, liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease...
June 14, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589184/a-new-approach-in-bowel-preparation-before-colonoscopy-in-patients-with-constipation-a-prospective-randomized-investigator-blinded-trial
#12
Murat Yıldar, İsmail Yaman, Murat Başbuğ, Faruk Çavdar, Hasan Topfedaisi, Hayrullah Derici
OBJECTIVE: Enema administration in the morning of routine colonoscopy is known to be useless. However, the potential bowel cleansing effects of distal colon emptying with enema prior to purgatives are not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of enema use before purgatives in preparation for colonoscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred twenty-seven patients were randomly assigned into three groups; enema before purgative use, enema after purgative use, and no enema...
2017: Turk J Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588878/a-novel-purgative-protocol-for-capsule-endoscopy-of-the-small-bowel-produces-better-quality-of-visibility-than-2%C3%A2-l-of-peg-timing-is-of-the-essence
#13
Samuel N Adler, Shai Farkash, Yishai Sompolinsky, Inna Gafanovich, Eran Goldin, Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit
INTRODUCTION: The ideal way of preparing patients for small-bowel capsule endoscopy has been controversial. Previous studies have shown that ingestion of 2 l of polyethylenglycol (PEG) 12 hours prior to capsule ingestion leads to improved visibility in comparison to no preparation at all. We speculated that using a post-ingestion (PI), booster-based cleansing protocol might provide an alternative to the PEG cleansing protocol. METHODS: This randomized, blinded, prospective study enrolled 45 individuals...
June 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583630/evaluating-the-effect-of-rectal-distension-on-prostate-multiparametric-mri-image-quality
#14
Iztok Caglic, Nienke L Hansen, Rhys A Slough, Andrew J Patterson, Tristan Barrett
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of rectal distension on the quality of anatomical and functional prostate multiparametric (mp) MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiparametric (mp) 3T-MRI images of 173 patients were independently evaluated by two radiologists in this retrospective study. Planimetry rectal volumes were derived and a subjective assessment of rectal distension was made using a 5-point Likert scale (1=no stool/gas, 5=large amount of stool/gas). Image quality of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was evaluated using a 5-point Likert scale...
May 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582482/fusobacterium-and-colorectal-cancer-causal-factor-or-passenger-results-from-a-large-colorectal-cancer-screening-study
#15
Efrat L Amitay, Simone Werner, Marius Vital, Dietmar H Pieper, Daniela Höfler, Indra-Jasmin Gierse, Julia Butt, Yesilda Balavarca, Katarina Cuk, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in both men and women. The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as having an important role in human health and disease. Fusobacterium has been identified in former studies as a leading gut bacterium associated with colorectal cancer but it is still not clear if it plays an oncogenic role. In the current study, fecal samples were collected prior to bowel preparation from participants of screening colonoscopy in the German BliTz study...
June 5, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579761/barriers-and-facilitators-associated-with-colonoscopy-completion-in-individuals-with-multiple-chronic-conditions-a-qualitative-study
#16
Shahnaz Sultan, Melissa R Partin, Phalgoon Shah, Jennifer LeLaurin, Ivette Magaly Freytes, Chandylen L Nightingale, Susan F Fesperman, Barbara A Curbow, Rebecca J Beyth
BACKGROUND: A recommendation to undergo a colonoscopy, an invasive procedure that requires commitment and motivation, planning (scheduling and finding a driver) and preparation (diet restriction and laxative consumption), may be uniquely challenging for individuals with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). This qualitative study aimed to describe the barriers and facilitators to colonoscopy experienced by such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semistructured focus groups were conducted with male Veterans who were scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy and either failed to complete the procedure or completed the examination...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579145/how-to-prepare-the-patient-for-robotic-surgery-before-and-during-the-operation
#17
REVIEW
Peter C Lim, Elizabeth Kang
Robotic surgery in the treatment of gynecologic diseases continues to evolve and has become accepted over the last decade. The advantages of robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery over conventional laparoscopy are three-dimensional camera vision, superior precision and dexterity with EndoWristed instruments, elimination of operator tremor, and decreased surgeon fatigue. The drawbacks of the technology are bulkiness and lack of tactile feedback. As with other surgical platforms, the limitations of robotic surgery must be understood...
April 27, 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575897/effect-of-diet-liberalization-on-bowel-preparation
#18
Danny J Avalos, Daniel A Sussman, Luis F Lara, Fayez S Sarkis, Fernando J Castro
OBJECTIVES: Precolonoscopy dietary regimens often are restricted to clear liquids; however, the superiority of a clear liquid diet (CLD) for bowel preparation quality is ambiguous. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing bowel preparation outcomes between a low-residue diet (LRD) or regular diet (RD) compared with a CLD. METHODS: MEDLINE, clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Central Register, Scopus, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Web of Science databases were used to conduct a search for randomized controlled trials from 1976 to March 2015...
June 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573182/cecum-intubation-rate-as-quality-indicator-in-clinical-versus-screening-colonoscopy
#19
Geir Hoff, Øyvind Holme, Michael Bretthauer, Per Sandvei, Ole Darre-Næss, Asbjørn Stallemo, Håvard Wiig, Ole Høie, Geir Noraberg, Volker Moritz, Thomas de Lange
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : Some guidelines recommend a minimum standard of 90 % cecal intubation rate (CIR) in routine clinics and 95 % in screening colonoscopy, while others have not made this distinction - both with limited evidence to support either view. This study questions the rationale for making such differentiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  We assessed cecum intubation rates amongst colonoscopies recorded in the Norwegian national quality register Gastronet by 35 endoscopists performing both clinical and screening colonoscopies...
June 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573180/retrospective-analysis-of-large-bowel-obstruction-or-perforation-caused-by-oral-preparation-for-colonoscopy
#20
Akihiro Yamauchi, Shin-Ei Kudo, Yuichi Mori, Hideyuki Miyachi, Masashi Misawa, Hatsumi Kamo, Tomokazu Hisayuki, Toyoki Kudo, Takemasa Hayashi, Kunihiko Wakamura, Atsushi Katagiri, Toshiyuki Baba, Eiji Hidaka, Fumio Ishida
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS:  Patients undergoing bowel preparation for colonoscopy are at risk of potentially severe adverse events such as large-bowel obstruction (LBO) and perforation. These patients usually need emergency surgery and the consequences may be fatal. Little is known about the risk factors for LBO and perforation in these circumstances. We sought to establish the natural history of LBO and perforation caused by oral preparation for colonoscopy. PATIENTS AND METHODS:  We retrospectively analyzed data from 20 patients with LBO or perforation associated with oral preparation for colonoscopy...
June 2017: Endoscopy International Open
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