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Thomas H Segall-Shapiro, Eduardo D Sontag, Christopher A Voigt
The internal environment of growing cells is variable and dynamic, making it difficult to introduce reliable parts, such as promoters, for genetic engineering. Here, we applied control-theoretic ideas to design promoters that maintained constant levels of expression at any copy number. Theory predicts that independence to copy number can be achieved by using an incoherent feedforward loop (iFFL) if the negative regulation is perfectly non-cooperative. We engineered iFFLs into Escherichia coli promoters using transcription-activator-like effectors (TALEs)...
March 19, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Jacqueline Cloos, Jeffrey R Harris, Jeroen J W M Janssen, Angele Kelder, F Huang, Gerrit Sijm, Maike Vonk, Alexander N Snel, Jennifer R Scheick, Willemijn J Scholten, Jannemieke Carbaat-Ham, Dennis Veldhuizen, Diana Hanekamp, Yvonne J M Oussoren-Brockhoff, Gertjan J L Kaspers, Gerrit J Schuurhuis, A Kate Sasser, Gert Ossenkoppele
Response criteria in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has recently been re-established, with morphologic examination utilized to determine whether patients have achieved complete remission (CR). Approximately half of the adult patients who entered CR will relapse within 12 months due to the outgrowth of residual AML cells in the bone marrow. The quantitation of these remaining leukemia cells, known as minimal or measurable residual disease (MRD), can be a robust biomarker for the prediction of these relapses. Moreover, retrospective analysis of several studies has shown that the presence of MRD in the bone marrow of AML patients correlates with poor survival...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Markus Köhler, Patrick Oßwald, Dominik Krueger, Ryan Whitside
This manuscript describes a high-temperature flow reactor experiment coupled to the powerful molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) technique. This flexible tool offers a detailed observation of chemical gas-phase kinetics in reacting flows under well-controlled conditions. The vast range of operating conditions available in a laminar flow reactor enables access to extraordinary combustion applications that are typically not achievable by flame experiments. These include rich conditions at high temperatures relevant for gasification processes, the peroxy chemistry governing the low temperature oxidation regime or investigations of complex technical fuels...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Federica Cavalera, Mario Zanoni, Valeria Merico, Thi Thu Hien Bui, Martina Belli, Lorenzo Fassina, Silvia Garagna, Maurizio Zuccotti
Infertility clinics would benefit from the ability to select developmentally competent vs. incompetent oocytes using non-invasive procedures, thus improving the overall pregnancy outcome. We recently developed a classification method based on microscopic live observations of mouse oocytes during their in vitro maturation from the germinal vesicle (GV) to the metaphase II stage, followed by the analysis of the cytoplasmic movements occurring during this time-lapse period. Here, we present detailed protocols of this procedure...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jianhua Ren, Yadwinder S Mann, Yuntao Zhang, Michael D Browne
Peptoids are sequence-controlled peptide-mimicking oligomers consisting of N-alkylated glycine units. Among many potential applications, peptoids have been thought of as a type of molecular information storage. Mass spectrometry analysis has been considered the method of choice for sequencing peptoids. Peptoids can be synthesized via solid phase chemistry using a repeating two-step reaction cycle. Here we present a method to manually synthesize oligo-peptoids and to analyze the sequence of the peptoids using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Madeleine S Durkee, Landon D Nash, Fatemeh Nooshabadi, Jeffrey D Cirillo, Duncan J Maitland, Kristen C Maitland
The rapid development of new optical imaging techniques is dependent on the availability of low-cost, customizable, and easily reproducible standards. By replicating the imaging environment, costly animal experiments to validate a technique may be circumvented. Predicting and optimizing the performance of in vivo and ex vivo imaging techniques requires testing on samples that are optically similar to tissues of interest. Tissue-mimicking optical phantoms provide a standard for evaluation, characterization, or calibration of an optical system...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
John E Downey, Nathaniel Schwed, Steven M Chase, Andrew B Schwartz, Jennifer L Collinger
Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are being developed to assist people with motor disabilities in communicating and interacting with the world around them. This technology relies on recordings from the primary motor cortex, which may vary from day to day. 
 Approach: Here we quantify, in two long-term BCI subjects, the length of time that action potentials from the same neuron, or group of neurons, can be recorded from motor cortex. 
 Main Results: These action potentials, are identified by their extracellular waveforms and may change within a single day, although some of these identified units can be identified consistently for weeks and even months...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Wei-Wei Yang, Lei Li, Jing-Sheng Zhao, Xiao-Xiong Liu, Jian-Bo Deng, Xianru Hu
By doing calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we predict that the two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) NiOsCl$_6$ as a Chern insulator can realize the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. We investigate the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MAC) energies in different magnetic configurations and the N\'{e}el AFM configuration is proved to be ground state. When considering spin-orbit coupling (SOC), this layered material with spins perpendicular to the plane shows properties as a Chern insulator characterized by an inversion band structure and a nonzero Chern number...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Şifa Turan, Özhan M Turan
The ductus venosus is a fetal vessel that functions importantly in the transfer of oxygen-and nutrient-rich blood from the umbilical vein to vital organs. Its control under active regulation and its anatomy result in a flow-velocity profile that is typically forward throughout the cardiac cycle. This forward cardiac function reflects afterload, cardiac contractility, compliance, and vascular volume changes. Ductus venosus assessment gives valuable information under different fetal conditions. For example, during first trimester screening, an abnormal ductus venosus measurement changes the screening result...
March 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Mohammed B Sarhan, Rula Ghandour, Niveen M E Abu Rmeileh
BACKGROUND: The burden of type 2 diabetes is increasing rapidly in the occupied Palestinian territory. Different counselling interventions have been applied worldwide to reduce HbA1c concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Achieving good glycaemic control is important for prevention of complications of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this modelling study was to assess the effectiveness of different counselling interventions in improving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Majed Hababeh, Wafaa Zeidan, Mariam Abdel El-Kader, Anwar Al Thaher, Nimer Kassim, Elias Habash, Hasan Arab, Ali Khader, Akihiro Seita
BACKGROUND: UNRWA introduced family planning services in 1994 as an integral part of its expanded maternal and child health-care programme. The main objective of UNRWA's family planning programme is to promote the health of mothers, children, and their families. The aim of this follow-up study was to assess contraceptive practices in the target population 5 years after the 2010 follow-up study and to identify future programme needs. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was a done by trained nurses from June 1 to Dec 31, 2015...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Alhassane Diallo, Heike Jacobi, Arron Cook, Robyn Labrum, Alexandra Durr, Alexis Brice, Perrine Charles, Cecilia Marelli, Caterina Mariotti, Lorenzo Nanetti, Marta Panzeri, Maria Rakowicz, Anna Sobanska, Anna Sulek, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Ludger Schöls, Holger Hengel, Bela Melegh, Alessandro Filla, Antonella Antenora, Jon Infante, José Berciano, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Dagmar Timmann, Sylvia Boesch, Massimo Pandolfo, Jörg B Schulz, Peter Bauer, Paola Giunti, Jun-Suk Kang, Thomas Klockgether, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited progressive ataxia disorders that can lead to premature death. We aimed to study the overall survival of patients with the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6) and to identify the strongest contributing predictors that affect survival. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women, aged 18 years or older, from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries; participants had positive genetic test results for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and progressive, otherwise unexplained, ataxias...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Jessica L Combs, Elizabeth N Riley, Sarah J Peterson, Carol E Jordan, Gregory T Smith
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to sexual assault results in ongoing harms for women. After an assault, some women engage in higher levels of externalizing behaviors, such as problem drinking, and others experience higher levels of internalizing dysfunction, such as symptoms of anxiety and depression. We sought to understand the role of premorbid factors on the different post-assault experiences of women. METHOD: We studied 1,929 women prospectively during a period of high risk for sexual assault (the first year of college): women were assessed in July before arriving at college and in April near the end of the school year...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Emily T Noyes, Jacob A Levine, Robert C Schlauch, Cory A Crane, Gerard J Connors, Stephen A Maisto, Ronda L Dearing
OBJECTIVE: With the growing recognition that, for some, significant changes in drinking occur before the first treatment session (i.e., pretreatment change), researchers have called for the careful assessment of when change occurs and its potential impact on mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) research. Using a commonly hypothesized MOBC variable, alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, the primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of pretreatment change on the study of MOBCs. METHOD: Sixty-three individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence were recruited to participate in a 12-week cognitive-behavioral treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Katie Witkiewitz, Corey R Roos, Davood Tofighi, M Lee Van Horn
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have found support for coping as a mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) following coping skills training interventions for alcohol use disorder (AUD). One potential reason for null findings is heterogeneity in the patterns of coping skills acquired during treatment. This study sought to identify latent classes of coping and to test the latent class variable as a mediator of the effect of a combined behavioral intervention for AUD. METHOD: Secondary analyses of data from the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study (N = 1,124; mean age = 44...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Jenny Olofsson, Mojgan Padyab, Gunnar Malmberg
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. METHODS: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries...
2018: Global Health Action
Zoe R Smith, Rosanna P Breaux, Cathrin D Green, Joshua M Langberg
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated which Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) factors (i.e., Slow, Sleepy, Daydreamer) are most strongly associated with homework motivation, and whether homework motivation mediates the path between SCT and academic impairment. METHOD: Participants were 285 middle school students (boys 209) in Grades 6 to 8 (ages 10-15 years) who were comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD. RESULTS: Parent- and self-report of SCT Slow behaviors predicted homework motivation above and beyond symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), anxiety, depression, and intelligence...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Ana Fonseca, Bárbara Nazaré, Maria Cristina Canavarro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of one's attachment representations on one's and the partner's caregiving representations. BACKGROUND: According to attachment theory, individual differences in parenting and caregiving behaviours may be a function of parents' caregiving representations of the self as caregiver, and of others as worthy of care, which are rooted on parents' attachment representations. Furthermore, the care-seeking and caregiving interactions that occur within the couple relationship may also shape individuals' caregiving representations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Ian W Ashworth, Rebecca E Meadows
We observed that the product of a Buchwald-Hartwig coupling reaction extracted from the organic phase easily, relative to the starting aryl bromide as the pH was lowered. This was surprising given the similarity of their pKas. The product's extraction curve was also significantly steeper than expected. A consideration of the relevant equilibria, including all three of the product's pKas led to a general model for the liquid-liquid extraction behavior of ionizable molecules. This model predicts the observed, useful extraction behavior...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Tomislav Rončević, Damir Vukičević, Nada Ilić, Lucija Krce, Goran Gajski, Marija Tonkić, Ivana Goić-Barišić, Larisa Zoranić, Yogesh Sonavane, Monica Benincasa, Davor Juretić, Ana Maravić, Alessandro Tossi
Antimicrobial peptides often show broad-spectrum activity due to a mechanism based on bacterial membrane disruption, which also reduces development of permanent resistance, a desirable characteristic in view of the escalating multidrug resistance problem. Host cell toxicity however requires design of artificial variants of natural AMPs to increase selectivity and reduce side effects. Kiadins were designed using rules obtained from natural peptides active against E. coli and a validated computational algorithm based on a training set of such peptides, followed by rational conformational alterations...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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